8 Ss (paid volunteer males, ages 17-27) were placed in the information-gathering sleep situation for 57 (nonconsecutive) nights. Ss were awakened during various stages of sleep (determined by EEG and eye movement activity), and the content of their dream or thoughts at the time of the awakening explored. Mental activity (dreaming, thinking) was reported at all levels of sleep. Reports during periods of rapid eye movement (REM) revealed more statements involving affective, visual, and muscular content with less correspondence to residue of S's waking life, than in non-REM periods. Results are related to Freudian theory of dreams.
Content analysis of children's readers from schools in the United States demonstrated a rise in achievement imagery from 1800 to about 1900 and then a steady decline A steady decline over the period 1800-1950 was found in the amount of moral teaching in readers [and] an increase in affiliation imagery the data correspond with certain cultural trends pointed out by students of cultural change.
After the termination of their therapy experience, 32 clients were followed up an average of 20 months. Of the 90% of the cases who received aid, therapeutic gains were "relatively complete" in 60%. Gains made fell short of the client's aspirations in the other 30% of the cases. The experienced professional counsellor was found more effective than the student counsellor. Pre-therapy prognoses checked with follow-up evaluations in 60% of the cases. A wide range of differences was found between individual clients. "Ultimate success or failure of therapy cannot be adequately ascertained at the termination of the therapy relation." Passage of time is a necessary prerequisite to validation.
It was found that leaders of a group are significantly superior to non-leaders and isolates in their ability to judge group opinion on familiar and relevant issues, the difference between leaders and isolates being usually greater than the difference between leaders and non-leaders." It is further concluded that in certain groups the ability to be a good judge of others' attitudes is a necessary but not a sufficient condition of being chosen for leadership.
Chronic schizophrenic varied their level of expected performance in another task directly with their manipulated perceived ability. Also their rate of volunteering was related to perceived ability only when the expected task was harder but one in which their abilities had already been tested Better adjusted patients volunteered more often than "sicker' ones for competitions on the same tasks and same-but-harder tasks, but voting had no association with the presumed "sickness' of the person voted for.
It is concluded that guidance serves not only as a form of therapy for abnormal fixations, but also has a prophylactic value in reducing stereotypy and in reducing the tendency in rats to fixate when subsequently placed in stressful situations.
The effects of father-absence on boys and girls was investigated in Norwegian (sailor) families where the father was absent for 1 or 2 years and "compared with otherwise similar (Norwegian) families (of the same area) in which the father was present. The following hypotheses were made and generally supported by the findings: father-absent boys would show immaturity Being insecure in their identification with the father, father-absent boys would show stronger strivings toward father-identification [and] compensatory masculinity would demonstrate poorer peer/adjustment [and] father-absent girls would become more dependent on the mother than would father-present girls."
Scales of general anxiety (Taylor, Welsh, and Freeman) and of anxiety specific to academic situations (Mandler-Sarason, Achievement Anxiety Test) were administered to college freshmen. Academic achievement included verbal aptitude, the Scholastic Aptitude Test, overall grade-point average, and performance in psychology courses. The 2 tests of specific anxiety were seen to be measuring something different than the more general tests and were differentially related to academic performance. "Facilitating" vs. "debilitating" anxiety was distinguished. Results are related to the general body of knowledge in area. (18 ref.)
Subjects were requested to estimate the diameter of two coins differing in size and value, and presented successively. Unfamiliar coins of identical sizes, similar design, and identical texture and brightness were used as control stimuli. The results show that judged differences between the current coins are significantly larger than the judged differences between the control stimuli, and provide evidence that this phenomenon is much more consistent and clear-cut than simple overestimation due to value.
The categories used when Ss select their number and labels were studied in a 2 X 2 X 2 design as a function of latitudes of acceptance prevailing in 2 populations (American Indian and non-Indian), the range of the stimulus series, and the social value of the objects. Category widths and scale centers used by Ss from the 2 populations for neutral series (numerals) did not differ significantly, but those for valued series (monetary values) did. When the valued series range exceeded the latitude of acceptance (independently estimated), the assimilation of higher values which occurred was limited by initial population differences in latitude of acceptance. More discrepant values were accumulated into a broad objectionable category (contrast). (25 ref.)
