JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1752-1688
Publications
Median Daily Dissolved-Solids Concentrations at 315 Surface-Water Quality Monitoring Sites, Generalized Geology, and Land Cover in the Southwestern United States.
Diagnostic Plots for the SPARROW Model of Dissolved-Solids Transport in the Southwestern United States. (A) Map of standardized residuals. (B) Predicted vs. observed annual dissolved-solids loads.
A) Median Daily Dissolved-Solids Concentrations and Discharge; (B) Median Annual Dissolved-Solids Loads and Discharge, and Factors That Can Affect Concentrations of Dissolved Solids and Loads, for Surface-Water-Quality-Monitoring Sites in the Main Stem of the Rio Grande.
Area-Normalized Predicted Reach-Catchment Delivery Rates of Dissolved Solids to Streams in the Southwestern United States. (A) Spatial distribution; (B) statistical distribution.
Maps of (A) Delivery Rate, (B) Accumulation Rate, (C) Human Sources, and (D) Ratio of Delivery Rate to Accumulation Rate for Accounting Units in the Southwestern United States.
Article
Anning, David W., 2011. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(5):1087-1109. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00579.x Abstract: Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit.
 
Article
Booth, Nathaniel L., Eric J. Everman, I-Lin Kuo, Lori Sprague, and Lorraine Murphy, 2011. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Assessing Regional Water-Quality Conditions and Management Actions. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(5):1136-1150. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00573.x Abstract: The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program has completed a number of water-quality prediction models for nitrogen and phosphorus for the conterminous United States as well as for regional areas of the nation. In addition to estimating water-quality conditions at unmonitored streams, the calibrated SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models can be used to produce estimates of yield, flow-weighted concentration, or load of constituents in water under various land-use condition, change, or resource management scenarios. A web-based decision support infrastructure has been developed to provide access to SPARROW simulation results on stream water-quality conditions and to offer sophisticated scenario testing capabilities for research and water-quality planning via a graphical user interface with familiar controls. The SPARROW decision support system (DSS) is delivered through a web browser over an Internet connection, making it widely accessible to the public in a format that allows users to easily display water-quality conditions and to describe, test, and share modeled scenarios of future conditions. SPARROW models currently supported by the DSS are based on the modified digital versions of the 1:500,000-scale River Reach File (RF1) and 1:100,000-scale National Hydrography Dataset (medium-resolution, NHDPlus) stream networks.
 
Article
Preston, Stephen D., Richard B. Alexander, Gregory E. Schwarz, and Charles G. Crawford, 2011. Factors Affecting Stream Nutrient Loads: A Synthesis of Regional SPARROW Model Results for the Continental United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(5):891-915. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00577.x Abstract: We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models – 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus – all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales.
 
Article
Saad, David A., Gregory E. Schwarz, Dale M. Robertson, and Nathaniel L. Booth, 2011. A Multi-Agency Nutrient Dataset Used to Estimate Loads, Improve Monitoring Design, and Calibrate Regional Nutrient SPARROW Models. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(5):933-949. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688. 2011.00575.x Abstract: Stream-loading information was compiled from federal, state, and local agencies, and selected universities as part of an effort to develop regional SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to help describe the distribution, sources, and transport of nutrients in streams throughout much of the United States. After screening, 2,739 sites, sampled by 73 agencies, were identified as having suitable data for calculating long-term mean annual nutrient loads required for SPARROW model calibration. These sites had a wide range in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields, and environmental characteristics in their basins. An analysis of the accuracy in load estimates relative to site attributes indicated that accuracy in loads improve with increases in the number of observations, the proportion of uncensored data, and the variability in flow on observation days, whereas accuracy declines with increases in the root mean square error of the water-quality model, the flow-bias ratio, the number of days between samples, the variability in daily streamflow for the prediction period, and if the load estimate has been detrended. Based on compiled data, all areas of the country had recent declines in the number of sites with sufficient water-quality data to compute accurate annual loads and support regional modeling analyses. These declines were caused by decreases in the number of sites being sampled and data not being entered in readily accessible databases.
 
Conceptual Drawing Showing the Impact of an Inactive Multi-aquifer Well on Contaminant Movement to a Public Water-Supply Well.
Map Showing Simplified Numerical Model Domain and Simulated Effects of Multi-aquifer Wells on Flow to a Confined-Aquifer Public Water-Supply (PWS) Well. The extent of the simulated 1-, 5-, 10-, and 40-year zones of transport (ZOT) in the confined aquifer for the PWS well are shown for the (a) PWS-well-only scenario, (b) seasonal scenario, and (c) inactive scenario. The pumping rate at the PWS well for these model results was 1,200 m3/day.
Graph Showing 40-Year Zones of Transport for Various Public Water-Supply (PWS) Well Pumping Rates in the Simplified Numerical Model.
Wellbore Leakage Rates and Percents of PWS Well Flow Rates from Multi-aquifer Wells.
Contours of Hydraulic Head Difference Between the Confined and Unconfined Aquifers (in meters) During Irrigation and Nonirrigation Conditions. Scenarios are (a) PWS-well-only, (b) seasonal, and (c) inactive.
Article
Johnson, R.L., B.R. Clark, M.K. Landon, L.J. Kauffman, and S.M. Eberts, 2011. Modeling the Potential Impact of Seasonal and Inactive Multi-Aquifer Wells on Contaminant Movement to Public Water-Supply Wells. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(3):588-596. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00526.x Abstract: Wells screened across multiple aquifers can provide pathways for the movement of surprisingly large volumes of groundwater to confined aquifers used for public water supply (PWS). Using a simple numerical model, we examine the impact of several pumping scenarios on leakage from an unconfined aquifer to a confined aquifer and conclude that a single inactive multi-aquifer well can contribute nearly 10% of total PWS well flow over a wide range of pumping rates. This leakage can occur even when the multi-aquifer well is more than a kilometer from the PWS well. The contribution from multi-aquifer wells may be greater under conditions where seasonal pumping (e.g., irrigation) creates large, widespread downward hydraulic gradients between aquifers. Under those conditions, water can continue to leak down a multi-aquifer well from an unconfined aquifer to a confined aquifer even when those multi-aquifer wells are actively pumped. An important implication is that, if an unconfined aquifer is contaminated, multi-aquifer wells can increase the vulnerability of a confined-aquifer PWS well.
 
