Journal of AOAC International

Published by AOAC International
Print ISSN: 1060-3271
Publications
A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of detecting low contamination levels of Salmonella in peanut butter using the 1-2 Test. This study was conducted under the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program. A set of samples was analyzed by the 1-2 Test and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference method. Among the 90 total samples and controls, 32 samples were positive by the 1-2 Test and the reference method. Statistical analyses of these paired samples indicated that for all levels analyzed, the difference between the 1-2 Test and reference method results were not statistically different at the 5% level.
 
For the control of the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle via feedstuff, a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with ruminant-specific Bov-B SINE primers, SYBR Green fluorescence detection, and melting curve analysis. In formulated cattle and chicken feed samples spiked with pure bovine and sheep meat and bone meal heated at 133 degrees C for 20 min, a contamination level of 0.1% was detected.
 
A collaborative study was conducted on a method for the measurement of 19 low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The pesticide residues determined were 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (2,4'-DDD); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD); alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; dieldrin; aldrin; ethion; chlorpyrifos; beta-endosulfan; malathion; methyl-parathion; a-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH); beta-HCH; delta-HCH; and gamma-HCH. Blind fortification solutions containing 4 different levels of pesticide residues (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mu g/L) were provided to 8 collaborating laboratories who used them to create test samples in 6 matrixes (also provided): 2 colas, a diet cola, a clear lemon-lime soft drink, an orange soft drink, and a sports drink. Reproducibility (RSDR) for all 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 7 to 151% at the 0.1 mu g/L level, 11 to 121% at 0.5 mu g/L, and 14 to 67% at 1.0 mu g/L. Repeatability (RSDr), applicable to the diet cola and the sports drink, ranged from 1 to 76% for the 19 pesticide residues at the 0.1 mu g/L level, 9 to 38% at 0.5 mu g/L, and 9 to 38% at 1.0 mu g/L. Recoveries for the 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 77 to 645% at the 0.1 mu g/L level, 60 to 231 % at 0.5 mu g/L, and 61 to 146% at 1.0 mu g/L. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC as Official First Action with a limit of quantification (LOQ) equal to 0.5 mu g/L for 4,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDD; 4,4'-DDE; 4,4'-DDD; 2,4'-DDE; aldrin; dieldrin; a-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; chlorpyrifos; and ethion, and an LOQ equal to 1.0 mu g/L for beta-endosulfan; alpha-HCH; beta-HCH; delta-HCH; gamma-HCH; methyl-parathion; and malathion.
 
A modification to Performance-Tested MethodSM 010403, GeneQuence Listeria Test (DNAH method), is described. The modified method uses a new media formulation, LESS enrichment broth, in single-step enrichment protocols for both foods and environmental sponge and swab samples. Food samples are enriched for 2730 h at 30C, and environmental samples for 2448 h at 30C. Implementation of these abbreviated enrichment procedures allows test results to be obtained on a next-day basis. In testing of 14 food types in internal comparative studies with inoculated samples, there were statistically significant differences in method performance between the DNAH method and reference culture procedures for only 2 foods (pasteurized crab meat and lettuce) at the 27 h enrichment time point and for only a single food (pasteurized crab meat) in one trial at the 30 h enrichment time point. Independent laboratory testing with 3 foods showed statistical equivalence between the methods for all foods, and results support the findings of the internal trials. Overall, considering both internal and independent laboratory trials, sensitivity of the DNAH method relative to the reference culture procedures was 90.5. Results of testing 5 environmental surfaces inoculated with various strains of Listeria spp. showed that the DNAH method was more productive than the reference U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) culture procedure for 3 surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and cast iron), whereas results were statistically equivalent to the reference method for the other 2 surfaces (ceramic tile and sealed concrete). An independent laboratory trial with ceramic tile inoculated with L. monocytogenes confirmed the effectiveness of the DNAH method at the 24 h time point. Overall, sensitivity of the DNAH method at 24 h relative to that of the USDA-FSIS method was 152. The DNAH method exhibited extremely high specificity, with only 1 false-positive reactions overall.
 
Stability study results for the GeneQuence Listeria Test. Tests were conducted with kit reagents at several time points post-manufacture, up to 26 weeks. Assay results in A 450 are shown. PC 1:5 and PC 1:25 = kit positive control diluted 1:5 and 1:25 in PBS, respectively; NC = kit negative control. 
Exclusivity testing results 
(continued) 
Results of independent laboratory testing of naturally contaminated environmental samples; comparison of the DNA hybridization method and the USDA culture method 
(continued) 
A new DNA hybridization assay in microwell format for detection of Listeria spp. in foods and environmental samples was developed. This assay uses Listeria-specific oligonucleotide probes labeled with horseradish peroxidase and a photometrically determined end point. Validation studies with 15 different food commodities and a variety of environmental sample types were conducted to compare the performance of this alternative test versus reference methods. Meats, seafood, dairy products, and vegetables comprised the categories of food tested. Food samples were inoculated at 2 levels and refrigerated or frozen for at least 72 h. Uninoculated (negative) control samples were included in each trial. Samples were enriched according to the procedure recommended by either the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Samples enriched for 24 h were transferred to Oxford agar plates and incubated for 24 h. The surface of the plates was then swabbed and any growth present was transferred to phosphate buffer solution for the performance of the DNA assay. A standard confirmation procedure was used to compare the number of positive samples obtained with the DNA method versus reference methods. Statistical analyses of the results indicate that the proposed alternative method performs equally to cultural reference methods. The DNA assay is able to detect as low as 1 colony-forming unit of Listeria in a 25 g food sample, with results available as early as 48 h after the start of sample enrichment.
 
A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of detecting low contamination levels of Salmonella in peanut butter using TRANSIA PLATE Salmonella Gold (TPSG). This study was conducted under the AOAC Emergency Response Validation program. A set of samples was each analyzed by the TPSG method and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference method. Among the 45 total samples and controls, 26 were positive by the TPSG and 24 were positive by the reference method. Statistical analyses of these unpaired samples indicated that for all levels analyzed, the difference between the TPSG and reference method results were not statistically different at the 5% level.
 
The FoodChek E. coli P157 assay [AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Method (PTM) 060902] is a rapid detection system that incorporates the use of antibody-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a lateral flow immunoassay format. The system comprises a commercially available enrichment medium, a magnetic nanoparticle immunoassay, and an automated reader for detection. Assay detection threshold is improved relative to traditional immunoassays through use of a magnetic nanoparticle label and a highly sensitive magnetic particle detector. FoodChek E. coli O157 is a reintroduction of the previously certified AOAC PTM 010603. The original assay was evaluated and approved in internal and independent laboratory studies. Vacci-Test Corp. has contracted with the original supplier of the PTM to remanufacture the test under identical conditions and with identical raw materials. This report is intended to show that FoodChek E. coli is identical in performance to the previously approved PTM. The results showed no difference for the parameters evaluated. Three kit lots along with three lots of media and media supplement were compared in lot-to-lot and stability testing. The results indicated no difference in performance across the three lots. The results showed sensitivity of > 99% and a specificity rate of > 98% for the FoodChek method and a significantly higher sensitivity than the reference method.
 
