Journal of Aging and Physical Activity

Published by Human Kinetics
Online ISSN: 1543-267X
Publications
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the steps/d derived from the ActiGraph GT3X+ using the manufacturer's default filter (DF) and low-frequency-extension filter (LFX) with those from the NL-1000 pedometer in an older adult sample. Fifteen older adults (61-82 yr) wore a GT3X+ (24 hr/day) and an NL-1000 (waking hours) for 7 d. Day was the unit of analysis (n = 86 valid days) comparing (a) GT3X+ DF and NL-1000 steps/d and (b) GT3X+ LFX and NL-1000 steps/d. DF was highly correlated with NL-1000 (r = .80), but there was a significant mean difference (-769 steps/d). LFX and NL-1000 were highly correlated (r = .90), but there also was a significant mean difference (8,140 steps/d). Percent difference and absolute percent difference between DF and NL-1000 were -7.4% and 16.0%, respectively, and for LFX and NL-1000 both were 121.9%. Regardless of filter used, GT3X+ did not provide comparable pedometer estimates of steps/d in this older adult sample.
 
The regression of maximal ramped minute power (W) as a function of age (years) in 114 trained male cyclists. Data fitted with a two-segment linear model. 
The regression of maximal heart rate (beats/min) on age for 114 men age 15-73 years. Data fitted with a linear model. 
Article
This study assessed age-related changes in power and heart rate in 114 competitive male cyclists age 15-73 years. Participants completed a maximal Kingcycle ergometer test with maximal ramped minute power (RMPmax, W) recorded as the highest average power during any 60 s and maximal heart rate (HRmax, beats/min) as the highest value during the test. From age 15 to 29 (n = 38) RMPmax increased by 7.2 W/year (r = .53, SE 49 W, p < .05). From age 30 to 73 (n = 78) RMPmax declined by 2.4 W/year (r = - .49, SE 49 W, p < .05). Heart rate decreased across the full age range by 0.66 beats . min( -1 ) . year( -1 ) (r = -.75, SE 9 beats/min, p < .05). Age accounted for only 25% of the variance in RMPmax but 56% in HRmax. RMPmax was shown to peak at age 30, then decline with age, whereas HRmax declined across the full age range.
 
Article
Little is known about the effectiveness of Self-determination theory (SDT), a representative motivational theory, on exercise domain in older adults. This feasibility study used quantitative and qualitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of a 13-month group exercise program applying SDT-based motivational strategies on exercise adherence, physical fitness, and quality of life and to explore factors affecting exercise adherence in South Korean older adults (N = 18). Exercise attendance rate was high (82.52%). There were significant differences in aerobic endurance (p < .001), lower body strength (p < .05), dynamic balance (p < .001), and perceived social functioning (p < .05) at 13 months compared to baseline. Factors affecting exercise adherence were related to the SDT-based motivational strategies. These results support the importance of health professionals applying SDT-based motivational strategies to exercise programs to help facilitate motivation for participation, and promoting physical fitness, and quality of life in older adults.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to establish the one-repetition maximum (1RM) prediction equations of biceps curl, bench press, and squat from the submaximal skeletal muscle strength of 4-10RM or 11-15RM in older adults. The first group of 109 participants aged 60-75 years was recruited to measure their 1RM, 4-10RM, and 11-15RM of the three exercises. The 1RM prediction equations were developed by multiple regression analyses. A second group of participants with the similar physical characteristics to the first group was used to evaluate the equations. The actual measured 1RM of the second group correlated significantly to the predicted 1RM obtained from the equations (r values were from 0.633 to 0.985), and standard error of estimate ranged from 1.08 to 5.88. Therefore, the equations can be utilized to predict 1RM from submaximal skeletal muscle strength accurately for older adults.
 
Article
Physical inactivity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study provides prevalence estimates of inactivity by select characteristics among older adults. Respondents > or =50 years of age were selected from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (N = 185,702). Results: Overall, 30.0% of older adults did not engage in leisure-time physical activity. Within each racial/ethnic group, the prevalence of inactivity was highest among Hispanic men (41.9%) and women (42.4%). Among men with and without disabilities, chronic disease conditions associated with inactivity were angina or coronary artery disease. Among women with disabilities, chronic disease conditions associated with inactivity were stroke and diabetes; among women without disabilities only diabetes was significantly associated with inactivity. Regular physical activity is an important means to maintaining independence, because it substantially reduces the risk for developing many diseases; contributes to healthy bones, muscles, and joints; and can reduce the risk for falling. Health care providers are encouraged to discuss concerns regarding physical activity with their patients.
 
Article
Physical activity may promote cognitive health in older adults. Popular media play an important role in preventive health communication. This study examined articles discussing associations between physical activity and cognitive health in top-circulating magazines targeting older adults. 42,753 pages of magazines published from 2006 to 2008 were reviewed; 26 articles met inclusion criteria. Explanations regarding the link between physical activity and cognitive health were provided in 57.7% of articles. These explanations were generally consistent with empirical evidence; however, few articles included empirical evidence. Physical activity recommendations were presented in 80.8% of articles; a wide range was recommended (90-300 min of physical activity per wk). Socioeconomic status and education level were not mentioned in the text. Results suggest an opportunity for greater coverage regarding the role of physical activity in promoting cognitive health in popular media. Magazine content would benefit from including more empirical evidence, culturally sensitive content, and physical activity recommendations that are consistent with U.S. guidelines.
 
