Journal of Advances in Military Studies

Published by Institute of Defense Acquisition Program

Online ISSN: 2636-1329

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Print ISSN: 2635-5531

Articles


Future and development direction (21-35) of M&S for building up to the hyper-army in Republic of Korea Army: Focusing on fostering high-tech armed forces
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August 2021

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28 Reads

Kyoungchan Won

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This study presents the direction of modeling and simulation (M&S) development, which is essential for high-tech armed forces, focusing on the Vision 2030 in Republic of Korea Army. In particular, in preparation for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the army is doing its best to transform itself with cutting-edge science and technology. It is preparing for future warfare by promoting artificial intelligence (AI), a dronebot combat system, the warrior platform, and Army-Tiger 4.0 to increase the mobility, intelligence, and networking of infantry units. M&S is vital for accomplishing this advanced science and technology. In other words, it is an essential element of effective defense management, such as improving defense capabilities, enhancing military power, strengthening combat readiness posture, and training for future science. In particular, M&S is the best solution to overcome the difficult conditions of a limited budget and lack of resources by using more creative thinking methods along with cutting-edge technologies, such as AI, big data, virtual reality, and the Internet of things (IoT). The Republic of Korea Army recognizes its importance and intends to introduce and implement the 21-35 Army M&S development direction to present the vision and direction of the Army M&S for advanced science and technology force and to develop it continuously.
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Adoption and deployment of 21st century technologies in armed forces operations

April 2022

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87 Reads

Armed forces across the globe have been continuously modernizing through the deployment of hi-tech computers and nanotechnologies to perfect information acquisition and analysis and data transmission during missions and operations to make them more powerful and enhance their competitive advantage. This study presents an overview of the opportunities provided by twenty-first century military technologies and their advantages, specifically in terms of system integration, communications, and capability to shape modern warfare. The study concludes by recommending the importance of the Ministry of Defense through the provision of adequate funds and budgetary allocations for research, development, and procurement of high-tech equipment like TALOS, FIST, FELIN, IDZ-ZES, RATNIK-3 smart suits for tactical operations to support soldiers for an effective discharge of assigned combat missions during insurgencies and battlefield reconnaissance and domination.

4차 산업혁명 첨단기술과 연계한 기술기반 소요기획체계 발전방안

May 2020

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144 Reads

While the Ministry of National Defense (MND) is pushing for the defense reform that applied the fourth industrial revolution technology, various countermeasure tools were required, including technological obsolescence in areas where the existing system of planning required long-term acquisition. To this end, we will examine the application of the 'technology-based planning process', which is a technology-driven force planning, in order to anticipate development trends of key core technologies and to meet future military demand capability in a timely manner through appropriate allocation of resource and leading development do. In order to apply the technology-based development process, the level of military capability to be secured in the future and the development of advanced technology should be identified first, and procedures should be prepared to identify the optimal key joint power needs suitable for the balanced development of the three armed forces, and to link them to the deployment in a short period of time. First, it identified ‘8 core technologies for future national defense’ that can lead future national defense for the development of high-tech. The next step was to identify the ‘10 key military capabilities’ such as high-power, ultra-precision, stealth and other ‘10 key military capabilities’ by applying the ‘8 core technologies for future defense’ and to examine the application of future core technologies within the long-term period and the feasibility of implementing them as military capabilities to identify the ‘18 core weapons systems’ that can be realised as weapons systems. The following should be preceded by an institutional framework to enable the application of the ‘technology-based required planning system’ to rapidly apply superior technology elements by replacing the existing ‘concept-based demand planning system’. First, a ‘military pilot use system’ that can prove the military practicality of high-tech should be introduced to ensure the military’s test-bed role for proving the superior technology and performance of products by the private sector. Second, ‘Development of Technology Leading Rapid Acquisition System’ is required so that superior products with proven performance can be directly linked to power generation by applying simplified procedures. Third, the application of ‘small sandbox’ that allows application of technology-based demand planning should be considered for a limited time in order to be applied as soon as possible, considering the difficulty of immediate application under the revision of regulations, etc. Fourth, the government should improve its wireless password policy by specifying the criteria for application of wireless codes to address regulatory problems under military security. What should be done in parallel with institutional supplementation is to expand and strengthen future challenge technology development projects. To this end, an environment that tolerates the failure of challenging R&D projects should be created, and a co-prosperity arena should be created where economic growth and military strength will be strengthened through the creation of an ecosystem in the field of defense, in addition to economic growth in the defense sector.

Perspectives of resilience components for improvement of 5G network system in the defense sector

August 2021

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16 Reads

Future battlefield situations in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution are expected to increase the dependence on network systems. In these situations, the impact of the system could lead to a defeat on the battlefield. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to recognize the importance of the resilience of network systems, identify the factors that can increase the resilience of the system, and present improvements. Unlike in previous studies that were focused on technology improvement and development for applying the technology of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in the defense sector in the future, in this study, resilience is considered. Four components of resilience, depending on the specificity of the defense sector, are proposed for the introduction/design phase of the network system, serving as a starting point for implementing a high-quality system by specifically considering problems and improvements.

A Study on the Abolition Process of the Soldiers Guardhouse Disposition

August 2020

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8 Reads

Recently, the abolition of the guardhouse disposition was abolished, In the flow of the times, this study explored the issues and progress of the process of the abolition of the guardhouse disposition. Since the Kabo Reform at the end of the Chosun Dynasty, this system had been operated the disciplinary actions as a means of punishment to maintain discipline establishment in the Korean military. However, controversy has persisted that such a system may violate the constitutional ‘warrant in principle’ and the freedom of the soldier’s ‘right to liberty’. As a result, the legislative bill about the amendments of the Military Personnel Management Act for abolishing the military guardhouse disposition was proposed by the National Assembly. But there were still many controversies, including concerns that it would weaken military discipline in the legislative authorization process. In this sense, this study will delineate the overall progression of the military guardhouse disposition in Korea.

The utilization of unmanned aerial vehicles incombating illegal bunkering activities in the Niger Delta regions of Nigeria

April 2021

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12 Reads

In contemporary surveillance and reconnaissance efforts, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been widely deployed in dangerous, low-altitude regions where manned aircrafts cannot navigate easily because of their size, purchasing costs for environmental remote sensing, monitoring, and combat mission for military operations. As UAVs are used in compromising situations, they are designed to be low cost in the event of failed recovery process and there is increased operational flexibility for military applications and non-military development. This paper provides an overview of the use of UAVs in combating illegal bunkering activities. It classifies these vehicles based on performance and size. The paper seeks to proffer potential solutions for its adoption in the Niger Delta for forestalling security, monitoring and surveillance of multinational oil companies’ pipelines operating in the region, tactical responses by security agencies to address emergency situations of oil spillage, and illegal bunkering activities for the promotion of the nation’s economic development.

