Journal of Advances in Military Studies

Published by Institute of Defense Acquisition Program
Online ISSN: 2635-5531
Publications
Article
This study presents the direction of modeling and simulation (M&S) development, which is essential for high-tech armed forces, focusing on the Vision 2030 in Republic of Korea Army. In particular, in preparation for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the army is doing its best to transform itself with cutting-edge science and technology. It is preparing for future warfare by promoting artificial intelligence (AI), a dronebot combat system, the warrior platform, and Army-Tiger 4.0 to increase the mobility, intelligence, and networking of infantry units. M&S is vital for accomplishing this advanced science and technology. In other words, it is an essential element of effective defense management, such as improving defense capabilities, enhancing military power, strengthening combat readiness posture, and training for future science. In particular, M&S is the best solution to overcome the difficult conditions of a limited budget and lack of resources by using more creative thinking methods along with cutting-edge technologies, such as AI, big data, virtual reality, and the Internet of things (IoT). The Republic of Korea Army recognizes its importance and intends to introduce and implement the 21-35 Army M&S development direction to present the vision and direction of the Army M&S for advanced science and technology force and to develop it continuously.
 
Article
Armed forces across the globe have been continuously modernizing through the deployment of hi-tech computers and nanotechnologies to perfect information acquisition and analysis and data transmission during missions and operations to make them more powerful and enhance their competitive advantage. This study presents an overview of the opportunities provided by twenty-first century military technologies and their advantages, specifically in terms of system integration, communications, and capability to shape modern warfare. The study concludes by recommending the importance of the Ministry of Defense through the provision of adequate funds and budgetary allocations for research, development, and procurement of high-tech equipment like TALOS, FIST, FELIN, IDZ-ZES, RATNIK-3 smart suits for tactical operations to support soldiers for an effective discharge of assigned combat missions during insurgencies and battlefield reconnaissance and domination.
 
Article
While the Ministry of National Defense (MND) is pushing for the defense reform that applied the fourth industrial revolution technology, various countermeasure tools were required, including technological obsolescence in areas where the existing system of planning required long-term acquisition. To this end, we will examine the application of the 'technology-based planning process', which is a technology-driven force planning, in order to anticipate development trends of key core technologies and to meet future military demand capability in a timely manner through appropriate allocation of resource and leading development do. In order to apply the technology-based development process, the level of military capability to be secured in the future and the development of advanced technology should be identified first, and procedures should be prepared to identify the optimal key joint power needs suitable for the balanced development of the three armed forces, and to link them to the deployment in a short period of time. First, it identified ‘8 core technologies for future national defense’ that can lead future national defense for the development of high-tech. The next step was to identify the ‘10 key military capabilities’ such as high-power, ultra-precision, stealth and other ‘10 key military capabilities’ by applying the ‘8 core technologies for future defense’ and to examine the application of future core technologies within the long-term period and the feasibility of implementing them as military capabilities to identify the ‘18 core weapons systems’ that can be realised as weapons systems. The following should be preceded by an institutional framework to enable the application of the ‘technology-based required planning system’ to rapidly apply superior technology elements by replacing the existing ‘concept-based demand planning system’. First, a ‘military pilot use system’ that can prove the military practicality of high-tech should be introduced to ensure the military’s test-bed role for proving the superior technology and performance of products by the private sector. Second, ‘Development of Technology Leading Rapid Acquisition System’ is required so that superior products with proven performance can be directly linked to power generation by applying simplified procedures. Third, the application of ‘small sandbox’ that allows application of technology-based demand planning should be considered for a limited time in order to be applied as soon as possible, considering the difficulty of immediate application under the revision of regulations, etc. Fourth, the government should improve its wireless password policy by specifying the criteria for application of wireless codes to address regulatory problems under military security. What should be done in parallel with institutional supplementation is to expand and strengthen future challenge technology development projects. To this end, an environment that tolerates the failure of challenging R&D projects should be created, and a co-prosperity arena should be created where economic growth and military strength will be strengthened through the creation of an ecosystem in the field of defense, in addition to economic growth in the defense sector.
 
Article
Future battlefield situations in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution are expected to increase the dependence on network systems. In these situations, the impact of the system could lead to a defeat on the battlefield. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to recognize the importance of the resilience of network systems, identify the factors that can increase the resilience of the system, and present improvements. Unlike in previous studies that were focused on technology improvement and development for applying the technology of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in the defense sector in the future, in this study, resilience is considered. Four components of resilience, depending on the specificity of the defense sector, are proposed for the introduction/design phase of the network system, serving as a starting point for implementing a high-quality system by specifically considering problems and improvements.
 
Article
Recently, the abolition of the guardhouse disposition was abolished, In the flow of the times, this study explored the issues and progress of the process of the abolition of the guardhouse disposition. Since the Kabo Reform at the end of the Chosun Dynasty, this system had been operated the disciplinary actions as a means of punishment to maintain discipline establishment in the Korean military. However, controversy has persisted that such a system may violate the constitutional ‘warrant in principle’ and the freedom of the soldier’s ‘right to liberty’. As a result, the legislative bill about the amendments of the Military Personnel Management Act for abolishing the military guardhouse disposition was proposed by the National Assembly. But there were still many controversies, including concerns that it would weaken military discipline in the legislative authorization process. In this sense, this study will delineate the overall progression of the military guardhouse disposition in Korea.
 
Article
This study examines the history of LVCG training, which is attracting attention as the army’s education and training method in the era of the 4th industrial revolution, and the recent trends in advanced countries, and the direction of the army’s LVCG training development. LVCG training is an effective means for soldiers to improve their survival rate and combat skills by experiencing realistic virtual battles iteratively prior to actual deployment, thereby ultimately improving their readiness. The LVCG training system is classified into four categories: live, virtual training, war game training, and game, collectively referred to as LVCG. In the 1980s, advanced countries began to use the LVCG training system in various areas of education and training, and after the 1990s, they promoted a synthetic environment incorporating the LVCG training system. Recently, the synthetic training environment (STE) that integrates LVCG into a three-dimensional virtual environment. This is attracting attention and developed countries are rapidly transitioning to STE. The Army is also promoting education and training innovation based on big data and artificial intelligence by establishing a low-cost, highly efficient LVCG training environment with LVCG integrated around the synthetic training environment platform and securing education and training data using STE.
 