Male and female college students were compared in regard to their cognitive behavior (Witkin's Embedded Figure Test [see ^W28:^n 8566]), and this related to parental identification and acceptance of authority. It was hypothesized that Ss who identify with fathers would also be more field-dependent and demonstrate a low degree of acceptance of authority. The groups were not differentiated on the above characteristics as regards their sex; more women than men in this sample identified with father and vice versa. Acceptance of authority and field-dependence/independence were significantly correlated. The hypotheses were only partially supported.
The relationship between primacy and recency of communication and familiarity with the topic were explored. Attitudes were measured of high school students towards an article on a controversial subject written from both a pro and a con standpoint. Attempts to establish primacy and recency effects failed.
In criticizing previous research regarding the associated dimensions to acceptance of self, Levy (1956) suggested that future research should require Ss to describe a series of specific objects rather than the "average other person," and for E to offer a theoretical formulation to predict the nature of expected results; this research was designed to answer such a critique. The self, father, and teacher were considered the specific objects; the theoretical frame of reference: learning theory. Acceptance of self was predicted to be a function of perceived similarity (PS), degree of self-dissatisfaction, and involvement. In this study, only PS was found to be related. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4HJ37S.
Though previous work by Hoffman (see ^W34:^n 954) had demonstrated that higher quality solutions to problems were produced by heterogeneous groupings of people (in terms of personality) than homogeneous, the present research was prompted by the question as to the generalizability of the findings. This study attempts to find where the results relate to situations which enhance group differences in terms of value or attitude held. Even on problems designed to produce emotional conflict, the heterogeneous groups proved to be more effective in problem solving. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4GE01H.
Ss were placed in a situation wherein they were led to expect to experience ESP phenomena. To report no ESP reception led to the experience of electric shock. It was hypothesized that to reduce the cognitive dissonance that had been created, S would reject belief in ESP thereby justifying the experience of the shock. Belief in ESP, before and after the experimental conditions, was determined from an attitude scale regarding this phenomenon (Fishbein & Raven, 1959). The results supported the hypothesis, particularly with regard to the females, less so for the males. It was assumed that males had greater tolerance for the shock, hence the divided findings.
A study was conducted to test the relationship between competence on a group task and conformity or nonconformity to procedural norms in determining a person's ability to influence other group members Influence was measured by the number of trials in which the confederate's recommended solution was accepted as the group's choice a significant increase in his influence occurred as the trials progressed Past conformity was also found to be positively and significantly related to the acceptance of his influence there was a statistically significant interaction between past and current nonconformity." From Psyc Abstracts 36:02:2GE65H.
It was predicted that degree of self-acceptance (SA) and defensiveness (D) interact to influence the expression of hostility. It was hypothesized that Ss with low D and high SA (the adjustive) would express strongest feelings of anger with little anxiety associated with feelings of anger, while the high D/high SA person (the repressive) would express least anger, and the low D/low SA person (the anxious) would reveal high aggression-anxiety. Degree of SA was predicted to be inversely related to displacement of hostility. Ss (college students) were exposed to a frustrating situation (failure in a test situation with concomitant insult). The results generally supported the hypotheses.
Retrospective accounts of child rearing obtained from parents of 3-year-olds were compared with reports they previously gave in the course of a longitudinal study begun with the birth of the child. The parents were quite inaccurate in their memory of details about child rearing practices and early development progress, in spite of the frequent rehearsal of these data due to their participation in the longitudinal study, and in spite of the relatively young age of the children. In-accuracies were greatest for items dealing with the age of weaning and toilet training, the occurrence of thumbsucking, and demand feeding. Inaccuracies tended to be in the direction of the recommendations of experts in child rearing, especially on the part of the mothers. In general, mothers recalled more correctly than fathers. (20 ref.)
