Background and objectives: Iran was reported in the high-risk group of World Food Security Map in 2008 .Identifying food insecurity is first step for executing interventions. Measuring household food security is its cornerstone. SAMAT System was designed to provide a variety of GIS-based reports to policy makers and managers in the field of food
Methods: SAMAT system was developed by a team working with various specialties. The system was analyzed using Rational Unified Process methodology and after optimization and normalization process, centralized database was formed. SQL Server 2014 software was used for its implementation. SharpMap open source engine was used to render spatial data and display maps on the web, and many parts of the engine were coded specifically to meet different organizational needs. The system was designed using the WEB GIS engine.
Results: SAMAT system was executed in nine provinces of the country in different periods. SAMAT dashboard provides a variety of information for executive managers. Based on demographic data, the state of food insecurity can be identified at different levels from city to village, in a variety of graphs. A spectrum from the urban distribution
to the local distribution of food insecurity can be identified on the GIS map. Zooming in on different areas can help to identify more food insecure neighborhoods within the village or town, thus giving managers the priority of food insecurity interventions at the neighborhood or village level. One can view household characteristics and the results of questionnaire information.
Conclusion: AMAT system can be useful for managing food security at the national, provincial, city and even rural or urban levels. we recommend periodically prioritizing points, Identifying the provinces and re-evaluating the effectiveness of interventions through the SAMAT-based system after comprehensive implementation of food
Background and objective: Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)
deficiency is one of the most common human diseases with approximately
400 million people affected worldwide. G6PD Chatham is caused by 1003
G>A mutation leads to a severe enzymatic deficiency. The aim of the present
study is to investigate the frequency rate of the Chatham mutations in the
population of the North-West of Iran.
Material And Method: In this study, by Rapid Genomic DNA Extraction
(RGDE) method, from 90 peripheral blood samples of unrelated male and
female patients with genetic deficiency of G6PD, DNA was extracted and
after digestion by Bstx1 enzymes, in order to search for Chatham mutation,
they were analyzed by means of PCR-RFLP and sequencing methods.
Result: According to the results, Chatham mutation was observed in 10
Conclusion: This study showed that G6PD Chatham (1003 G>A) mutation is
the second common mutation, after Mediterranean (563C>T), in the
population of the North-West of Iran. Further studies are recommended to
identify the mutation type of other varieties.
Background and Objective: Since December 2019, the widespread outbreak of COVID-19 has led to a major public health issue worldwide. With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of ethically challenging issues arose that put pressure on healthcare systems around the world. This narrative review aims to comprehensively review the literature focusing on ethical challenges and coping strategies about issues related to the healthcare system and social issues during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Material and Methods: This narrative review was conducted via international databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus using keywords extracted from medical subject headings such as "COVID-19", "2019-nCoV disease", "2019 novel coronavirus infection", "Ethics", "Bioethical Issues", "Morals", "Coping Skills", "Coping Skill", "Coping Strategies", and "Coping Strategy" from December 2019 to January 2022.
Results: In general, ethical issues during the COVID-19 pandemic can be divided into two categories: 1) issues related to the healthcare system and 2) social issues. Issues related to the healthcare system can be divided into two categories: 1) lack of resources, equipment and facilities, and manpower, and 2) problems in patient care such as triage and informed consent. Social issues can be divided into four categories: 1) community engagement, 2) crisis management capacity in remote rural communities, 3) discrimination and health equity, and 4) vaccination. Coping with ethical challenges in crises such as COVID-19 requires changing health empowerment policies and strategies based on evidence-based research. On the other hand, overcome on these challenges requires interdisciplinary collaboration and fast efficient decisions.
Conclusion: Overall, the present study introduced ethical challenges and coping strategies during the COVID 19 pandemic. The experience gained from this pandemic can be considered by managers and policymakers of health care systems for coping with ethical challenges.
According to recent studies, oral lesions associated with COVID-19, manifests in various forms which may be as inaugural symptoms for the onset of the disease. However, further investigations are needed to confirm their probable characteristic role in diagnosis of COVID-19. It should be also noted that any oral manifestation in COVID-19 must be considered to avoid neglecting oral changes with more lasting destructive effects such as necrotizing periodontal lesions.