Demographic Data for the Total Sample 
Sessions of Physical Activity in the Past Week by Age Category 
Multivariable Logistic-Regression Model, Odds Ratio (95% CI) Odds of Having High to Very High Psychological Distress 
Article
Physical activity is an important factor in healthy aging and has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms. This association, however, is relatively understudied in older men. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the association between physical activity (Active Australia Survey) and psychological distress (Kessler-10). Participants were a sample of 17,689 men age ≥ 65 yr drawn from a large-scale Australian cohort study of people age 45 years and over (The 45 and Up Study). The likelihood of reporting high or very high levels of psychological distress decreased with increasing weekly sessions of physical activity. Compared with participants reporting no sessions of physical activity, the fully adjusted odds ratio for high or very high psychological distress was .66 (95% CI .51-.85) for men who undertook 1-6 sessions of physical activity per week and decreased to .57 (95% CI, .43-.79) for men who reported 16 or more weekly sessions. The cross-sectional findings show that older men who are more active are less likely to report psychological distress, regardless of their level of functional limitation. Further research, informed by these findings, is required to investigate causal pathways and the temporal sequence of events.
 
Article
Substantial research has indicated the beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness and activities of daily living in older adults, but none have investigated the effects on performance of recreational activities. This investigation studied the effect of an exercise program on fitness and golf-clubhead speed in older men. Thirty-one golfers (mean age 65.1 +/- 6.2 years) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 19) or control (n = 12) group. The treatment group completed an 8-week strength and flexibility program. Assessments included 10-RM muscle strength; selected range-of-motion (ROM) measurements; and golf-clubhead speed (CHS). ANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups (p <.005) for all strength measurements and several ROM measurements. CHS was significantly different (p <.05) between groups after the intervention. Mean CHS improved from 85.0 to 87.1 miles/hr (136.8 to 140.2 km/hr). These results indicate that a strength and flexibility program can improve golf performance in older adults.
 
Article
This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among mid-older aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3888 adults (55-65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (p<0.05) interactions were evident and indicated positive associations only among older rural adults for both safety and aesthetics with total and transport physical activity (e.g. rural adults reporting higher safety were 91-118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural mid-older aged adults.
 
Article
This study describes moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior among New York City (NYC) residents 60 years and older and compare to national United States' estimates. Adults aged 60 or older living in NYC (n=760) were compared to similar aged adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=2451 adults). Both groups wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for one week. The NYC sample recorded 13.2, 23.8, and 37.8 mean minutes/day of MVPA and the NHANES sample recorded 10.6, 21.1, and 39.3, depending on the definition. Sedentary behavior averaged 9.6 hours/day for the NYC sample and 9.3 hours/day for the NHANES sample. The NYC sample spent a longer proportion of time in sedentary behavior and light activities, but more time in MVPA than the NHANES sample. Urbanicity may explain some of the differences between the two samples.
 
Article
The effects of 8 wk of soft-sand (n = 19) and firm-surface walking (n = 19) on blood lipids, submaximal fitness (8-min walk at 4.5 km/hr), and leg strength in elderly (60+ yr), sedentary women were studied. Significant main time effects (p < .005) were found for blood lipids. The surface interaction effect for high-density lipoprotein approached significance (p = .052), with a tendency for higher levels in the sand group postintervention (p = .06). Neither group reported significant differences across time for submaximal oxygen consumption (p = .223), but a greater percentage reduction in heart-rate response to the 8-min walk was reported in the sand group (p = .016). Knee strength did not change in either group, whereas hip strength significantly improved in both groups (p = .0001), with larger effect sizes reported in the sand group. Overall, both groups showed improvements in blood lipids, fitness, and strength, with strength changes being slightly higher in the sand-walking group.
 
— Flow diagram of study participants. 
Comparison of Pre-and Posttest Differences
— Evolution of means of the Vienna Test System (VTS) for simple and choice reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT) pre- and posttest for the control group (C), two-day exercise group (E2), and two-day physical plus cognitive exercise group (P+C). ** P < .01, *** P < .001. 
Article
We have compared the effects of different 12-week exercise programs on simple and choice reaction and movement times in 61-84 years-old people. One hundred and thirty-eight volunteers were randomized to a control group, 2-day exercise group (two 60-minute sessions a week of aerobic exercises) or 2-day physical plus cognitive exercise group (two 60-minute sessions a week of aerobic and cognitive exercises). At follow-up the aerobic and cognitive exercise program was found to have resulted in significant positive effects. Improvements were found in 2-day physical plus cognitive exercise group in all the reaction parameters, particularly to improvement in choice reaction time, that which is used in most of a person's daily activities. Our results suggest that to improve reaction-time values it is advisable to include cognitive features into a physical-exercise routine.
 