Ss with strong prejudices were no more capable of identifying names as being more or less Jewish than Ss who were not so prejudiced. "The present negative results are consistent with the fact that properly controlled photographic studies have been uniformly negative. It seems reasonable to conclude that the hypothesis that prejudice increases accuracy of identification of Jews may be safely put to rest."
A total of 271 individuals in a home for indigent aged were asked their age and date of birth. Significant differences were noted. Reported birthdates were more consistent than reported ages, although they were more difficult to recall. "Computation of an age by the interviewer from the reported birthdate appears to be more desirable than the acceptance of a statement of age." Few persons questioned were aware of disagreement in their replies. "There was no evidence that discrepancies in age statements were more frequent in the older individuals."
Results of the [the authors'] previous research [see ^W34:^n 7621] indicated that there is some degree of generality in accuracy of interpersonal perception or judging ability. Four replication studies of the original research were carried out, with the measures of judging ability being somewhat revised after the first of these studies. In the three subsequent studies using the revised measures, the average interinstrument correlation between different measures of judging ability was .25 and the average corrected part-whole correlation between individual judging instruments and a Total Judging score was .41. Since both of these correlations are significant at the .001 level, we conclude that these studies confirm the previous findings of a low but consistent degree of generality of judging ability." From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4HJ46C.
After viewing filmed interviews, judges made predictions in regard to behavior which would be subsequent to certain stated conditions, personality traits, how an opinion might be expressed by the observed S, and how the observed S might complete certain sentences. A general ability to perceive others accurately was isolated, and seen to be related to the factor of "sensitivity to the generalized other" and "interpersonal sensitivity." The relationship to related empirical and theoretical work is discussed.
In subliminal perception experiments some response shows discriminative accuracy at stimulus values below the threshold of awareness determined by classical psychophysical techniques. The procedure is objectionable because the threshold measure admits extraneous variance that the measure of "subliminal accuracy' does not This experiment compares the discriminative accuracy of GSR and verbal response when assessed by the same forced-choice psychophysical technique." Results indicated "the verbal response showed significantly higher correlation with the stimulus than did the GSR neither response was significantly more accurate than the other.
2 previous investigations (Clark, et al, 1956, and Atkinson, 1958) found contradictory results in using degree of aspiration to predict S's response to McClelland's TAT of need for achievement (N Achiev). Clark, et al concluded that degree of aspiration would be negatively related to development of anxiety; that those who hoped for success (HS) and those who feared failure (FF) were genotypically different with regard to anxiety over goal attainment but phenotypically similar in regard to N Achiev. Atkinson concluded the reverse. To settle the dispute, Taylor MA scale was administered along with selected TAT cards to college Ss. No relationship was found between the HS-FF continuum and TAT scores, suggesting that the position of Clark, et al, was more correct. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4HJ65R.
the following hypotheses are investigated: persons in whom the motive to achieve success is stronger than the motive to avoid failure (a) should prefer tasks of intermediate difficulty, (b) should show greater persistence in working at an achievement related task, and (c) should show more efficiency, or a higher level of accomplishment, than persons in whom the motive to avoid failure is stronger [Results] support the hypotheses." 3 measures of achievement related motives were not found to be correlated. "These results highlight the importance of discovering why different methods of measuring apparently the same human motive do not yield comparable results." 30 refs.
From a list of 40 occupations, 67 male undergraduates were asked (a) which occupation was nearest the one they intended to strive for, (b) what satisfaction could be expected from each occupation listed, (c) which were realistically attainable, and (d) which would they settle for if the stress of occupational achievement could be avoided. As fear of failure (FF) increased (a) the prestige of aspired-to occupations decreased, (b) willingness to settle for less satisfying and less prestigeful occupations increased, and (c) the person became more likely to perceive that occupations with extremely low probabilities of attainment were within his reach. Effects of achievement motivation were very weak but generally in a direction opposite to that of FF.
first born persons have a higher need for achievement than later born persons; first born females exhibit greater resistance to influence and first born males exhibit less resistance to influence than later born males." The results are explained in terms of the psychological significance of order of birth.