Development plan based on analyzing the actual conditions of Korea's defense base area: Focusing on Gyeongsangnam-do and Changwon

December 2022

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13 Reads

This study aims to derive a customized development plan for the defense base area centered on the Gyeongsangnam-do and Changwon special cities, which are representative bases in the domestic defense industry. The areas account for more than 40% of the defense sales and the number of employees based on domestic defense companies. Their status and importance increased as they were selected as the first defense innovation cluster pilot project in Korea by the Defense Acquisition Program Administration. For the research method, management performance (sales, R&D investment, number of employees, exports) and difficulties factors were analyzed by targeting 490 defense companies located in Gyeongnam from 2018 to 2021. Based on the results, considerable strengths and opportunity factors were derived in the fields of industry composition, defense supply chain, parts localization, workforce training, and cooperation networks, and the creation of a favorable management environment for defense SMEs was suggested. In the future, to facilitate the localization of defense materials and parts through the defense innovation cluster project, and to establish an effective mid- to long-term defense industry promotion strategy, an accurate analysis of the current situation and competitiveness of defense companies in the Gyeongnam region is required.

A Case Study on the Evolutionary Development of U.S Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): Focusing on Tactical/Strategic Fixed-wing UAVs

August 2020

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11 Reads

In October 2018, the Korean Army established a Dronebot unit. The future battleground is expected to be led by drones and robots. However, in order to utilize new weapons systems such as drones and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the Korean army, it is necessary to go through complicated and long-term defense acquisition procedures, which make it difficult to adopt and reflect the latest technologies immediately. The purpose of this study is to derive some implications for the efficient development and acquisition of UAVs in Korea through in-depth case analysis on the evolutionary development and acquisition of U.S. military UAVs. Accordingly, this study focused on the tactical/strategic U.S. fixed-wing UAVs which have been developed and mass-produced since 1990s, weighing more than 150kg. They include Shadow-200 as brigade/division-level UAV, Predator and Reaper as midium altitude UAVs, and Global Hawk as high altitude UAV. These must not only satisfy the required operational capability (ROC), but also receive strict airworthiness certification. Among them, Predator and Global Hawk were carried out as New Conceptual Technology Development Demonstration (ACTD), and prototypes under development were put into the Middle East battle. Although there were several accidents, flexible development processes such as system development or initial mass production were applied after ACTD. The initial target performance was set to be low and operability verification was prioritized, and the performance was improved through the evolutionary development of initial low rate mass production, subsequent mass production, and subsequent performance improvement. Despite the initial mass production phase, all required performance was not confirmed, and the required performance was presented in a range of flexibility. On the other hand, there have been large-scale changes such as engine replacement, aircraft change and communication systems upgrade to improve performance. Mission equipment was developed separately and applied to mass production when operability was confirmed. In the process of the development and acquisition of these UAVs, unforeseen accidents, huge losses and increased costs happened, but the U.S. government continued to pursue an evolutionary development policy for military drones. Therefore, in developing and acquiring new high-tech military unmanned aerial vehicles, it is necessary for Korea to develop and acquire them based on operability in the initial development stage, and to enhance its combat capabilities by improving its performance in the stages of initial mass production, follow-up mass production and performance improvement.

Factors affecting information security compliance intention of military officer

April 2022

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17 Reads

The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors that influence the information security compliance intention of Korean military officers. For this purpose, a research model was constructed focusing on information security compliance attitude and perceived control, which are the main variables of the theory of planned behavior. In addition, security sensitivity, organization trust, information security work impediment, and sanction, were selected as independent variables. The research model was analyzed through a survey targeting Korean army officers, and the results are as follows. First, security sensitivity, organization trust, and sanctions had a significant effect on information security compliance attitude. However, the effect of information security work impediment had not been identified. Second, it was analyzed that security sensitivity and organization trust had a positive effect on perceived information security compliance control, but the effect of information security work impediment and sanction had not been verified. Third, it was confirmed that the information security compliance attitude and perceived control affect the information security compliance intention, which reconfirmed the results of previous studies. This study is meaningful in that it can improve the information security level of the military organization by suggesting a way to manage these factors.

Efficient management agenda for performance-based logistics in fourth industrial revolution: A case of the South Korean military

August 2022

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2 Reads

The purpose of this study is to develop an efficient management plan for a performance-based military support project as a weapon system using Fourth Industrial Revolution technology, such as the launch of the Army TIGER Combat Group. According to the Ministry of National Defense, the performance-based military support project plans to expand various ranges and stages. Thus, more detailed management measures that combine value analysis and learning effects are significant. The results of this study are as follows. First, in preparing for the expansion of performance-based military support projects, a plan to use companies under the leadership of the military is proposed preemptively. Second, the performance-based military support application project using ABC analysis and portfolio technology and the scope of application for military service improvement is presented separately. Third, a plan to expand the quantity of maintenance equipment acquired is proposed to improve the agility of exhibition maintenance support. This is expected to stabilize supply to companies and reduce the cost and total cost of ownership for the military. Fourth, by adding qualitative indicators based on quantitative indicators, a system that enables South Korea to actively participate in maintaining equipment operations and relying only on companies. Rather than the vague expectation that performance-based military resources will effectively utilize civilian capabilities and reduce budgets, the military must develop management strategies to maintain its immediate dispatch attitude in wartime to restore resilience and achieve its core goal.

The comparison of combat function priorities in future manned/unmanned infantry troops: Focusing on the use of AHP

April 2021

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2 Reads

This study was conducted to present the development plans for the future manned/unmanned infantry troops in order to respond to the changes in advanced science and technology along with the winds of the fourth industrial revolution an to prepare for future war changes. Above all, key elements by combat performance function of future mixed infantry troops could be identified and implications could be derived by comparing priorities by element using Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP). In particular, a survey of current military policy departments, educators, field personnel, and indirectly related officers whose group consists of 190 (rank range: from the first lieutenant to lieutenant colonel, age range: from 20 to 40) out of 250 regard of effectiveness was conducted to identify which areas should be developed first for each combat function (command control, information, maneuver, fire, protection, operation sustainability support). In the formation of a mixed infantry troop, command control was able to identify battlefield information, reinforce information on battlefield visibility, strengthen maneuvering forces, strike strategic targets, share enemy attack situations, and maintain operations.

A study of the United States of America and China’s new cold war conflicts and the flexible survival strategy for Korean security

December 2021

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12 Reads

China is challenging the hegemony of the United States through its economic power, creating the so-called New Cold War. The consequent conflict between the US and China can cause selective coercion in South Korea. South Korea is highly dependent on the United States militarily and on China economically. In a conflict, if Korea is asked for selective support, there will be a dilemma in policymaking. Accordingly, I studied the geopolitical dilemma in South Korea resulting from the US–China competition and six security issues . I was able to identify six conflict factors related to Korean security: the North Korean nuclear problem, the role of US forces in South Korea, friction due to protectionism, the battle for the semiconductor market, the formation of the Pacific Coast Council, and the discharge of contaminated water from nuclear power plants in Japan. I examined the flexible survival strategies that Korea could choose for each security issue. I expected policy utility by dividing it into military, economic, and diplomatic fields.