Article
In October 2018, the Korean Army established a Dronebot unit. The future battleground is expected to be led by drones and robots. However, in order to utilize new weapons systems such as drones and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the Korean army, it is necessary to go through complicated and long-term defense acquisition procedures, which make it difficult to adopt and reflect the latest technologies immediately. The purpose of this study is to derive some implications for the efficient development and acquisition of UAVs in Korea through in-depth case analysis on the evolutionary development and acquisition of U.S. military UAVs. Accordingly, this study focused on the tactical/strategic U.S. fixed-wing UAVs which have been developed and mass-produced since 1990s, weighing more than 150kg. They include Shadow-200 as brigade/division-level UAV, Predator and Reaper as midium altitude UAVs, and Global Hawk as high altitude UAV. These must not only satisfy the required operational capability (ROC), but also receive strict airworthiness certification. Among them, Predator and Global Hawk were carried out as New Conceptual Technology Development Demonstration (ACTD), and prototypes under development were put into the Middle East battle. Although there were several accidents, flexible development processes such as system development or initial mass production were applied after ACTD. The initial target performance was set to be low and operability verification was prioritized, and the performance was improved through the evolutionary development of initial low rate mass production, subsequent mass production, and subsequent performance improvement. Despite the initial mass production phase, all required performance was not confirmed, and the required performance was presented in a range of flexibility. On the other hand, there have been large-scale changes such as engine replacement, aircraft change and communication systems upgrade to improve performance. Mission equipment was developed separately and applied to mass production when operability was confirmed. In the process of the development and acquisition of these UAVs, unforeseen accidents, huge losses and increased costs happened, but the U.S. government continued to pursue an evolutionary development policy for military drones. Therefore, in developing and acquiring new high-tech military unmanned aerial vehicles, it is necessary for Korea to develop and acquire them based on operability in the initial development stage, and to enhance its combat capabilities by improving its performance in the stages of initial mass production, follow-up mass production and performance improvement.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors that influence the information security compliance intention of Korean military officers. For this purpose, a research model was constructed focusing on information security compliance attitude and perceived control, which are the main variables of the theory of planned behavior. In addition, security sensitivity, organization trust, information security work impediment, and sanction, were selected as independent variables. The research model was analyzed through a survey targeting Korean army officers, and the results are as follows. First, security sensitivity, organization trust, and sanctions had a significant effect on information security compliance attitude. However, the effect of information security work impediment had not been identified. Second, it was analyzed that security sensitivity and organization trust had a positive effect on perceived information security compliance control, but the effect of information security work impediment and sanction had not been verified. Third, it was confirmed that the information security compliance attitude and perceived control affect the information security compliance intention, which reconfirmed the results of previous studies. This study is meaningful in that it can improve the information security level of the military organization by suggesting a way to manage these factors.
 
Article
China is challenging the hegemony of the United States through its economic power, creating the so-called New Cold War. The consequent conflict between the US and China can cause selective coercion in South Korea. South Korea is highly dependent on the United States militarily and on China economically. In a conflict, if Korea is asked for selective support, there will be a dilemma in policymaking. Accordingly, I studied the geopolitical dilemma in South Korea resulting from the US–China competition and six security issues . I was able to identify six conflict factors related to Korean security: the North Korean nuclear problem, the role of US forces in South Korea, friction due to protectionism, the battle for the semiconductor market, the formation of the Pacific Coast Council, and the discharge of contaminated water from nuclear power plants in Japan. I examined the flexible survival strategies that Korea could choose for each security issue. I expected policy utility by dividing it into military, economic, and diplomatic fields.
 
Article
This study designs a reference model of the Defense REST API server based on the representational state transfer (REST) architecture style to present the most efficient, stable, and sustainable technical criteria for real-time service integration of defense information systems in Korea. The purpose of this component is to provide evidence to be stipulated as part of the Korean Defense Ministry's instructions and regulations, such as the Defense Interoperability Management Directive and the Interoperability Guide, and to support the development of the National Defense Interworking Technology and Interoperability. As the defense information system was subdivided and developed by the army, navy, air force, or business functions, interworking between information systems has become one of the most important factors. However, despite the need for advanced service integration and interworking, various interconnection service modules based on enterprise application integration (EAI), EAI hubs, and spokes were developed at a level that met local requirements (simple data transmission) without specific criteria for each network or information system. As a result, most of the interconnection modules currently in operation suffer from the absence of a technical spectrum, such as not meeting the military's demands for real-time interconnection and service integration, which increases with time. Therefore, this study seeks to identify the above problems by integrating the defense information system into one service and presenting a reference model of the defense REST API server to meet various real-time interworking requirements, analyze the technical basis, and pursue a model that fits military reality.
 
Article
The research trials of high precision measurement of authentic leadership is not active, and haven’t knowledge for reliability and coverage range of authentic leadership questionnaires when want to make high stakes personnel decisions in military settings. This study presented five questionnaires to measure authentic leadership appropriately based on military leader responded survey data. They were ALQ8, ALQ12, ALQ13, ALQ14, and ALQ16. In this study presented they could be discriminate leaders who low level of authentic leadership with reliability. Further tasks may discover and consider of bi-factor solution of factor structure of authentic leadership questionnaire, and flourish discussions how to use authentic leadership questionnaire to make decisions in context of military leader resource management.
 
Article
The importance of reserve forces is increasing owing to changes in the security environment, such as the promotion of Defense Reform 2.0 and a sharp decrease in military service resources. Under these changes, we focus on combining EEG (ElectroEncephaloGraphy) with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) for improving combat power and contributing to the future development of defense science and technology in 2050. In the study of EEG measurement technology, the alpha wave of calmness and beta wave representing the improvement of the concentration on individualized shooting skills, were measured with high accuracy in the theta wave-related research, and the value of their use was recognized. Using in the combat situations of personal firearms shooting, it can be applied in a small budget and a short period of time. Through our findings, when shooting the K-1 and K-2 rifles (the basic personal weapons in Korean military), it can contribute to improving the accuracy of existing individual’s shooting by increasing both concentration and calmness between breathing and firing control. Hence, our study show in the future warfare, the new direction of current defense science and technology and new concept of personal weapon usages in artificial intelligence based on hyper-intelligence, hyper-connectivity, and human-unmanned combat systems.
 
