AIDS is a fatal though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS PSAs can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these ads/PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. A large-scale survey of television station managers was conducted to determine which forms of AIDS messages they accept and influences on their acceptance/rejection decisions. Specific types of AIDS prevention messages that are most and least likely to be accepted for broadcast are identified. The influence of network affiliation, market size, and broadcast band on AIDS acceptance decisions were assessed. Unlike previous studies, we examine the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions and found several interesting results which could be used by health professionals to increase the ability of gaining airtime for AIDS prevention messages.
7 ads (3" x 2") for information on nonprescription mail-order contraceptives were run in 51 college newspapters. Ads with specific product offerings, apparently directed to males and including offers of birth control literature, drew the most inquiries. Inquiries were also higher from ads placed in papers with larger circulations, and in rural areas. There were no discernible objections from the audience, and no difficulties were encountered in placing copy. About 207 of the inquiries resulted in orders.
The article by Amitava Chattopadhyay and Jean-Louis Laborie is terrific. It represents a rethink and an innovative way to improve what we do as professionals. For that it should be commended and introduced to the industry.
Great creative people in advertising have long known the power of emotion and stories but had little compelling theory and research to validate their instincts. This new book on the interplay between the conscious and unconscious minds of consumers, marketers, and researchers provides convincing support.
An unbiased comprehensive oversight synthesis of three decades of gender-related advertising research is undertaken. Seventy-six articles found in premiere marketing, psychology, sociology, and communications journals were reviewed. Findings of the gender role research indicate advertisements are generally moving toward a slightly less stereotypical stance. Findings of the selectivity hypotheses research indicate females versus males process advertisements differently. Findings of the spokesperson gender effects research indicate controversy exists, and the gender advertising response literature findings assert gender differences in advertising responses exist. Finally, the gender brand positioning literature specifies gender differences exist. The findings are synthesized and implications are suggested.
In April 2002, when I was honored to be selected as the chairman of the AAAA, I decided that the focus of my tenure would be making a mark on improving the general quality of advertising in America. I defined that as doing something to raise a critical component of advertising quality to a new level.
The account planning of creative advertising development has been hyped on both sides of the Atlantic for more than 30 years yet there is still little agreement on what exactly it is and what contribution it has made. This article reviews current perspectives on the account planning discipline from the London and New York agencies that pioneered the discipline. Depth interviews suggested that account planning remains a powerful idea for advertising professionals and a major priority for top international agencies. The complexity and depth of feeling that surrounds the topic, however, is striking. Views range from passionate advocacy to open cynicism. This article offers an interpretation of the major issues that emerged and integrates this with research perspectives to suggest an agenda for the wider understanding and successful implementation of account planning. a
Accountability is management s new mantra. The challenge comes from the fact that currently each discipline within the marketing communications plan is measured differently, so there can be no composite scorecard. McCann introduces two models, based on seven Universal Marketing Drivers that assess how these drivers work in tandem, in a discipline-neutral manner. These models can help marketers assess the contributions of each of the diverse disciplines within a marketing communications plan and accurately allocate resources to best deliver strategic priorities.
A survey of over 1,700 Hong Kong adolescents indicates that their smoking-related behaviors are related to their exposure to cigarette advertising, promotional products, and movies. American media and tobacco firms dominate these industries, resulting in strong preferences for American cigarette brands, particularly Marlboro. As a correlational study, this research does not, of itself, address the issue of causality. However, these findings do add one more dimension to a growing body of literature that cumulatively suggests a causal relationship between exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion and youth smoking. a
In verbal, one-way marketing communication, e.g., radio advertising, the only cues that the target customer has are voice related. Competitive and financial considerations dictate that advertisers use the most cost-effective means to accomplish their communication objectives. Using a two-step approach, this study examines, first, the effect of speech rate on young adult listener responses to verbal advertising. The second phase of the study seeks to identify significant differences when different methods of speech sampling (time- or pause compressed expanded) are used to produce the faster slower speech rates. Results indicate that faster speech rates affect the number of affective responses and the attitude toward the message while slower speech rates elicit more cognitive processing by young adult listeners. The use of pause only expansion to produce the slow speech rate accentuates the level of cognitive processing and attitude toward the message. Recognition of these effects allows the advertising strategist to further refine targeted message delivery.
