Background & Objective: According to research, breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women. Nanomaterials of various materials significantly increase the solubility, stability and effective drug delivery, and in recent years research on the effectiveness of essential oils and plant extracts on inhibiting the growth of cancer cells is expanding. Artemisia belongs to the Asteraceae family. In many studies, the effectiveness of the essential oil and extract of this plant on inhibiting the growth of cancer cells has been reported.
Materials & Methods: In this experiment, nanoparticles containing Artemisia absinthium L essential oil (thistle) were first synthesized by homogenizer & sonication method and then their physicochemical properties were determined, such as particle size, particle size distribution, zeta potential, percentage of loading efficiency. Essential oils, particle shape. Then, the anti-apoptotic effect of lipid nanoparticles containing Artemisia essential oil in breast cancer cells (BRC-03) was evaluated.
Results: The results of cellular effect of lipid nanoparticles containing essential oil of Artemisia absinthium L (thistle) on breast cancer cells showed that increasing the concentration of lipid nanoparticles containing essential oil of this plant reduced the survival rate of cancer cells. Breast (BRC-03) was purified compared to essential oil (p
Background & Objective: The studies of the last two decades have shown that regular training is associated with the reduction of mortality among patients with breast cancer, and has an important role in inhibiting breast cancer progression as well as treatment of the disease. However, the micro-molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood yet. However, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the expression of miR-126, miR-296, HGS gene, and VEGF-A protein level in tumor tissue of the mice with breast cancer.
Materials & Methods: For this purpose, 12 BALB/c mice (6-8 weeks, weight 19 ± 1.05 g), after induction of cancer (MC4-L2 subcutaneous injection into the right side of the mice), were randomly divided into two groups with 6 in each group: HIIT and control. Each session of HIIT group program includes six intervals of three minutes and 20 seconds with an intensity of 85 to 90 percent of VO2max and 1-minute recovery with 30 to 35 percent VO2max intensity between each interval; and the animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last training session and the expression of miR-126, miR-296, HBS gene and VEGF protein levels in tumor tissues were examined.
Results: The statistical results showed that the implementation of HIIT significantly reduced the expression of miR-296 and subsequently increased the HGS gene expression and led to increased expression levels of miR-126 and decreased levels of VEGF-A protein in the training group compared to the control group (p
Background & Objective: Gossypiboma is the meaning of a residual foreign body such as gas in the abdomen following surgical operation, which is a rare complication of surgery. Residual of a foreign body causes mass, fistula, abscess and, obstruction after surgical operation. Computed tomography (CT) scan is a very useful method in the diagnosis of Gossipiboma. In patients who referred with abdominal pain and unexplained manifestations after surgery, Gossypiboma should be considered.
Case presentation: A retrospective case study was performed in the year 2020 in a patient with a history of open kidney stone surgery in Hospital of Zabol. A 60-year-old male patient who referred with complaint of neck pain to an orthopedic doctor, which due to a history of kidney stone, the doctor orders an ultrasound of the kidneys. In the ultrasound, a number of stones are observed in the right kidney of this patient. After performing CT scan and Intravenous pyelography (IVP), a foreign body is identified inside the renal pelvis. In the following, the history taken from the patient, the history of open kidney stone surgery during 16 years ago in this patient is determined. During this period, the patient did not have any symptoms, including infection or pain in the mentioned area.
Conclusion: In patients with a history of surgery who are referred with abdominal pain or mass, the residual foreign body should be included in the list of differential diagnoses.
Background & Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by the chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. The two common forms of IBD are ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) that are distinguished by their location and depth of involvement in the diffuse inflammation of the colonic mucosa and affects the rectum (proctitis). A novel class of LncRNAs transcribed from ultra-conserved regions (UCRs) is a recently identified ultra-conserved region (T-UCR) transcript that is involved in the cellular function in a variety of pathways. However, the regulation of LncRNA uc.173 in IBD remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to examine the expression of LncRNA uc.173 and Occludin genes in an Iranian population with inflammatory bowel disease.
Materials & Methods: This case-control study was performed on 33 inflammatory bowel disease patients including 13 Crohn's disease, 20 ulcerative colitis and 20 healthy controls. The mRNA levels of LncRNA uc.173 and Occludin genes were assessed using the quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction. The B2M was used as an internal control. The 2 -ΔΔCq method was used to determine the expression fold changes.