Article
This study aims to suggest an improvement plan for the army branch system considering the development trend of weapon systems through a case analysis of the vision and major weapon systems for each army branch system in R.O.K army. In the future, with the development of science and technology, hyper-connected networks based on artificial satellites would be built, and mosaic warfare, which integrates multiple domains simultaneously, and weapon systems capable of performing all-weather multifunctional battles across land, sea, and air would emerge. As a result, the common areas of the Army, Navy, and Air Force would be expanded, and the division of each army or branch itself would become ambiguous. Hence, it will be inevitable to move away from the branch operation concepts that have been operational until now to seek the concept of jointness or integration. To study this phenomenon, based on the Korean Army Vision 2050 published by the Army, the transition process of the current Army branch system and the cases of vision and major weapon systems for each branch were analyzed. The results of the analysis confirmed that although new advanced complex weapon systems are being developed for each branch, relatively little change has been made to the system. In particular, with the advent of hybrid drones and intelligent autonomous combat robots that can simultaneously perform ‘Surveillance, Reconnaissance - Decision – Strike’, it is expected that the area of expansion and mutual redundancy of combat functions will be further deepened. Therefore, in connection with the development of the weapon system, we will seek a solution to improve the Army branch system in the future and clarify the implications for the Navy and Air Force in the future.
 
Article
The Republic of Korea, which is the only divided country in the world, is an extremely prominent country facing an existential enemy named “North Korea”. In Korea, the military science field is gaining interest and importance. However, as it is a specialized field, research is scarce. In this study, through text mining, we attempted to analyze 69 regular papers’ abstracts in the military science and domestic social science fields. These abstracts were present in the Korea Citation Index (KCI), which publishes the latest research trends and, in this case, trends in military studies. As a result, research is being conducted on various subjects. In particular, 63% (44) of these were found to be related to the construction of military power such as security cooperation, external situations, research and development, and defense reform. This study applied an unstructured data analysis method called text mining and attempted to analyze the subject of several papers from a more scientific perspective. Hence, it can be considered a study of great significance as it was able to provide an overall understanding of general research trends and trends in recent military studies.
 
Article
In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, efforts are being made throughout society to achieve innovation by utilizing artificial intelligence (AI). Developed countries are trying to maximize their combat capabilities using AI in defense areas. AI research on the defense of the Republic of Korea is focused on field-related applications, such as drones and robots; however, the research on the application of AI to training fields is relatively insufficient. In this paper, this study briefly summarizes the concept of AI and examines the use of AI in modeling and simulation (M&S) training, one of the defense M&S fields. Furthermore, the present study evaluates the areas where development is possible using current technology: decision support systems, intelligent tutoring systems, and automatic simulation of virtual entities.
 
Article
As Internet media develops, not only individuals but governments have digital identities (digital identity includes images made by digital media), in addition, as Internet media develops, chances are high that images will be determined by digital identity. Therefore, companies are meeting customer needs through digital image management and data analysis. This is also necessary for government organizations like the Ministry of National Defence (MND). At least we can prevent the damage caused by fake news and can see the Internet’s response to defense policy. Therefore, we invented an automatic search and analysis program for real-time internet documents. Also, through experiments with the policy of MND, we studied the significance and possibility of the project.
 
Article
This study analyzed the impact of the quality of the military's feeding system on meal service satisfaction and intangible combat power. This research will provide policy implications for the efficient operation of the military’s meal policy and budget. This study identified the four factors (food quality, hygiene, environment, and operation) related to service quality in the military's feeding system. Soldiers' satisfaction with the quality of meal service was 3.21 regarding quality, 3.54 regarding hygiene, 3.35 regarding environment and 3.70 regarding operation of meal service. Satisfaction was found to be the lowest. The correlation between the quality of meal service, quality of meals and the satisfaction with meal service was .820 for quality, .758 for hygiene, .758 for environment, and .724 for meal service. It has been found that hygiene, environment, and operation-related aspects are important factors for the improvement of meal satisfaction in addition to food quality. The correlation index between the quality of meal service and intangible combat power was found to be .233 in quality, .281 in hygiene, .240 in environment, and .308 in operation of meal service. Although the correlation index between the quality of meal service and intangible combat power was moderate, it had significant effects. Therefore, the future quality control of the group meal service needs to be managed with a balanced sense of hygiene, environment, and operation as well as quality of meals. To improve behavioral intangible combat power, it is necessary to note that the correlation index in terms of operation, hygiene, and environment is higher than the quality of meals.
 
Article
This study aims to intuitively identify trends in public interest by performing visualization analysis on unification economic cooperation using social network user opinion big data. For the “Unification Economic Cooperation” big data, the related big data were extracted using the Textom analysis tool, and text mining was performed. The results were expressed as a visualization figure. The results showed that, first, social network users were interested in North Korea's regional agricultural planning and education by the US and the government. Additionally, North Korea's rural villages existed in connection with pastoral and missionary words. An interest in how North and South Korea cooperate in investment and development in rural areas was identified. Second, there was an issue of interest in housing exchange and cooperation in North Korean villages by the community of club members as words such as club members → housing, common → housing, village → community exchange → cooperation were connected. Third, users were interested in culture and art. It would be useful to find and implement economic cooperation, a link between culture and art connected with North Korea's economic cooperation. Fourth, words such as technology, research, development, and dissemination were drawn as issues of interest. From the perspective of an integrated process, it is of interest to the general public to identify ways to implement it so that it can be pursued with economic benefits for both South and North Korea. Fifth, social network users were interested in the content of dot-com sites. The importance of the promotion of unification economic cooperation through these dot-com sites was confirmed.
 
Article
This study examines the nature of work centrality by targeting married office workers. The results show that separated influences depend on which sphere (work/family) is perceived as more important. More specifically, work–family conflict, which is experienced through multitasking, influences work satisfaction and family satisfaction, and work centrality has different functions in each domain. Through hierarchical regression, we found that, in the work domain, work centrality has a buffering effect on the relationship between WIF and work satisfaction, although it does not enhance the relationship between social support and work satisfaction. In contrast, in the family domain, the mediation effect of WIF between work centrality, which is the preceding variable, and family satisfaction is significant. Spousal support also has a mediating effect on the relationship between work centrality and family satisfaction. The implications and limitations of this study are also discussed.
 