Prioritizing the capabilities of unmanned underwater vehicles necessary for ISR based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process

April 2021

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8 Reads

The need for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) has received significant attention given the current security situation in the Korean Peninsula. UUVs are used in the military to perform five key missions: intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), mine countermeasures, anti-submarine warfare, inspection/identification, and oceanography. In this study, we analyze the standards of evaluation of the characteristics and capabilities of UUVs that are necessary for ISR missions, which are most important from among the above mentioned ones. First, we establish 5 main criteria and 15 sub-criteria by consulting a group of experts. Next, we use the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for these criteria. It computes the relative weights of the criteria based on pairwise comparisons, in order to evaluate the relative importance and priorities of the criteria we established, by selecting another group of 51 experts for the evaluation of the pairwise comparisons among the criteria. Consequentially, the importance associated with performance and ability of the ISR tends to be relatively high while the one associated with cost and economy for operating the UUVs appears to be low. These results may be useful in analyzing required capabilities in a more objective and concrete manner while procuring UUVs in the future.

Real-time service integration of defense information system: defense REST API server reference model design analysis

December 2021

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10 Reads

This study designs a reference model of the Defense REST API server based on the representational state transfer (REST) architecture style to present the most efficient, stable, and sustainable technical criteria for real-time service integration of defense information systems in Korea. The purpose of this component is to provide evidence to be stipulated as part of the Korean Defense Ministry's instructions and regulations, such as the Defense Interoperability Management Directive and the Interoperability Guide, and to support the development of the National Defense Interworking Technology and Interoperability. As the defense information system was subdivided and developed by the army, navy, air force, or business functions, interworking between information systems has become one of the most important factors. However, despite the need for advanced service integration and interworking, various interconnection service modules based on enterprise application integration (EAI), EAI hubs, and spokes were developed at a level that met local requirements (simple data transmission) without specific criteria for each network or information system. As a result, most of the interconnection modules currently in operation suffer from the absence of a technical spectrum, such as not meeting the military's demands for real-time interconnection and service integration, which increases with time. Therefore, this study seeks to identify the above problems by integrating the defense information system into one service and presenting a reference model of the defense REST API server to meet various real-time interworking requirements, analyze the technical basis, and pursue a model that fits military reality.

The role of physical fitness training programs in improving armed personnel’s tactical and combat readiness to secure land and borders

September 2022

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23 Reads

Physical fitness is a fundamental tool for an effective soldier to maintain vigor, alertness, and stamina in operations, and in the performance of all assigned duties in tackling insurgency and insecurity across the nation. Through a review of past studies, this paper highlights the importance of physical fitness of soldiers for combat missions, and its efficacy in ensuring their combat readiness. It also highlights the role of commanders in ensuring that soldiers adhere to standardized physical training fitness programs. This paper concludes by recommending the importance of commanders, physical instructors, tactical unit leaders, coaches, and trainers in soldiers attaining the required physical professional standards in discharging their duties during missions and combat.

Military application study of BCI technology using brain waves in Republic of Korea Army: Focusing on personal firearms

April 2022

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32 Reads

The importance of reserve forces is increasing owing to changes in the security environment, such as the promotion of Defense Reform 2.0 and a sharp decrease in military service resources. Under these changes, we focus on combining EEG (ElectroEncephaloGraphy) with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) for improving combat power and contributing to the future development of defense science and technology in 2050. In the study of EEG measurement technology, the alpha wave of calmness and beta wave representing the improvement of the concentration on individualized shooting skills, were measured with high accuracy in the theta wave-related research, and the value of their use was recognized. Using in the combat situations of personal firearms shooting, it can be applied in a small budget and a short period of time. Through our findings, when shooting the K-1 and K-2 rifles (the basic personal weapons in Korean military), it can contribute to improving the accuracy of existing individual’s shooting by increasing both concentration and calmness between breathing and firing control. Hence, our study show in the future warfare, the new direction of current defense science and technology and new concept of personal weapon usages in artificial intelligence based on hyper-intelligence, hyper-connectivity, and human-unmanned combat systems.

A study on the improvement of the future branch system: Focusing on army weapon systems and combat branches

December 2021

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12 Reads

This study aims to suggest an improvement plan for the army branch system considering the development trend of weapon systems through a case analysis of the vision and major weapon systems for each army branch system in R.O.K army. In the future, with the development of science and technology, hyper-connected networks based on artificial satellites would be built, and mosaic warfare, which integrates multiple domains simultaneously, and weapon systems capable of performing all-weather multifunctional battles across land, sea, and air would emerge. As a result, the common areas of the Army, Navy, and Air Force would be expanded, and the division of each army or branch itself would become ambiguous. Hence, it will be inevitable to move away from the branch operation concepts that have been operational until now to seek the concept of jointness or integration. To study this phenomenon, based on the Korean Army Vision 2050 published by the Army, the transition process of the current Army branch system and the cases of vision and major weapon systems for each branch were analyzed. The results of the analysis confirmed that although new advanced complex weapon systems are being developed for each branch, relatively little change has been made to the system. In particular, with the advent of hybrid drones and intelligent autonomous combat robots that can simultaneously perform ‘Surveillance, Reconnaissance - Decision – Strike’, it is expected that the area of expansion and mutual redundancy of combat functions will be further deepened. Therefore, in connection with the development of the weapon system, we will seek a solution to improve the Army branch system in the future and clarify the implications for the Navy and Air Force in the future.

Development of a teaching competency diagnostic tool for army military school instructors

December 2022

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23 Reads

The purpose of this study was to develop a teaching competency diagnosis tool for instructors working in army military schools to improve the quality of education and cultivate the competitiveness of the organization. To this end, previous research data related to the development of teaching competency diagnosis tools were collected and analyzed. Subsequently, focus group interviews and behavioral case interviews with excellent instructors at the Army Military School were conducted, and Delphi surveys were conducted with educational experts to organize teaching competency components and diagnostic tools temporarily. Next, to verify the validity of questionnaire items, a preliminary survey and a main survey were conducted with questionnaires administered to excellent instructors and ordinary instructors to confirm the validity and reliability of the teaching competency diagnosis tool. As a result of the study, four competencies (basic, class, organizational, and digital), 10 major competencies (attitude and attitude as educators, relationship formation, etc.), 25 sub-competencies (responsibility as instructors, initiative, etc.), and 65 behavioral indicators were selected. The diagnostic tools derived through this study are the competencies that instructors must have to perform their duties successfully in military schools. Therefore, our results not only provide information necessary for establishing instructor competency development policies but also contribute greatly to developing programs to strengthen teaching competency in military schools.