On December 31, 2019, the Wuhan-China Health Commission reported a case of pneumonia in the city. The first symptoms began in mid-December 2019. Clinically isolated specimens identified the coronavirus as the cause of the disease. It was first shown as 2019-nCoV, and as the number of victims of the coronavirus crossed the border of thousands of people, the World Health Organization chose the official name COVID-19 for its illness. Although it appears to be of animal origin, it is rapidly transmitting from person to person around the world. The World Health Organization released a statement calling the outbreak of the new Corona virus a Public Health Emergency Situations that poses a threat to the whole world, not just China. In this study highlights how the virus is transmitted, the clinical signs, the laboratory characteristics, the pathogenicity of the virus, Vaccines, and the prevention and control of the spread of the virus.
The COVID-19 outbreak has led to increasing global concerns about infection control. Amid this pandemic, dentistry could be considered as one of the most high-risk medical sectors for health workers due to the high exposure to patients infected with this deadly virus.After the decline of the steep prevalence of COVID -19 cases, the dental associations have allowed dental offices to reopen under special circumstances by taking the necessary precautions and following the prescribed guidelines to keep both the dentists and their patients safe and healthy during the treatment.
The aim of this review is to present a policy to manage and facilitate the dental procedures in the dental practice routine amid coronavirus by focusing on the patients’ risk level in order to keep the possibility of COVID -19 transmission to a minimum.
Decreased life expectancy is considered as a key indicator of human development. Obviously, the increase in mortality, especially in vulnerable groups such as older people, leads to a major disruption in the human development of countries. On the other hand, the destructive social and economic effects of COVID-19 on human life further reduce their life expectancy. Social and economic effects are associated with declining incomes, poverty, and consequently reduced life expectancy, especially among older people, who are the poorer sections of society in terms of income. Therefore, it is suggested that policymakers and health managers make appropriate decisions such as timely vaccination of older people, future treatment measures, and appropriate behavioral changes to control the disease and improve life expectancy among older people during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Background and Objective: In the current COVID-19 pandemic, disease diagnosis is
essential for optimal management and timely isolation of infected cases in order to
prevent further spread. The aim of this study is to assess of predictors of mortality
among COVID-19 patients.
Material and Methods: In a retrospective study, 522 COVID-19 patients were enrolled
in Razi hospital, Guilan Province, Iran. This hospital was the main center for the
treatment of COVID-19 patients in Guilan province. Data gathering was performed by
census sampling from March to August 2020. Simple and Multiple logistic regression
analysis were applied to assess the relationships of clinical and demographic
characteristics with in-hospital mortality.
Results: Multiple logistic regression showed that older age (aOR=1.04, 95%CI: 1.02 to
1.06, P<0.001), decreased O2 saturation (aOR=0.89, 95%CI: 0.86 to 0.92, P<0.001),
having a dysrhythmia (aOR=2.97, 95%CI: 1.46 to 6.05, P=0.003), symptoms associated
with heart failure (aOR=0.43, 95%CI: 0.18 to 0.99, P=0.048), and mixed drug
antiviruses (aOR=2.44, 95%CI: 1.22 to 4.90, P=0.012) were mortality predictor
variables among COVID-19 patients.
Conclusion: Therefore, special attention should be paid to the factors influencing the
mortality of COVID-19 patients. It is recommended that older patients, dysrhythmia,
and symptoms associated with heart failure be treated with extreme caution.
Background and Objectives: High workload, insufficient resources, and many stressors in the workplace have led to the imposition of physical and psychological pressures on nurses, which exposes them to death anxiety (DA). This systematic review aimed to assess the DA and factors associated with its in nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Material and Methods: An extensive search was conducted on Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Iranmedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID) databases via keywords such asincluding "Death", "Death Anxiety", "Nurses", and "COVID-19", from December 2019 to November 10, 2021.
Results: 818 nurses were enrolled in four papers. The mean age and work experience of nurses Nurses’ mean age and work experiences were 31.21 (SD=5.43) and 7.60 (SD=6.73) years, respectively. The mean DA of nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic was 7.30 (SD=2.23). Also, 31.05% of nurses had a high level of DADA level during the COVID-19 pandemic. Age, sex, work experience, working hours per week, childbearing, several patients needing end‑of‑life care, direct participation in resuscitation operations, cases of direct participation in resuscitation operations, cases of patient death, depression, mental health status, and life satisfaction were influential factors in DA nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Conclusion: Thus, nursing policymakers should pay special attention to these factors related to the use of nurses' health maintenance and promotion programs to increase the quality of nursing care for COVID-19 patients. Also, it is recommended that psychological and communication support be provided to nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Background & objective: Family and genetic factors are effective on incidence of external hydrocephalus but its etiology is unknown. Based on deficiency of epidemiological studies, this study aimed to determine the demographic features of children with external hydrocephalus.