Article
The Republic of Korea Reserve Forces (ROKRF), established in 1968, continue to function through continuous changes such as improving laws and systems and optimizing organizations while complying with social and policy changes. However, the reduction of standing forces, changes in the operating environment, and the reduction of reserve forces required to carry out operations require the re-establishment of the concept of operation of regional reserve forces. In this study, we aimed to diagnose the phenomenon of regional reserve groups and derive an optimized operation plan for regional reserve groups in consideration of changes in the future security environment, operation support system, and law and order system. The operating system presented the mission of establishing local reserve forces suitable for the operating environment, organization, and organization maintenance for the future as well as maintenance and development of combat power through education and training. Finally, in the law and order system section, a plan to revise laws was proposed in consideration of the task of operating and constructing regional reserve forces and re-establishing them.
 
Article
It was observed from the Korean War ceasefire talks, China-Soviet border disputes, India-China border disputes, Hong Kong return negotiations, and South China Sea conflicts that China adopted distributed negotiation strategy. Furthermore, the purpose of this paper is to derive an effective approach by identifying the types of military negotiation strategies used by China in conflicts with neighboring countries. Such research can contribute to the expansion of research topics on security-political-military relations owing to recent changes in the regional security environment (North Korea, the United States, Japan, and China) surrounding the Republic of Korea. Through the literature of various case studies, it was observed that China’s negotiation strategy differed depending on the attitude or response demonstrated by the target country. Thus, it could be confirmed that China's hostile negotiations alter and reach an agreement if the negotiator acquires military victories, exercises tough measures that threaten the negotiations themselves, or exerts diplomatic all-out pressure. This cannot be achieved by military methods alone. For instance, in the case of the South China Sea dispute, strong diplomatic pressure transformed China's negotiation strategy into an integrated negotiation strategy.
 
Article
This research aims to study the social role of the military, which is expected to gain importance when the security environment of the Korean Peninsula changes in the future. Expanding the research on corporate social responsibility (CSR), this study redefines the concept of military social responsibility (MSR) and identifies the impact of MSR perception on soldiers’ organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study aims to examine the effects of MSR on OCB and the mediating effect of reputation. Thus, the survey was conducted by visiting two army troops in the metropolitan area and three army troops in the Gangwon-do area. As a result, MSR perception by military service members had a significant positive (+) effect on OCB. In addition, reputation showed a significant partial mediating effect. Further, for individual MSRs, legal and ethical MSR and philanthropic MSR had a significant positive (+) effect on OCB, and reputation was fully mediated in that process. Finally, based on the results, the implications of the study and future research directions were discussed.
 
Article
The importance of reserve forces is increasing owing to changes in the security environment, such as the promotion of Defense Reform 2.0 and a sharp decrease in military service resources, however, questions are raised as to whether the current system of reserve forces management civilian military employees has appropriate efficiency. As a result of the study, a plan to improve its efficiency was suggested that it is necessary to adjust reserve forces management civilian military employees in a series of multilevel class and to redesign the personnel management system. The measures proposed in the study are required to be promoted for the future trend of development of unit structure and manpower structure of reserve forces units, equity with general civilian military employees. In addition, it should be promoted by comprehensively considering the possibility of meeting the budget. In the follow-up study, if future research is conducted on the role of policy departments to optimize personnel management of reserve forces management civilian military employees and ways to form public consensus essential for system improvement, a comprehensive framework will be established.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the recognition of the important degree of intangible combat power components. Combat power is expressed as the sum of tangible power and intangible power. The Korean Army has long gone through the mistake of estimating the level of combat power by evaluating only the tangible combat power. We admit that intangible combat power cannot be expressed in measurable numbers. Nevertheless, there is a need to properly understand and evaluate the important degree of intangible combat power components. And operating the unit according to the evaluation result is the key to rational command. Therefore, it is very meaningful to study the recognition of the important degree of intangible combat power components. In this study, the recognition of the important degree of intangible combat power components recognized by the military expert group (army general promoted officers) was analyzed by applying the AHP technique. Then, the results of KCTC, which was evaluated for training in the most war-like environmental conditions, were analyzed to determine how the components of intangible combat power influenced the training results. And then we looked the differences between the two analyzes and found some reasons for the differences. Lastly the alternatives to solve the discrepancies and further research tasks were presented.
 
Article
This study verifies the concept and test of the MNPS owing to the increase in advanced weapon systems used in the Korean defense field. MNPS used solar power to eliminate noise, a risk factor of the existing power supply systems, and it was designed in a size that can be mounted on a small tactical vehicle in various battlefield situations. When sunlight is used as a power supplier, in case there is no light, its use is limited; therefore, it can be used after charging through an energy storage device. In addition, it was designed considering scalability to increase the amount of electricity generated through the solar panel or increase the storage capacity. Finally, the power characteristics were analyzed through a test to determine if the output was constant, and through this, it was possible to confirm its feasibility of use for military purposes.
 
Article
In response to worldwide changes in logistics, the Korean Ministry of Defense has introduced performance-based logistics (PBL) to improve cost-effectiveness and availability in sustaining their weapon system. Thus, the procurement of reduced parts and the maintenance period improve the availability of equipment, and the reduction of the inventory level lowers overall logistics costs. Based on these achievements, the Ministry of National Defense is pursuing a policy to expand the PBL project. However, the criteria for selecting equipment subject to the application are ambiguous. Therefore, it is difficult to expand to all areas. Consequently, this paper aims to present the criteria for selecting future PBL projects by providing objective judgment factors and quantifying the suitable equipment for the application of PBL. For this, a delphi-analytic approach was used to derive the key factors for performance-based logistics experts, and the survey was carried out twice. A total of eight key factors were derived from the survey analysis. Subsequently, a third survey was conducted to determine the level of assessment for each key factor and to prioritize each card according to this conjoint method to determine the utility of each factor according to its level. Through this, a performance-based suitability model that combines the weighting of key factors with the level of each factor was presented. This study is meaningful in that it selected key factors for determining the suitability of performance-based military applications based on objective data. Further, their reference values can be comprehensively determined by calculating the utility of each factor level.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of safety culture in the military organization on safety behavior and to verify the mediating effect of safety leadership in this process. The research subjects collected data by classifying the military class and the military class, and the analysis resulted by applying the cross-over analysis model. As a measuring tool, a safety climate scale was used to measure safety culture, and a scale divided into safety knowledge and safety communication was used to measure safety leadership. As a result of analysis, there was no difference in the safety culture due to the difference between the military rank and military occupational specialty in the military organization. In terms of military rank, most of the commanders showed higher level of safety leadership than soldiers, and there was no difference on safety culture. However, the military occupational specialty was functioning as a variable to control the influence of the military rank on safety climate and safety communication. As a result, the influence of safety culture on safety behavior was significant, and it was verified that safety knowledge and safety communication function as mediaters, and the dual perfect mediation model was verified. Based on these results, a strategic education program or content development point suitable for redinforcing the safety culture of military organizations was presented.
 