lists the verification results.
Development of standard loss analysis model using big data: Focusing on Republic of Korea army

August 2022

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12 Reads

The Republic of Korea Army conducts simulations during peacetime using ground operation resource requirements analysis model (GORRAM) to determine potential losses when at war based on the latest operation plan. Although war-game simulation can yield reliable results, it takes considerable amount of time and effort to build a database and generate scenarios. Therefore, a study is required to supplement the detailed war-game simulation method to quickly determine expected losses. Using data built-in GORRAM, we tested the significance of four factors using beta regression analysis. While multiple regression is most commonly used to model the causality, beta regression is a powerful method for modeling response variables in the (0,1) range, such as the loss ratio. We verified that three factors, namely ‘topography’, ‘operational posture’, and ‘friend/foe power ratio’ were related to loss. This study proposes a new method for calculating the expected loss in real-time, overcoming a limitation of existing war-game simulation methods.

Improvement of combat readiness for Republic of Korea Army

December 2022

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25 Reads

The Russian invasion of Ukraine highlights the importance of strengthening combat readiness in the military. The purpose of this study was to devise a policy implementation that can ensure the appropriateness of the evaluation using the improvement elements of the current combat readiness evaluation in the Korean Army. To do so, the acts and regulations of combat readiness assessment and application cases in field units were analyzed, and the necessary improvements of elements were derived by collecting expert opinions using a Delphi survey. The analysis revealed that the weights for each evaluation element through the analytic hierarchy process survey were presented to assess the quantitative elements (troops, equipment, supplies, and competency) at the C-level, and the use of a judgment process was suggested to assist the commander in reasonably determining the level of qualitative evaluation factors when evaluating the grade (final decision of the level of combat readiness of the unit) at the mission assessment (MA-level). The results of this study can be applied to the assessment of combat readiness level to identify the poor elements of the field units objectively and report them accurately to the upper unit. Future, research must study topics related to the elaboration of assessment elements that can ensure the accuracy and reliability of the evaluation of combat readiness in terms of organizational competency development.

A literature review of recent topics in Korean Military Art and Science

December 2020

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2 Reads

The Republic of Korea, which is the only divided country in the world, is an extremely prominent country facing an existential enemy named “North Korea”. In Korea, the military science field is gaining interest and importance. However, as it is a specialized field, research is scarce. In this study, through text mining, we attempted to analyze 69 regular papers’ abstracts in the military science and domestic social science fields. These abstracts were present in the Korea Citation Index (KCI), which publishes the latest research trends and, in this case, trends in military studies. As a result, research is being conducted on various subjects. In particular, 63% (44) of these were found to be related to the construction of military power such as security cooperation, external situations, research and development, and defense reform. This study applied an unstructured data analysis method called text mining and attempted to analyze the subject of several papers from a more scientific perspective. Hence, it can be considered a study of great significance as it was able to provide an overall understanding of general research trends and trends in recent military studies.

Development and application of artificial intelligence for military training modeling and simulation in Republic of Korea

August 2021

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4 Reads

In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, efforts are being made throughout society to achieve innovation by utilizing artificial intelligence (AI). Developed countries are trying to maximize their combat capabilities using AI in defense areas. AI research on the defense of the Republic of Korea is focused on field-related applications, such as drones and robots; however, the research on the application of AI to training fields is relatively insufficient. In this paper, this study briefly summarizes the concept of AI and examines the use of AI in modeling and simulation (M&S) training, one of the defense M&S fields. Furthermore, the present study evaluates the areas where development is possible using current technology: decision support systems, intelligent tutoring systems, and automatic simulation of virtual entities.

A historical evaluation of the Battle of Pyongyang in the Korean War through a tactical fault analysis

April 2021

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2 Reads

The purpose of this study is to consider the ‘Battle of Pyongyang’ of the I Corps during the Korean War from the historical point of view. This study argues that there are some limit to the U.N. military’s ‘Battle of Pyongyang’ that it failed to maximize the benefits of recapturing Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea. And this can be evidenced by some notable tactical faults that the 1 Corps has caused in ‘Battle of Pyongyang’. First, the I Corps (America’s First Corps) excessively delayed its time during the ‘Battle of Pyongyang’. Second, the 24th U.S. Infantry Division was excluded from the ‘Battle of Pyongyang’ and failed to concentrate its combat capabilities. Third, I Corps did not besiege the North Korean army, and North Korean could escape from Pyongyang. The I Corps was fiercely competitive to arrive in Pyongyang first, and failed to make efforts to contribute to higher-level operations. In conclusion, this study finds some lesson from the I Corps’s tactical faults behind the glory of ‘Battle of Pyongyang’.

The effect of the quality of the military’s feeding system on meal service satisfaction and intangible combat power: Focusing on soldiers' behavioral intangible combat power

December 2020

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8 Reads

This study analyzed the impact of the quality of the military's feeding system on meal service satisfaction and intangible combat power. This research will provide policy implications for the efficient operation of the military’s meal policy and budget. This study identified the four factors (food quality, hygiene, environment, and operation) related to service quality in the military's feeding system. Soldiers' satisfaction with the quality of meal service was 3.21 regarding quality, 3.54 regarding hygiene, 3.35 regarding environment and 3.70 regarding operation of meal service. Satisfaction was found to be the lowest. The correlation between the quality of meal service, quality of meals and the satisfaction with meal service was .820 for quality, .758 for hygiene, .758 for environment, and .724 for meal service. It has been found that hygiene, environment, and operation-related aspects are important factors for the improvement of meal satisfaction in addition to food quality. The correlation index between the quality of meal service and intangible combat power was found to be .233 in quality, .281 in hygiene, .240 in environment, and .308 in operation of meal service. Although the correlation index between the quality of meal service and intangible combat power was moderate, it had significant effects. Therefore, the future quality control of the group meal service needs to be managed with a balanced sense of hygiene, environment, and operation as well as quality of meals. To improve behavioral intangible combat power, it is necessary to note that the correlation index in terms of operation, hygiene, and environment is higher than the quality of meals.

Comparison of Security Policies between the Trump and Biden Governments toward China

December 2022

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76 Reads

The Trump administration, following the Obama administration, criticized previous administrations' security policies toward China, heralding the emergence of a groundbreaking strategy. Biden also criticized the Trump administration's security policy toward China from the time of his presidential nomination, implying the emergence of various containment policies. In this study, the Trump and Biden administration's China security policies were examined and compared with an emphasis on the integrated deterrence declared by the Biden government. The Trump and Biden administrations simultaneously pointed to China as a country that would undermine US interests. Accordingly, the two governments pursued a containment policy against China to maintain a US-centered international order. The Trump administration pursued a reckless alliance strategy based on the US-first principle as its integration policy and maintained multilateral security cooperation centered on the Indo-Pacific strategy as its deterrence policy. The Biden government maintained an ideological alliance strategy based on alliance priority as an integration policy and sought multilateral security cooperation by adding the NATO alliance to the Indo-Pacific strategy as a deterrence policy. The US anti-China policy can be divided into integration and suppression, and the detailed strategies applied at this time covered nonmilitary and military areas. Therefore, this study investigated the possibility of applying the entire military or nonmilitary domain to the scope of the analysis of the theory of integration and deterrence within the framework of international relations.