Article
Excessive loads of nutrients transported by tributary rivers have been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Management efforts to reduce the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico and improve the water quality of rivers and streams could benefit from targeting nutrient reductions toward watersheds with the highest nutrient yields delivered to sensitive downstream waters. One challenge is that most conventional watershed modeling approaches (e.g., mechanistic models) used in these management decisions do not consider uncertainties in the predictions of nutrient yields and their downstream delivery. The increasing use of parameter estimation procedures to statistically estimate model coefficients, however, allows uncertainties in these predictions to be reliably estimated. Here, we use a robust bootstrapping procedure applied to the results of a previous application of the hybrid statistical/mechanistic watershed model SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) to develop a statistically reliable method for identifying "high priority" areas for management, based on a probabilistic ranking of delivered nutrient yields from watersheds throughout a basin. The method is designed to be used by managers to prioritize watersheds where additional stream monitoring and evaluations of nutrient-reduction strategies could be undertaken. Our ranking procedure incorporates information on the confidence intervals of model predictions and the corresponding watershed rankings of the delivered nutrient yields. From this quantified uncertainty, we estimate the probability that individual watersheds are among a collection of watersheds that have the highest delivered nutrient yields. We illustrate the application of the procedure to 818 eight-digit Hydrologic Unit Code watersheds in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River basin by identifying 150 watersheds having the highest delivered nutrient yields to the Gulf of Mexico. Highest delivered yields were from watersheds in the Central Mississippi, Ohio, and Lower Mississippi River basins. With 90% confidence, only a few watersheds can be reliably placed into the highest 150 category; however, many more watersheds can be removed from consideration as not belonging to the highest 150 category. Results from this ranking procedure provide robust information on watershed nutrient yields that can benefit management efforts to reduce nutrient loadings to downstream coastal waters, such as the Gulf of Mexico, or to local receiving streams and reservoirs.
 
Article
Moore, Richard B., Craig M. Johnston, Richard A. Smith, and Bryan Milstead, 2011. Source and Delivery of Nutrients to Receiving Waters in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic Regions of the United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(5):965-990. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00582.x Abstract: This study investigates nutrient sources and transport to receiving waters, in order to provide spatially detailed information to aid water-resources managers concerned with eutrophication and nutrient management strategies. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) nutrient models were developed for the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic (NE US) regions of the United States to represent source conditions for the year 2002. The model developed to examine the source and delivery of nitrogen to the estuaries of nine large rivers along the NE US Seaboard indicated that agricultural sources contribute the largest percentage (37%) of the total nitrogen load delivered to the estuaries. Point sources account for 28% while atmospheric deposition accounts for 20%. A second SPARROW model was used to examine the sources and delivery of phosphorus to lakes and reservoirs throughout the NE US. The greatest attenuation of phosphorus occurred in lakes that were large relative to the size of their watershed. Model results show that, within the NE US, aquatic decay of nutrients is quite limited on an annual basis and that we especially cannot rely on natural attenuation to remove nutrients within the larger rivers nor within lakes with large watersheds relative to the size of the lake.
 
Article
SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were used to relate instream nutrient loads to sources and factors influencing the transport of nutrients in the Missouri River Basin. Agricultural inputs from fertilizer and manure were the largest nutrient sources throughout a large part of the basin, although atmospheric and urban inputs were important sources in some areas. Sediment mobilized from stream channels was a source of phosphorus in medium and larger streams. Irrigation on agricultural land was estimated to decrease the nitrogen load reaching the Mississippi River by as much as 17%, likely as a result of increased anoxia and denitrification in the soil zone. Approximately 16% of the nitrogen load and 33% of the phosphorus load that would have otherwise reached the Mississippi River was retained in reservoirs and lakes throughout the basin. Nearly half of the total attenuation occurred in the eight largest water bodies. Unlike the other major tributary basins, nearly the entire instream nutrient load leaving the outlet of the Platte and Kansas River subbasins reached the Mississippi River. Most of the larger reservoirs and lakes in the Platte River subbasin are upstream of the major sources, whereas in the Kansas River subbasin, most of the source inputs are in the southeast part of the subbasin where characteristics of the area and proximity to the Missouri River facilitate delivery of nutrients to the Mississippi River.
 
U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Major River Basins (MRB) of the conterminus United States.
Article
Preston, Stephen D., Richard B. Alexander, and David M. Wolock, 2011. SPARROW Modeling to Understand Water‐Quality Conditions in Major Regions of the United States: A Featured Collection Introduction. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(5):887‐890. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752‐1688.2011.00585.x
 
Article
Maupin, Molly A. and Tamara Ivahnenko, 2011. Nutrient Loadings to Streams of the Continental United States From Municipal and Industrial Effluent. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(5):950-964. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00576.x Abstract: Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using “typical pollutant concentrations” to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales.
 