Article
In this study, defense surveillance reconnaissance systems were implemented through deep learning networks such as OpenPose and deep neural networks (DNN), convolutional neural networks (CNN), and long short-term memory (LSTM). This study proposes a target recognition method which differs from the existing surveillance reconnaissance systems. This method consists in distinguishing between ordinary people and targets by classifying motions in the images being filmed. Thus, the skeleton data of the target in the image are extracted using OpenPose. Then, keypoints included in the extracted skeleton data are entered into DNN, CNN, and LSTM to classify the motion. The classified motions are selected as motions learned in the military, such as overall security. When the system classifies motions and recognizes targets, it identifies them on the map and tracks them. The tracking algorithm calculates the movement direction of the target by calculating the change in the values of keypoints extracted through OpenPose by frames. Finally, it uses the depth information obtained from the camera to display targets on the map based on the camera location. All these computations are based on the use of the skeleton data rather than the entire image, thus reducing the overall computation.
 
Article
This study aims at brief introduction of EU Defence Directive which was declared in 2009. To this end, it is necessary to understand both security circumstances of Europe and the progress of the single market firstly. In this context, the present research shows developing process of military and security coalition of European countries in chronicle order with the background of political and economic integration. Secondly, given that this Directive plays a role under the framework of TFEU and the EU single market, the study explores areas ruled by this Directive and ones that ruled outside the Directive by EDA, OCCAR, LoI separately. Thirdly, this article reviews legal structure of the Directive and its main features such as flexibility, security of supply and security of information.
 
Article
This study aims to examine the development status and technical characteristics of low-yield nuclear weapons initiated by the Trump administration, predict the development trend in the Biden administration, analyze strategic implications that have affected the R.O.K.-U.S. Tailored Deterrence Strategy, and seek future countermeasures. Regarding deterrence theory, low-power nuclear weapons are evaluated as a means of simultaneously expanding deterrence by denial and by retaliation. Additionally, low-yield nuclear weapons can be evaluated as having the capability, communication of nuclear retaliation wills and possibilities, and credibility for these wills and capabilities, which are 3C elements of deterrence in that they are “possible-use nuclear weapons.” Hence, they can be evaluated as highly-applicable deterrence means. As North Korea's nuclear and missile capabilities have advanced and the U.S. is developing and deploying low-yield nuclear weapons, this article intends to make several suggestions regarding deterrence and response. First, because North Korea's policy to strengthen its tactical nuclear capabilities in 2021 is inevitably closely related to the technical characteristics of the development of low-yield nuclear weapons, it should be evaluated and prepared in connection with this. Second, it is necessary to understand the Biden administration's nuclear strategy regarding the extended deterrence strategy of the U.S. and discuss it closely based on the 5th NPR unveiled in early 2022. Third, to ensure the credibility of the R.O.K.-U.S. tailored deterrence strategy, “multilateral deterrence measures” must be considered at the regional level, including low-yield nuclear weapons.
 
Article
The Republic of Korea (ROK) military has pursued development with a focus on the defense force development system since the Yulgok project, which began in the 1970s for the purpose of self-defense. Currently, the ROK defense force development system seems to be very methodical, and it determines requirements by using the joint combat development system, reflects the budget in the defense planning and management system, and manages the acquisition project in the defense acquisition system; however; it has many problems. These problems include fierce competition among the services, limited verification, ambiguous standards and references for requirements, complicated procedures and regulations, and failure to reflect the rapid changes in the security environment and science and technology in military force development. The most important issue is that the Joint Chiefs of Staff should lead the development of the forces based on the concept of joint operations; however, they are focused on only the current operation and neglect their main goals as the top military organization, such as mid- to long-term force development and military strategy. The Joint Chiefs of Staff should revise the organization, mission performance system, and regulations to properly perform the core functions of the defense organization that establishes long-term response strategies and builds response capabilities according to the changes in the security and strategic environment.
 
Article
Although the performance of the weapon system is becoming more advanced and precise with the development of science and technology, the development of such technology can significantly affect the performance of the weapon system by shortening the life cycle of the component. the purpose of this study is to explore solutions for smooth operation and maintenance through examples and establish alternatives. Among the various weapons systems, the combined weapons system, vessel, is becoming incomparably complex and diverse in structure with the help of the development of electric and electronic technologies. Among them, the combat system is the system that has the greatest impact on the functions of the ship as it is operated in conjunction with various mounting equipment, and so component shutdown control is a representative of the projects that are needed first. Therefore, in this study, we propose a case-by-case alternative by analyzing the progress of the end-of-life management work through the case of the Jangbogo-III combat system development project, which was the first project to apply the component control program and the Refresh program in Korea, and we propose a process for component discontinuation management during the total life cycle of the entire period for the incomplete information. The analysis results and processes from the examples presented in this study are expected to contribute to increasing reliability and availability as well as budget savings in the acquisition and maintenance stages of weapons systems in the future.
 
Article
This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the military service experience on the job experience. Although people have passionately focused on discussions on the transition of the conscription system, relatively few studies have been conducted on the relationship between the military service experience and the individual job experience. In addition, prior studies on the relationship between the military service experience and the job experience have produced inconsistent results, and have narrowly focused on quantitative labor market variables such as pay and employment status. To fill these research gaps, we conducted this study by simultaneously using the following quantitative and qualitative outcome variables: pay, employment status, job satisfaction, and perceived job-required capacities. In addition, we explained the study results using distinct halo and sigma effects from antecedent studies that used human capital theory and the screening effect for applying national differences between the USA and South Korea.
 