Main operating steps when performing a Delvotest SP NT DA analysis.
Confirmation of the test sensitivity of the Delvotest SP NT DA a
Influence of bacteria cells on the Delvotest SP NT DA a
Delvotest SP NT DA is designed to test milk for the presence of antibacterial substances, such as antibiotics. The test is made of an agar gel containing bacterial spores and a color indicator. The milk sample is added onto the agar gel, and the test is incubated at 64 degrees C. The principle of the test is based on the diffusion of possible inhibitory substances that may be present in the milk sample into agar. This reduces growth and acid production by the test organism, and delays or prevents the agar from changing color from purple to yellow. The Delvotest Accelerator is an automated system in which the plates containing the milk to be analyzed are placed for incubation. The Accelerator automatically detects the end of the incubation and reads the results. A sample containing antibiotic will be noted as "positive." A sample without antibiotics or with antibiotics at concentrations below detection level will be noted as "negative." The present report includes all technical details about the Delvotest SP NT DA, and the results of the validation study. The validation study demonstrates that the Delvotest SP NT DA conforms to the product performance claims and confirms the robustness of the test. The Delvotest SP NT DA is, therefore, granted Performance Tested Method certification.
 
Delvotest SP NT is designed to test milk for the presence of antibacterial substances such as antibiotics. The test is made of an agar gel containing bacterial spores and a pH indicator. The milk sample is added onto the agar gel, and the test is placed for incubation at 64 degrees C. The principle of the test is based on the diffusion of possible inhibitory substances that may be present in the milk sample into the agar. This reduces growth and acid production by the test organism and delays or prevents the agar from changing color from purple to yellow. The present report includes all technical details about the Delvotest SP NT and the results of the validation study. The validation study demonstrates that the Delvotest SP NT conforms to the product performance claims and confirms the robustness of the test. The Delvotest SP NT is therefore granted Performance Tested Method(SM) certification.
 
Schematic summary illustrating steps involved in the comparison of NIHSJ-02 and ISO 10272-1:2006; 60 × 88 mm (300 × 300 DPI). 
Probability of detection of Campylobacter and background bacteria a NIHSJ-02 
For the surveillance of the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw chicken products in Japan, a qualitative method, National Institute of Health Sciences Japan (NIHSJ)-02, was developed as an alternative to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 10272-1:2006. In the NIHSJ-02 culture method, the enrichment step is carried out in a reduced volume of Preston broth at 42 +/- 1 degrees C to reduce cost and space, and to prevent the overgrowth of background bacteria. To evaluate the performance of NIHSJ-02, a collaborative study was conducted, and the results obtained by NIHSJ-02 were compared with those obtained using the reference method, ISO 10272-1:2006. Fifteen laboratories participated; each examined 48 minced chicken samples consisting of test samples uninoculated, inoculated with C. jejuni at a low or high level, and inoculated with C. coli at a low level. The average probabilities of detection by NIHSJ-02 across laboratories were 0.033, 0.222, 0.678, and 0.267 in samples uninoculated, inoculated with C. jejuni at a low and high level, and with C. coli at a low level, respectively. Those by ISO 10272-1:2006 were 0.051, 0.128, 0.551, and 0.090. Significantly higher probabilities of detection were determined by NIHSJ-02 compared to ISO 10272-1:2006, except for uninoculated samples. On the other hand, significantly lower frequency of occurrence of background bacteria was observed by NIHSJ-02 (43.1%) compared with ISO 10272-1:2006 (92.6%). NIHSJ-02 showed better performance than ISO 10272-1:2006 with regard to the selective detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in chicken.
 
BBL CHROMagar Salmonella was evaluated by an external food testing laboratory for the recovery of Salmonella in peanut butter using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) procedure. The peanut butter was found to be negative for the presence of Salmonella and, therefore, was seeded with heat-stressed Salmonella at target concentrations of 0.2 and 2 CFU/25 g. The Salmonella-seeded samples remained at room temperature for 14 days before analysis to stabilize the Salmonella in the food environment. Twenty 25 g test portions from each seeded level and five 25 g samples of uninoculated control samples were processed using enrichment broths as outlined in the FDA-BAM procedure. BBL CHROMagar Salmonella-prepared plates were evaluated with the FDA reference method media (bismuth sulfite, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agars). Fractionally positive results were obtained from the lower inoculum level of peanut butter samples. Five positive cultures were recovered from both the BBL CHROMagar Salmonella and reference methods. The two methods gave identical results for all cultures resulting in a method agreement of 100%. McNemar's chi2 test, which assesses the evidence for difference in marginal proportions between two methods, could not be evaluated because it requires one or more discrepant cultures. However, because there were no discrepant cultures, the marginal proportions for the two methods were identical; therefore, there is no evidence of a difference between the methods. This study demonstrates that the results from BBL CHROMagar Salmonella are comparable to the three reference method media for the detection of Salmonella in peanut butter using the FDA-BAM procedures.
 
Peanut butter spiked with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium was prepared by an independent laboratory and sent to Applied Biosystems to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan Salmonella enterica Detection Kit for detecting Salmonella in peanut butter. The samples were spiked at three levels: five no-spike (0 CFU/25 g); 20 low-spike (0.2 CFU/25 g); and 20 high-spike (2 CFU/25 g). They were coded to create a blind set of 45 samples. The samples were processed based on an unpaired test design that included enrichment in buffered peptone water for the candidate method and lactose broth for the reference method. In the candidate method, a 1 mL aliquot of enriched sample was extracted using PrepMan Ultra Sample Preparation Reagent; the sample was amplified on the Applied Biosystems 7500 real-time PCR system, and analyzed for detection of Salmonella using RapidFinder Version 1.0 software. All samples processed by the candidate method were confirmed by culture according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures. Sensitivity, specificity, and Chi-square analysis were calculated by combining candidate method results with those of the reference method that were collected by the independent laboratory. The TaqMan Salmonella enterica Detection Kit showed 40% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and a Chi-square value equal to 1.52. Chi-square analysis indicated the candidate method and the reference method were comparable. Although the candidate method sensitivity was only 40% when compared with the reference method (unpaired samples), the sensitivity was > 100% when the candidate method results were compared with those of the confirmation method (same sample enrichment).
 
A method modification study was conducted for the VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) assay (AOAC Performance Tested Method 020901) using the EasySLM method to validate a matrix extension for peanut butter. The VIDAS EasySLM method is a simple enrichment procedure compared to traditional Salmonella methods, requiring only pre-enrichment and a single selective enrichment media, Salmonella Xpress 2 (SX2) broth. SX2 replaces the two selective broths in traditional methods and eliminates the M broth transfer, incubation, and subsequent pooling of M broths prior to VIDAS assay. The validation study was conducted under the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program. VIDAS SLM was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) method for detection of S. enterica ser. Typhimurium in peanut butter. All peanut butter samples were prepared, blind-coded, and shipped to the method developers' laboratory by Q Laboratories. In addition, Q Laboratories performed most probable number and reference method analyses on peanut butter samples. The VIDAS EasySLM ChromID Salmonella (SM2) Agar was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella in roast beef, raw ground pork, turkey, pork sausage, raw chicken breast, dry pet food, whole milk, ice cream, bagged spinach, shrimp (raw, peeled), raw cod, spent irrigation water, pecans, peanut butter, dry pasta, cake mix, ground black pepper, nonfat dry milk, liquid eggs, cantaloupe, and orange juice. In the matrix extension study for peanut butter, the VIDAS EasySLM method was shown to be equivalent to the appropriate reference culture procedure using both buffered peptone water pre-enrichment and the FDA-BAM lactose pre-enrichment in the two-step enrichment method with SX2 media. The current study extends the validation to include peanut butter.
 