Article
SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were developed to estimate nutrient inputs [total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP)] to the northwestern part of the Gulf of Mexico from streams in the South-Central United States (U.S.). This area included drainages of the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf hydrologic regions. The models were standardized to reflect nutrient sources and stream conditions during 2002. Model predictions of nutrient loads (mass per time) and yields (mass per area per time) generally were greatest in streams in the eastern part of the region and along reaches near the Texas and Louisiana shoreline. The Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River watersheds, which drain nearly two-thirds of the conterminous U.S., delivered the largest nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico, as expected. However, the three largest delivered TN yields were from the Trinity River/Galveston Bay, Calcasieu River, and Aransas River watersheds, while the three largest delivered TP yields were from the Calcasieu River, Mermentau River, and Trinity River/Galveston Bay watersheds. Model output indicated that the three largest sources of nitrogen from the region were atmospheric deposition (42%), commercial fertilizer (20%), and livestock manure (unconfined, 17%). The three largest sources of phosphorus were commercial fertilizer (28%), urban runoff (23%), and livestock manure (confined and unconfined, 23%).
 
Article
Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling.
 
Article
García, Ana María, Anne B. Hoos, and Silvia Terziotti, 2011. A Regional Modeling Framework of Phosphorus Sources and Transport in Streams of the Southeastern United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(5):991-1010. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00517.x Abstract: We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p < 0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables – soil organic matter and soil pH – are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity.
 
The Residuals Estimated From the 1992 National SPARROW Models for (A) Total Nitrogen and (B) Total Phosphorus (Alexander et al., 2008). The residuals for total nitrogen are weighted to account for uncertainty in the monitored load estimates (Alexander et al., 2008, p. S-12). A negative residual implies overprediction of the SPARROW model. The number of monitoring sites in the region is given in parentheses.
The Reduction in the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of Regional Models Incorporating Varying Degrees of Region-Specific Fixed Effects for Land and Aquatic Processes, as Compared to the 1992 National SPARROW Models for Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) (Alexander et al., 2008).
Flow Diagram Describing the Intermediate Steps Applied to the Results of the Regional Fixed-Effects Model to Obtain the Hybrid Model.
Summary Statistics for the National, Regional Fixed-Effects, and Hybrid SPARROW Models for Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP).
A Comparison of Regional Fixed-Effects and Hybrid Model Estimates for Total Phosphorus (TP). Models are based on data from Alexander et al. (2008). Plotted values represent the coefficient estimate expressed as a percent difference from the national model estimate (see Alexander et al., 2008, for the national model coefficient estimates). Circled values pertain to regional fixed-effect and hybrid model coefficients that are constrained in the stepwise procedure and consequently generate a constraint in the estimation of the hybrid model. Note that the horizontal scale is compressed in both the right and left margins, so much so that values on the left and rightmost reference lines are unresolved.
Article
This analysis modifies the parsimonious specification of recently published total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) national-scale SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes models to allow each model coefficient to vary geographically among three major river basins of the conterminous United States. Regionalization of the national models reduces the standard errors in the prediction of TN and TP loads, expressed as a percentage of the predicted load, by about 6 and 7%. We develop and apply a method for combining national-scale and regional-scale information to estimate a hybrid model that imposes cross-region constraints that limit regional variation in model coefficients, effectively reducing the number of free model parameters as compared to a collection of independent regional models. The hybrid TN and TP regional models have improved model fit relative to the respective national models, reducing the standard error in the prediction of loads, expressed as a percentage of load, by about 5 and 4%. Only 19% of the TN hybrid model coefficients and just 2% of the TP hybrid model coefficients show evidence of substantial regional specificity (more than ±100% deviation from the national model estimate). The hybrid models have much greater precision in the estimated coefficients than do the unconstrained regional models, demonstrating the efficacy of pooling information across regions to improve regional models.
 
Article
Wise, Daniel R. and Henry M. Johnson, 2011. Surface-Water Nutrient Conditions and Sources in the United States Pacific Northwest. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(5):1110-1135. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00580.x Abstract: The SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was used to perform an assessment of surface-water nutrient conditions and to identify important nutrient sources in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (U.S.) for the year 2002. Our models included variables representing nutrient sources as well as landscape characteristics that affect nutrient delivery to streams. Annual nutrient yields were higher in watersheds on the wetter, west side of the Cascade Range compared to watersheds on the drier, east side. High nutrient enrichment (relative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s recommended nutrient criteria) was estimated in watersheds throughout the region. Forest land was generally the largest source of total nitrogen stream load and geologic material was generally the largest source of total phosphorus stream load generated within the 12,039 modeled watersheds. These results reflected the prevalence of these two natural sources and the low input from other nutrient sources across the region. However, the combined input from agriculture, point sources, and developed land, rather than natural nutrient sources, was responsible for most of the nutrient load discharged from many of the largest watersheds. Our results provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to environmental managers in future water-quality planning efforts.
 
Article
Flooding was detected along the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries by the multispectral scanner (MSS) on the ERTS-1 on at least three orbits during the spring of 1973. The ERTS data provided the first opportunity for mapping the regional extent of flooding. Special optical data processing techniques were used to produce a variety of multispectral color composites enhancing flood-plain details. One of these, a 2-color composite of near infrared bands 6 and 7, was enlarged and registered to 1:250,000-scale topographic maps and used as the basis for preparation of flood image maps. Two specifically filtered 3-color composites of MSS bands 5,6, and 7 and 4, 5, and 7 were prepared.
 