The present research extends the knowledge of that found in other investigations (Levine, et al, 1957, 1959; Singer, et al, 1956; Spivack, et al, 1959) regarding the capacity to delay gratification and the implication for ego psychology. The present research utilizes direct measures of approach to delay or not immediate gratification, as gleaned from a conflict situation, and relates this to need for achievement (as measured from fantasy material as described by McClelland, et al, 1953) and acquiescence (Bass, 1956). Trinidadian Ss were utilized; the postulated positive relationship between the capacity for delay and the need for achievement, and the inverse relationship between capacity to delay and acquiescence, were found. The study also points up a methodologically simple way of getting at capacity for delay which may be used cross-culturally. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4HJ43M.
The relationship of need achievement, as measured by McClelland et al (1953), to recall of meaningful material, as measured by Reitman's (1954) recall coding system, was investigated in male volunteers from a class in elementary psychology. Various degrees of need achievement appeared related to quantity of recall and nature of material (fear of failure stories). "The paper discusses the relevance of the results to the theory and use of n Achivement measures and considers the relation of these experiments to research on vigilance and defense." From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3HJ42R.
This study was concerned with the effects of n Ach and Test Anxiety on risk taking behavior and subjective probability of success in a sequential decision task. The principal findings were as follows: Ss who scored high on n Ach and low on Test Anxiety tended to make their decisions in the intermediate quartiles of the distribution of reported confidence at the trial of decision more often than Ss who scored high in Test Anxiety and low in n Ach. High n Ach tends to bias the overall level of subjective probability of success upward. Ss who scored high in n Ach and low in Test Anxiety tended to increase confidence rapidly up to the level of 50% confidence and then decrease their rate of increase in confidence after the 50% level of confidence has been attained in comparison to Ss who scored low in n Ach and high in Test Anxiety.
The present study derives from previous work in this area with which the author was involved (see 33: 7674). Herein, the effects of picture cues, picture order, individual vs. group administration, measures of performance on certain tasks, and varying kinds of instructions on TAT stories were investigated. "Motivating" instructions and high ACE Q scores were significantly correlated with high performance on the problems; predictions in regard to characteristics of motive and performance were made but not supported by the data of the TAT stories. The study is related to others in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
"In three samples of college students, it was found that subjects with a low score on achievement orientation (from a brief TAT) indicated more often initial autokinetic movement to the right than subjects with high need for achievement. A tentative explanation was offered concerning the manner in which differences in achievement motivation might be translated into differences in the autokinetic measure." From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4HJ64F. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Sullivanian theory was quoted as assuming that a person's mode of relating himself to others enables him to minimize the experience of anxiety in these interpersonal relations. On the basis that some people are primarily dominant (D) and others submissive (S) in interpersonal relationships, an experimental design was constructed so as to test the hypothesis that the most propitious pairing of these was D with S and each playing their habitual role. The measure of successful integration was a problem solving situation. Ss were assigned to role congruent and dissonant with their habitual modes and paired with naturally and experimentally similar and dissimilar Ss. The results confirmed the hypothesis that "congruence of role and habitual pattern within the subject and complementarity of patterns as between subjects were major determining variables in cooperative achievement." From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4CN35S.
This investigation examines the effects of S's motivation to achieve success or avoid failure (measured from TAT), his preception of the degree of difficulty of the task, and his probability of success upon continued attempts (persistence) to solve a given problem. Substantiating hypotheses derived from Atkinson's theory (1957, 1958), the results indicated that persistence occurs when motivation to achieve and anticipation of success are high, or when motivation to avoid failure and anticipation of failure are high.
This study investigates the relationship between self-esteem and the recall and repetition of success and failure experiences groups were selected on the basis of their self-evaluative responses and an evaluation of their self-esteem behaviors. The combinations of these two variables, at their extremes, yielded significantly different patterns on such variables as achievement, ideal self, and sociometric status, and apparently represent distinct types of self-esteem two factors [appear] necessary for the recall and repetition of failure the ability to tolerate failure and the motivation and striving to overcome its effects.