Results: Statistically, the level of the LncRNA uc.173 gene expression between the UC and normal tissues increased significantly(P=0.0024). Also, the expression analysis revealed no significant difference between the samples of CD patients compared to the controls (P>0.05). In order to further evaluate the role of LncRNA uc.173 in IBD, the associations between the transcript levels of the LncRNA uc.173 and Occludin mRNA demonstrated significant difference in the CD tissue (R=0.59; P=0.002). In our study, the mRNA expression of Occludin gene did not show any changes in the IBD patients compared to the healthy controls.
Conclusion: The increased expression of LncRNA uc.173 in the tissues of UC patients may be considered as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker. Also, there was no correlation found between Occludin and LncRNA uc.173 expressions in the IBD patients' tissues.
Background & Objective: For patients, COVID-19 disease is a reminder of non-existence and death. For this reason, these patients experience existential anxiety. One of the effective factors in the control and treatment of this disease is to educate patients on self-care to reduce the burden of these psychological problems on them. The present study was designed and conducted with the aim of evaluating the effect of self-care educational program using telemedicine and multimedia methods on the level of existential anxiety in COVID-19 patients.Materials & Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research conducted on 88 COVID-19 patients referred to the comprehensive health service centers of Bandar Abbas, Iran from 2020 to 2021. Th0ey were selected using a convenience sampling method. The samples were randomly assigned to the multimedia (44 patients) and telenursing (44 patients) groups. Patients in both groups received education on self-care during COVID-19 disease for 21 days. The Existence Anxiety Scale was completed before and immediately after the intervention. Data were analyzed with SPSS software version 26. Descriptive statistics, normality test, independent t-test, homogeneity of variance and covariance, univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance were used.Results: The mean score of existential anxiety at the beginning of the study was 90.50± 12.57 and 85.25 ±16.12, respectively, in the telenursing and multimedia groups, and after the intervention, it was 46.88 ± 6.38 and 65.40 ± 9.59, respectively, in the telenursing and multimedia groups. After the intervention, the existential anxiety score was significantly reduced in the telenursing group compared to the multimedia group (p <0.001).Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, self-care education programs and knowledge about necessary care during COVID-19 illness should be considered for patients in comprehensive health centers, and telenursing should be used for more effective self-care education.
Background & Objective: Decreased levels of physical activity during the COVID-19 epidemic can cause physical and psychological problems for the individual. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and control coping styles in the face of the Covid-19 epidemic in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials & Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study and the research population includes females in Hamidiyeh Ahvaz, Iran, who were studying in 2019-2020. In this regard, 208 females were selected based on Cochran’s formula and random sampling for participation in the study. Beck’s physical activity questionnaires and Coping Styles Questionnaire in the face of the COVID-19 epidemic were used to collect data. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to establish statistical relationships. Results: The results only showed a significant relationship between social support coping style and physical activity (physical activity related to leisure time) (r= 0.142, p= 0.044). There was no significant relationship between physical activity (related to work, sport, leisure time and total) and any of the other coping styles (Confrontation, Avoidance, Self-control, Responsibility, Escape and avoid, Problem solving, Positive estimation) (p≥0.05). Conclusion: During the COVID-19 epidemic, physical activity related to leisure time was positively associated with social support coping style but all other cases we did not observe a significant relationship between physical activity and coping styles with Covid-19.
Background & Objective: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging outbreak which has involved almost all of the countries of the world now. While the main symptoms of the disease are known to be respiratory symptoms like coughing and shortness of breath, extrapulmonary symptoms have also been reported in many cases of COVID-19. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations including diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and liver injury are amongst the most common extrapulmonary symptoms in COVID-19 patients.
Materials & Method: We used Scopus, PubMed, and Google scholar databases for this review. The last search was run on November 21, 2020
Results: Liver injury is mostly accompanied by an elevation in AST and ALT levels and a slight increase in serum billirubin levels that is observed in approximately 14.8-53.1% of COVID-19 patients.1-29% of COVID-19 patients present nausea and vomiting and 2 to 10% develop diarrhea. Abdominal pain is seen in about 2.2-6% of COVID-19 patients and most frequently seen in severely ill patients.