Methods: In this retrospective descriptive study (2011), all records of children with external hydrocephalus referred to Taleghani tertiary hospital during 2009-2011 were assessed. Inclusion criteria was definite diagnosis of external hydrocephalus. Checklist was used for data collection. All data were entered to SPSS software (version 16) and were described by descriptive statistics.
Results: From 41 children included to the study, 33 boys (80.5%), 20 cases with Fars ethnicity (48.8%), 32 cases born by cesarean section (78%), 31 cases (75.6%) with no consanguineous marriage of parents, 38 cases (92.7%) born at term gestational age, 24 cases (58.53%) with macrocephaly in family, 17 cases (41.5%) with hospitalization history, 39 cases (95.1) with normal birth weight were assessed. Mean of age and head circumference were 8.8±2.8 years and 35.15±1.5 cm, respectively. Increase of head circumference with 30.2 % was the most common complaint at referred time during
health cares. 33 cases (80.5%) diagnosed based on CT scan and 11 cases (26.8%) had development delay.
Conclusion: Boys children with fars ethnicity, macrocephaly history, developmental delay and increase of head circumference during health cares had the most frequency of external hydrocephalus. Much more attention to these children and early diagnosis and treatment is essential.
Background and objectives: One of the potentially effective methods for relieving postpartum perineal pain is auricular acupressure. This review aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of auricular acupressure on postpartum perineal pain in a systematic review.
Material and Methods: An extensive systematic search was performed on online electronic databases, including Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Cochrane using the keywords related to the purpose, from the earliest to June 30, 2021.
Results: Of 263 articles, three studies were included in the review. A total of 386 women with a mean age of 29.79 years were included in the review. Of the participants, 192 women were in the intervention group. Of the studies included, two studies evaluated auricular acupressure, and one study evaluated battlefield auricular acupuncture plus standard analgesia. Overall, the number of acupressure points varied from 3 to 5. In most cases, auricular acupressure was used at points of Shen Men (n=3) and the external genital area (n=2). Overall, auricular acupressure in one study out of three studies had a significant effect on reducing postpartum perineal pain. Two out of three studies reported no side effects of auricular acupressure for participants.
Conclusion: It seems that auricular acupressure can be used as a simple, low-cost, and practical intervention to reduce postpartum perineal pain. However, future well-designed studies are needed to confirm the findings of this systematic review.
Background and objectives: Microbial resistance to antibiotics is one of the most common problems in the health care system. Therefore, many efforts have been performed to find new compounds as antimicrobial compounds. This study carried out to investigate the in-vitro antibacterial effect of methanolic extract of peppermint on standard Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain.
Methods: In this experimental laboratory study, after collecting and performing pharmacognosy evaluations, methanolic extract of the peppermint plant was prepared and its antimicrobial effects on several bacteria were determined at concentrations of 20 to 400 mg/ml using the agar well diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. The test was repeated five times for each bacterium and the collected data were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: It was revealed that the methanolic extract of peppermint had antimicrobial effects against standard Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The highest effect was observed in S. aureus and the least in P. aeruginosa. MIC and MBC of methanol extract on S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa were 6.5-15.5, 15.5-25, 50-100, and 100-200 mg/ml, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of this study reveal that peppermint can be considered as an antibacterial medicinal herb and that if the concentration of the extract is higher, its antibacterial properties will also increase. Thus, it can be used as an alternative to the usual chemical drugs in the treatment of infections after evaluating their effects in vitro.
Background and objective: Some common problems in the health care system
are Microbial resistance to antibiotics, the side effects of food additives, and
preservatives. Considering the antibiotic resistance of microorganisms and the
need to identify new compounds, the present study was conducted to determine
the antimicrobial effects of Artemisia extracts.