Salmonella, one of the most common causes of foodborne illness, is a significant public health concern worldwide. There is a need in the food industry for methods that are simple, rapid, and sensitive for the detection of foodborne pathogens. In this study, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonella, was evaluated according to the current AOAC guidelines. The validation consisted of lot-to-lot consistency, stability, robustness, and inclusivity/exclusivity studies, as well as a method comparison of 10 different food matrixes. In the validation, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit was used in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems StepOnePlus PCR system and the Samsung Food Testing Software for the detection of Salmonella species. The performance of the assays was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG) 4.05: Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg, and Catfish and the and U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference methods. The validation was conducted using an unpaired study design for detection of Salmonella spp. in raw ground beef, raw pork, raw ground pork, raw chicken wings, raw salmon, alfalfa sprouts, pasteurized orange juice, peanut butter, pasteurized whole milk, and shell eggs. The Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit demonstrated lot-to-lot consistency among three independent lots as well as ruggedness with minor modifications to changes in enrichment incubation time, enrichment incubation temperature, and DNA sample volume for PCR reaction. Stability was observed for 13 months at -20 degrees C and 3 months at 5 degrees C. For the inclusivity/exclusivity study, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit correctly identified 147 Salmonella species isolates out of 147 isolates tested from each of three different enrichment broths (a total of 441 isolates detected), and correctly excluded all 31 nontarget strains analyzed. For the method comparison, statistical analysis was conducted according to the Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square formula for unpaired test portions, and there was no significant difference in the number of positive samples detected between the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit and the USDA/FSIS-MLG and FDA/BAM reference methods for all 10 food matrixes.
 
A study was conducted to validate the GeneQuence Salmonella DNA hybridization assay, Performance Tested Method 030201, for detection of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter. The study was organized by the AOAC Research Institute under its Emergency Response Validation program. Peanut butter samples inoculated with S. Typhimurium were prepared by an independent laboratory and shipped to study participants for testing. The set of blind-coded test samples consisted of five uninoculated controls, 20 portions inoculated with S. Typhimurium at a low level [determined by most probable number (MPN) analysis to contain 1.1 CFU/25 g portion], and 20 portions inoculated with S. Typhimurium at a higher level (11 CFU/25 g portion by MPN analysis). Samples were tested in parallel by the GeneQuence method and by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture procedure. All five control samples were negative by both methods. For the low-level samples, the same two samples were positive by both the GeneQuence and reference methods. For the high-level samples, the same 19 samples were positive by both methods. All positive GeneQuence assays were confirmed by plating from associated broth cultures. Agreement between the GeneQuence and reference methods was 100%. Sensitivity and specificity of the GeneQuence method were both 100%. Because neither the low- nor the high-level samples yielded the desired fractional positive results (5-15 positives out of 20 samples), a second trial was conducted. Samples in the second trial contained 0.1 and 0.5 CFU/25 g portion for the low and high levels, respectively. All five control samples were negative by both methods. For the low-level samples, the same two samples were positive by both the GeneQuence and reference methods. For the high-level samples, the same three samples were positive by both methods. All positive GeneQuence assays were confirmed by plating from associated broth cultures. Sensitivity and specificity of the GeneQuence method were both 100%. Although once again the desired level of fractional positive results was not obtained, there was 100% agreement between the GeneQuence and reference methods. Based on the results of both trials, it is recommended that the validated claims for Performance Tested Method 030201 be expanded to include peanut butter.
 
Real-time PCR methods for detecting foodborne pathogens offer the advantages of simplicity and quick time to results compared to traditional culture methods. The addition of a recirculating pooled immunomagnetic separation method prior to real-time PCR analysis increases processing output while reducing both cost and labor. This AOAC Research Institute method modification study validates the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit [AOAC Performance Tested Method (PTM) 031001] linked with the Pathatrix 10-Pooling Salmonella spp. Kit (AOAC PTM 090203C) in diced tomatoes, chocolate, and deli ham. The Pathatrix 10-Pooling protocol represents a method modification of the enrichment portion of the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. protocol. The results of the method modification were compared to standard cultural reference methods for diced tomatoes, chocolate, and deli ham. All three matrixes were analyzed in a paired study design. An additional set of chocolate test portions was analyzed using an alternative enrichment medium in an unpaired study design. For all matrixes tested, there were no statistically significant differences in the number of positive test portions detected by the modified candidate method compared to the appropriate reference method. The MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. protocol linked with the Pathatrix individual or 10-Pooling procedure demonstrated reliability as a rapid, simplified, method for the preparation of samples and subsequent detection of Salmonella in diced tomatoes, chocolate, and deli ham.
 
Penicillin G dose response and the probit calculated 95% confidence line. The percentage of time that penicillin G concentrations tested positive (-8-) are probit analyzed to determine a 95% confidence line (-x-). The point where the 95% confidence crosses the 90% detection is corrected for 1-tailed probability to yield the 90% detection with 95% confidence (#). In this example, the 90/95% of 4.2 ppb was less than the 5.0 ppb safe level/tolerance (-----), but was not more than 50% less, and therefore the SL3 test met detection specifications for penicillin G.
HPLC receptorgram of cephaprin incurred sample 36 h after intramammary infusion. b-lactam standards (200 ng/200 mL) amoxicillin (AMX), ampicillin (AMP), cephapirin (CEP), penicillin G (PEN), ceftiofur (CEF), oxacillin (OXC), and cloxacillin (CLX) were injected and monitored 210 nm to determine column of elution times. Extracted milk sample was injected, fractionated, and dried. Rehydrated fractions were tested on Charm II test and binding of fraction (Bf) normalized to binding of negative (Bo) were plotted on secondary y-axis. The sample displays a sharp peak, Bf/Bo = 0.2, at 8.3-9.2 min that correlates exactly with parent cephapirin elution time. A broad peak of receptor activity, Bf/Bo = 0.8, was observed at 5.2-5.9 min that correlated to desacetylcephapirin (not shown in standard elution profile), a known metabolite of cephapirin incurred samples.
Total ceftiofur (parent and ceftiofur-related metabolites) incurred study results
Concentration response of incurred drug residues
The SL3 beta-Lactam Test is a 3 min, receptor-based lateral flow Rapid One Step Assay (ROSA) that detects 5 of 6 beta-lactam drugs approved for dairy cattle in the United States. The method was evaluated through the AOAC Research Institute Performance-Tested Method program following a U.S. Food and Drug Administration protocol. Three combined lots detected penicillin G 4.2 parts per billion (ppb), ampicillin 8.7 ppb, amoxicillin 7.8 ppb, cephapirin 16.0 ppb, and ceftiofur (total metabolites) 51 ppb at least 90% of the time, with 95% confidence as determined by dose response probit analysis. These detection levels are less than safe level/tolerances but not more than 50% less. Lot repeatability was within 20%. Incurred residues were detected comparably or more sensitively to fortified samples due to the cumulative effect of biologically active metabolites. There were no interferences from somatic cells at 1 M/mL, bacterial cells 500 000 colony-forming units/mL, or 30 other non-beta-lactam drugs. These performances met approval conditions of the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments. Ruggedness conditions were incorporated into public health procedures for annual laboratory proficiency and certification.
 