Article
Churchill County, Nevada had approximately 23,000 residents, with an estimated 13,500 who relied on private wells for water supply in 2002. This study examined exposure to arsenic in water supplies among residents with private domestic wells and factors related to householder choice to consume tap water. It compared opinions and concerns about water quality with consumption habits and observed concentrations from tap water samples. The results from 351 households indicated that a majority (75%) of respondents consumed tap water and that a minority (38%) applied treatment. Approximately 66% of those who consumed tap water were exposed to concentrations of arsenic that exceeded 10 ppb. Water consumption was related to application of treatment. Among 98 respondents who were not at all concerned about the health effects of aqueous arsenic, 59 (60%) reported consuming tap water with concentrations of arsenic exceeding 10 ppb. Conversely, among 86 respondents who were highly concerned about arsenic, 33 (37%) consumed tap water with concentrations of arsenic exceeding 10 ppb. Results from a national sampling effort showed that 620/5304 (11.7%) of private wells sampled had arsenic concentrations above 10 ppb. The paradox of awareness of arsenic in water supplies coupled with consumption of aqueous arsenic in concentrations of >10 ppb may be common in other parts of the nation. Enhanced educational efforts, especially related to tap water sampling and explanations of efficacy of available treatment, may be a useful means of reducing exposure through private water supplies.
 
Article
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to assess the impacts of potential future climate change on the hydrology of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). Calibration and validation of SWAT were performed on a monthly basis for 1968-87 and 1988-97, respectively; R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe simulation efficiency (E) values computed for the monthly comparisons were 0.74 and 0.65 for the calibration period and 0.81 and 0.75 for the validation period. The impacts of eight 20-year (1971-90) scenarios were then analyzed, relative to a scenario baseline. A doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations was predicted to result in an average annual flow increase of 35 percent. An average annual flow decrease of 15 percent was estimated for a constant temperature increase of 4°C. Essentially linear impacts were predicted among precipitation change scenarios of -20, -10, 10, and 20 percent, which resulted in average annual flow changes at Grafton, Illinois, of -51, -27, 28, and 58 percent, respectively. The final two scenarios accounted for variable monthly temperature and precipitation changes obtained from a previous climate projection with and without the effects of CO2 doubling. The resultant average annual flows were predicted to increase by 15 and 52 percent in response to these climatic changes. Overall, the results indicate that the UMRB hydrology is very sensitive to potential future climate changes and that these changes could stimulate increased periods of flooding or drought.
 
Article
Data from seven Management Systems Evaluation Areas (MSEM) were used to test the sensitivity of a leaching model, PRZM-2, to a variety of hydrologic settings common in the Midwest. Atrazine leaching was simulated because the use of atrazine was prevalent in the MSEA studies and it frequently occurs in the region's groundwater. Results of long-term simulations using regional and generalized input parameters produced ranks of leaching potential similar to those based on measurements. Short-term simulations used site-specific soil and chemical coefficients.
 
Article
Soil moisture data were taken during 1976 (April, June, October), 1977 (April, May, June), and 1978 (May, June, July) Hand County, South Dakota as part of the ground truth used in NASA's aircraft experiments to study the use of microwave radiometers for the remote sensing of soil moisture. The spatial variability observed on the ground during each of the sampling events was studied. The data reported are the mean gravimetric soil moisture contained in three surface horizon depths: 0 to 2.5, 0 to 5 and 0 to 10 cm. The overall moisture levels ranged from extremely dry conditions in June 1976 to very wet in May 1978, with a relatively even distribution of values within that range. It is indicated that well drained sites have to be partitioned from imperfectly drained areas when attempting to characterize the general moisture profile throughout an area of varying soil and cover type conditions. It is also found that the variability in moisture content is greatest in the 0 to 2.5 cm measurements and decreases as the measurements are integrated over a greater depth. It is also determined that the sampling intensity of 10 measurements per km is adequate to estimate the mean moisture with an uncertainty of + or - 3 percent under average moisture conditions in areas of moderate to good drainage.
 
Article
Because of its importance and the perceived inability of private sector sources to meet water demands, many countries have depended on the public sector to provide water services for their populations. Yet this has resulted in many inefficient public water projects and in inadequate supplies of good quality and reliable water. Decentralization of water management, including the use of water markets, cannot solve all of the water problems, but it can improve the efficiency of water allocation. When given adequate responsibility and authority, water user associations have effectively taken over water management activities at a savings to tax payers. Moreover, water markets add the potential benefit of improving water efficiency within the sector as well as providing a mechanism for reallocating water among sectors. The key question involves developing innovative mechanisms for reducing the transaction costs of organizing water users and of making water trades. Water rights need to be established which are recorded, tradeable, enforceable, and separate from land if markets are to operate effectively. Also, institutions are needed that effectively resolve conflicts over water rights, including third party impacts and water quality concerns.
 
Article
  This study used measured diurnal surface-water cycles to estimate daily evapotranspiration (ET) and seepage for a seasonally flooded sinkhole wetland. Diurnal surface-water cycles were classified into five categories based on the relationship between the surface-water body and the surrounding ground-water system (i.e., recharge/discharge). Only one class of diurnal cycles was found to be suitable for application of this method. This subset of diurnal cycles was used to estimate ET and seepage and the relative importance of each transfer process to the overall water budget. The method has limited utility for wetlands with erratic hydrologic regimes (e.g., wetlands in urban environments). This is due to violation of the critical assumption that the inflow/outflow rate remains constant throughout the day. For application to surface-water systems, the method is typically applied with an assumed specific yield of 1.0. This assumption was found to be invalid for application to surface-water systems with a noncylindrical pond geometry. An overestimation of ET by as much as 60% was found to occur under conditions of low pond stage and high water loss. The results demonstrate the high ET rates that can occur in isolated wetlands due to contrasting roughness and moisture conditions (oasis and clothesline effects). Estimated ET rates ranged from 4.1 to 18.7 mm/day during the growing season. Despite these large ET rates, seepage (recharge) was found to be the dominant water loss mechanism for the wetland.
 