Conclusion: Diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting and liver injury are the most common GI symptoms in COVID-19 patients while abdominal pain is not pretty common. There are no medications of proven efficacy to treat COVID-19 or its GI manifestations so far.
Background & Objective: COVID-19 can affect thyroid gland and causes subacute thyroiditis. Case Presentation: We introduced a 60-year-old woman with an initial symptom of anterior cervical pain without any other constitutional symptoms. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were detected positive for COVID-19 using RT-PCR assay. According to ultrasonographic, laboratory (lowered TSH, elevated CRP and ESR), and physical findings, subacute thyroiditis was found following the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion: As subacute thyroiditis associated with SARS-Cov-2 may be represented without any fever, ruling out this infection in these patients is considerable.
Background & Objectives: Numerous studies have shown that the risk of death is higher in elderly patients with COVID-19. In Iran, due to the growth of the elderly population and the prevalence of underlying diseases, it is necessary to pay attention to this age group of patients. In this study, clinical, radiological, PCR, and laboratory data of elderly patients with COVID-19 were collected and analyzed in two groups of recovered and dead patients.
Materials & Methods: This is a retrospective study of 196 consecutive elderly patients with COVID-19 hospitalized from March 21, 2020, to April 3, 2020, and their follow-up until April 23, 2021. Clinical characteristics, laboratory results, PCR, chest CT scans and Hounsfield Unit data were collected and analyzed in two groups of recovered and dead patients. Obtained Data were analyzed using SPSSv22.0 and MATLAB-R2017 software.
Results: The results showed that there were no specific symptoms to distinguish the death group from the recovery group. Significant differences were observed between the two groups for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, MCHC and MCV levels, bilirubin, aminotransferase levels, CRP, white blood cells, serum BNU, creatinine and PT coagulation index. The concentrations of VBG (HCO3) and VBG (PCO2) in the deceased patients suggest compensated respiratory alkalosis. CT sensitivity is 100% for patients in advanced and severe stages of the disease.
Conclusion: The patients in the death group had more underlying diseases than the recovered group. COVID-19 patients are more likely to die when they have both diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Background & Objectives: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was confirmed as the cause of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The disease presents with a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms involving vital organs such as the lungs, heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, central nervous system, blood, and kidneys. It also potentially affects other organs, including the placenta.The present systematic review aimed to evaluate effects of SARS-CoV-2 on pregnant women, fetuses, and infants born to infected mothers. Material & Methods: The search fields used in this study were angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor (ACE2), fetus, pregnancy, and SARS-CoV-2. We reviewed articles published in 2020 and 2022. The inclusion criteria were articles on receptor expression, virus entry into the host cell, studies on the characteristics and outcomes of pregnant or recently pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were approved and characteristics and outcomes of infants whose mothers were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Results: The virus uses the ACE2 to enter the cell. The coronavirus can be expected to affect any cell or organ that expresses ACE2. Female reproductive system is one of the systems that express ACE2. The destructive effects of COVID-19 on maternal and fetal health are strongly influenced by the spatial-temporal distribution of ACE2. Conclusion: The harmful role of COVID-19 in pregnancy is highly controversial, although maternal COVID-19 infection contributes to adverse consequences of pregnancy. There is a limited amount of information on the efficacy of COVID-19 on pregnants and their fetuses.
Background & Objective: People who work in closed and underground environments such as mines get radioactive gases into their respiratory system due to the concentration in the air. These radioactive substances, after entering the body’s respiratory system, with radiating energetic particles, damage most of the live cells. The most damaged parts are in the alveolar air cells of the lung which may lead to cancer. Materials & Methods: The absorbed energy and annual effective dose due to the emitted alpha beam of radon and derivatives on alveolar air cells of the adult lung using MCNPX 2.6.0 simulation are determined. Color profiles are shown as a result of simulation of absorbed dose in the 27 alveoli of lung due to alpha radiation of radon and its derivatives. Results: The investigations show that polonium-210 (210Po), as one of the radon derivatives with long life, has the most annual effective absorbed dose in the human lung and as a result can cause the most damage to the living tissue of the alveolar air cells in comparison with the other radon derivatives. After this element, 218Po, 222Rn ,214Po and 214Bi have more the absorbed dose in the human lung, respectively. Conclusion: Most cancers from radon are generated by radon derivatives. They can play an important role in lung damage. Exposure to radon derivatives rises a person's lifetime risk of lung cancer. The risk increases in direct relationship with the length of exposure and the type of radon derivative. For reduction of 210Po is suggested the use of ventilation. It moves outdoor air into the building, and distributes the air within the building.