The Soleris yeast and mold method, a growth-based test system with an optical detection end point, was evaluated for its ability to detect yeast and mold contamination in a wide variety of foods. The Soleris test was used in a semiquantitative manner, in which the test result is positive or negative at a threshold level determined by the dilution and volume of sample homogenate added to the Soleris test vial. By testing at two or more threshold levels, the contamination level can be estimated. The LOD of the Soleris method is 10 CFU/g when 1 mL of a 1:10 sample homogenate is added to the test vial. In these studies, the Soleris results were compared to plate counts obtained using the U.S Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual direct plating method, and agreement between the methods was calculated. Considering results from both internal and independent laboratory trials, overall agreement between the methods was 90%. Chi-square analysis showed, with few exceptions, that results of the Soleris and direct plating methods were not statistically different. Ruggedness testing was performed, and the Soleris method was found to be robust when challenged with marginally suboptimal assay conditions. Results of inclusivity testing showed that the Soleris test vial medium supports the growth of a wide variety of yeasts and molds common to foods. Results of exclusivity testing showed that bacteria do not produce positive results, even when present in the vial in relatively high initial concentrations. The Soleris method produces results in 72 h or less and thus offers considerable time savings in comparison to other commonly used yeast and mold methods.
 
RAPID'E. coli 2 agar (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) is a chromogenic medium for differentiation and enumeration of E. coli and non-E. coli coliform bacteria in food. The principle of RAPID'E. coli 2 medium relies on simultaneous detection of 2 enzymatic activities, P-D-glucuronidase (GLUC) and beta-D-galactosidase (GAL). Coliforms, other than E. coli (GAL+/GLUC-), form blue to green colonies, whereas, specifically, E. coli (GAL+/GLUC+) form violet colonies. Eleven foods (raw ground beef, raw boneless pork, fermented sausage, processed ham, processed turkey, frozen turkey breast, raw ground chicken, cottage cheese, ricotta cheese, raw milk, and dry infant formula) were validated, comparing the performance of RAPID'E. coli 2 agar to the reference method AOAC 966.24. Two sample incubation temperatures were evaluated, 37 and 44 degrees C, testing a mixture of naturally and artificially contaminated foods. If naturally contaminated food was not available, the matrix was artificially inoculated with one E. coli strain and one non-E. coli coliform strain. Method comparison studies demonstrated some statistical differences between the 2 methods, which are expected when a plating method is compared to a most probable number method. Inclusivity and exclusivity rates of the medium were 99 and 94%, respectively. The RAPID'E. coli 2 method was shown to be stable when minor variations were introduced.
 
A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of detecting low contamination levels of Salmonella in peanut butter using Assurance GDS for Salmonella (GDS). This study was conducted under the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program. A set of samples was each analyzed by the GDS and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference method. Among the 45 total samples and controls, 26 samples were positive by the GDS and 24 were positive by the reference method. Statistical analyses of these unpaired samples indicated that, for all levels analyzed, the differences between the GDS and reference method results were not statistically different at the 5% level.
 
RAPID'Salmonella is a chromogenic medium for isolation and detection of Salmonella spp. in food, based on two enzymatic activities. All presumptive Salmonella-positive colonies are magenta, including lactose-positive Salmonella. S. Typhi, and S. Paratyphi serotypes, due to detection of C8 esterase activity. In order to differentiate Salmonella from other Enterobacteriaceae, the medium includes a second chromogenic substrate. As part of an Emergency Response Validation due to a massive outbreak and subsequent recall, peanut butter was tested to compare the performance of RAPID'Salmonella to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference method for detection of Salmonella. Sensitivity and specificity for RAPID'Salmonella were 100%.
 
Neogen Corp. developed the Veratox aflatoxin test kit for the detection of total aflatoxin. The purpose of this study was to validate the method under the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods (PTM) program. There are several AOAC Official Methods for total aflatoxin detection in corn (994.08, 990.33, 979.18, 993.17, 990.32, 993.16, 991.31, and 990.74), varying between rapid and analytical-based methods and one rapid method that has been performance tested by the AOAC Research Institute (PTM 030701). However, the widely used reference method is AOAC Official Method 994.08, which is an HPLC method and is referred to as the reference method in this paper. Although considered the reference method, the HPLC procedure is complicated and requires the investment of both expensive equipment and a highly skilled technician. A rapid (e.g., ELISA) test kit to be validated by the AOAC Research Institute is needed.
 
Singlepath Salmonella is an immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assay for the presumptive qualitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food. A previous AOAC Performance Tested Method study evaluated Singlepath Salmonella as an effective method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the following selected foods: dried skimmed milk, black pepper, dried pet food, desiccated coconut, cooked peeled frozen prawns, raw ground beef, and raw ground turkey. In this Emergency Response Validation extension, creamy peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser. Typhimurium. For low contamination level (1.08 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 0.5 indicated that there was no significant difference between Singlepath Salmonella and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) reference method. For high-level and uninoculated control there was 100% agreement between the methods.
 
A validation study of VitaKit A for quantitation of total vitamin A in 2% fluid milk was carried out according to the guidelines provided by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. The VitaKit A was compared, in terms of repeatability and accuracy, with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Interstate Milk Shippers HPLC reference method for determination of total vitamin A in fluid milk with 2% fat. The data obtained by the VitaKit A method are in excellent agreement with the data obtained by the HPLC reference method. Further, a low LOD (0.33 international unit/mL) was obtained for the VitaKit A method; the presence of interferents, like cholesterol and vitamin D3, in the milk had minor influence on the quantitation of total vitamin A by the VitaKit A method. The VitaKit A test kit was found to be stable for 1 year from the date of manufacture when stored at 2-8 degrees C. The method requires 2 h processing time, compared to 1-2 days for the HPLC reference method. The results of this validation study clearly demonstrate that the VitaKit A method is reliable, rapid, and accurate for the quantitation of total vitamin A in fluid milk containing 2% milk fat. An independent study by Q Laboratories Inc., Cincinnati, OH, under the validation guidelines of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, confirmed these findings.
 