Split book yellow page tests randomly distribute different versions of the test advertisement in the same market at the same point in time allowing direct assessment of the customer pulling power of different sizes or types of yellow pages advertisements. Using the results from 78 split book tests, we find that including trademarks in small in-column yellow page advertisements can have a very strong influence on call rates. Partially confirming previous work, we also find that larger advertisements do generate more calls than smaller advertisements. However, the increase in call rates is not a straight line relationship.
Frequency marketing campaigns have become more prevalent among high-share brands in low-growth categories. As a result, the inability of traditional copy-testing methods to accurately capture consumption-related responses has recently become an important issue for both industry professionals and academics. This paper argues that when dealing with brands that have a high degree of market penetration and that are also likely to exist in household inventory, consumption intentions are more likely to capture these consumption-related responses than are measures of A brand or purchase intentions. Specifically, this study suggests that volume estimates best approximate the actual consumption of heavy users (or of frequently consumed brands) and that likelihood estimates are best used with light users (or with infrequently consumed brands).
The debate about which media metric efficiently measures the effectiveness of a web-based advertisement, such as banners, is still alive and well. Nonetheless, the most widely used measure of effectiveness for banner advertisements is still the click-through rate. The purpose of this article is to review the measures currently used to measure effectiveness in web advertising and to empirically determine the factors that might contribute to observed variations in click-through rates based on an actual sample of advertising campaigns. The study examined the complete set of all advertising insertions of 77 customers of a large advertising agency over a one-year period. A resulting sample of 1,258 placements was used to study the effect of banner formats and exposure levels on click-through rates using analysis of variance. Results suggest that the strongest effect on click-through rates comes from the use of trickbanners ([eta]2 = 0.25) and that other factors such as size of the advertisement, motion, use of and type of announcers all have a significant impact of click-through rates. Implications of these findings as well as limitations of the current study are discussed and directions for future research agendas proposed. a
Advertising effectiveness tests combining surveys and electronic tracking of online advertising are common, and the method is increasingly being utilized within more comprehensive, cross-media methodologies. The validity of these tests, however, has sometimes been called into question because of the short duration between online advertising exposure and survey taking. Using a unique database containing more than 1,600 online advertising campaigns, we find that there is a measurable but weak relationship between time since last exposure and branding effectiveness, indicating the shortness of duration does not have a substantial impact on the validity of these tests.
This article is about affective advertising, defined as that which works more on our emotions and feelings than on our knowledge and beliefs. This sort of advertising can be processed effectively at relatively low levels of attention and as a result does not always perform well on recall measures. We compare the most popular recall-based metric claimed advertising awareness against an approach that deduces effectiveness from recognition and find claimed advertising awareness seriously underestimates the effectiveness of the advertising tested.
This study measured to what extent consumers used the internet to displace or reinforce the use of other media as sources of advertising information. The sample was 2,032 households from 5,031 households randomly selected from a midwestern state. The results showed that although internet advertising provided many unique features, it has not displaced most media as sources of advertising information. Many consumers found that internet advertising was a complementary medium based on their favorable attitudes or frequent use of other media advertising. The research also indicated that the reinforcement effects will be likely more evident for the future use of internet advertising associated with the use of billboards, direct mail, magazines, and television. However, the displacement effects may continue to occur for the future use of internet advertising associated with the future use of free community papers and weekly paid papers as advertising sources.
This study shows that waste the perceived extravagance of an advertisement contributes to advertising effectiveness by increasing credibility. It draws especially on the Handicap Principle in biology: animals use wasteful characteristics to signal their exceptional biological fitness. It hypothesizes that excesses in advertising work in a similar way by signaling brand fitness. TV advertisements were evaluated online for perceived advertising expense, message, brand familiarity, quality, reliability, and likelihood of choosing. High perceived advertising expense enhances an advertisement s persuasiveness significantly, but largely indirectly, by strengthening perceptions of brand quality.
Time allocation theory holds that individuals allocate their discretionary time purposively, depending upon their time orientation: to the past, present, or future. We use this perspective to understand more about why individuals avoid watching TV advertisements. We test a model of avoidance where time orientation influences attitude to advertising and avoidance with survey data from two different societies. Past-oriented people see advertising as important but promoting consumption. They tend to avoid advertising more than present-oriented people who see advertising as complimenting their concern to live for today. Future-oriented people see advertising as important in planning purchases and are less likely to avoid it.The authors wish to acknowledge Experian plc that allowed the use of MOSAIC for this research. We would also like to thank Dr. David Bennison, reader in the Locational Planning and Marketing Group, Department of Retailing and Marketing, The Manchester Metropolitan University, and John Byrom, research assistant in the same group, for their assistance with the MOSAIC software.