Article
Delivery of sediment and particulate pollutants from diffuse sources is shown to be related to the loss of sediment carrying energy of runoff during the overland flow phase. The loss is caused by the termination of rainfall and by reduction of flow energy during the recession phase of the overland flow hydrograph. It has been demonstrated both by theoretical analyses and experimental measurements that the saturated sediment concentration in overland flow is a function of rainfall erosivity and the runoff flow rate. The hypotheses were verified by field measurements from a small homogeneous watershed.
 
Article
This paper presents an approach to the evaluation of water quality sampling locations for their potential use for long term monitoring. This approach was applied to four sites on the Yukon River near the Canada-United States boundary. At three of these sites it was difficult to obtain representative samples due to the presence of extensive lateral heterogeneities. These heterogeneities occur because of a lack of mixing between the Yukon River and the major tributaries upstream from Dawson. Only one of the sampling locations is spatially homogeneous enough to provide representative samples.Concentration variations over the annual cycle are very large, often as much as two orders of magnitude. Estimates are made of the frequency and density with which samples must be collected to be able to detect a 10 percent different between annual mean concentrations. The estimated frequencies are so large that such an undertaking would be impractical. More importantly, the assumptions of this analysis are invalid, and time series analysis of fixed frequency samples is proposed as an alternative that is statistically rigorous and requires fewer samples.
 
Article
Samples from 107 piñon pines (Pinns edulis) at four sites were used to develop a proxy record of annual (June to June) precipitation spanning the 1226 to 2001 AD interval for the Uinta Basin Watershed of northeastern Utah. The reconstruction reveals significant precipitation variability at interannual to decadal scales. Single-year dry events before the instrumental period tended to be more severe than those after 1900. In general, decadal scale dry events were longer and more severe prior to 1900. In particular, dry events in the late 13th, 16th, and 18th Centuries surpass the magnitude and duration of droughts seen in the Uinta Basin after 1900. The last four decades of the 20th Century also represent one of the wettest periods in the reconstruction. The proxy record indicates that the instrumental record (approximately 1900 to the Present) underestimates the potential frequency and severity of severe, sustained droughts in this area, while over representing the prominence of wet episodes. In the longer record, the empirical probability of any decadal scale drought exceeding the duration of the 1954 through 1964 drought is 94 percent, while the probability for any wet event exceeding the duration of the 1965 through 1999 wet spell is only 1 percent. Hence, estimates of future water availability in the Uinta Basin and forecasts for exports to the Colorado River, based on the 1961 to 1990 and 1971 to 2000 “normal” periods, may be overly optimistic.
 
Article
A deep water-resource and stratigraphic test well near the center of Nantucket Island, about 40 miles (64 km) off the New England Coast, has encountered freshwater at greater depth than predicted by the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. An uppermost lens of fresh-water, which occupies relatively permeable glacial-outwash sand and gravel to a depth of 520 ft. (158 m), is probably in hydrodynamic equilibrium with the present level of the sea and the height of the water table. However, two zones of freshwater between 730-820 ft. (222-250 m) and 900-930 ft. (274-283 m) are anomalously deep. A third zone extending from 1150-1500 ft. (350-457 m) contains slightly salty ground water (2 to 3 parts per thousand dissolved solids). Several explanations are possible, but the most likely is that large areas of the Continental Shelf were exposed to recharge by precipitation during long periods of low sea level in Pleistocene time. After the last retreat of glacial ice, seawater rapidly drowned the shelf around Nantucket Island. Since then, about 8000 years ago, the deep freshwater zones which underlie dense clay layers have not had time to adjust to a new equilibrium. Under similar circumstances freshwater may remain trapped under extensive areas of the Continental Shelf wherever clay confining beds have not permitted saltwater to intrude rapidly to new positions of hydrodynamic equilibrium. The implications are far reaching because all continental shelfs were exposed to similar hydrologic influences during Pleistocene time.
 
Article
Stomatal closure during periods of moisture deficiency should theoretically lead to elevated 13C/12C ratios as reduction of available CO2 leads to diminished photosynthetic discrimination against 13C in favor of 12C. Stable-carbon isotope ratio chronologies developed from 5-yr tree-ring groups at 17 sites in six southwestern states were tested for a drought relationship by first fitting a spline curve to each chronology to remove the long-term trend and calculating indices as the ratio of actual to spline curve value. The time series of “Del Indices” so developed are significantly correlated with 5-yr mean Palmer Hydrological Drought Indices (post-1930 period) and reconstructed July Palmer Drought Severity Indices from respective areas. Overall, in the period since 1790, the driest pentads were 1900–04 and 1960–64, whereas the wettest were 1980–84 and 1915–19. Maps of drought represented for two pentads seem to be reasonable representations, although spatial correlations of Del Indices with PHDI were generally not significant. These Del Index drought reconstructions may provide a useful measure of past physiological response to drought (stomatal closure), although the present cost of analysis would prevent this from being a routine method.
 
Article
ABSTRACT The movement of fallout 137Cs carried by soil particles was studied as an indicator of erosion and sedimentation in the Allerton watersheds and 4-H Memorial Lake located near Monticello, Illinois. Sediment deposition was greater in the waterway draining from watershed IB than in the waterway from watershed IA. At the average rate of 2.3 cm/yr of sediment deposition in the lake (from 1954 to 1979), there will be a loss of over 2 meters of water depth in the next century. However, there appears to be a decreasing rate of sediment deposition in the 4-H Memorial Lake as a result of improved conservation practices on the watersheds and the increased effectiveness of vegetated waterways and buffers for retaining sediment.
 