This study represents a proposal to extend the matrix claims for the ANSR Salmonella test, Performance Tested Method 061203. The test is based on the nicking enzyme amplification reaction (NEAR) isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology. The assay platform features simple instrumentation, minimal labor, and following a single-step 16-24 h enrichment (depending on sample type), an extremely short assay time of 30 min including sample preparation. Detection is real-time using fluorescent molecular beacon probes. ANSR Salmonella was originally validated for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, and oat cereal, and on stainless steel, plastic, sealed concrete, ceramic tile, and rubber surfaces. The matrixes tested in this study include pet food, ice cream, soy flour, raw almonds, peanut butter, spinach, black pepper, raw frozen shrimp, cocoa powder, and pasteurized dried egg. In unpaired comparative testing there were no statistically significant differences in the number of positive results obtained with the ANSR and the reference culture methods. Enrichment for 16 h was effective for all commodities tested except ice cream, black pepper, dried pasteurized egg, and 375 g samples of dry pet food, for which enrichment for 24 h is indicated.
 
A modification to Performance-Tested Method (PTM) 070601, Reveal Listeria Test (Reveal), is described. The modified method uses a new media formulation, LESS enrichment broth, in single-step enrichment protocols for both foods and environmental sponge and swab samples. Food samples are enriched for 27-30 h at 30 degrees C and environmental samples for 24-48 h at 30 degrees C. Implementation of these abbreviated enrichment procedures allows test results to be obtained on a next-day basis. In testing of 14 food types in internal comparative studies with inoculated samples, there was a statistically significant difference in performance between the Reveal and reference culture [U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) or U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS)] methods for only a single food in one trial (pasteurized crab meat) at the 27 h enrichment time point, with more positive results obtained with the FDA/BAM reference method. No foods showed statistically significant differences in method performance at the 30 h time point. Independent laboratory testing of 3 foods again produced a statistically significant difference in results for crab meat at the 27 h time point; otherwise results of the Reveal and reference methods were statistically equivalent. Overall, considering both internal and independent laboratory trials, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture procedures in testing of foods was 85.9% at 27 h and 97.1% at 30 h. Results from 5 environmental surfaces inoculated with various strains of Listeria spp. showed that the Reveal method was more productive than the reference USDA-FSIS culture procedure for 3 surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and cast iron), whereas results were statistically equivalent to the reference method for the other 2 surfaces (ceramic tile and sealed concrete). An independent laboratory trial with ceramic tile inoculated with L. monocytogenes confirmed the effectiveness of the Reveal method at the 24 h time point. Overall, sensitivity of the Reveal method at 24 h relative to that of the USDA-FSIS method was 153%. The Reveal method exhibited extremely high specificity, with only a single false-positive result in all trials combined for overall specificity of 99.5%.
 
The Charm 3 SL3 beta-Lactam Test is a 3 min receptor-based lateral-flow Rapid One-Step Assay (ROSA) that detects the six beta-lactam drugs of concern approved for dairy cattle in the United States. The method is a biochemical formulation change of the SL3 beta-Lactam Test evaluated and approved in 2007. The Charm 3 SL3 was evaluated under the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Method (PTM) program following the protocol of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine. The method was approved as PTM 071002 on May 8, 2009. The following drugs were detected in three combined lots: penicillin G at 3.8 ppb, ampicillin at 8.0 ppb, amoxicillin at 8.4 ppb, cephapirin at 20.0 ppb, ceftiofur (total metabolites) at 79 ppb, and cloxacillin at 8.6 ppb > or = 90% of the time with 95% confidence. These detection levels are lower than, but within 75% of, the U.S. Safe Level/Tolerances. Lot-to-lot repeatability was typically within 20% of these determined levels. The test kit was found to be suitable for testing thawed frozen samples. It was also found to respond with equal or better sensitivity to samples that contained incurred analytes, i.e., both the microbiologically active parent drug and its active metabolites. There were no interferences from somatic cells at 1.1 million/mL, bacterial cells at 300 000 CFU/mL, or 32 other non-beta-lactam drugs at 100 ppb. Ruggedness experiments indicated that the test procedure is robust. These results meet the fit-for-purpose approval criteria for inclusion in the National Conference for Interstate Milk Shipments milk testing program.
 
The Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonellae in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Salmonella species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 6579:2002 in a variety of food matrixes, namely, raw ground beef, raw chicken breast, raw ground pork, fresh bagged lettuce, pork frankfurters, nonfat dried milk powder, cooked peeled shrimp, pasteurized liquid whole egg, ready-to-eat meal containing beef, and stainless steel surface samples. With the exception of liquid whole egg and fresh bagged lettuce, which were tested in-house, all matrixes were tested by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, WI, on behalf of Thermo Fisher Scientific. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, lettuce, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. No significant difference by probability of detection or McNemars Chi-squared statistical analysis was found between the candidate or reference methods for any of the food matrixes or environmental surface samples tested during the validation study. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 117 and 36 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect Salmonella species Assay was able to detect all the major groups of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (e.g., Typhimurium) and the less common subspecies of S. enterica (e.g., arizoniae) and the rarely encountered S. bongori. None of the exclusivity isolates analyzed were detected by the SureTect Salmonella species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation (enrichment time and temperature, and lysis temperature), which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was additionally conducted, validating the assay shelf life.
 
RapidChek SELECT Salmonella was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw ground chicken, chicken carcass rinse, sliced cooked turkey, and liquid eggs. The present matrix extension study conducted under the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program compared the RapidChek SELECT Salmonella method to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) method for the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter. Overall, 27 samples were found positive by the RapidChek SELECT Salmonella method and 27 were found to be positive by the reference method. All RapidChek SELECT Salmonella presumptive positives were confirmed positive by the cultural reference method; additionally, all presumptive negative results were confirmed negative by the cultural reference method. Accordingly 0% false-negative rate and 0% false-positive rate were found. No significant difference between the RapidCheck SELECT Salmonella and FDA-BAM reference method was found; calculated Chi-square was 0. Results indicate that a low level of Salmonella in peanut butter can be successfully recovered and detected in the minimum 24 h enrichment protocol.
 
The level of total aflatoxin contamination was analyzed in naturally contaminated and spiked samples of corn and peanut using the Aflatoxin Plate Kit. This kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suitable for rapid testing of grains and peanuts. The assay was evaluated for ruggedness and linearity of the standard curve. The test kit results were then statistically evaluated for accuracy, precision, and correlation to a validated HPLC method (AOAC 994.08). The results were verified by an independent laboratory.
 
GC determinations on naturally contaminated wheat samples a Wheat ID No. 
GC versus Veratox DON ELISA.  
Cross-reactivity testing of Veratox antibody 
Veratox DON lot-to-lot variability a Lot No. 
Results of independent laboratory trials with the Veratox DON ELISA a, b Wheat, ppm 
Neogen Corp. developed the Veratox DON test kit for the detection ofdeoxynivalenol (DON). The purpose of this study was to validate the method under the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods (PTM) program. There are two AOAC Official Methods for DON detection: 986.17 and 986.18, the first of which is a TLC method and the second a GC method. A rapid method (PTM 000701) has also been performance tested by the AOAC Research Institute. One of the most widely used reference methods; however, is a GC method with electron capture detection that is referred to as the reference method in this paper. Although considered the reference method, the GC procedure is complicated and requires the investment of both expensive equipment and a highly skilled technician. A rapid (e.g., ELISA) test kit needs to be validated by the AOAC Research Institute. The Veratox 2/3 method is highly reproducible with average CV values < 10%, and is very accurate, showing > 97% correlation to reference methods.
 