In the latest decades, emotions have become an important research topic in all behavioral sciences, and not the least in advertising. Yet, advertising literature on how to measure emotions is not straightforward. The major aim of this article is to give an update on the different methods used for measuring emotions in advertising and to discuss their validity and applicability. We further draw conclusions on the relation between emotions and traditional measures of advertising effectiveness. We finally formulate recommendations on the use of the different methods and make suggestions for future research.
This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a ‘classic’ - an article that has withstood the test of time. First published in 1974, Ehrenberg examines the role of advertising by looking at advertising and consumption in general, then discussing competition among brands and the factors affecting brand choice, particularly for established brands of frequently bought goods. He concludes the advertising's main role is to reinforce feelings of satisfaction with brands already bought.
Billions of dollars are spent in advertising for social change yet much of it is reported to be ineffective because of a lack of insight into the target audience. We illustrate the value of target insight in guiding advertising for social change with a focus on road rage, the always rude and often dangerous expression of anger on the highway. We add to the limited research in the field a new body of data about people who are prone to road rage. Target insight suggests a strategy for advertising to reduce road rage including who to talk to, what to say, and where, when, and how to say it.
This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a ‘classic’ - an article that has withstood the test of time. First published in 1987, Appel reviews the limited literature and reports on some further analyses of National Enquirer data. He concludes that editorial environment can have an effect but the concept is far from simple - readers and non-readers show significantly different results.
In this article the authors demonstrate how a customer lifetime value approach can provide a better assessment of advertising effectiveness that takes into account postpurchase behaviors such as word-of-mouth. Although for many advertisers word-of-mouth is viewed as an alternative to advertising, the authors show that it is possible to quantify the way in which word-of-mouth often complements and extends the effects of advertising. The authors provide a simple approach to the measurement of postpurchase word-of-mouth sales effects and demonstrate how firms may be underestimating advertising effectiveness by ignoring such effects. Their approach illustrates how customer lifetime value models can provide an important tool to assess the long-term effects of advertising campaigns.
The authors apply recent advances in creativity theory to discover perceptual differences in the factors of strategy, originality, and artistry among creatives and noncreatives. It was found that current advertising position influences subjective perceptions of what constitutes creative advertising. Creatives tend to perceive advertisements as more appropriate if they are artistic, but account executives tend to perceive advertisements as more appropriate if they are strategic. The study also indicates that creatives have a distinctive preference for a strong originality component to strategy. To be original within the confines of a tight strategy is perceived as the most creative by advertising creatives. Account executives are so focused on strategy, they will often accept artistic advertisements as a substitute for truly original work. The authors consider future research implications of the study and its limitations.
Although viral marketing has garnered a great deal of attention in the trade press, almost nothing is known about the motivations, attitudes, and behaviors of the people (those sending the email to others) that constitute the essential component of any such strategy. This article reports the results of three studies that examine consumer responses and motivations to pass along email. Implications for target selection and message creation are discussed for advertising practitioners interested in implementing viral efforts, and suggestions for future research relating to computer-mediated consumer-to-consumer interactions are presented for academic researchers.These studies were sponsored by Planetfeedback.com (www.planetfeedback.com), an internet-based infomediary company based in Cincinnati.An earlier version of this work will appear as a chapter in the forthcoming book, Online Consumer Psychology, C. Haugvedt, K. Macleit, and R. Yalch (eds.).
Children s opinion of advertising and their general skepticism toward it is of the utmost importance to both practitioners and those responsible for advertising control. In this article, the authors detail the development and validation of a scale measuring 8- to 12-year-olds global attitude toward TV advertising. This scale has been built and validated in a French-speaking context following all the steps required by the classical Churchill (1979) paradigm.The authors are indebted to Richard Lutz at the University of Florida for insightful comments on an earlier version of this article.
Retail marketers understanding of radio and television advertising campaigns impact on retail store visits would be a major breakthrough in evaluating return on media investment. This article presents results from pilot research using Arbitron s Portable People Meter (PPMSM, a mark of Arbitron Inc.) a unique audience measurement system that enables radio, broadcast television and cable television usage, and retail store visits to be captured from a single-source national panel of consumers. The pilot research indicates that retail store visits correlated with media advertising exposure, illustrating the promise of a single-source research panel to measure ROI in terms of store visit behavior, an important driver of retailer financial results.