Genetic theories of personality assume that adult patterns of attitude and behavior are established at an early age. To test this assumption, with regard to the striving for achievement of some skill and for social recognition, one psychologist studied the longitudinal information from birth to 14 years of Ss from the Fels Research Institute population, another, interviewed each S. Each rated Ss on these 2 needs. A measure of mother's attempted acceleration of developmental skills during the early period of life was also obtained. The results confirmed the hypothesis. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4HJ04M.
Male students estimated their chances of success before performing an anagrams task. 3 reported probabilities of success (.20, .50, and .80) were combined with 3 lengths of the puzzle (8, 11, and 14 anagrams), and 14 Ss were randomly assigned to each of the 9 experimental conditions. Probability estimates were found to increase as reported probabilities increased (p < .001) and as the list of anagrams became shorter (p < .025). Ss tended to overestimate chances of success for the .20 reported probability and to underestimate chances for the .80 reported probability (p < .001). Probability estimates were negatively related to debilitating anxiety (p < .05) and positively related to facilitating anxiety (p < .025), but correlations were very low. Results are taken to indicate the dominant role of past experience in shaping present expectations. (34 ref.)
to determine the effect of motivational differences on play in a competitive three-person game where initial strength of participation varies. In each of 20 groups, one member was high in achievement but low in nurturance, one high in nurturance but low in achievement and one intermediate in both variables. Each group played 12 games, three each of four types of power pattern. Performance was analyzed in terms of coalitions and final outcome It is suggested that the person high in achievement employs a strategy, adapted to immediately relevant conditions, that serves to capitalize upon his assets.
2 groups of female high school students (40 achievers and 40 underachievers, matched for IQ) were exposed to 2 experimental conditions (Neutral and Achievement Oriented) and 2 types of pictures (those depicting males and those depicting females). The overall effect of the experimental achievement arsousal conditions for all girls was nonsignificant. However, a highly significant 2nd-order interaction effect was obtained: the achievement motivation scores of achievers increased significantly in response to Achievement Oriented conditions when they produced stories to pictures of females but did not increase in response to pictures of males; by contrast, the achievement motivation scores of underachievers increased significantly in response to Achievement Oriented conditions when they produced stories to pictures of males but did not increase in response to pictures of females. (43 ref.)
Mental health is defined in transactional terms, i.e., in terms of the intent of an individual towards equality or mutuality of achievement in relating to others. 4 levels of mutual achievement striving are described and a continuum composed of 8 varieties of intention-transactions is offered. Case histories of 64 patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital were examined to isolate events which could be evaluated in terms of the intention-transaction dimension. Each S was assigned a score on this continuum which reflected his degree of "mental health," and these scores were then compared to a measure of severity of mental illness (see ^W35:^n 6569), psychiatric diagnosis, type of treatment recommended, and outcome of treatment. Intention-transaction scores correlated positively with the variables.
In the present study, performance on two lists of verbal paired-associates learning materials is used to examine the role of n Achievement as a possible drive variable Ss high in EPPS n Achievement demonstrated significant superiority over low n Achievers in verbal learning situations.
In this, his Presidential Address to the Division of Evaluation and Measurement of the American Psychological Association, September 1960, the author reviews the research pertinent to the measurement of the dimensions of "social desirability" and "acquiescent response set." Results of new data derived from an analysis of responses to the MMPI were presented to indicate the validity of the explanation in terms of the dimension of social desirability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
The degree to which acquiescent response set (ARS), as measured psychometrically, is related to behavioral acquiescence, was investigated. Performance on paper-and-pencil tests of acquiescence was found to be related to conformity and compliance in a social situation. The 2 assumed measures of "acquiescence" were not related statistically. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4HF55F. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
"This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale , structurally identical to the F scale, is similarily vulnerable to acquiescent response bias." Administration of acquiescent response scales, the F Scale, and the Dogmatism scale to a population of adult neurotics revealed a high intercorrelation, which supports the hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)