The results of a collaborative study are reported for the determination of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol; 3-MCPD) in a wide range of foods and food ingredients, using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection and incorporating the use of a deuterated internal standard. After a pretrial study, 12 laboratories (6 United Kingdom, 1 Switzerland, 1 Japan, 2 United States, 1 The Netherlands, and 1 from the European Commission) were asked to analyze 12 test materials (as known duplicates or split-level samples) by using a prescribed procedure. The test materials consisted of duplicate samples of acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein (containing 3-MCPD at 0.029 mg/kg), malt extract (0.055 mg/kg), wholemeal bread crumbs (0.030 mg/kg), salami (0.016 mg/kg), cheese alternative (0.043 mg/kg), and soup powder (split levels at 0.045 and 0.041 mg/kg). Repeatability ranged from 0.005 to 0.013 mg/kg and reproducibility, from 0.010 to 0.027 mg/kg, for the samples tested. Precision values were well within statistically predicted levels (HORRAT values of <1 for 5 of the 6 matrixes tested) and within method criteria prepared by a joint working group composed of the United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and industry representatives. The study demonstrated the satisfactory validation of the method for quantifying 3-MCPD at levels of > or = 0.010 mg/kg. The limit of detection derived from separate in-house studies was estimated to be 0.005 mg/kg. The method was adopted First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.
 
Structures of 3-MPD and CycDs.  
Representative chromatograms obtained for a wine (ML2) spiked with 3-MPD at 0.25 mg/L (* = phenylethanol).  
Representative chromatogram obtained for a wine (ML2) spiked with CycDs at 1.0 mg/L.  
The aim of the present study was to provide the official wine control authorities with an internationally validated method for the determination of 3-methoxy-1,2-propanediol (3-MPD) and cyclic diglycerols (CycDs)-both of which are recognized as impurities of technical glycerol-in different types of wine. Because glycerol gives a sweet flavor to wine and contributes to its full-body taste, an economic incentive is to add glycerol to a wine to mask its poor quality. Furthermore, it is known that glycerol, depending on whether it is produced from triglycerides or petrochemicals, may contain considerable amounts of 3-MPD in the first case or CycDs in the second. However, because these compounds are not natural wine components, it is possible to detect glycerol added to wine illegally by determining the above-mentioned by-products. To this end, one of the published methods was adopted, modified, and tested in a collaborative study. The method is based on gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of diethyl ether extracts after salting out with potassium carbonate. The interlaboratory study for the determination of 3-MPD and CycDs in wine was performed in 11 laboratories in 4 countries. Wine samples were prepared and sent to participants as 5 blind duplicate test materials and 1 single test material. The concentrations covered ranges of 0.1-0.8 mg/L for 3-MPD and 0.5-1.5 mg/L for CycDs. The precision of the method was within the range predicted by the Horwitz equation. HORRAT values obtained for 3-MPD ranged from 0.8 to 1.7, and those obtained for CycDs ranged from 0.9 to 1.3. Average recoveries were 104 and 109%, respectively.
 
A simple, rapid, and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of copper and silver using 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione-2-oximethiosemicarbazone (PPDOT) as a chromogenic reagent. The proposed method was based on retention and preconcentration of the complexes Cu(III)-PPDOT and Ag(I)-PPDOT on a solid phase in acid medium. The complexes were quantitatively retained in the cation exchanger SP Sephadex C25, and the analytical measurements were executed directly in the solid phase by derivative spectrophotometry. In this simultaneous determination, the second derivative and the zero crossing method were used. The determination of copper and silver was carried out to 321.0 and 427.0 nm, respectively. In order to obtain quantitative recoveries of the metal ions, various experimental analytical parameters, such as pH, stirring time, volume, and amount of solid phase, were optimized. The effect of interfering ions on the determination was described. The recovery values for Cu(II) and Ag(I) were found to be > 98%, and the relative standard deviation was < or = 2%. The detection limits (3sigma criterion) for Cu(II) and Ag(I) were found to be 0.9 x 10(-8) and 13 x 10(-8) M, respectively. The developed method was utilized for preconcentration and determination of Cu(II) and Ag(I) in industrial effluents and natural water samples. The results were consistent with those provided by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry.
 
The efficiency of modified activated carbon (AC) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the separation/preconcentration and determination of Co, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu following their complexation by bis(3-nitrobenzylidene)-1,2-ethanediamine has been described and compared. A one-at-a-time optimization method investigated the influence of various parameters that significantly influence the recoveries of the studied metal ions. At the optimum values of all variables, the response was linear over the range of 0.01-0.3 microg/mL, and detection limit (3 SDb/m, n = 10) was between 1.41-2.05 ng/mL for both sorbents while the preconcentration factor was 100 for AC and 500 for MWCNTs. The method was successfully applied for preconcentration and determination of trace amount of the aforementioned ions in various real samples such as orange, lettuce, bread, and pear.
 
A highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection has been developed and validated in a single laboratory for the trace determination of trimetazidine (TMZ) in human plasma. Fluoxetine (FLX) was used as the internal standard. TMZ and FLX were isolated from plasma by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and derivatized by heating with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole in pH 8 borate buffer at 70 degrees C for 30 min. Separations were performed in the isocratic mode on a Nucleosil CN column with the mobile phase acetonitrile-10 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 3.5)-methanol (47 + 47 + 6, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The derivatized samples were excited at 470 nm and monitored at an emission wavelength of 530 nm. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, a linear relationship with a good correlation coefficient (r = 0.9997, n = 5) was obtained for the peak area ratio of TMZ to FLX and for TMZ concentrations of 1-120 ng/mL. The proposed method has the lowest limits of detection and quantitation reported to date for the determination of TMZ in plasma with values of 0.3 and 0.95 ng/mL, respectively. The values for intra- and interassay precision were satisfactory; the relative standard deviations were < or =4.04%. The accuracy of the method was demonstrated; the recoveries of TMZ from spiked human plasma were 98.13-102.83 +/- 0.2-4.04%. The method has high throughput because of its simple sample preparation procedure and short run time (<10 min). The results demonstrated that the proposed method would have great value when applied in pharmacokinetic studies for TMZ.
 