Article
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the impact of age and gender on 4 measures of grip and pinch force of well elderly community dwellers and to provide normative values. The hypotheses were that age and gender affect pinch and grip force and that these 2 factors might interact. Hand strength of 224 seniors 65-92 years old was tested. Grip and pinch force decreased in successively older age groups past 65 years. Men's grip force exceeded that of women in all age groups. Men's hand-force decline was steeper than that of women over successive age groups, suggesting that gender differences in force decreased with age. Trends were the same for all 4 types of grip- and pinch-force measurement but were most clearly visible in grip and key-pinch force. Norms were provided for seniors age 65-85+ years in 5-yr increments.
 
Article
Older adults are often viewed by society more for what they cannot do than for what they are capable of achieving. This intrinsic case study examined the formation of a women's 65+ volleyball team at a university for the purpose of better understanding what it was like for older women to learn a new sport and what meaning participating in competitive sport had for those who had not previously been considered athletic. Qualitative methods explored each participant's experiences through a focus group, individual interviews, observational notes, and written reflections. Resulting team member themes included going for the gusto, belonging to a team, and support from the university. This program is a potential model to engage nonathletic older adults in sport, while forging a new and positive aging framework for aging athletes.
 
Article
This mixed-methods study investigated personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors salient to decisions about being active in neighborhoods of different levels of deprivation. Twenty-five participants age 70 years and older (10 women) with diverse physical activity levels provided data on their weekly activity patterns (using accelerometry) and their perceived barriers to exercise (questionnaire). They also participated in semistructured individual interviews exploring the barriers and facilitators influencing neighborhood activity. Functional limitations, lack of intrinsic motivation, and not having an activity companion were the highest impact barriers. Walkable access to amenities, positive physical activity perceptions, and existing habit of being active were the highest impact facilitators. The perceived quality and accessibility of the built and natural environments influence neighborhood activity in older adults. However, this relationship might be altered through the influence of personal and interpersonal determinants such as maintenance of good health and functional ability and supportive social networks.
 
The effect of training on postural sway, functional reach, leg power (better leg W/kg), and functional mobility after training for the training () and the control () groups.  
Article
Where strength training has been used in conjunction with functional-task training in older people, not only have there been improvements in leg strength but also improved function has been measured (e.g., Skelton & McLaughlin, 1996). Many studies use participants from care homes rather than community dwellers. We investigated changes in leg power, balance, and functional mobility in community-dwelling sedentary men and women over 70 years of age (n = 6 for training group [TR]; n = 10 for control group [CN]). Progressive training took place over 24 weeks using seated and nonseated exercise. For TR, leg power increased 40%, from 108 +/- 40 to 141 +/- 53 W (p < .01); dynamic balance increased 48%, from 22.3 +/- 7.9 to 33.1 +/- 6.1 cm (p < .01; functional reach); and functional mobility increased 12%, from 7.46 +/- 1.32 to 6.54 +/- 1.41 s (p < .05; timed walk). CN showed no significant change. In conclusion, a community-based exercise program led to large improvements in leg-extensor power, dynamic balance, and functional mobility.
 
Article
This mixed methods study investigated personal, interpersonal and environmental factors salient to decisions about being active in neighborhoods of different levels of deprivation. METHODS: Twenty-five participants aged 70 years and older (10 females) with diverse physical activity levels provided data on their weekly activity patterns (using accelerometry) and their perceived barriers to exercise (questionnaire). They also participated in semi-structured individual interviews exploring the barriers and facilitators influencing neighborhood activity. RESULTS: Functional limitations, lack of intrinsic motivation and not having an activity companion were the highest impact barriers. Walkable access to amenities, positive physical activity perceptions and existing habit of being active were the highest impact facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: The perceived quality and accessibility of the built and natural environment influence neighborhood activity in older adults. However, this relationship might be altered through the influence of personal and interpersonal determinants such as maintenance of good health, functional ability and supportive social networks.
 
Article
This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of health and physical function that are associated with not starting strength and balance training (SBT). The study population consisted of 339 community-dwelling individuals (75 to 98 years, 72% female). As part of a population-based intervention study they received comprehensive geriatric assessment, physical activity counseling and had the opportunity to take part in SBT at the gym once a week. Compared with the SBT-adopters, the non-adopters (n=157, 46%) were older and less physically active, had more comorbidities, lower cognitive abilities, more often sedative load of drugs or were at the risk of malnutrition, had lower grip strength, more IADL-difficulties, and weaker performance in Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go. In multivariate models higher age, impaired cognition and lower grip strength were independently associated with non-adoption. In the future, more individually tailored interventions are needed to overcome the factors that prevent exercise initiation.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to describe experiences of physical activity, perceived meaning, and the importance of and motives and barriers for participation in physical activity in people 80 years of age and older. A qualitative design with focus-group methodology was used. The sample consisted of 20 community-living people age 80-91 yr. Data analyses revealed 4 themes: physical activity as a part of everything else in life, joie de vivre, fear of disease and dependence, and perceptions of frailty. Our results suggest that physical activity was not seen as a separate activity but rather as a part of activities often rated as more important than the physical activity itself. Thus, when designing physical activity interventions for elderly people, health care providers should consider including time for social interaction and possibilities to be outdoors. Moreover, assessment of physical activity levels among elderly people should include the physical activity in everyday activities.
 