Analysis of issues of interest in unification economic cooperation by visualizing big data on social networks

December 2021

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4 Reads

This study aims to intuitively identify trends in public interest by performing visualization analysis on unification economic cooperation using social network user opinion big data. For the “Unification Economic Cooperation” big data, the related big data were extracted using the Textom analysis tool, and text mining was performed. The results were expressed as a visualization figure. The results showed that, first, social network users were interested in North Korea's regional agricultural planning and education by the US and the government. Additionally, North Korea's rural villages existed in connection with pastoral and missionary words. An interest in how North and South Korea cooperate in investment and development in rural areas was identified. Second, there was an issue of interest in housing exchange and cooperation in North Korean villages by the community of club members as words such as club members → housing, common → housing, village → community exchange → cooperation were connected. Third, users were interested in culture and art. It would be useful to find and implement economic cooperation, a link between culture and art connected with North Korea's economic cooperation. Fourth, words such as technology, research, development, and dissemination were drawn as issues of interest. From the perspective of an integrated process, it is of interest to the general public to identify ways to implement it so that it can be pursued with economic benefits for both South and North Korea. Fifth, social network users were interested in the content of dot-com sites. The importance of the promotion of unification economic cooperation through these dot-com sites was confirmed.

Initial operational capability of future weapon systems and field test method using digital twin

December 2022

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67 Reads

The application of artificial-intelligence technology to weapon systems, is difficult to use in military applications for such reasons as killing or wounding problems, ethical problems, and field environment considerations; therefore, more-sophisticated techniques and development are required for testing and evaluation. There is an increasing demand for advanced weapon systems that incorporate new technologies, such as artificial intelligence, and for electrification, and a new paradigm that can confirm and verify the performance required for field operations is required. Therefore, through case studies on digital twins, a plan for field testing and initial operational capability in future weapon systems was developed. Five development directions were identified, including policies and systems, organization, establishment of infrastructure, and utilization plans, to establish a field test and initial operational capability. In addition, studies on economic ripple effects and cost-effectiveness were conducted based on application cases of digital twins in the private sector. An optimal method for users to safely verify performance by utilizing the digital twin method to overcome the difficulties of testing and evaluating weapon systems with new technologies from the time when the weapon system requirements are determined to mass production is proposed.

A Study on the Combat Effect and Components of Intangible Combat Force: Focusing on Korea Combat Training Center (KCTC) combat training and combat simulation data analysis

August 2022

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16 Reads

The purpose of this study is to numerically derive the combat effect of intangible combat power on the battlefield and to confirm the importance of the components of intangible combat power on the derived combat effect. Nearly half of defense spending is used every year to improve defense capabilities for the construction of tangible combat forces, but the expenditure for the construction of intangible forces is insignificant. The reason why it is passive in building intangible combat power is that tangible combat power can be identified as a numerical value, but the increase or decrease in intangible combat power cannot be identified. This imbalance in the construction of tangible and intangible combat forces is likely to halve the integrated exercise of combat power in an actual battlefield. Therefore, for the construction of balanced combat power, research is urgently required to confirm the importance of quantifying and deriving combat effects on how intangible combat power is exerted in combat. In this study, the combat effect of intangible combat power was analyzed in terms of space, time, and combat power, and the difference in the combat results of computer simulation (Vision 21) under the same conditions as those for KCTC combat training was assumed and compared. The analysis results confirmed that the combat effect of the intangible combat force exerted at the KCTC combat site was 28.7%, which did not exert a combat effect of 71.3%. The importance of the components of the intangible combat force that affect the combat effect of the intangible combat force derived in this way was analyzed using a statistical analysis program applying linear regression analysis. The analysis results confirmed the requirements and priorities of future education and training through complementary needs and rankings according to the importance of the components.

A Study on the Combat Effect and Components of Intangible Combat Force: Focusing on Korea Combat Training Center (KCTC) combat training and combat simulation data analysis

August 2022

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25 Reads

The purpose of this study is to numerically derive the combat effect of intangible combat power on the battlefield and to confirm the importance of the components of intangible combat power on the derived combat effect. Nearly half of defense spending is used every year to improve defense capabilities for the construction of tangible combat forces, but the expenditure for the construction of intangible forces is insignificant. The reason why it is passive in building intangible combat power is that tangible combat power can be identified as a numerical value, but the increase or decrease in intangible combat power cannot be identified. This imbalance in the construction of tangible and intangible combat forces is likely to halve the integrated exercise of combat power in an actual battlefield. Therefore, for the construction of balanced combat power, research is urgently required to confirm the importance of quantifying and deriving combat effects on how intangible combat power is exerted in combat. In this study, the combat effect of intangible combat power was analyzed in terms of space, time, and combat power, and the difference in the combat results of computer simulation (Vision 21) under the same conditions as those for KCTC combat training was assumed and compared. The analysis results confirmed that the combat effect of the intangible combat force exerted at the KCTC combat site was 28.7%, which did not exert a combat effect of 71.3%. The importance of the components of the intangible combat force that affect the combat effect of the intangible combat force derived in this way was analyzed using a statistical analysis program applying linear regression analysis. The analysis results confirmed the requirements and priorities of future education and training through complementary needs and rankings according to the importance of the components.

Differential effect of work-centrality: respective resource and demand from work and family domain

December 2021

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18 Reads

This study examines the nature of work centrality by targeting married office workers. The results show that separated influences depend on which sphere (work/family) is perceived as more important. More specifically, work–family conflict, which is experienced through multitasking, influences work satisfaction and family satisfaction, and work centrality has different functions in each domain. Through hierarchical regression, we found that, in the work domain, work centrality has a buffering effect on the relationship between WIF and work satisfaction, although it does not enhance the relationship between social support and work satisfaction. In contrast, in the family domain, the mediation effect of WIF between work centrality, which is the preceding variable, and family satisfaction is significant. Spousal support also has a mediating effect on the relationship between work centrality and family satisfaction. The implications and limitations of this study are also discussed.