Article
Deriving inferences from facial appearance is called face-ism. In particular, people make rapid and accurate inferences about the targets' character based on their appearance. Over the last 15 years, the effects of a leader's facial appearance have been vigorously studied in the domain of psychology and leadership research worldwide. Previous studies suggest that facial appearance significantly predicts leader selection, thus leading more competent, dominant, trustworthy, and attractive individuals to be selected as leaders. Further, they indicate that this relationship depends on the circumstances (i.e., wartime and time of peace). The current study reviewed recent research on face-ism and leadership, while discussing the factors of the face effects, the main method, findings, limitations, and future directions of the research. Finally, the authors discussed the implications of face-ism in the field of military leadership.
 
Article
This study aims to highlight the need to develop a next-generation K9 through opportunity-threat (OT) analysis. In doing so, it considered the state of the security of the four major powers in Northeast Asia, new threats from North Korea, as well as the advanced science and technology engendered by the fourth industrial revolution. Finally, it considered defense reform and the worldwide development trend of self-propelled artillery. Opportunity factors include the guarantee of a “Ground Operations Command-Army Corps”-focused operational environment, expanded counterfire warfare system, and the development of export-oriented artillery while maintaining a leading position as a developing country. Additionally, the threat factors include an insufficient response capability to the new large-caliber multiple rocket launchers of North Korea, and possible deficiencies in combat power owing to the obsolescence of K9. Moreover, imposing limitations on the development of critical technologies focused on developing ultra-long-range strategic strike cannon artillery constitutes a threat. Therefore, this study highlights the need to develop a next-generation K9 through OT analysis, and is expected to increase defense exports by maintaining the country's lead in artillery development.
 
Article
무기체계를 획득・전력화 시 총수명주기 기간 중 운영유지 분야(정비 예산편성, 창정비 소요, 정비용 장비, 수리부속 및 공구 보급 등)의 반영이 미흡하여 전투준비태세 유지가 저하되고 운영유지비용이 증가하고 있다. 기술의 발전 속도는 가속화되고 있으나 전력화 운용 중인 장비와 부품이 진부화되어 야전에서 전력화된 장비·물자 운용에 지장을 초래하게 되므로, 야전운용 중인 장비・물자를 대상으로 운용실태를 분석하여 획득단계에 미리 반영하는 종합군수지원(ILS) 체계 구축의 필요성이 증대되고 있다. 본 연구는 전력화 장비·물자의 총수명주기 관점에서 소요제기, 획득 및 운영유지단계에서의 수행기관 변경 등에 따른 업무적 단절과 통합적인 종합군수지원(ILS) 관리가 미흡한 상황 등을 개선하여 안정적인 전투력 발휘가 가능하도록 현실적이고 효율적인 종합군수지원(ILS) 발전방안 수립을 목적으로 한다. 야전 전력화 장비·물자에 대한 종합군수지원(ILS) 체계 구축을 통해 획득 간 의사결정에 반영하고 중기계획 및 예산편성 시 기초자료로 본 연구의 결과를 활용할 수 있을 것이다.
 
Article
Most software flaws that occur during the operational phase are often not identified during the development phase. Therefore, to ensure reliability of software during the development phase is very important. This study proposes a predictive model to improve the reliability of the weapon system software during the development phase. Using the RADC model proposed in this study, we calculate the predicted reliability of the software development phase for the software project developed by M company. Experiments comparing before and after model application indicated a significant decrease in the predictive defect density (PDD) and the predictive defect count (PDC). The results of the experiment showed that we could reduce the burden on the operational phase by minimizing the failure in the software development phase.
 
Article
With the advent of the fourth industrial revolution and rising competition, the survival environment of companies has become difficult to predict. Consequently, changes and innovations to gain a competitive edge have become essential for modern society. In this paper, the management innovation techniques and contents were examined through the case of re-engineering of Yuhan Kimberly, exploring the direction of development and the way to apply them nationally. Yuhan-Kimberly implemented people-centered management, such as improving the working environment, operating the lifelong learning system, introducing smart work and family-friendly management; it also strengthened social enterprise activities that had continued since the early days of its establishment, thereby, realizing social enterprise image integration. Consequently, it solidified its status as a social enterprise through the increase in corporate profits, the selection of respected companies, and the commendation of government agencies. Based on the case of Yuhan-Kimberly’s innovation, the government proposed work-life balance and family-friendly management, the transformation of information systems, the improvement of organizational culture, and the promotion of ethical management and social contribution activities. This suggests that the military should aim to achieve its basic goals, restore public trust, and establish its role in the changing security environment.
 
Article
With the advent of the Fourth Revolution, military weapon systems are also being advanced. In particular, as the proportion of software embedded in these weapon systems increases, the cyber vulnerabilities of advanced weapon systems also gradually increase. If cutting-edge weapons stop abruptly or malfunction owing to software defects or cyberattacks, they will adversely affect defense security as well as combat power and economic losses. The U.S. DoD is implementing the risk management framework (RMF) to cope with cyber vulnerabilities and threats. RMF is a risk management (RM)-based framework that classifies the cyber vulnerabilities of weapon systems based on data and evaluates them according to confidentiality, integrity, and availability. The application of RMF to the Korean military's weapon-system acquisition procedure is still in its infancy. In this study, we studied the application of the RMF to weapon acquisition processors in the U.S. DoD and suggested that measures of availability, reliability, and safety that can affect weapon performance should be managed with security, and that security systems should be applied to reliability, availability, and maintenance (RAM).
 