Background & Objective: An opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause frequent hospital-acquired infections as well as one microorganism in the food spoilage. Also, the emergence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa has become a serious threat to public health.This pathogen has many virulence factors which aid in bacterial invasion as well as toxicity, during infections. Out of different virulence genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, oprL (Encoding membrane lipoprotein L) and toxA (encoding exotoxin A i.e. ETA), are predominantly involved in, P. aeruginosa-related infections. Materials & Methods: A total of 120 specimens of the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected from Veterinary microbiology and various hospital laboratories. The isolates were initially identified by culturing on MacConkey agar and Eosin Methylene blue (EMB) agar and were further characterized by morphological and biochemical tests. An antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out on 13 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Genotypic detection of oprL and toxA genes was performed using a specific PCR test. Results: The results revealed that the toxA gene was detected by 84.62% in isolates belonging to human samples and 75% in the isolates of animal samples, whereas the oprL gene was detected by 80.77% and only 16.67 % in the isolates were derived from human and animal samples, respectively. Conclusion: The PCR analysis can help in the fast and specific detection of oprL and toxA genes in P. aeruginosa. Monitoring of these pathogenic genes could prevent the risk of transmission of multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa, from animals to humans.
Background & Objectives: Beta-thalassemia is one of the complex diseases that causes many social and economic problems for the patient and his family. This study aimed to investigate factors influencing the birth of thalassemia (intermedia or major) in family members with thalassemia major in Sistan and Baluchistan province.Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted by census sampling on 48 families of thalassemia major patients with at least two children with thalassemia (intermedia or major) in their members. Data were collected through direct interviews and a review of patients' documents. The results were analyzed by SPSS (version 22) and Mann-Whitney U, Independent t-test, Wilcoxon, and Chi-square tests.Results: In this study, statistical evaluations showed that the birth of thalassemia in family members with thalassemia major whose mothers are housewives was 100% and in families that had no premarital counseling was 91.7%. There was a significant relationship between variables related to mothers' awareness of thalassemia, including their place of residence and Sistani and Baluchestani ethnics, and the birth of thalassemia in family members with thalassemia major (in both cases, P-value = 0.05); However, there was no significant relationship between other variables related to mothers' awareness such as age groups and maternal education with the birth of thalassemia in family members with thalassemia major (P-Value = 0.98 and P-Value = 0.22, respectively).Conclusion: Informing and educating before marriage for high-risk families with thalassemia children, as well as financial support for low-income families can inform parents, prevent the birth of thalassemia, and improve the quality of life of these patients.
Background & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by demyelination and neuronal dysfunction. The study of the expression of cytokine genes seems to be an appropriate option for assessing their potential for the onset and development of the disease. Therefore, in the present study, changes in the expression of three interleukins (IL-36α, IL-37, and IL-38) in MS and their association with clinical factors were investigated. Material & Methods: In this study, blood samples of 45 MS patients and 45 healthy controls were enrolled. Relative expression of genes was evaluated using the real-time PCR. Finally, the pattern of expression was analyzed by using statistical analyses. In the next step, the relationship between clinical characteristics and IL-36α, IL-37, and IL-38 expression was investigated. Results: The results showed that IL-36α and IL-37 increased in MS patient (1.8 and 3.5 fold respectively, P<0.01). Moreover, a significant reduction in IL-38 was observed in MS samples (0.21 fold, P<0.01). The dysregulation in ILs expression was associated with clinical features. Conclusion: As a result, the two studied IL-1 family members (IL-36α and IL-37) may contribute to the progression of MS, so that increase in their expression is associated with EDSS disability and duration of disease. Another member of IL-1 family, IL-38 has a protective effect on MS diseases, and its downregulation is related to severe disability. Further investigation can help to determine accurate functional role of 3 interleukins in MS development.
Background & Objective: Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women around the world. Attempts to find alternative therapies continue due to therapeutic resistance, side effects, and the high cost of conventional treatments.