Article
Productivity measurements of organisms attached to artificial substrates ranged from 6.5–7.6 mg C/m2/hr and were 17-65% greater in stirred bottles (simulated flow) than under static conditions. Carbon-14 was used to determine the effect of current on the primary productivity of these organisms in six artificial streams at the Flowing Streams Laboratory on the Savannah River Plant (U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, Aiken, South Carolina, U.SA.). Seasonal changes in dominant organisms were monitored from June 1973 to March 1974. Estimates of productivity, accumulated biomass, and levels of chlorophyll a were compared for possible correlation. Production of chlorophyll a ranged from 50 to 381 mg/m2, and accumulated biomass ranged from 45 to 181 g/m2 on the artificial substrates (glass microscope slides) during the period of study. Productivity of attached organisms was generally an order of magnitude greater than productivity of phytoplankton or tychoplankton. The consistently higher productivity in simulated flowing systems than in static systems tends to cast some doubt on values obtained when lotic communities have been enclosed or isolated in chambers or bottles without inducing a current or stirring action.
 
Article
ADDENDUM: In the December 1999 JAWRA Special Issue on Water Resources and Climate Change, Miller et al., presented an overview of downscaled climate and streamfiow study of the southwestern United States. This manuscript included an initial sensitivity study of a doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on western U.S. precipitation and streamflow. In the published manuscript, Figure 12a shows the mean annual precipitation for 1981 to 1984 and Figure 15 shows the mean annual precipitation difference between the downscaled control simulation and the 2°CO2 projection. Both Figure 12a and Figure 15 are in units of mm/month. These units are incorrect, the correct units are mm/year. An additional California watershed is included here, as is more analysis of the streamflow result due to climate change.
 
Article
A network of 32 drought sensitive tree-ring chronologies is used to reconstruct mean water year flow on the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon, since 1750. The reconstruction explains 30 percent of the variability in mean water year (October to September) flow, with a large portion of unexplained variance caused by underestimates of the most severe low flow events. Residual statistics from the tree-ring reconstruction, as well as an identically specified instrumental reconstruction, exhibit positive trends over time. This finding suggests that the relationship between drought and streamflow has changed over time, supporting results from hydrologic models, which suggest that changes in land cover over the 20th Century have had measurable impacts on runoff production. Low pass filtering the flow record suggests that persistent low flows during the 1840s were probably the most severe of the past 250 years, but that flows during the 1930s were nearly as extreme. The period from 1950 to 1987 is anomalous in the context of this record for having no notable multiyear drought events. A comparison of the flow reconstruction to paleorecords of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) support a strong 20th Century link between large scale circulation and streamflow, but suggests that this link is very weak prior to 1900.
 
Article
Hydrogeology is concerned largely with ground water and, as ground water occurs in a geologic environment, an understanding of the geologic fabric and framework is essential to its development and use. But ground-water flow, discharge, recharge, response to pumping and other related matters, including salt-water encroachment, are described by mathematical formulas and tested by engineering techniques. Until both the sciences of geology and engineering hydrology were far enough advanced to be of practical help, in the late 1800's, hydrogeologic progress was stymied. Additionally, an economic need for hydrogeologists was required before a demand developed for such scientists. With the opening of the West in the late 1860's the demand came. Hydrogeologists were needed to find irrigation water for the arid lands. Concomitantly, in the South, ground water was needed for growing rice, corn, and cotton. The rapid growth of cities, especially in the North, required hydrogeologists to find safe supplies of clean, pure water to replace polluted surface-water sources. By the early 1900's engineering techniques and equipment needed to drill and pump the deep wells and to evaluate the aquifer pumping tests were available, satisfactory for the times, but clumsy and awkward by modern standards. By 1912, the beginning of the “Meinzer Era,” the U.S. Geological Survey had developed into the foremost governmental scientific organization in the world and its small cadre of hydrogeologists were world leaders in their science. A wealth of information concerning the history and development of the science was summarized by Meinzer (1934). Oscar E. Meinzer, regarded as the Father of Hydrogeology in America, was the third Chief of the Ground-Water Branch (1912–1946) (Figure 1).
 
Article
Rush Creek, the principal tributary to Mono Lake, has undergone profound hydrologic modifications as a result of flow regulation for hydroelectric generation and irrigation, diversions for irrigated agriculture, and diversions for water export to the City of Los Angeles. Lower Rush Creek (the lowermost 13 km downstream of Grant Lake Reservoir) was dry by 1970, but now receives flow as a result of court-ordered efforts to restore former ecological conditions. Using available historic data and recent field measurements, we constructed the water balance for Lower Rush Creek, identifying six distinct historical periods characterized by very different patterns of gain and loss. The hydrologic patterns must be understood as a basis for modeling ecosystem response to stream-flow alteration. A gradually gaining stream under natural conditions, the advent of irrigation diversions caused the middle reaches of Lower Rush Creek to be often completely dry, while irrigation-recharged springs still maintained a baseflow in the downstream “Meadows” ranch. Increased water exports from the basin subsequently reduced irrigation and dried up the springs.
 
Article
Recent occurrences of heavy rainfall in New Orleans, Louisiana, have led to speculation that the local heavy rainfall regime has changed. To objectively determine the validity of these speculations, changing magnitudes of storm rainfall were investigated through an examination of the annual maximum storm series from 1871 to 1991 at the New Federal site. Although a long-term trend was not found, the Wilcoxon test indicated that magnitudes during the last 14 years (from 1978–1991) differed significantly from the rest of the series.
 