Article
As part of a home-based rehabilitation program, 24 older adult patients (71 ± 3 years) with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease underwent 3 days (12 awake hr/day) of activity monitoring using an accelerometer (ACC), a pedometer, and a heart rate (HR) monitor, and recorded hourly activity logs. Subjects then underwent an interview to complete a 3-day activity recall questionnaire (3-DR). Mean energy expenditure (EE) in kcals/day for HR, ACC, and 3-DR were 1,687 ± 458, 2,068 ± 529, and 1,974 ± 491, respectively. Differences in EE were not significant between 3-DR and ACC, but HR differed from both ACC (p < .001) and 3-DR (p < .01). ACC and 3-DR had the highest agreement, with a coefficient of variation of 7.9% and r = .86. Thus, ACC provided a reasonably accurate reflection of EE based the criterion measure, an activity recall questionnaire. ACC can be effectively used to monitor EE to achieve an appropriate training stimulus during home-based cardiac rehabilitation.
 
Article
This study assessed perceptions about exercise among a convenience sample of low-income, urban, older adult patients at a publicly operated ambulatory primary-care clinic, and results were then compared with the findings of a national study. Although it was expected that the predominantly minority and economically disadvantaged participants in this study would trail significantly behind their White counterparts in their perceptions and behavior regarding exercise, findings demonstrated otherwise. Specifically, when physicians encourage moderate exercise, when patients believe that they can overcome barriers to exercise, and when the environment supports moderate exercise through the availability of community exercise classes, inequities in health behaviors can be reduced. Interventions designed to increase exercise for this population should be developed with an understanding of the many barriers that they will have to overcome, a focus on building confidence, and communicating the many benefits of this behavior.
 
Article
Pet ownership among older adults was investigated to determine whether dog owners were more likely to engage in physical activity than non-dog-pet or non-pet owners. The relationship between pet ownership and physical activity was examined using data from the Health ABC study. After age, race, education level, number of assets, family income, and site were adjusted for dog owners were more likely than non-pet owners to have engaged in non-exercise-related walking in the preceding week but did not differ from non-pet owners in walking for exercise or any physical activity. In contrast, non-dog-pet owners did not differ from non-pet owners in non-exercise-related walking in the preceding week and were less likely than non-pet owners to have engaged in walking for exercise or any physical activity in the preceding week. The activity-related benefits of pet ownership in older adults were limited to dog owners, who engaged in greater overall physical activity--non-exercise-related walking, in particular. Whether pet-related physical activity is sufficient to provide health benefits requires longitudinal investigation.
 
Article
Background: Physical and cognitive activity seems to be an effective strategy by which to promote age-sensitive fluid cognitive abilities in older adults. Method: In this randomized controlled trial, 70 healthy senior citizens (age 60-75) were allocated to a physical, cognitive, combined physical plus cognitive, and waiting control group. The trial assessed information processing speed, short-term memory, spatial relations, concentration, reasoning, and cognitive speed. Results: In contrast to the control group, the physical, cognitive, and combined training groups enhanced their concentration immediately after intervention. Only the physical training group showed improved concentration 3 months later. The combined training group displayed improved cognitive speed both immediately and three months after intervention. The cognitive training group displayed improved cognitive speed 3 months after intervention. Conclusions: Physical, cognitive, and combined physical plus cognitive activity can be seen as cognition-enrichment behaviors in healthy older adults that show different rather than equal intervention effects.
 
Article
We assessed the relative association of quadriceps muscle strength and power as well as optimal shortening velocity ( υopt) to physical functioning in 28 women aged 50-87 years with chronic osteoarthritis participating in a 3-week multi-modal exercise program. Quadriceps muscle strength, power, υopt and functional performance using the Activities of Daily Living scale, Timed Up & Go test (TUG), Tinetti test and 6-Minute Walking test (6-MWT) were assessed pre- and post-rehabilitation. With rehabilitation, patients improved the values of strength, power and the results of all functional tests. Both at baseline and post-rehabilitation functional status was more strongly related to power and υopt than to strength. Functional gains obtained with rehabilitation were not related to changes in power or υopt, and only very modestly related to changes in strength. Future studies should assess the benefits and feasibility of power- and velocity-oriented training in patients with osteoarthritis.
 
Article
The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the absence of outdoor activities is associated with an increased risk of mortality among elderly people living at home. In January 1995, the authors enrolled 863 household residents, 65 years old and older, who were able to fully understand and complete a baseline interview unassisted. Participant demographics, functional capabilities, activities of daily living, and three dimensions of outdoor activities (initiative, transport, and frequency) were examined. Cohort mortality was assessed through December 1999. Of the 863 participants, 139 (16.1%) died within the study observation period. After adjusting for gender and age, three dimensions of functional impairment (vision, hearing, and speech), impairment in activities of daily living, and all three dimensions of outdoor activities were predictive of 5-year mortality. In multivariate analysis, these three dimensions remained as explanatory variables for mortality at 5 years. Assessment of outdoor-activity levels can help identify elderly individuals with greater mortality risk.
 