Material And Method The study was performed in two stages including
extraction and determination of antibacterial properties of aqueous, ethanolic,
methanolic, acetone/ethanolic, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia on
standard Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, and oral bacteria
sample. The well diffusion method was performed to evaluate the concentration
that had an inhibitory and bactericidal effect.
Result: Aqueous extract had an effect on the oral bacteria sample (8 mm), the
methanolic extract had an effect on S. pyogenes and oral bacteria sample (15
mm) and finally acetone/ethanolic extracts had antimicrobial properties against
S. pyogenes (16 mm). The concentration used for all five extracts was 50 mg/ml
and showed an inhibition effect on the growth of S. pyogenes standard strain and
oral bacteria sample. The less serial dilutions of extracts were tested but no
antibacterial effects were seen. So, 50 mg/ml was the minimum concentration
that had an inhibitory and bactericidal effect.
Conclusion: It can be inferred that aqueous, methanolic, and acetone/ethanolic
extracts of Artemisia had the highest inhibitory effect on S. pyogenes and the
oral bacteria sample. Consequently, by applying different extraction methods
and by utilizing different solvents, it may be possible to more efficiently obtain
biomaterials with antimicrobial properties from this plant.
Background and Purpose: One of the important and common applications of telemedicine is the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. However, teledermatology requires further commitments to provide standard services and appropriate electronic data transfer for reliable diagnostics to comply with technical standards and legal requirements. The present study aimed to determine the factors affecting the establishment of Teledermatology in the qualitative and quantitative sections .
Methodology: A mixed-method study (including quantitative and qualitative sections) was conducted in 2018. In the qualitative section, experts were selected by purposive sampling and the data were collected through 2 focus group discussions and 6 semi-structured interviews. The content of sessions and interviews were transcribed and then analyzed by the content analysis method. In the quantitative section, 384 participants were selected randomly. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability were confirmed. Data analyses were performed in SPSS.
Results: A total of 8 categories and 58 subcategories were extracted. The 8 categories of the factors affecting the establishment of teledermatology in Iran included service provider, service recipient, structural, technological, economic, policymaking, legal, and cultural. Cultural factors (3.95±0.77) and policymaking factors (3.22±0.84), respectively, had the highest and the lowest effects on the establishment of teledermatology in Iran.
Conclusion: Factors affecting the establishment of Teledermatology are diverse and extensive, which the most effective factors were cultural factors, technological factors and factors related to service providers. These findings can help the policymakers and managers interested in the establishment of teledermatology in Iran.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling has been introduced to be involved in macrophages polarization. The perturbation of AHR has been reported in hypoxia and related disorders. Here, I would like to highlight the significance of AHR in hypoxia-mediated macrophages polarization and suggest conducting further experiments on related subjects.
Background and Objective: Downscale outcome in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is associated with lipid peroxidation. Melatonin may have beneficial effects against lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. This work was aimed to evaluate the ameliorative capacity of melatonin versus the passage of time and lipid peroxidation on sperm parameters from the men with ATS in the ART process.
Material and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 50 asthenoteratozoospermic (ATS) men. Samples were divided into control and melatonin group. The test group were incubated with 6 mM melatonin at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours. Then total and progressive motility, membrane integrity, and Malondialdehyde levels (MDA) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS software (repeated-measures ANOVA).
Results: In the control group, total (p
Fibrosis is a common and mostly progressive pathological outcome in various chronic inflammatory disorders. Dermal (skin) fibrosis, which is associated with intense skin lesions, is a result of an uncontrolled healing process in the dermis, particularly disproportionate fibroblast proliferation and Extracellular Matrix (ECM) production. Animal models are substantial tools in biomedical investigations and have been considerably employed to evaluate miscellaneous features of diseases that cannot be demonstrated otherwise in humans. To date, various skin fibrosis models have been generated, including the transgene and/or genetic models and chemical and drug-induced models. However, genetic models are sophisticated and need access to convoluted methods. Accordingly, the introduction of affordable and easy to generate fibrosis models in the skin is crucial. Here, we aimed to introduce the chemical/drug-induced skin fibrosis animal models to provide an updated list of available approaches.
Background and objectives: Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a major issue in the process of infectious disease treatments. The aim of this study was an evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum flower extract against several gram-negative and positive clinical bacterial isolates.