Article
  China has experienced a rapid land-use/cover change (LUCC) during the 20th Century, and this process is expected to continue in the future. How LUCC has affected water resources across China, however, remains uncertain due to the complexity of LUCC-water interactions. In this study, we used an integrated Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) in conjunction with spatial data of LUCC to estimate the LUCC effects on the magnitude, spatial and temporal variations of evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, and water yield across China. Through comparisons of DLEM results with other model simulations, field observations, and river discharge data, we found that DLEM model can adequately catch the spatial and seasonal patterns of hydrological processes. Our simulation results demonstrate that LUCC led to substantial changes in ET, runoff, and water yield in most of the China’s river basins during the 20th Century. The temporal and spatial patterns varied significantly across China. The largest change occurred during the second half century when almost all of the river basins had a decreasing trend in ET and an increasing trend in water yield and runoff, in contrast to the inclinations of ET and declinations of water yield in major river basins, such as Pearl river basin, Yangtze river basin, and Yellow river basin during the first half century. The increased water yield and runoff indicated alleviated water deficiency in China in the late 20th Century, but the increased peak flow might make the runoff difficult to be held by reservoirs. The continuously increasing ET and decreasing water yield in Continental river basin, Southwest river basin, and Songhua and Liaohe river basin implied regional water deficiency. Our study in China indicates that deforestation averagely increased ET by 138 mm/year but decreased water yield by the same amount and that reforestation averagely decreased ET by 422 mm/year since most of deforested land was converted to paddy land or irrigated cropland. In China, cropland-related land transformation is the dominant anthropogenic force affecting water resources during the 20th Century. On national average, cropland expansion was estimated to increase ET by 182 mm/year while cropland abandonment decreased ET by 379 mm/year. Our simulation results indicate that urban sprawl generally decreased ET and increased water yield. Cropland managements (fertilization and irrigation) significantly increased ET by 98 mm/year. To better understand LUCC effects on China’s water resources, it is needed to take into account the interactions of LUCC with other environmental changes such as climate and atmospheric composition.
 
Article
Kallis, Jahn, Leo Bodensteiner, and Anthony Gabriel, 2010. Hydrological Controls and Freshening in Meromictic Soap Lake, Washington, 1939-2002. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 46(4): 744-756. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00446.xAbstract:  The chemically stratified layer of naturally formed meromictic lakes exhibits unusual and often extreme physical and chemical conditions that have resulted in the evolution of uniquely adapted species. The Columbia Basin Irrigation Project appears to have had a marked effect on the hydrology of Soap Lake, a meromictic lake in the Grand Coulee of central Washington. The relation of hydrology to salinity was assessed by analyzing water budgets before and after the introduction of the irrigation project. Before irrigation, water gains were balanced by losses; after irrigation began groundwater gains approximately doubled. To manage lake levels and reduce groundwater influx, wells were installed to intercept groundwater. Although the hydrological cycle has been restored to pre-irrigation conditions, the meromictic character of the lake continues to change. Interception wells remove 10 to 16 Mm3 of groundwater annually, but influx continues based on change in the monimolimnion. From 1958 to 2003 the chemocline descended 1.1 m and the volume of the monimolimnion from 698,000 m3 to 114,000 m3. Annual loss of volume is occurring at a rate of 1.9% since 1958. Although groundwater interception wells are maintaining the volume of the entire lake, the recession of the chemocline indicates that conditions that have maintained meromixis at Soap Lake are currently not in equilibrium.
 
Article
An important international Niagara River management issue concerns allocation of the average 202,000 cubic feet per second river discharge for hydroelectric power and scenic purposes. Major water diversions from Niagara Falls are necessary for power production. Flow is allocated by the 1950 Niagara Treaty which is intended to maximize power benefits and preserve and enhance the scenic fals spectacle. This paper examines the extent to which the Treaty objectives have been achieved. Based on analyses of government documents, engineering data, and falls-viewing patterns, it is concluded that the 1950 Treaty led to enhancement of the falls spectacle and increased power generation. But significant additional power diversions probably are attainable without adverse effect upon the existing falls spectacle. Reducing daytime summer Horseshoe Falls flow and scheduling spring and autumn flow according to viewing patterns are possible means of increasing power diversions. Existing generating facilities could use considerably more water and the value of additional Niagara hydroelectricity is very high in terms of generation-cost savings over alternative power sources. Because of the cultural importance of the falls, Treaty modifications to permit increased power diversions are not recommended without prior public opinion sampling and on-site viewing experiments. These findings highlight the need for more careful study before long-term international agreements are concluded and illustrate the need for more flexible treaty arrangements to permit periodic adjustments for changing conditions.
 
Article
Public investments in water resource development projects are continually under scrutiny in terms of economic, environmental, and social impacts. Results of an analysis of a water development project that supplies irrigation water in Idaho are discussed in terms of the impact on income distribution and income growth 44 to 64 years after the project was initiated. Gini ratios for the rural farm population of these counties were consistently lower than they were for the United States as a whole and for the state of Idaho. In addition, income distributions tended to become more equitable over time in the water project counties. Rural farm population income growth rates were found to be similar to those for the nation as a whole. Some of the reasons for these results may be related to the tendency for income distribution to become more equitable as income increases, and the fact that average farm size is relatively small.
 
Article
  Despite widespread interest, few sediment budgets are available to document patterns of erosion and sedimentation in developing watersheds. We assess the sediment budget for the Good Hope Tributary, a small watershed (4.05 km2) in Montgomery County, Maryland, from 1951-1996. Lacking monitoring data spanning the period of interest, we rely on a variety of indirect and stratigraphic methods. Using regression equations relating sediment yield to construction, we estimated an upland sediment production of 5,700 m3 between 1951 and 1996. Regression equations indicate that channel cross-sectional area is correlated with the extent of development; these relationships, when combined with historical land use data, suggest that upland sediment yield was augmented by 6,400 m3 produced by enlargement of first-order and second-order stream channels. We used dendrochronology to estimate that 4,000 m3 of sediment was stored on the floodplain from 1951-1996. The sediment yield from the watershed, obtained by summing upstream contributions, totals 8,100 m3 of sediment, or 135 tons/km2/year. These results indicate that upland erosion, channel enlargement, and floodplain storage are all significant components of the sediment budget of our study area, and all three are approximately equal in magnitude. Erosion of “legacy” floodplain sediments originally deposited during poor agricultural practices of the 19th and early 20th Centuries has likely contributed between 0 and 20% of the total sediment yield, indicating that these remobilized deposits are not a dominant component of the sediment yield of our study area.
 