Box plot summarizing medians, 25th and 75th percentiles, and range of accelerometer counts per minute across speed by age group. *Statistically different from 60-to 69-year group, p < .05. Note. The 60-to 69-year group was omitted from 11.3 km/hr because only 1 participant finished that speed.  
Article
This study examined the predictive validity of accelerometers (ACC) to estimate physical activity intensity (PAI) across age and differences in intensity predictions when expressed in relative and absolute PAI terms. Ninety adults categorized into 3 age groups (20-29, 40-49, and 60-69 yr) completed a treadmill calibration study with simultaneous ACC (7164 Actigraph) and oxygen-consumption assessment. Results revealed strong linear relations between ACC output and measured PAI (R2 = .62-.89) across age and similar ACC cut-point ranges across age delineating absolute PAI ranges compared with previous findings. Comparing measured metabolic equivalents (METs) with estimated METs derived from previously published regression equations revealed that age did not affect predictive validity of ACC estimates of absolute PAI. Comparing ACC output expressed in relative vs. absolute terms across age revealed substantial differences in PAI ACC count ranges. Further work is warranted to increase the applicability ofACC use relative to PAI differences associated with physiological changes with age.
 
Article
To compare self-reported pedometer steps with accelerometer steps under free-living conditions in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) or osteoporosis (OP). Seventy-three individuals with PD and 71 individuals with OP wore a pedometer (Yamax LS2000) and an accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M/GT3X+) simultaneously for one week. Fifty-one individuals with PD (72.6 ± 5.3 years) and 61 with OP (75.6 ± 5.3 years) provided simultaneously recorded data for 3-7 consecutive days. Pedometer steps were significantly lower than accelerometer steps in the PD-group (p = .002) but not in the OP-group (p = .956). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated wide limits of agreement between the instruments in both PD (range = 6,911 steps) and OP (range = 6,794 steps). These results suggest that the Actigraph GT1M/GT3X+ should be preferred over the Yamax LS2000 for the assessment of steps in both research and clinical evaluations, particularly in individuals with PD and/or altered gait.
 
Article
The purpose was to compare step count accuracy in an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+), a mechanical pedometer (Yamax SW200), and a piezoelectric pedometer (SC-StepMX). Older adults (n=13 with walking aids and n=22 without, 81.5 ± 5.0 years of age) walked 100m wearing the devices. Device detected steps were compared to manually counted steps. There were no significant differences among monitors for those who walked without aids (p=0.063). However, individuals who used walking aids exhibited slower gait speeds (0.83 ± 0.2 m/s versus 1.21 ± 0.2 m/s for non-walking aids users, p<0.001) and for these people the SC-StepMX demonstrated significantly lower percent error (median 1.0, IQR 0.5-2.0) compared to the other devices (Yamax SW200 median 68.9, IQR 35.9-89.3; left GT3X+ median 52.0, IQR 37.1-58.9; right GT3X+ median 51.0, IQR 32.3-66.5, p<0.05). These results support using a piezoelectric pedometer for measuring steps in older adults who use walking aids and walk slowly.
 
Article
The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20, 30, and 60-minute interruption periods. Estimates of wear time derived using each interruption period were compared to self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 minutes) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 minutes) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults.
 
Article
We currently have a limited understanding of the objectively-measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary patterns of adults with diabetes at the population level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to report accelerometer-determined PA and sedentary patterns among a national sample of U.S. adults with and without evidence of diabetes, and to also explore differences across other comorbidity characteristics. Data from the 2003-2006 NHANES were used. 407 participants had evidence of diabetes (mean age: 73.4 yrs), with 1,346 not having diabetes (mean age: 74.3 yrs). Results showed that few older adults meet PA guidelines; the majority of their time is spent in sedentary activities; very few engage in more light-intensity PA than sedentary behavior; and older adults with multiple comorbidities engage in less PA and more sedentary behavior than their counterparts. The development and implementation of feasible, effective PA programs for older adults with multiple comorbidities are warranted.
 
Article
Despite widespread use of accelerometers to objectively monitor physical activity among adults and youth, little attention has been given to older populations. The purpose of this study was to define an accelerometer-count cut point for a group of older adults and to then assess the group's physical activity for 7 days. Participants (N = 38, age 69.7 +/- 3.5 yr) completed a laboratory-based calibration with an Actigraph 7164 accelerometer. The cut point defining moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 1,041 counts/min. On average, participants obtained 68 min of MVPA per day, although more than 65% of this occurred as sporadic activity. Longer bouts of activity occurred in the morning (6 a.m. to 12 p.m.) more frequently than other times of the day. Almost 14 hr/day were spent in light-intensity activity. This study demonstrates the rich information that accelerometers provide about older adult activity patterns-information that might further our understanding of the relationship between physical activity and healthy aging.
 