Article
The performance of weapon systems is the important factor in deciding the outcome of war and expressed in ROC(Required Operational Capability). ROC is determined at the phase of requirement decision and has a decisive effect on the total life cycle of weapon systems including acquisition and its disposal phase. Improper ROC is very likely to cause the increase of acquisition & operating cost, total life cycle cost, and the delay of deployment, influencing factors on determination of ROC must be thoroughly studied. However, domestic academic research on influencing factors are rarely conducted, and most of the research is part of the research on requirement planning and acquisition, the research results provide only general suggestion. Thereby, this research intended to provide systematic and empirical analysis on what factors influence on determination of ROC and what their relative importance weights. To achieve above mentioned research purpose, first we reviewed relevant institutionalized systems in home and ROC modification status along with their reasons in home. Then, we verified and finalized influencing factors on ROC derived from preliminary research through Delphi Technique and Factor Analysis, and analyzed relative priorities through pair comparison by AHP method. From 2006 to 2017, on average 15 cases of modifying ROC occurred annually and needs of such modification appear to grow. Modification of operational concept of weapon systems comprises 31% of the reasons to modify of ROC, followed by correction of improper ROC is 17%, correction of excessive ROC is 14%, collateral changes by change of interoperable weapon systems' ROC is 14%, respectively. As for relative importance weight of finalized influencing factors, 'Weapon systems operational concept and mounting system', 'Weapon systems major performance elements' are found to be high. In lower level of 18 factors, the order of importance weight is as follows 'Weapon systems operational concept', 'Survivability', 'Enemy weapon systems performance' , 'Mounting system performance' and 'Existing similar weapon systems performance' and 'Interoperability'. The significance of this research would be extensive investigation on entire relevant minutes of meeting of ROC modification, chronological analysis of reason of such modification along with its status, and systematic analysis and relative importance weights of influencing factors on ROC.
 
Article
The 3:1 rule has a long history and has been used or criticized by scholars and military alike. The present article attempts to test of the 3:1 rule against historical data. It investigates the validity of the rule, whether expressed in terms of men, tanks, artillery, or combat power, by using and expanding data of past battles. Contrary to what has been stated by numerous researchers and by official publications, this study comes to the conclusion that the 3:1 rule has little applicability. This result has major implications concerning military planning and warfighting.
 
Article
본 연구는 북한의 탄도미사일 위협에 대한 효과적인 방어체계 선정을 위한 비용 분석을 수행한다. 방어체계의 대안으로 THAAD, SM-3 및 L-SAM을 고려하였고, 해외구매 또는 연구개발에 따라 대안에 대한 비용 분석을 위한 요인이 다르므로 이에 대한 대안별 요인을 분석하여 제시하였다. 방어체계별 획득방식(구매 또는 연구개발)에 따라 획득비용, 운영유지비용, 연구개발비용으로 구분하여 30년간 운용한다는 가정 하에 대안별로 순 현재가치를 도출하여 비교하였으며, 불확실성을 내포하는 정비유지비율, 부지 비용, 연구개발비용에 대한 민감도 분석을 통해 대안별 비용에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 분석 결과 전반적으로는 THAAD, L-SAN, SM-3 순으로 높은 비용이 발생하였으나 민감도 요소들의 변화에 따라 비용 순위가 달라질 수 있음을 확인하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 여러 불확실성 하에서 의사결정으로 연결되기에는 무리가 있으나 각각의 방어체계에 대한 비용 분석의 틀을 제시하고, 제시한 3가지 대안을 동시에 충족할 수 없는 상황에서 가용한 국방예산을 고려할 때 경제적인 대안의 우선순위를 결정하는데 참고자료를 제시한다.
 
Article
이 글의 연구목적은 오리(梧里)의 국방정책 사례 분석을 통하여 兩亂(壬亂과 丁酉再亂)期 국방정책 효과와 주요 시사점을 도출하는 데 있다. 연구의 주요 내용은 선조∼ 인조대의 오리 이원익(李元翼, 1547∼ 1634) 관련 국가가 누란의 위기에 처해 있는 전시 체제의 조정에서 관찰사와 정승을 지내면서 전투지휘, 후방지원, 민생대책, 외교활동 등의 다양한 公務를 직접 처리하면서 전란 극복을 위하여 다른 누구보다도 지대한 기여를 했던 兩亂 대응내용을 분석한다. 임란시기 오리의 국방 정책(National Defense Policy)이란 국가 안전 보장 정책의 일부로서 외부로부터의 위협이나 침략에 대해 국가의 생존을 보호하기 위하여 군사, 비군사에 걸쳐 각종 수단을 유지, 조성 및 운용하는 정책이었으며, 그러한 그의 정책과 행정의 기본은 부동심(不動心)과 공변(公遍, 공평무사, 公私와 正邪의 구분) 마인드였다. 오리는 서검재(書劍齋, 향교와 서원에서 유생들의 문무연마를 제도화 함)를 제정하여 무예, 징집 문제 측면의 대응을 모색하고, 군사모집, 군량조달, 명과 왜와의 외교와 정보 탐색 등 다양한 활동을 전개했다. 분석 결과 주요 효과와 시사점을 오리의 국방정책의 국사정책과 비군사 정책 측면에서 도출하고, 무관 포폄사례와 효과, 시사점, 문무겸전 리더십, 부동심 스토리텔링 및 현대적 활용측면에서의 발전과제로 구분하여 제언하였다.
 
Article
우리나라는 2016년 OECD 국가부패인식지수(CPI) 기준 비교대상 국가들 중 부패정도가 상위로 부정부패 문화가 만연한 현상을 보여주고 있다. 본 고는 2017년 현재 정부신뢰를 추락시키고 있는 요인 중의 하나인 관료부패의 역기능 진단과 치유방안을 조선중기 領相 이원익의 양난(兩難)기 부패관료 포폄(褒貶, 賞罰) 사례를 분석하고, 현대적 국방인사정책 시사점을 오리청렴 사상과 힐링 체험 프로그램을 중심으로 제안하였다. 주요 내용은 오리의 청렴행정 사상이었던 청렴관, 부동심 등을 체험할 수 있는 청렴체험과 힐링 프로그램을 중심으로 접근하였으며, 주요 핵심은 국방인사 정책 전반과 인사 포폄정책의 시사점, 수기치인을 통한 정신통제 중추로서 오리의 부동심과 공변(公遍, 공평무사, 公私와 正邪의 구분) 사상 등을 제시하고, 공명정대 부동심 등을 내면화 한 국방 인사 제도화 방안으로 구분하여 대안을 제안하였다. 연구의 방법은 부패, 역병, 포폄의 선행연구 등과 전문 학술자료를 활용하였으며, 연구의 범위는 오리의 兩難(임난, 정유재란)기 공직자 포폄 사례와 특성 등을 분석, 결과를 도출하고, 현대적 활용측면에서의 국방인사정책 혁신 대안을 블록체인 제도, 수기치인(부동심), 정책 신설 등의 대안을 제안하였다.
 