A new, simple, precise, and rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was developed for the determination of 6 benzodioxanes in Piper mullesua extract: 1',3'-benzodioxole-5'-(2,4,8-triene-isobutyl nonanoate), 1',3'-benzodioxole-5'-(2,4,12-triene-isobutyl tridecanoate), fargesin, sesamin, asarinin, 1',3'-benzodioxole-5'-(2,4,8-triene-methyl nonanoate). The ingredients were separated on a precoated Silica Gel 60 F254 plate with a solvent system of toluene-acetone (92 + 8). The 6 benzodioxanes were well separated and easily identified in this chromatographic system. The separated benzodioxanes were visualized by color development with a spray reagent consisting of 1 g vanillin dissolved in 100 mL H2SO4-ethanol (5 + 95, v/v). Quantitation was performed by scanning the spots and comparing the integrated areas of compounds in samples with those of standards. Recoveries from samples spiked with known amounts of the benzodioxanes were excellent. The results were comparable with those estimated by liquid chromatography.
 
Linear models were selected from a large data set acquired for Italian olive oil samples by quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT). The models were used to determine the composition of the 2 fatty acid pools esterifying the 1,3- and 2-positions of triacylglycerols. The linear models selected proved that the 1,3- and 2-distribution of saturated, oleate, and linoleate chains in olive oil triacylglycerols deviated from the random distribution pattern to an extent that depended on the concentration of the fatty acid in the whole triacylglycerol. To calculate the fatty acid composition of the 1,3- and 2-positions of olive oil triacylglycerols, the equations of the selected linear models were applied to the fatty acid percentages determined by gas chromatography. These data were compared with the values predicted by the computer method (used to determine the theoretical amounts of triacylglycerols), which is based on the 1,3-random-2-random theory of the fatty acid distribution in triacylglycerols. The biggest differences were found in the linoleate chain, which is the chain that deviated the most from a random distribution pattern. The results confirmed that the 1,3-random-2-random distribution theory provides an approximate method for determining the structure of triacylglycerols; however, the linear models calculated by the direct method that applies 13C NMR spectroscopy represent a more precise measurement of the composition of the 2 fatty acid pools esterifying the 1,3- and 2-positions of triacylglycerols.
 
New nonextractive and simple offline precolumn derivatization procedures have been proposed, for the first time, for the trace determination of paroxetine (PXT) in human plasma by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Trimetazidine (TMZ) was used as an internal standard. Plasma samples were treated with acetonitrile for protein precipitation and then derivatized with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole in borate buffer of pH 8 at 70 degrees C for 30 min. Separations of the derivatized PXT and TMZ were performed on a Nucleosil CN column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-10 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 3.5)-methanol (47 + 47 + 6, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The derivatized samples were excited at 470 nm and monitored at an emission wavelength of 530 nm. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, a linear relationship with good correlation coefficient (r = 0.9998, n = 7) was found between the peak area ratio and PXT concentrations in the range of 5-600 ng/mL. The LOD and LOQ were 1.37 and 4.14 ng/mL, respectively. The intraday and interassay precisions were satisfactory; the RSD did not exceed 4.2%. The accuracy of the method was proved by recovery of PXT from spiked human plasma at levels of 97.28-104.38 +/- 0.41-3.62%. The proposed method had high throughput, as the analysis involved a simple sample pretreatment procedure and short run time (< 10 min). The results demonstrated that the method would have a great value when it is applied in the therapeutic monitoring of PXT.
 
Effect of pH on the development of the reaction product of gabapentin (8.5 mg/mL). 
Percent of label claim found for vigabatrin and gabapentin in pharmaceutical preparations 
Limiting logarithmic plots for the molar reactivity of vigabatrin with NBD-Cl. A = log relative fluorescence vs log concentration of vigabatrin (mM) with (NBD-Cl) kept at 4 × 10-5 M. B = log relative fluorescence vs log concentration of NBD-Cl (mM) with (vigabatrin) kept at 2 × 10-5 M. 
Proposed pathway of the reaction. 
A highly sensitive and specific method is proposed for the determination of vigabatrin (I) and gabapentin (II) in their dosage forms and spiked human plasma. The method is based on coupling the drugs with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole in borate buffer at pH 7.1 and measuring the resulting fluorescence at 532 nm after excitation at 465 nm. The fluorescence intensity was a linear function of the concentration of the drugs over the ranges of 1.3-6.5 and 1.7-8.5 microg/mL for I and II, respectively. Minimum detectability values were 0.54 microg/mL (4.2 x 10(-6)M) and 0.97 microg/mL (5.7 x 10(-6)M) for I and II, respectively, under the described conditions. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the 2 drugs in their dosage forms, and the percent recoveries +/- standard deviation (SD) were 104.53 +/- 1.2 and 100.00 +/- 1.32 of the label claim for I and II, respectively. The method was further applied to the determination of vigabatrin in spiked plasma samples. The percent recovery +/- SD was 101.58 +/- 2.68. Interference from endogenous alpha-amino acids was overcome through selective complexation with freshly prepared Cu(OH)2. The interference likely to be encountered from co-administered drugs, such as carbamazepine, cimetidine, clonazepam, clopazam, phenobarbital, valproic acid, and lamotrigine, was also studied. A reaction pathway is suggested.
 
A headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the residual levels of acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), and their related compounds containing propionitrile (PN) and 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene (4-VC) in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys. A sample was cut into small pieces, then N,N-dimethylacetamide and an internal standard were added in a sealed headspace vial. The vial was incubated for 1 h at 90 degrees C and the headspace gas was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The recovery rates of the analytes were 93.3-101.8% and the coefficients of variation were 0.3-6.5%. In ABS copolymers, the levels were 0.3-50.4 microg/g for AN, ND-4.5 microg/g for PN, 0.06-1.58 microg/g for 1,3-BD, and 1.1-295 microg/g for 4-VC. The highest level was found for 4-VC, which is a dimer of 1,3-BD, and the next highest was for AN, which is one of the monomers of the ABS copolymer. Furthermore, the method was also applied to acrylonitrile-styrene (AS) copolymers and polystyrenes (PS) for kitchen utensils, and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves. In AS copolymers, AN and PN were detected at 16.8-54.5 and 0.8-6.9 microg/g, respectively. On the other hand, the levels in PS and NBR samples were all low.
 
A headspace gas chromatographic (GC) method was developed to determine 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD) in simulated saliva in contact with chewing gum. The calibration graph was linear, and the limit of detection was 0.004 mg/L, which is well below the migration limit for this substance. The headspace GC method provides rapid and reliable analysis for monitoring 1,3-BD migration from chewing gum into simulated saliva. In this paper, we report headspace methodology for sensitive determination of 1,3-BD in chewing gum and results of selected analyses, enabling preliminary assessment of possible exposure to 1,3-BD through migration.
 
Accurate, sensitive, and simple spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of gliclazide in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. Both methods are based on a coupling reaction between gliclazide and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole in borate buffer, pH 7.8, in which a yellow reaction product that can be measured spectrophotometrically at 400 nm was developed. The same product exhibited a yellow fluorescence at 470 nm upon excitation at 400 nm. The absorbance-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 2-20 microg/mL with minimum detectability [signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio = 2] of 0.2 microg/mL (6.18 x 10(-7) M); the fluorescence-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.2-2.5 microg/mL with minimum detectability (S/N = 2) of 0.02 microg/mL (6.18 x 10(-8) M). The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the color were carefully studied and optimized. Both methods were successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablets. The results were in good agreement with those obtained with the official and reference spectrophotometric methods. A proposal of the reaction pathway was presented.
 