Article
This exploratory study examined the feasibility of using Garmin global positioning system (GPS) watches and ActiGraph accelerometers to monitor walking and other aspects of community mobility in older adults. After accuracy at slow walking speeds was initially determined, 20 older adults (74.4 +/- 4.2 yr) wore the devices for 1 day. Steps, distances, and speeds (on foot and in vehicle) were determined. GPS data acquisition varied from 43 min to over 12 hr, with 55% of participants having more than 8 hr between initial and final data-collection points. When GPS data were acquired without interruptions, detailed mobility information was obtained regarding the timing, distances covered, and speeds reached during trips away from home. Although GPS and accelerometry technology offer promise for monitoring community mobility patterns, new GPS solutions are required that allow for data collection over an extended period of time between indoor and outdoor environments.
 
Article
The authors explored using the ActiGraph accelerometer to differentiate activity levels between participants in a physical activity (PA, n = 54) or "successful aging" (SA) program (n = 52). The relationship between a PA questionnaire for older adults (CHAMPS) and accelerometry variables was also determined. Individualized accelerometry-count thresholds (ThreshIND) measured during a 400-m walk were used to identify "meaningful activity." Participants then wore the ActiGraph for 7 days. Results indicated more activity bouts/day > or =10 min above ThreshIND in the PA group than in the SA group (1.1 +/- 2.0 vs 0.5 +/- 0.8, p = .05) and more activity counts/day above ThreshIND for the PA group (28,101 +/- 27,521) than for the SA group (17,234 +/- 15,620, p = .02). Correlations between activity counts/hr and CHAMPS ranged from .27 to .42, p < .01. The ActiGraph and ThreshIND might be useful for differentiating PA levels in older adults at risk for mobility disability.
 
Article
Older adult physical activity (PA) levels obtained from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ) and accelerometry (ACC) were compared. Mean difference scores between accumulated or bout ACC PA and the IPAQ were computed. Spearman rank-order correlations were used to assess relations between time spent in PA measured from ACC and self-reported form of the IPAQ, and percentage agreement across measures was used to classify meeting or not meeting PA recommendations. The IPAQ significantly underestimated sitting and overestimated time spent in almost all PA intensities. Group associations across measures revealed significant relations in walking, total PA, and sitting for the whole group (r = .29-.36, p < .05). Significant relationships between bout ACC and IPAQ walking (r = .28-.39, p < .05) were found. There was 40-46% agreement between measures for meeting PA recommendations. The IPAQ appears not to be a good indicator of individual older adult PA behavior but is better suited for larger population-based samples.
 
Article
The Getting Grounded Gracefully program, based on the Awareness Through Movement lessons of the Feldenkrais method, was designed to improve balance and function in older people. Fifty-five participants (mean age 75, 85% women) were randomized to an intervention (twice-weekly group classes over 8 wk) or a control group (continued with their usual activity) after being assessed at baseline and then reassessed 8 wk later. Significant improvement was identified for the intervention group relative to the control group using ANOVA between-groups repeated-measures analysis for the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale score (p = .003) and gait speed (p = .028), and a strong trend was evident in the timed up-and-go (p = .056). High class attendance (88%) and survey feedback indicate that the program was viewed positively by participants and might therefore be acceptable to other older people. Further investigation of the Getting Grounded Gracefully program is warranted.
 
Article
Thirty one young (mean age = 20.8 years) and 30 older (mean age = 71.5 years) men and women categorized as physically active (n = 31) or inactive (n = 30) performed an executive processing task while standing, treadmill walking at a preferred pace, and at a faster pace. Dual-task interference was predicted to negatively impact older adults' cognitive flexibility as measured by an auditory switch task more than younger adults; further, participants' level of physical activity was predicted to mitigate the relation. For older adults, treadmill walking was accompanied by significantly more rapid response times and reductions in local- and mixed-switch costs. A speed-accuracy tradeoff was observed in which response errors increase linearly as walking speed increased, suggesting that locomotion under dual-task conditions degrades the quality of older adults' cognitive flexibility. Participants' level of physical activity did not influence cognitive test performance.
 
— The monitors in position for testing. The activ PAL is attached to thigh, the NL- 2000 is clipped to right side of the waistband, and the SW-200 is positioned on the left. 
Characteristics of the Participants
— The absolute percentage error for the three devices at five treadmill speeds. The error bars represent 1 SD . 
— The absolute percentage error for the three devices at preferred speeds outdoors. The error bars represent 1 SD . 
Article
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the activPAL physical activity monitor in measuring step number and cadence in older adults. Two pedometers (New-Lifestyles Digi-Walker SW-200 and New-Lifestyles NL2000) used in clinical practice to count steps were simultaneously evaluated. Observation was the criterion measure. Twenty-one participants (65-87 yr old) recruited from community-based exercise classes walked on a treadmill at 5 speeds (0.67, 0.90, 1.12, 1.33, and 1.56 m/s) and outdoors at 3 self-selected speeds (slow, normal, and fast). The absolute percentage error of the activPAL was <1% for all treadmill and outdoor conditions for measuring steps and cadence. With the exception of the slowest treadmill speed, the NL-2000 error was <2%. The SW-200 was the least accurate device, particularly at slower walking speeds. The activPAL monitor accurately recorded step number and cadence. Combined with its ability to identify primary postures, the activPAL might be a useful and versatile device for measuring activity in older adults.
 