Materials & Methods: Hydro-methanolic extract of Ulva lactuca and Hypnea musiformis marine algae was prepared by maceration method. The phenolic content of these extracts was compared using the standard Folin-Ciocateu method and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the FRAP method. The cytotoxic effects of algae were compared using MTT assay and morphological changes were evaluated by an inverted microscope.
Results: The phenolic content of Hypnea musiformis extract (12.46 ± 1.19 µg GAE/mg, P1000 µg/ml after 72h incubation.
Conclusions: Hypnea musiformis had higher cytotoxic effects than Ulva lactuca on MDA-MB-468 cells, probably due to its higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Therefore, it appears that a Hypnea musiformis alga is a better option to continue research on drug discovery of anticancer compounds.
Background & Objective: Breast cancer (BC) is a complex genetic disease that has an average annual incidence of one million people and is the second leading cause of death among women in the world. Therefore, a better understanding of tumor biology and the determination of biomarkers for early diagnosis of disease is essential. MicroRNAs and long non-coding RNAs are novel gene regulators that play key roles in tumor initiation and progression. The current study was performed to assess the biomarker potential. This study performed a combination of in-silico and experimental investigations of altered miRNAs in BC to assess the use of miRNAs as novel biomarkers for early detection and prognosis prediction of patients with BC.
Materials & Methods: We searched the miRNA expression patterns of BC from three expression arrays (GSE58606, GSE38867, and GSE40525,) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to recognize differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) between BC tissues and normal adjacent samples. Using “Limma" package's Quantile Normalization function and INMEX bioinformatic tool, hub DEMs were identified. MiRNAs targeted genes were found and visualized via the miRWalk and miRTargetLink databases and their Enrichment analysis was performed for identified genes. Due to more validation of DEGs, GSE70951, an independent expression array dataset, was analyzed. By merging DEMs and DEGs, miRNA-mRNA network was constructed. After elucidation of hub miRNAs, the capacity of detected miRNAs to differentiate BC from adjacent controls was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Furthermore, RT-qPCR on 100 BC samples and 100 adjacent non-tumor tissues was performed to validate the in-silico results.
Results: According to our study, in BC samples, miR-662 was differentially downregulated in comparison with normal adjacent tissues.
Conclusion: Altogether, miR-662 can be considered as a viable target for BC diagnostics and treatment.
Background & Objective: Lead (Pb) is a major toxicant that has threatened human health for years. There is no safe level of exposure and deposition of a small amount of Pb in the human body has a negative impact on an individual's health. Despite recent reductions in its use, it has caused extensive environmental contamination as well. In the present study, the intralaboratory quality control assessment is reported as an initial step in lead determination by Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).
Materials & Methods: Varian SpectrAA-220 with partition tube and deuterium background correction was used for the analysis. The evaluation quality control blood material was Seronorm trace elements whole blood (levels I &II).
Results: The lowest method limit of detection was 0.74 μg/dL, and based on the regression analysis, the lowest quantification concentration was 3.00 μg/dL (CV = 4.6 %). In addition, obtained %CV for Seronorm (I) & Seronorm (II) was 7.3% & 5.4% respectively.
Conclusion: In recent years, several diverse technological advancements in blood lead level determination have occurred. At the same time, demands for blood lead (BPb) level determination by GFAAS has been increased by public health in order to identify children exposed to lead in the environment, and by occupational health to reduce excessive exposure in the lead industries. The obtained results indicated that for BPb analysis, the method described by GFAAS is still a reference routine analytical technique that requires less time and no matrix matched standard curve, allowing blood samples to be run against aqueous calibration standards which eliminates the need for standard additions.
Background & objective: With the increase in the population of the aged, one of the most crucial issues that can result in serious health consequences is elder abuse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of elder abuse and its subtypes in Iran.
Materials & Methods: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis based on PRISMA guidelines. Relevant keywords were used for database search in Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science. All of the search and data extraction process was conducted independently by two researchers. JBI checklist was used for risk of bias assessment. The data were cleaned and analyzed using Biostat, (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis). The meta-analysis was performed using Random Effects Model, and I2 index was calculated for assessing heterogeneity.