This study investigates the impact of content and design elements on the click-through rates of banner advertisements using data from 8,725 real banner advertisements. It is one of the first empirical studies to examine banner advertising effectiveness (measured by click-through rates) and also one of the first to examine the differences between business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) banner advertisements.The authors acknowledge the financial and data support of Michael Moore and Marianna Dizik in the conduct of this study.Content elements examined include the use of incentives and emotional appeals. Design elements examined include the use of interactivity, color, and animation. Results suggest that content and design elements do not work the same way for B2B and B2C banner advertisements.
Today s pretesting is based on concepts of consumer behavior that were devised over a hundred years ago and which were largely discarded in the 1980s. What would it look like if we had known, and then applied what we know now, 25 years ago?
This article examines the contribution of direct mail advertising to average weekly unit sales of a national fast food franchisee. Two different types of direct mail advertising are used, both independently and in conjunction with local and national advertising. Results of a field study indicate that one type of direct mail (a shopper) contributes significantly to sales when used independently. When combined with national or local advertising, however, the contribution level of this shopper decreases. Conversely, a direct mail insert combined with many others inserts into one single envelope is much more powerful when utilized in conjunction with national advertising. In fact, results show that this latter combination of direct mail with national advertising contributes more to average weekly unit sales than any other combination. Implications are offered and future research is suggested.
In this article we examine factors that might impact on web advertising recall and recognition. These factors include the viewing mode, duration of page viewing, and web page context factors, including text and page background complexity and the style of the banner advertisement. Via an experimental design conducted on a student sample, we manipulate these factors over several levels. The key finding is that the longer a person is exposed to a web page containing a banner advertisement, the more likely they are to remember that banner advertisement. We also find that recognition scores are much higher than both unaided and aided recall scores. Finally, web users in a goal-directed mode are much less likely to recall and recognize banner advertisements than users who are surfing a site.
As a direct marketing tool, electronic Short Message Service (SMS) is likely to surpass internet-based advertising before the end of 2006. This article profiles heavy and light consumer acceptors of SMS direct advertising texts and SMS direct marketing prompts to watch TV programs. The article includes empirical findings of practitioner campaign evaluations of SMS-TV direct marketing campaigns in U.K. and U.S. markets. The results support the view that younger consumers higher in social class are the most willing to accept SMS direct advertising text and respond favorably to SMS-TV integrated marketing communications. The article closes with a call for true experiments to validate consumer acceptance and use of SMS-TV interactive, commercial, communications via split-run testing.
This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a ‘classic’ - an article that has withstood the test of time. First published in 1969, Britt analysers the ‘proofs of success’ for 135 campaigns selected by 40 advertising agencies, and shows that almost none of the agencies really knew, or even could know, whether or not their campaigns were successful. He establishes clear guidelines on how to determine advertising objectives and assess whether they have been met.
This paper discusses the role of the World Wide Web as an advertising medium and its position in the marketing communication mix. It introduces a conceptual framework for measuring the efficiency of a Web site. Efficiency indexes are defined for five Web advertising communication activities, and an overall measure of Web site efficiency measure is presented.
The purpose of this research is twofold: (1) to examine the persuasive effects of a message that is presented either as advertising or publicity, and (2) to study whether sequencing (i.e., advertising-then-publicity or publicity-then-advertising) matters in integrated marketing. Specifically, this research tests (1) whether there is a difference between advertising and publicity on message acceptance and message response, and (2) whether the sequencing of publicity and advertising affects message processing. Four dependent variables are studied: message strength, perceived credibility, attitude toward the destination, and purchase intent. Results suggest that the sequence, publicity-then-advertising, is most effective at persuading potential customers to visit a tourist destination.
This article defines the integrated marketing process and shows how it can be used to improve advertising. It discusses how integrated marketing thinks about brands, the consumer experience with products or services, and contact points. The role of media in delivering messages is reconsidered and ways of measuring the engagement with a medium are discussed. Integrated marketing also addresses the relationship between brands and customized contact points.