A cloud point extraction procedure was optimized for the separation and preconcentration of lead(II), cadmium(II), copper(II), and iron(III) ions in various water and canned food samples. The metal ions formed complexes with 2,6-diamino-4-phenyl- 1,3,5-triazine that were extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 1 M HNO3 in methanol prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, surfactant concentration, temperature, and incubation time, were optimized. LOD values based on three times the SD of the blank (3S b) were 0.38, 0.48, 1.33, and 1.85 μg/L for cadmium(II), copper(II), lead(II), and iron(III) ions, respectively. The precision (RSD) of the method was in the 1.86–3.06% range (n = 7). Validation of the procedure was carried out by analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST-SRM) 1568a Rice Flour and GBW 07605 Tea. The method was applied to water and canned food samples for determination of metal ions.
 
A possible human carcinogen, 1,4-dioxane, was investigated as to its concentration levels in household detergents and cleaners currently sold in Japan. A solid-phase extraction combined with stable isotope dilution and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination was evaluated for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in household products. The evaluation of the method was performed using a recovery study of 1,4-dioxane-d8 from detergent and cleaner samples. The mean overall recovery and relative standard deviation were 78 and 15%, respectively. The limit of quantitation was 0.05 mg/kg. This method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of 1,4-dioxane in household products. 1,4-Dioxane was detected in 40 out of the 51 investigated samples. The concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 33 mg/kg, and the mean was 2.7 mg/kg. The mean of the products that included anionic surfactants, i.e., alkylpoly(oxyethylene)sulfates, was 7.2 mg/kg, which was higher than the 0.39 mg/kg mean for the other surfactants. Moreover, the 1,4-dioxane load/person was estimated to be 0.061 mg/day/person in Japan, which was 27% of the load from the domestic effluent.
 
Surveys of cosmetic raw materials and finished products for the presence of the carcinogen 1,4-dioxane have been conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration since 1979. Analytical methods are described for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in ethoxylated cosmetic raw materials and cosmetic finished products. 1,4-Dioxane was isolated by azeotropic atmospheric distillation and determined by gas chromatography using n-butanol as an internal standard. A solid-phase extraction procedure based on a previously published method for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic finished products was also used. 1,4-Dioxane was found in ethoxylated raw materials at levels up to 1410 ppm, and at levels up to 279 ppm in cosmetic finished products. Levels of 1,4-dioxane in excess of 85 ppm in children's shampoos indicate that continued monitoring of raw materials and finished products is warranted.
 
The Micro Imaging Technology (MIT) 1000 Rapid Microbial Identification (RMID) System is a device that uses the principles of light scattering coupled with proprietary algorithms to identify bacteria after being cultured and placed in a vial of filtered water. This specific method is for pure culture identification of Listeria spp. A total of 81 microorganisms (55 isolates) were tested by the MIT 1000 System, of which 25 were Listeria spp. and 30 a variety of other bacterial species. In addition, a total of 406 tests over seven different ruggedness parameters were tested by the MIT 1000 System to determine its flexibility to the specifications stated in the MIT 1000 System User Guide in areas where they might be deviated by a user to shorten the test cycle. Overall, MIT concluded that the MIT 1000 System had an accuracy performance that should certify this Performance Test Method for the identification of Listeria spp. This report discusses the tests performed, results achieved, and conclusions, along with several reference documents to enable a higher understanding of the technology used by the MIT 1000 System.
 
A recent outbreak of Salmonella in peanut butter has highlighted the need for validation of rapid detection methods. A multilaboratory study for detecting Salmonella in peanut butter was conducted as part of the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program for methods that detect outbreak threats to food safety. Three sites tested spiked samples from the same master mix according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) method and the BAX System method. Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) was grown in brain heart infusion for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then diluted to appropriate levels for sample inoculation. Master samples of peanut butter were spiked at high and low target levels, mixed, and allowed to equilibrate at room temperature for 2 weeks. Spike levels were low [1.08 most probable number (MPN)/25 g]; high (11.5 MPN/25 g) and unspiked to serve as negative controls. Each master sample was divided into 25 g portions and coded to blind the samples. Twenty portions of each spiked master sample and five portions of the unspiked sample were tested at each site. At each testing site, samples were blended in 25 g portions with 225 mL prewarmed lactose broth until thoroughly homogenized, then allowed to remain at room temperature for 55-65 min. Samples were adjusted to a pH of 6.8 +/- 0.2, if necessary, and incubated for 22-26 h at 35 degrees C. Across the three reporting laboratories, the BAX System detected Salmonella in 10/60 low-spike samples and 58/60 high-spike samples. The reference FDA-BAM method yielded positive results for 11/60 low-spike and 58/60 high-spike samples. Neither method demonstrated positive results for any of the 15 unspiked samples.
 
The BAX System PCR assay for Salmonella detection in foods was previously validated as AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Method (PTM) 100201. New studies were conducted on beef and produce using the same media and protocol currently approved for the BAX System PCR assay for E. coli O157:H7 multiplex (MP). Additionally, soy protein isolate was tested for matrix extension using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) enrichment protocols. The studies compared the BAX System method to the U.S. Department of Agriculture culture method for detecting Salmonella in beef and the FDA-BAM culture method for detecting Salmonella in produce and soy protein isolate. Method comparison studies on low-level inoculates showed that the BAX System assay for Salmonella performed as well as or better than the reference method for detecting Salmonella in beef and produce in 8-24 h enrichment when the BAX System E. coli O157:H7 MP media was used, and soy protein isolate in 20 h enrichment with lactose broth followed by 3 h regrowth in brain heart infusion broth. An inclusivity panel of 104 Salmonella strains with diverse serotypes was tested by the BAX System using the proprietary BAX System media and returned all positive results. Ruggedness factors involved in the enrichment phase were also evaluated by testing outside the specified parameters, and none of the factors examined affected the performance of the assay.
 
In 2006, DuPont Qualicon introduced the BAX system Q7 instrument for use with its assays. To demonstrate the equivalence of the new and old instruments, a validation study was conducted using the BAX system PCR Assay for Salmonella, AOAC Official Method 2003.09, on three food types. The foods were simultaneously analyzed with the BAX system Q7 instrument and either the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual or the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference method for detecting Salmonella. Comparable performance between the BAX system and the reference methods was observed. Of the 75 paired samples analyzed, 39 samples were positive by both the BAX system and reference methods, and 36 samples were negative by both the BAX system and reference methods, demonstrating 100% correlation. Inclusivity and exclusivity for the BAX system Q7 instrument were also established by testing 50 Salmonella strains and 20 non-Salmonella isolates. All Salmonella strains returned positive results, and all non-Salmonella isolates returned a negative response.
 
Top-cited authors
Steven J. Lehotay
  • United States Department of Agriculture
Frank J Schenck
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Michelangelo Anastassiades
  • Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart
Darinka štajnbaher
  • National laboratory for health, environment and food
Nancy J Thiex
  • Thiex Laboratory Solutions LLC