Results: Twenty-three articles were finally analyzed. The data of 6,298 individuals were analyzed, which were significantly heterogeneous (I2= 99.38). The prevalence of elder abuse was 55% (95% CI: 0.42-0.68). The subtype with the highest prevalence was emotional neglect (39%, 95% CI: 0.29-0.50), while the lowest prevalence was related to social rejection (15%, 95% CI: 0.11-0.19)
Conclusion: All types of elder abuse are highly prevalent in Iran. Therefore, it is crucial to develop evidence-based comprehensive plans to better identify, intervene, and prevent this issue.
Background & Objectives: Acrylamide (ACR) is a chemical with toxic effects on various body tissues. The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the level of testicular apoptosis in acrylamide-treated adult rats. Material & Methods: Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. The intact control group was without treatment, the positive control group (PC) received 50 mg/kg ACR by oral gavage, the negative control group (NC) received 40 mg/kg NAC intraperitoneally, the animals in experimental groups of 1 (EXP1), 2 (EXP2) and 3 (EXP3) received 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg NAC intraperitoneally, respectively, and then all groups received 50 mg/kg acrylamide by oral gavage. The treatment period in all groups was 28 days. At the end of the study, FAS mRNA expression level was measured by real-time PCR and testicular tissue was evaluated histopathologically. Results: The PC group showed a significant increase in FAS gene expression level (p<0.05) and spermatogenic degradation compared to the intact control and NC groups. The EXP1 and EXP2 groups showed decrease in FAS gene expression level (p˃0.05) and spermatogenesis improvement in a dose-dependent manner while the EXP3 group exhibited a significant decrease in FAS gene expression level (p˂0.05) and complete spermatogenesis recovery compared to the PC group. Conclusion: The findings indicate that ACR increases apoptosis and destroys spermatogenesis by increasing FAS gene expression levels. In contrast, at the maximum dose (40 mg/kg), NAC could inhibit ACR-induced apoptosis by reducing FAS gene expression and improves spermatogenesis in rats.
Background & Objective: The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and limited treatment options for these infections is a challenging problem in the world. There is increasing interest in isolating bioactive molecules from actinobacteria and elucidating their antimicrobial mechanisms at the moment. The current study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activities of a Nocardia strain (N4) that was previously isolated from the soil samples in Tehran, Iran.
Materials & Methods: The cultural, morphological, and physiological characteristics of the strain were determined and the identity of the strain was confirmed using 16SrRNA gene sequencing. The strain was screened for antimicrobial metabolite production. The in vitro anti-microbial activity of the extracted metabolite was assessed by agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations methods. Finally, the structure of the extracted metabolite was confirmed by HPLC and mass spectrometry methods.
Results: The isolate shared 99% sequence similarity with Nocardia soli. The strain showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Shigella sonnei RI366) and fungi (Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 and Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 1022) in the agar well diffusion method. The ethyl acetate extract of the strain exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against E. coli (MIC= 4.67±3.055 μg/mL) and K. pneumoniae (MIC=3.33±1.155 μg/mL). The metabolite showed high similarity with C21H28N7O14.
Conclusions: The current study confirmed the presence of a bioactive metabolite in strain N4, suggesting that this may be a promising candidate for discovering bioactive components with broad antibacterial activities against a variety of pathogens
Background & Objective: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a global infection and a continuing pandemic. Symptoms have been associated with age, biological sex, and other previous present health situations. The aim of this study was to make a genetic comparison between the SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV using phylogenetic methods. Materials & Methods: In this review study, previously published papers were collected from 2010 to 2020 using electronic sources in reliable databases such as Scopus, PubMed, ISI, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. Then, we performed the bioinformatics study. For sequences alignment, analysis, and phylogenetic construction, all sequences from SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV were obtained from the GeneBank database. Results: Eighty percent of SARS-CoV and 50% of MERS-CoV RNA sequences shared with SARS-CoV-2 RNA and SARS-CoV-2 show additional genomic regions. The phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence shows that SARS-CoV-2 has the highest similarity with SARS-CoV, but it has a lower similarity with MERS-CoV. Considering the close relationship between SARS-2 and SARS, the examination of the amino-corrosive translocation of completely different proteins may prove that there are fundamental and utilitarian differences between SARS-2 and SARS. Conclusion: Although COVID-19 pathogenicity is not well known, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV pathogenesis still can be the best source of COVID-19 information. The global effect of this new epidemic is yet uncertain. So, analyzing genome sequencing is important for epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies.