Optimized operation of regional reserve forces in a changing future security environment

December 2021

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7 Reads

The Republic of Korea Reserve Forces (ROKRF), established in 1968, continue to function through continuous changes such as improving laws and systems and optimizing organizations while complying with social and policy changes. However, the reduction of standing forces, changes in the operating environment, and the reduction of reserve forces required to carry out operations require the re-establishment of the concept of operation of regional reserve forces. In this study, we aimed to diagnose the phenomenon of regional reserve groups and derive an optimized operation plan for regional reserve groups in consideration of changes in the future security environment, operation support system, and law and order system. The operating system presented the mission of establishing local reserve forces suitable for the operating environment, organization, and organization maintenance for the future as well as maintenance and development of combat power through education and training. Finally, in the law and order system section, a plan to revise laws was proposed in consideration of the task of operating and constructing regional reserve forces and re-establishing them.

The effect of military social responsibility perception on soldier’s organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)

December 2020

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28 Reads

This research aims to study the social role of the military, which is expected to gain importance when the security environment of the Korean Peninsula changes in the future. Expanding the research on corporate social responsibility (CSR), this study redefines the concept of military social responsibility (MSR) and identifies the impact of MSR perception on soldiers’ organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study aims to examine the effects of MSR on OCB and the mediating effect of reputation. Thus, the survey was conducted by visiting two army troops in the metropolitan area and three army troops in the Gangwon-do area. As a result, MSR perception by military service members had a significant positive (+) effect on OCB. In addition, reputation showed a significant partial mediating effect. Further, for individual MSRs, legal and ethical MSR and philanthropic MSR had a significant positive (+) effect on OCB, and reputation was fully mediated in that process. Finally, based on the results, the implications of the study and future research directions were discussed.

The enhancement of civilian military employees system for improving the reserve forces management efficiency in Korean military

April 2022

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12 Reads

The importance of reserve forces is increasing owing to changes in the security environment, such as the promotion of Defense Reform 2.0 and a sharp decrease in military service resources, however, questions are raised as to whether the current system of reserve forces management civilian military employees has appropriate efficiency. As a result of the study, a plan to improve its efficiency was suggested that it is necessary to adjust reserve forces management civilian military employees in a series of multilevel class and to redesign the personnel management system. The measures proposed in the study are required to be promoted for the future trend of development of unit structure and manpower structure of reserve forces units, equity with general civilian military employees. In addition, it should be promoted by comprehensively considering the possibility of meeting the budget. In the follow-up study, if future research is conducted on the role of policy departments to optimize personnel management of reserve forces management civilian military employees and ways to form public consensus essential for system improvement, a comprehensive framework will be established.

The first step toward the success of the Korean risk management framework (KRMF): System Classification Orientation Study

August 2022

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5 Reads

The risk management framework (RMF) applied by the United States combines the concepts of information security and risk management in the product development process. This includes the systematic structure of equipment, parts, other construction systems, facilities, and personnel, as well as the related security of cyberspace. This concept has been a concept that has been systematically applied for the completion of information security from the requirement planning stage to the destruction of the weapon system. The RMF, which should be reflected in the project of power enhancement to ensure the perfect performance of the weapons system that our military will use in the future, is unfamiliar to Republic of Korea Army (ROK). RMF is a step-level field that has not yet been based on detailed research and measures in any ROK military, such as the Army, Navy, and Air Force. However, the USFK, which is stationed in the Republic of Korea during peacetime, and the United States’ wartime reinforcement forces [Flexible Deterrence Option (FDO), Force Module Package (FMP), Time Phased Forces Deployment Data (TPFDD)], which are deployed at the request of the CFC Commander in the event of a crisis situation on the Korean peninsula and under the direction of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, are thoroughly prepared for cyber threats by applying the RMF procedure. Therefore, the military should also create and apply the corresponding procedures during combined and joint operations as soon as possible. This study aims to provide a direction for the development of a categorization system, which is the most basic and important step 1 system in the RMF process, and I hope that it will help in the implementation of the Korean Risk Management Framework (KRMF) that should be applied in the future.

The Study on the Recognition of Important Degree by Intangible Combat Power Components
The purpose of this study is to examine the recognition of the important degree of intangible combat power components. Combat power is expressed as the sum of tangible power and intangible power. The Korean Army has long gone through the mistake of estimating the level of combat power by evaluating only the tangible combat power. We admit that intangible combat power cannot be expressed in measurable numbers. Nevertheless, there is a need to properly understand and evaluate the important degree of intangible combat power components. And operating the unit according to the evaluation result is the key to rational command. Therefore, it is very meaningful to study the recognition of the important degree of intangible combat power components. In this study, the recognition of the important degree of intangible combat power components recognized by the military expert group (army general promoted officers) was analyzed by applying the AHP technique. Then, the results of KCTC, which was evaluated for training in the most war-like environmental conditions, were analyzed to determine how the components of intangible combat power influenced the training results. And then we looked the differences between the two analyzes and found some reasons for the differences. Lastly the alternatives to solve the discrepancies and further research tasks were presented.

Conceptual design and operation testing of military movable noiseless power supplier (MNPS)

December 2021

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5 Reads

This study verifies the concept and test of the MNPS owing to the increase in advanced weapon systems used in the Korean defense field. MNPS used solar power to eliminate noise, a risk factor of the existing power supply systems, and it was designed in a size that can be mounted on a small tactical vehicle in various battlefield situations. When sunlight is used as a power supplier, in case there is no light, its use is limited; therefore, it can be used after charging through an energy storage device. In addition, it was designed considering scalability to increase the amount of electricity generated through the solar panel or increase the storage capacity. Finally, the power characteristics were analyzed through a test to determine if the output was constant, and through this, it was possible to confirm its feasibility of use for military purposes.

A study on the key factors of suitability for performance-based logistics using a multi-criteria decision-making method

December 2020

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19 Reads

In response to worldwide changes in logistics, the Korean Ministry of Defense has introduced performance-based logistics (PBL) to improve cost-effectiveness and availability in sustaining their weapon system. Thus, the procurement of reduced parts and the maintenance period improve the availability of equipment, and the reduction of the inventory level lowers overall logistics costs. Based on these achievements, the Ministry of National Defense is pursuing a policy to expand the PBL project. However, the criteria for selecting equipment subject to the application are ambiguous. Therefore, it is difficult to expand to all areas. Consequently, this paper aims to present the criteria for selecting future PBL projects by providing objective judgment factors and quantifying the suitable equipment for the application of PBL. For this, a delphi-analytic approach was used to derive the key factors for performance-based logistics experts, and the survey was carried out twice. A total of eight key factors were derived from the survey analysis. Subsequently, a third survey was conducted to determine the level of assessment for each key factor and to prioritize each card according to this conjoint method to determine the utility of each factor according to its level. Through this, a performance-based suitability model that combines the weighting of key factors with the level of each factor was presented. This study is meaningful in that it selected key factors for determining the suitability of performance-based military applications based on objective data. Further, their reference values can be comprehensively determined by calculating the utility of each factor level.