Article
This study examined the effect of tennis playing on the coincidence timing (CT) of older adults. Young, younger-old and older-old (20-30, 60-69, and 70-79 years old, respectively) tennis players and nonplayers were asked to synchronize a simple response (pressing a button) with the arrival of a moving stimulus at a target. Results showed that the older tennis players responded with a slight bias similar to that of the young players. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the elimination of age effects through tennis playing was a result of maintaining basic perceptuomotor and perceptual processes or of some possible compensation strategy. The results revealed that the age-related increase in the visuomotor delay was significantly correlated with CT performance in older nonplayers but not in older tennis players. These results suggest that playing tennis is beneficial to older adults, insofar as they remained as accurate as younger ones despite less efficient perceptuomotor processes. This supports the compensation hypothesis.
 
Baseline Characteristics Variable Tai Chi, n = 26 Cognition-action, n = 26 p 
Participants' Cognitive Characteristics and Health-Related Quality of Life 
Article
No previous studies have explored the effects of mind-body approaches on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the frail elderly. Cognition and action are an inseparable whole during functioning. Thus, a new intervention-based approach using familiarity-based movements and a nonjudgmental approach of "cognition-action" was proposed and was tested with Tai Chi on HRQoL in frail institutionalized elderly. Fifty-two participants (58% women) age 65-94 took part in a 24-wk Tai Chi (TC) intervention 4 days/wk or a cognition-action (CA) exercise program of 30 min twice a week. Changes in Mini Mental State score, physical (PCS) and mental component (MCS) summaries (SF12); Falls Efficacy Scale (FES); and exercise self-efficacy were explored. PCS improved from 33.6 +/- 6.7 to 51 +/- 4.8 in the TC group and from 30.6 +/- 9.9 to 45.1 +/- 10.2 in the CA group (p < .001). MCS of SF-12 (p < .001), FES (p < .001), and exercise self-efficacy (p < .01) were enhanced significantly in both groups. Adapted CA programs and Tai Chi were both efficient in improving HRQoL of frail elderly.
 
— Excerpts from the main questions for the face-to-face in-depth interview.  
Interrelationship Between the Themes, Categories and Subcategories
Article
This qualitative study explores how older Hong Kong ChineseAustralians perceive aging and to what extent this perception affects their participation in physical activities. The main methods used were in-depth interviews with 22 participants ranging in age from 60 to 91 years. Interviews were translated from Chinese (Cantonese) and transcribed into English. Content analysis was used to find recurring themes from the interview data. The main findings indicate that the perception of aging is to some extent influenced by culture. Some participants defined aging as being measured in years, and others defined it by the state of one's physical health, appearance, and capacity to continue fulfilling one's social roles. These perceptions strongly influenced their preferences for and participation in physical activities. Acknowledging the fact that Chinese-speaking people are not culturally homogeneous, this article makes some recommendations to health service providers with regard to the development of appropriate physical activity programs.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semi-structured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t-tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs.
 
Flow of participants
Training device
Generic training progress
No statistically significant differences between the TG and CG
Means of standardized change for the geriatric assessment
Article
To determine the effectiveness of exercise in improving sensorimotor function and functional performance as crucial part of activities of daily living in healthy older adults. RCT. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: 39 subjects (M = 71.8 years, range: 61-89 years). Task oriented visual feedback balance training. Primary outcome measure: Timed up & go (TUG). Secondary outcome measures: Chair stand test (CST), self-paced walk test, maximum isometric torque, quiet stand posturography and dynamic balance (DB). Post intervention comparison of the treatment group (TG) and control group (CG) showed better TUG (p < .01), CST (p < .001) and DB (p < .025) for the TG. Pre-post intervention comparison of the TG showed better clinically relevant outcomes in TUG (p < .001), CST (p < .001) and DB (p < .001). Active driven visual feedback balance training is effective in improving functional performance and dynamic balance in older adults.
 
Article
To determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test-retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51-.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which a novel training program based on activities of daily living (ADL) would affect performance of ADLs, as well as the fitness of older adults. Fourteen individuals (mean age 82 years) took part in a 10-week control period followed by a 10-week ADL-based training program. Pre- and posttests included the Physical Performance Test (PPT), the Physical Functional Performance-10 (PFP-10), and the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). After the training period, improvements ranging from 7% to 33% (p<.05) were seen on the PPT and PFP-10 and on three items of the SFT. After conversion to standard scores, the magnitude of change in the PPT and the PFP10 was significantly greater (p<.05) than the magnitude of change in the SFT. These data support the idea that this novel ADL-based training program was able to facilitate improved performance of ADLs, as well as select measures of fitness among older adults.
 