Background & Objective: Dicer a member of the RNase III endonucleases has a crucial function in the development of miRNAs that affects gene expression in different kinds of cancers. The present research focused on examining the expression level of Dicer and its relation with clinicopathological features in children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) among the population in the northwest region of Iran. Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 140 samples (70 patients and 70 healthy controls of similar age and sex rates) from 2019 to 2021 were included in the Dicer mRNA expression levels assessment. Quantitative Real-Time PCR analyses were utilized to determine expression levels of Dicer in samples and the demographic and clinicopathologic features and the relationship of these variables were evaluated. Results: Average Dicer expression ct values were 2.8267 and up-regulated compared to healthy samples (P=0.000). No significant relationships have been found among gene expression, demographical and clinicopathological parameters. Also, demographical and clinicopathological factors were not correlated with the mRNA expression level of the gene except age (r=0.148, P=0.001). Conclusion: The current research shows that the expression of Dicer is significantly upregulated in ALL patients, which suggests that it could have a vital function in ALL pathology. It will also theoretically be seen in the potential as a new intervention objective for ALL cases.
Background & Objective: Adherence to treatment of patients with diabetic foot ulcer leads to successful treatment and a reduction in the severity of complications. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of peer group-based training on adherence to treatment of adults with diabetic foot ulcers in Shiraz in 2020. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 patients (35 in the intervention group and 35 in the control group). The content of the education program was performed by the peer for the intervention group in 5 sessions of 45 minutes, and the routine education of the diabetes clinic was provided to the control group. Data collection tools included demographic characteristics questionnaire, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). Data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 22 using statistical tests (t-test, ANOVA and Chi-square) and the significance level was considered p<0.05. Results: The mean score of adherence to treatment was significant immediately after the intervention, but there was no significant difference after one and three months. Conclusion: Peer training of patients with diabetic foot ulcers could improve adherence to treatment. Therefore, health system policymakers may use this approach as an effective method in the care program of patients with diabetic foot ulcers and other diseases.
Background & Objective: Although dental composites have undergone a high level of development in recent years, there are still difficulties including microleakage. The incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) in dental materials can produce antibacterial effects, but the effect of TiO2 NPs on microleakage has not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to determine the effect of TiO2 NPs incorporation in the universal single bond and pretreatment with them on microleakage of clV cavities using both total-etch and self-etch approaches. Materials & Methods: Standard clV cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of the sixty non-carious human molar teeth. The restoration of samples was carried out with 6 different methods and randomly divided into six groups of ten subjects. Microleakage in both gingival and occlusal margins was determined after placement in 2% basic fuschin solution for 24h. Biocompatibility of a universal single bond was evaluated by MTT assay. Results: In both occlusal and gingival margins in all groups, the application of TiO2 NPs was better than no application. We observed the relatively low cytotoxic effect of TiO2 NPs incorporated in the universal adhesive on NIH-3T3 cell viability. Conclusion: Regarding the limitations of the present investigation, using TiO2 NPs with both total-etch and self-etch approaches to universal single bond may lead to a decrease in the microleakage of resin composite restorations.
Background & Objective: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in humans, which appears as sudden, episodic, repetitive, and unpredictable seizures, and these patients suffer from memory impairment. Medicinal herbs have long been used to treat epilepsy. In this study, the impact of effective oleuropein on the time of arising of attacks and the rate of attack’s incidence of tonic, clonic, tonic-clonic, and total seizure longevity in male rats was investigated. Materials & Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10. The negative control group (the recipient of normal saline), the positive control group (the recipient of diazepam 1 mg/kg), and the two treatment groups (the recipient of doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg of oleuropein). After 30 min of oleuropein administration, saline, or diazepam, pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally into rats’ bodies at a dose of 85 mg/kg, and 30 min after injection, seizure parameters were evaluated. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s statistical tests. Results: Injection of the oleuropein significantly increased the threshold of seizures in the form of initial delay at the arising of seizure in the positive control group and treatment groups (P< 0.001). Furthermore, it reduces the time of seizures in different phases (P< 0.001). In addition, a dose of 10 mg/kg oleuropein has the highest effect on total seizure longevity. Conclusion: This study showed that oleuropein has an appropriate anti-seizure effect and future studies appear to be necessary for further understanding of the mechanism.