Methods: An adequate dried flower of an endemic mature Punica granatum plant was used for extraction. The standard strain of several gram negative and positive bacteria was chosen for this study, as well as some distinguished clinical strains such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus spp. In order to indicate the antibacterial effect of Punica granatum mature flower, well-diffusion method was done for each bacterium of the extraction of the flower, so that zone inhibitions can be reported. MIC and MBC test was done.
Results: Disc diffusion test was done and the greatest zone inhibition Shigella was 39 mm and then Salmonella typhimurium 13.1 mm. The lowest antibacterial effect of P. granatum extraction was gained on Proteus with 6 mm of zone inhibition. The Highest MIC and MBC effect was obtained from antibacterial evaluation on S. typhimurium and S. epidermidis.
Conclusion: the antibacterial activities of medicinal plants, pharmaceutical companies are just using medicinal plants in association with synthetic drugs in order to obtain better results. Setting up a more analytic test on medicinal plants same as HPLC test could be the next stage of this study in order to reach to a higher reliance of medicinal plants antibacterial activities qualification So That we could combine them with synthetic drugs and improve their efficiency.
Background and objectives: As much as people become aware of the dangerous side effects of synthetic antibiotics, the demand for natural alternatives to these drugs increases. Natural ingredients, lower risk of complications and even have beneficial side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of herbs Reum ribes L and hyssop Hyssopus officinalis is on some pathogenic bacteria.
Methods: After collecting and confirming the scientific name, the methanolic extract of R. ribes L. and H. officinalis plants was prepared and the antimicrobial effects of the extracts by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion , as well as the determination of The minimum bactericidal concentration and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC / MBC) were dilution test on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Results: The highest growth inhibitory zone in S. aureus, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli at concentrations of 400 mg / ml, respectively, in the disc method of 13.21, 13.41, 11.2 and10.74 mm and the well method, respectively 13.64, 13.11, 10.67 mm, and 9.38 mm for the R. ribes L extract, and the disc method of 11.74, 10.2, 10.71, and 9.1 mm, and the well method of 12.41, 11.6, 10.2, and 9.9 respectively. 4.3 mm was observed for H. officinalis extract. The results of MBC / MIC showed that the extract of medicinal plants had the highest susceptibility to B. cereus bacteria and the least susceptibility to E. coli.
Conclusion: R. ribes L. and H. officinalis plants have significant inhibitory effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Therefore, it can be expected that these extracts can be used for the treatment of bacterial infections and are a good alternative to the usual chemical treatments for the treatment of infections.
Background and objective: In recent years, with the increase in resistance due to the indiscriminate use of synthetic antibiotics, it seems necessary to find alternative drugs that have both antibacterial properties and have the least side effects for humans. The purpose of this study is to review the antibacterial properties of some medicinal plants.
Material And Method In this review study, the content related to the antibacterial properties of Thymus vulgaris, Mentha pulegium, Crocus sativus, and Salvia officinalis were studied within Magiran, SID, PubMed, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Scopus databases from 1981 to 2019. Previously published specialized articles and systematic meta-analysis were used as a supplementary source for identifying relevant articles. Finally, data from 46 articles were pooled and analyzed.
Result: Extracts and essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Mentha pulegium, Crocus sativus, and Salvia officinalis had a good antibacterial properties against a variety of pathogenic bacteria and their infections.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the studied plants can be considered as a suitable option for treating infections caused by pathogenic bacteria and helping to Return the sensitivity of antibiotics in these bacteria, and this requires more comprehensive research on medicinal plants.
Background and objectives:Today, due to the increasing antibiotic resistance of bacteria, the use of medicinal plants as a suitable alternative to antibiotics has increased significantly; therefore, in this study, the antibacterial effects of methanolic extracts of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were evaluated.Methods:In this laboratory research, after collecting plants and confirming its scientific name, extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Root was prepared by Soxhlet extractor method at concentrationsof 20 mg / ml to 400 mg / ml. Then the antimicrobial effects of this extract were investigated using Agar well diffusion and Dilution test methods.Results:The results showed that the methanolic extracts of G.glabra L. in both Agar well diffusion and Dilution test methods had antibacterial effects on the tested bacteria. The highest effect was observed on S.aureus and the lowest effect was observed in P.aeruginosa.Conclusion:According to the above results, it can be expected that the G.glabra L. extract can be used to treat bacterial infections and is a suitable alternative to commonly used chemical treatments for the treatment of infections