Coordinating and controlling advertising strategy within contractual and administered vertical marketing systems (VMSs) can be a complex task given the number of channel members involved in the process. Quite often thousands of intermediaries are involved at different levels each with their own objectives and areas of responsibility. Conflict within a VMS can arise when dealers distributors consider the advertising efforts of the sponsoring organization to be ineffective and vice versa. One of the major issues involves how to allocate the advertising budget throughout the VMS so as to generate the greatest return. To this end we report the results of a study comparing the current and lagged effects of national-sponsor advertising to that of local and regional sponsors within one of the more prominent contractual VMS in the United States the automobile industry. Using a direct aggregation approach to model advertising carryover at both the industry and individual brand level provides useful information for making decisions regarding the allocation of advertising budgets.
Online advertising has been with us for over 10 years. During that time two different paradigms have characterized the way the effectiveness of online advertising has been assessed: brand building or direct response. In general the direct response paradigm has become the yardstick of online advertising success due to the universal measurement of click-through. This article proposes that the two paradigms are not contradictory but are in fact complementary and that the applicability of either model depends on the mindset of the audience as much as the intent of the advertisement. The article outlines a conceptual framework that integrates an established brand equity model with different stages of the purchase process and then uses existing learning, new research data, and case studies to illustrate the various ways in which online advertising can help build brands and increase the probability of purchase. The article concludes that click-through is primarily a consequence of the brand building effect combined with a willingness to learn more about the specific brand as a result of an immediate need for a product or service of that type.
This article demonstrates how presentation order, gender, and value relevance can influence advertising processing under different viewing situations. One study found that message order and gender influenced message persuasion: under situational low involvement, females (males) exhibited primacy (recency) effects when viewing two advertisements differing in values (help-self versus help-others) for a charity. In a second study, with higher situational involvement, all respondents appeared to process advertising messages systematically and considered the value content within the message in their evaluations. Thought-listing data revealed that females continued to exhibit primacy effects regardless of message appeal, but the recency effects with males disappeared when the advertisement (help-self) matched their values. Relevance for advertising effectiveness and media planning is discussed.
This study examines the long-term effectiveness of multimedia advertising in a competitive setting and its implications for budget allocation decisions, using multivariate persistence methodology. Analysis of network TV, spot TV, and magazine advertising for the two major competitors in the U.S. SUV industry suggested that long-run advertising effectiveness differed considerably among media. These differences were attributed to the media lifespan, retrieval, and content of the message they convey. The authors propose that budget allocation decisions should consider the long-run effectiveness of the different media employed to increase the productivity of advertising campaigns. They also conduct a simulation experiment to further investigate long-run sales effects of alternative allocation strategy scenarios.
The body of web advertising research has grown continuously during the last few years. Our understanding of the new medium has trailed the increasing web experience among advertisers and consumers. However, there is still one important knowledge gap, namely the communication effects of website advertising. How should websites be designed to attain brand-related communication effects? a
This study examines the mixed-media strategy of advertising online and publicizing the web location in magazine advertisements. It also analyzes the extent of integration between websites and print advertisements in six major U.S. magazines. In creating an online commercial site, it is important to recognize that the internet requires different marketing and advertising practices than those used in traditional media. Mixed-media advertising necessitates coordinated efforts between those managing the website and those designing advertisements for other media. The findings suggest that marketers are not exploiting all possible benefits of their websites by not adequately integrating print and online advertising efforts.
Market A is selected as the test city. Three levels of advertising “frequency” are to be tested by beaming corresponding numbers of commercials to three groups of randomly selected households. Sales to the three groups are to be measured with either diary panel data or scanner data. Since market A has been determined to be representative of the total area under consideration, the three levels of purchase probability associated with the levels of advertising are to be used in constructing and advertising-sales response function for budgeting purposes.
Advertising, as currently practiced, ignores all that has been learned by cognitive psychologists in the past 30 or 40 years. Consumers process all incoming information, including advertising, in a very complex yet instantaneous manner. Advertising is not a stimulus in the outmoded behavioral psychology stimulus response model of human information processing. Advertising, if it is attended to at all, is nothing more than a net addition to everything the consumer has previously learned and retained about the brand. The challenge for advertising is to find ways and means to bypass or upset business as usual in the consumer's brain and to build an enduring perceptual representation of the brand as one that is acceptable and desirable.
This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a ‘classic’ - an article that has withstood the test of time. First published in 1985, the authors set out to answer the question ‘what executional devices influence the effectiveness of a TV commercial?’ They conclude that executional factors appear to account for 13 to 26% of the variance in related recall measures depending on how many variables were used. They also state that the single most important factor related to persuasion was the presence of a brand differentiating message,