Article
Little is known about the effect of reduced vision on physical activity in older adults. This study evaluates the association of visual acuity level, self-reported vision, and ocular disease conditions with leisure-time physical activity and calculated caloric expenditure. A cross-sectional study of 911 subjects 65 yr and older from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging (SOA) cohort was conducted evaluating the association of vision-related variables to weekly kilocalorie expenditure calculated from the 17-item Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate possible associations while controlling for potential confounders. In multivariate analyses, each lower step in visual acuity below 20/50 was significantly associated with reduced odds of having a higher level of physical activity, OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67, 0.97. Reduced visual acuity appears to be independently associated with lower levels of physical activity among community-dwelling adults.
 
Selected Demographic and Physical Characteristics of the Participants 
Affective and Self-Efficacy Responses Before, During, and After Exercise 
Overall and Active Muscle Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) During Exercise, M ± SD 
Article
This study examined the psychological responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise in sedentary older and younger adults. Eighteen young (mean age 24 years) and 15 older adults (mean age 64 years) completed a 20-min bout of stationary cycling at 65% of VO2peak. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and immediately after exercise. Participants'exercise self-efficacy beliefs were assessed before and immediately after exercise. Both groups reported reduced pleasant feeling states and self-efficacy and increased physical exhaustion in response to acute exercise. Older adults also demonstrated a significant decrease in revitalization during and after cycling. Correlation analyses revealed that self-efficacy was related to feelings of fatigue during exercise and postexercise feelings of energy and fatigue. Both groups reported negative shifts in affect and self-efficacy during and 5 min after cycling.Acute affective and self-efficacy responses might influence one's motivation to adopt and maintain regular physical activity. The relationship between these acute responses and physical activity behavior across the life span warrants future inquiry.
 
Article
Research on the acute effects of exercise on cognitive performance by older adults is limited by a focus on nonhealthy populations. Furthermore, the duration of cognitive improvements after exercise has not been examined. Thus, this study was designed to test the immediate and delayed effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance of healthy older adults. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop task. Participants were randomly assigned to an exercise (20 min of walking) or control (sitting quietly) condition. The Stroop task was administered at baseline and at 12 time points after treatment. Acute exercise resulted in better Stroop test performance immediately postexercise; however, the effects were limited to the color test. No effects of exercise on performance were observed for the Stroop interference or inhibition tests. Findings suggest that acute exercise performed by healthy older adults has short-term benefits for speed of processing but does not affect other types of cognitive functioning.
 
— Putative model of the role of mediators in exercise effects on cognition. F = female; CVD = cardiovascular disease; CeVD = cerebrovas- cular disease; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Adapted, by permission, from W.W. Spirduso, L.W. Poon, and W. Chodzko-Zajko, 2008, Using resources and reserves in an exercise–cognition model. In Exercise and its mediating effects on cognition, edited by W.W. Spirduso, L.W. Poon, and W. Chodzko-Zajko (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics), 4. 
— Mean Vigor-Activity gain values (± 95% confidence intervals) in each experimental condition as a function of participants’ sex and age group. Note : (ns) = nonsignificant within-group difference. 
Article
A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on Vigor-Activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the Vigor-Activity subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately prior to and 2 minutes after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 minutes after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition × age × sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared to the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance.
 
Arm cranking performance indices of men and women.
—Peak power and mean power, allometrically scaled to leg and arm performances of women in the Wingate Anaerobic Test, expressed as a percentage of male values.  
Article
A recent study indicated that acute aerobic exercise improves cognitive flexibility in adults. The current study assessed age, habitual physical activity, and physical fitness as moderators of this improvement and examined whether the gains still exist an hour after the exercise session. The alternative-uses test, assessing cognitive flexibility, was administered individually to 20 older (age 63.67 +/- 3.55 yr) and 19 young (age 23.9 +/- 1.22) women before, immediately after, and an hour after a single moderate aerobic-exercise session. Results indicated significant improvement in cognitive flexibility in the older group immediately after the exercise but a decrease at the 1-hr follow-up. Further analysis indicated that physical fitness accounted for this improvement (R = -.622, p < .01). No such differences were observed in the young group. Further studies are needed to examine the duration of this effect, as well as the role of physical fitness as a moderator of it.
 
Article
This investigation attempted to determine whether heart-rate and blood pressure responses to maximal acute lower body negative pressure (LBNP) are exacerbated compared with maximal graded LBNP in active older (n = 9, 70 +/- 7 yr) and endurance-trained younger (n = 10, 23 +/- 3 yr) individuals. Heart rate increased earlier during graded LBNP in the younger group (-40 mm Hg vs. tolerance) and was significantly higher than that of the older adults at the point of tolerance. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased more in the older than the younger individuals during graded LBNP. LBNP-tolerance index was significantly greater in the younger group (309 +/- 52 vs. 255.6 +/- 48 mm Hg/min). Acute doses of LBNP elicited slower heart-rate responses in the older group. Despite these age-related differences, MAP responses were not different between groups with acute LBNP, so age per se does not appear to predispose individuals to orthostatic intolerance.
 
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Addie Middleton
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Sebastien Francois Martin Chastin
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