Article
This study suggests the scrum development methodology adopting the user evaluation method which purpose is to improve the current defense information system maintenance procedure, and shows the expected effect of the methodology. It reports the effects of the proposed procedure and the problems of the current one which are acquired by analyzing real cases collected by interview with experts. As a result, the study is proved effective to prevent extra request or any further changes and to lead the successful completion of a project. Accordingly, the quality of the national defense information system and user satisfaction are expected to improve.
 
Article
President Moon has visited to UAE as a National Visit in March, 2018 and express to support co-develop, co-produce and co-export to the third countries of weapon system. Therefore, the paper analyzes the recent arms market in the Middle East, as one of the three major arms export market to Korea, and present an arms export strategy to customize the Middle East countries. Concerning a recent 10 year arms export by region, the ratio of Middle East countries arms export was highly increased by 12%p(17%→29%). And arms acquisition budget in 5 years(2018∼22) will be over 130 billion dollars. UAE has a highly interested in missiles, warship building, surveilance system, RWCS etc after Summit meeting. Iraq has focus on his post war rebuilding to include relevant weapon system and facilities. Also, Saudi Arabia is necessary to fulfill his Saudization policy to enter his arms market. For expanding of Middle East arms market, it is necessary to provide customized defense industry total solution for the whole weapon system lifecycles, dispatch defense cooperation director, find out co-development program between Korea and Middle East countries, and diversify cooperation system in the near future.
 
Article
최근 국가연구개발 예산을 효율적으로 활용하고, 민⋅ 군간 기술협력 활성화를 위하여 국가과학기술연구회 소관 정출연 등 민간연구기관이 보유하고 있는 우수 기술을 무기체계에 활용해야 한다(Spin-On)는 공감대가 확산되고 있다. 이에 따라 본 논문은 각각 기술제공자 요인, 기술특성 요인, 상호 요인 등 측면에서 정출연 보유기술의 활용성 수준에 영향을 미치는 4가지 요소를 도출하고, AHP 설문조사를 통해 본 4가지 요소별 상대적인 가중치를 산출하여 무기체계 개발착수 이전 시점인 전력소요검증 단계부터 정출연이 보유하고 있는 기술의 무기체계 활용성이 어느 정도인지를 정량적으로 평가할 수 있는 방법론을 제시하였다. 그리고, 향후 전력소요검증 시점에서 민간기술 활용성 평가 제도를 내실화할 수 있는 정책적⋅제도적 개선사항을 제안하였다. 본 논문에서 제시한 민간기술 활용성 평가 방법론은 향후 관련 기관 간 활용성(Spin-On) 관점의 민군기술협력을 촉진할 수 있는 제도적⋅ 정책적 발전방안을 수립하는데 유용한 근거로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대한다.
 
Article
본 연구는 고도화된 정보기술의 발달로 수초내에 「상황판단-결심-대응」이 동시에 진행할 수 있는 새로운 싸우는 방법이 요구되고 있다. 현재까지 발전시킨 드론봇 전투체계로만으로는 새로운 패러다임의 전투체계를 충족시키기에 부족하였다. 「상황판단-결심-대응」을 수행할 수 있는 네트워크 구축이 절실히 필요한 시점이다. 따라서 국방 드론봇 전투체계를 효율적으로 운용하고 통제할 수 있고 드론봇을 가시화할 수 있는 통합관제체계를 구축할 필요성이 있다. 드론봇 전투체계를 관리하기 위해서는 기반 네트워크를 구축이 필수적이다. 국방드론 통합관제체계를 구축하기 위해서는 드론봇 전투체계, PS-LTE(재난망), TICN(군 전술통신망)과 같은 기반네트워크 체계 구축, 그리고 드론을 효율적으로 관리하고 드론이 획득한 데이터를 활용할 수 있는 통합관제체계 구축에 관한 연구이다. 현재 육군이 미래에 드론봇 전문부대에 편성예정인 드론 현황을 분석하고 다양한 드론을 통제하고 통합하는 관제체계의 발전방향을 제시하고자 한다.
 
Article
To study, Twitter, the social media, was selected and analyzed by applying word cloud, social network and LDA techniques as keywords. The results showed that the main key words based on frequency were "THADD", "resident in Korea," "rise," "burdened," and "negotiation," while the main key words considering word relationship and centrality were "THADD," "opposite," "cost," "deployment" and "aligned alliance." In addition, LDA technology has shown that 'THADD base construction costs', 'the withdrawal of U.S. troops from South Korea', 'Recommendation of unpaid leave of Korean workers' and 'the government's efforts to reopen negotiations' have become an issue in the current negotiation process related to 'defense cost sharing'. Through this, it was possible to identify the key words that the public recognizes “defense-sharing expenses,” and furthermore, the government should pursue strategic negotiation policies in consideration of the key words and topics recognized by the people in order to achieve successful negotiation results.
 
Article
The force support system can be defined as various elements such as equipment, parts, facilities, and software except for the weapon system, and it occupies most of the military products based on the number of items. The armed forces have developed military technology in the field of force support systems or has introduced commercial products and technologies from the private sector. The purpose of this study is to establish the operational concept of information system to support the project management of force support system from the perspective of total life cycle. The results of this study can be summarized into three major points. First, there are complex constraints in the R&D(Research and Development) project of force support system, and transparency and efficiency during project management are also required. Therefore, it is necessary to build an information system that supports the force support system in a effective way. Second, it is necessary to reengineer the business process before building the information system related to the force support system. Third, it is necessary to form consensus within the military to improve the efficiency through the improvement of business process and information system. It is expected that the policy alternatives to the project management informatization proposed in this study will contribute to improve the efficiency and transparency of the project management.
 
Top-cited authors
Heenam Lee
  • Chungnam National University
Elizabeth Grace Boulton
  • Destination Safe Earth
Xyle Ku
  • Seoul National University
Kayode Sunday John Dada
  • Ahmadu Bello University
Seungju Hyun
  • Korea Military Academy