Analysis of the impact of military organization's safety culture on safety behavior: Focusing on the mediating effect of safety leadership

August 2020

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18 Reads

The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of safety culture in the military organization on safety behavior and to verify the mediating effect of safety leadership in this process. The research subjects collected data by classifying the military class and the military class, and the analysis resulted by applying the cross-over analysis model. As a measuring tool, a safety climate scale was used to measure safety culture, and a scale divided into safety knowledge and safety communication was used to measure safety leadership. As a result of analysis, there was no difference in the safety culture due to the difference between the military rank and military occupational specialty in the military organization. In terms of military rank, most of the commanders showed higher level of safety leadership than soldiers, and there was no difference on safety culture. However, the military occupational specialty was functioning as a variable to control the influence of the military rank on safety climate and safety communication. As a result, the influence of safety culture on safety behavior was significant, and it was verified that safety knowledge and safety communication function as mediaters, and the dual perfect mediation model was verified. Based on these results, a strategic education program or content development point suitable for redinforcing the safety culture of military organizations was presented.

Figure 1은 본 연구의 제안 방식과 기존 시스템을 비교한 그림으로 OpenPose와 후방에 DNN, CNN, LSTM 등을 추가하며, 시스템에 target 추적 알고리즘을 추가로 구현하여 시스템의 다기능 성을 확보하고자 한다. 특히, 추적 알고리즘은 시스템의 연산량을 줄이고자 target의 이동을 프레임 별 target 이미지의 변화가 아닌 OpenPose에서 나오는 결과를 활용하여 계산하는 접근을 적용 한다.
Application of OpenPose and deep learning for intelligent surveillance reconnaissance system

December 2020

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30 Reads

In this study, defense surveillance reconnaissance systems were implemented through deep learning networks such as OpenPose and deep neural networks (DNN), convolutional neural networks (CNN), and long short-term memory (LSTM). This study proposes a target recognition method which differs from the existing surveillance reconnaissance systems. This method consists in distinguishing between ordinary people and targets by classifying motions in the images being filmed. Thus, the skeleton data of the target in the image are extracted using OpenPose. Then, keypoints included in the extracted skeleton data are entered into DNN, CNN, and LSTM to classify the motion. The classified motions are selected as motions learned in the military, such as overall security. When the system classifies motions and recognizes targets, it identifies them on the map and tracks them. The tracking algorithm calculates the movement direction of the target by calculating the change in the values of keypoints extracted through OpenPose by frames. Finally, it uses the depth information obtained from the camera to display targets on the map based on the camera location. All these computations are based on the use of the skeleton data rather than the entire image, thus reducing the overall computation.

Introduction to EU Defence Directive

December 2019

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11 Reads

This study aims at brief introduction of EU Defence Directive which was declared in 2009. To this end, it is necessary to understand both security circumstances of Europe and the progress of the single market firstly. In this context, the present research shows developing process of military and security coalition of European countries in chronicle order with the background of political and economic integration. Secondly, given that this Directive plays a role under the framework of TFEU and the EU single market, the study explores areas ruled by this Directive and ones that ruled outside the Directive by EDA, OCCAR, LoI separately. Thirdly, this article reviews legal structure of the Directive and its main features such as flexibility, security of supply and security of information.

Analysis of Text Mining Keyword Issues for Defense Drone on Social Network

August 2022

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13 Reads

Research on weapon systems has been conducted, and defense drones have been developed. However, few analyses that identify the needs of the general public have been conducted. The purpose of this study is to analyze the issues of interest in social networks regarding defense drones and extract keywords for activation. In this study, big data analysis tools such as Textom, Ucinet6, and NetDraw were used. The results of the keyword frequency analysis, centrality analysis, and CONCOR analysis showed that public information regarding social networks expressed keywords in defense drones, such as Defense Daily, News, Enterprise, Defense Science Research Institute, University, Hydrogen Battery, Army, Air Force, Urban Transportation, Fire, Regional, Enterprise, and Research. It is necessary to revitalize media publicity in developing cooperative technologies by companies, universities, the National Defense Research Institute, urban transportation, and firefighting, using army and air force drones, and developing future hydrogen batteries. In addition, issues of interest were observed for contents, such as applications in the United States, Israel, North Korea, Iran, and Afghanistan, and fostering university education. There is a need to present a case for the actual military use of defense drones and train the department of defense drones at universities.

Instrument development for measuring determinants in defense R&D policy

December 2022

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19 Reads

The Korean military's defense research and development (R&D) policy was often shortsighted because of environmental changes, such as the Korea–U.S. alliance, security policies under the regime, and limited budgets. In addition, there was a lack of prior research focusing on identifying the determinants of defense R&D policy, making it difficult for stakeholders in defense R&D policies to determine the appropriateness or validity of decision making. To this end, the purpose of the present study was to suggest a basic reference for defense R&D decision making through the conceptualization of determinants in defense R&D policy and development of measurement items. For this, we developed operational definitions of influencing factors and preliminary items related to defense R&D policy decisions, considering the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. To test reliability and validity, we performed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses based on discussions with experts. The results show a six-factor structure (security policy, defense posture, technological ambition, dominant and shifting paradigm, science and technology, industry knowledge base, and resources) and 24 items. It is concluded that the use of questionnaire results might better reflect multiple aspects of decision making in defense R&D policy. Future studies need to elaborate on the measurement indicators for defense R&D policy determinants and theorize on policy directions according to changes in future defense and private technology development.

A study on the development and implications of low-yield nuclear weapons, focusing on deterrence theory

December 2021

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20 Reads

This study aims to examine the development status and technical characteristics of low-yield nuclear weapons initiated by the Trump administration, predict the development trend in the Biden administration, analyze strategic implications that have affected the R.O.K.-U.S. Tailored Deterrence Strategy, and seek future countermeasures. Regarding deterrence theory, low-power nuclear weapons are evaluated as a means of simultaneously expanding deterrence by denial and by retaliation. Additionally, low-yield nuclear weapons can be evaluated as having the capability, communication of nuclear retaliation wills and possibilities, and credibility for these wills and capabilities, which are 3C elements of deterrence in that they are “possible-use nuclear weapons.” Hence, they can be evaluated as highly-applicable deterrence means. As North Korea's nuclear and missile capabilities have advanced and the U.S. is developing and deploying low-yield nuclear weapons, this article intends to make several suggestions regarding deterrence and response. First, because North Korea's policy to strengthen its tactical nuclear capabilities in 2021 is inevitably closely related to the technical characteristics of the development of low-yield nuclear weapons, it should be evaluated and prepared in connection with this. Second, it is necessary to understand the Biden administration's nuclear strategy regarding the extended deterrence strategy of the U.S. and discuss it closely based on the 5th NPR unveiled in early 2022. Third, to ensure the credibility of the R.O.K.-U.S. tailored deterrence strategy, “multilateral deterrence measures” must be considered at the regional level, including low-yield nuclear weapons.

Diagnosis of the problems in Korean military force development systems

August 2021

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7 Reads

The Republic of Korea (ROK) military has pursued development with a focus on the defense force development system since the Yulgok project, which began in the 1970s for the purpose of self-defense. Currently, the ROK defense force development system seems to be very methodical, and it determines requirements by using the joint combat development system, reflects the budget in the defense planning and management system, and manages the acquisition project in the defense acquisition system; however; it has many problems. These problems include fierce competition among the services, limited verification, ambiguous standards and references for requirements, complicated procedures and regulations, and failure to reflect the rapid changes in the security environment and science and technology in military force development. The most important issue is that the Joint Chiefs of Staff should lead the development of the forces based on the concept of joint operations; however, they are focused on only the current operation and neglect their main goals as the top military organization, such as mid- to long-term force development and military strategy. The Joint Chiefs of Staff should revise the organization, mission performance system, and regulations to properly perform the core functions of the defense organization that establishes long-term response strategies and builds response capabilities according to the changes in the security and strategic environment.

The effectiveness of military service experience on job experience

December 2020

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21 Reads

This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the military service experience on the job experience. Although people have passionately focused on discussions on the transition of the conscription system, relatively few studies have been conducted on the relationship between the military service experience and the individual job experience. In addition, prior studies on the relationship between the military service experience and the job experience have produced inconsistent results, and have narrowly focused on quantitative labor market variables such as pay and employment status. To fill these research gaps, we conducted this study by simultaneously using the following quantitative and qualitative outcome variables: pay, employment status, job satisfaction, and perceived job-required capacities. In addition, we explained the study results using distinct halo and sigma effects from antecedent studies that used human capital theory and the screening effect for applying national differences between the USA and South Korea.

Face-ism and military leadership

December 2020

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17 Reads

Deriving inferences from facial appearance is called face-ism. In particular, people make rapid and accurate inferences about the targets' character based on their appearance. Over the last 15 years, the effects of a leader's facial appearance have been vigorously studied in the domain of psychology and leadership research worldwide. Previous studies suggest that facial appearance significantly predicts leader selection, thus leading more competent, dominant, trustworthy, and attractive individuals to be selected as leaders. Further, they indicate that this relationship depends on the circumstances (i.e., wartime and time of peace). The current study reviewed recent research on face-ism and leadership, while discussing the factors of the face effects, the main method, findings, limitations, and future directions of the research. Finally, the authors discussed the implications of face-ism in the field of military leadership.

North Korea’s nuclear use scenario: Focusing on models for the probability of nuclear war and the impact-uncertainty grid

August 2022

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11 Reads

This paper analyzes the most challenging nuclear use scenario while leaving all possibilities open to using nuclear weapons and verifying North Korea’s possibility of using nuclear weapons. Until now, research on North Korea’s nuclear use scenario has been academically unsystematic, has lacked empirical examples, included cynical attitudes toward nuclear weapons, and has been based on analytical techniques containing limitations. Accordingly, this paper intends to suggest strategic implications for the existing North Korean nuclear threat by presenting the most challenging nuclear use scenario, which has not been covered in previous studies, using the “Nuclear War Potential Model” and “Impact-Uncertainty Grid.”

Weapon System Software Quality Improvement using Software Reliability Prediction Model

December 2018

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3 Reads

Most software flaws that occur during the operational phase are often not identified during the development phase. Therefore, to ensure reliability of software during the development phase is very important. This study proposes a predictive model to improve the reliability of the weapon system software during the development phase. Using the RADC model proposed in this study, we calculate the predicted reliability of the software development phase for the software project developed by M company. Experiments comparing before and after model application indicated a significant decrease in the predictive defect density (PDD) and the predictive defect count (PDC). The results of the experiment showed that we could reduce the burden on the operational phase by minimizing the failure in the software development phase.

A study on the application of RMF for weapon systems in Korea: weapons and security system integration

December 2021

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15 Reads

With the advent of the Fourth Revolution, military weapon systems are also being advanced. In particular, as the proportion of software embedded in these weapon systems increases, the cyber vulnerabilities of advanced weapon systems also gradually increase. If cutting-edge weapons stop abruptly or malfunction owing to software defects or cyberattacks, they will adversely affect defense security as well as combat power and economic losses. The U.S. DoD is implementing the risk management framework (RMF) to cope with cyber vulnerabilities and threats. RMF is a risk management (RM)-based framework that classifies the cyber vulnerabilities of weapon systems based on data and evaluates them according to confidentiality, integrity, and availability. The application of RMF to the Korean military's weapon-system acquisition procedure is still in its infancy. In this study, we studied the application of the RMF to weapon acquisition processors in the U.S. DoD and suggested that measures of availability, reliability, and safety that can affect weapon performance should be managed with security, and that security systems should be applied to reliability, availability, and maintenance (RAM).

작전운용성능(ROC) 결정 영향요인에 관한 연구

August 2019

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69 Reads

The performance of weapon systems is the important factor in deciding the outcome of war and expressed in ROC(Required Operational Capability). ROC is determined at the phase of requirement decision and has a decisive effect on the total life cycle of weapon systems including acquisition and its disposal phase. Improper ROC is very likely to cause the increase of acquisition & operating cost, total life cycle cost, and the delay of deployment, influencing factors on determination of ROC must be thoroughly studied. However, domestic academic research on influencing factors are rarely conducted, and most of the research is part of the research on requirement planning and acquisition, the research results provide only general suggestion. Thereby, this research intended to provide systematic and empirical analysis on what factors influence on determination of ROC and what their relative importance weights. To achieve above mentioned research purpose, first we reviewed relevant institutionalized systems in home and ROC modification status along with their reasons in home. Then, we verified and finalized influencing factors on ROC derived from preliminary research through Delphi Technique and Factor Analysis, and analyzed relative priorities through pair comparison by AHP method. From 2006 to 2017, on average 15 cases of modifying ROC occurred annually and needs of such modification appear to grow. Modification of operational concept of weapon systems comprises 31% of the reasons to modify of ROC, followed by correction of improper ROC is 17%, correction of excessive ROC is 14%, collateral changes by change of interoperable weapon systems' ROC is 14%, respectively. As for relative importance weight of finalized influencing factors, 'Weapon systems operational concept and mounting system', 'Weapon systems major performance elements' are found to be high. In lower level of 18 factors, the order of importance weight is as follows 'Weapon systems operational concept', 'Survivability', 'Enemy weapon systems performance' , 'Mounting system performance' and 'Existing similar weapon systems performance' and 'Interoperability'. The significance of this research would be extensive investigation on entire relevant minutes of meeting of ROC modification, chronological analysis of reason of such modification along with its status, and systematic analysis and relative importance weights of influencing factors on ROC.