Article
Aerial photogrammetric techniques were developed and tested for identifying and classifying river-based recreation sites. A classification system was designed to describe the nature of the land itself, the land use, or the vegetation on the landscape. The Connecticut, a large river running through four states, was examined and classified using the system. Analysis of two sets of aerial photographs taken with a time lapse of ten to thirteen years enabled determination of past use and development trends. A catalogue of maps classifying strips of land adjacent to the river was prepared and reproduced for use by interested planning agencies. Statistics on land area by types for the river as it now is and as it was ten to thirteen years previously have been prepared by towns, counties, and states. The aerial photographs proved invaluable for analyzing the recreational potential of the Connecticut River.
 
Article
Nitrate levels in the Ocklawaha River Basin in north central Florida were reviewed over a 50-year period. Data were obtained from the literature, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) STOrage and RETrieval (STORET), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) databases. The study objective was to determine whether nitrate concentrations are increasing and if so, whether this increase is linked to land use changes. Increasing nitrate levels were seen at 5 of the 14 stations, while other stations showed no trend or a decreasing trend. Median nitrate concentrations in the Ocklawaha River increased from 0.07 mg-N/L to 0.78 mg-N/L at sites downstream from the Silver River. Throughout the Rodman Reservoir, median nitrate concentrations decreased from 0.48 mg-N/L to 0.01 mg-N/L and increased to 0.04 mg-N/L after the Kirkpatrick Dam. Flow and concentration relationships were correlated for five stations. At four of the five stations nitrate concentrations decreased in response to increasing flow, likely the result of dilution with nitrate poor water. Changes in land use over a 20- year period (1970 to 1990) also were monitored. Sources of nitrate have been linked by isotopic analysis to organic and inorganic fertilizers, which appear to be related to increased urbanization and an increase in lawns that require nutrient fertilization.
 
Article
The climate of Southern Arizona is dominated by summer precipitation, which accounts for over 60 percent of the annual total. Summer and non-summer precipitation data from the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed are analyzed to identify trends in precipitation characteristics from 1956 to 1996. During this period, annual precipitation increased. The annual precipitation increase can be attributed to an increase in precipitation during non-summer months, and is paralleled by an increase in the proportion of annual precipitation contributed during non-summer months. This finding is consistent with previously reported increases in non-summer precipitation in the southwestern United States. Detailed event data were analyzed to provide insight into the characteristics of precipitation events during this time period. Precipitation event data were characterized based on the number of events, event precipitation amount, 30-minute event intensity, and event duration. The trend in non-summer precipitation appears to be a result of increased event frequency since the number of events increased during nonsummer months, although the average amount per event, average event intensity, and average event duration did not. During the summer “monsoon” season, the frequency of recorded precipitation events increased but the average precipitation amount per event decreased. Knowledge of precipitation trends and the characteristics of events that make up a precipitation time series is a critical first step in understanding and managing water resources in semiarid ecosystems.
 
Article
Country level electoral data were used to analyze the voting patterns of eight water related constitutional amendment elections. Both water quality enhancement amendments (1971, 1976), and three of six water development amendments (1957, 1962, 1966) have been ratified, thus establishing a statewide policy of reservoir development, a funding mechanism to implement such a policy, and the creation of a water management agency. Begining with the 1969 election, a West Texas-East Texas regionalized voting pattern has emerged, resulting in the defeat of three amendments (1969, 1976, 1981) intended to provide additional funding for water development. This regionalization reflects different climatic, physiographic, economic, and locational factors, and represents a potential obstacle to coordinated water management in Texas.
 
Article
Long term data on surface water quality can sometimes be assembled by combining data collected by different agencies at different times and assuming that between agency differences in data quality are insignificant. The objective of this paper was to assess the quality of riverine nitrate (NO3) concentrations in Illinois measured and reported by four agencies from 1967 to 1974 by comparing median values for similar sampling locations and periods. A total of 17 river reaches were identified for which two agencies reported NO3 concentrations during similar periods. Nonparametric comparison of median values and analysis of covariance with discharge as a covariant produced similar results. Nitrate concentrations reported by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from 1967 to 1971 were not statistically (P > 0.05) different from values reported by the Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) for two of three river reaches. Additionally, NO3 concentrations reported by USGS from 1972 to 1974 were not statistically different than concentrations reported by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) for four of five river reaches. From 1969 to 1971, NO3 concentrations reported by the Illinois Department of Public Heath and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IDPH/IEPA) were less than one-fourth the magnitude of values reported by ISWS. The median NO3 concentrations measured by the Central Illinois Public Service (CIPS) were significantly greater than those measured by USGS and IDPH/IEPA in the three comparable sampling locations. The use of NO3 concentrations measured by CIPS and IDPH/IEPA prior to 1972 is not recommended.
 
Article
The Truckee River heads in the Sierra Nevada at Lake Tahoe, and terminates in Pyramid Lake. During the 1969 water year, flow about 9 miles upstream from the mouth (974,000 acre-ft) was almost four times the long-term average, due mainly to heavy winter rains and spring snowmelt. A short period of low-altitude rainfall produced the highest concentrations of suspended sediment, whereas a much longer subsequent period of snowmelt yielded a much greater total quantity of material. The upper 90 percent of the basin yielded about 260 acre-feet (630,000 tons) of sediment at the Nixon gage, whereas an estimated 2,800 acre-feet (6.8 million tons) was contributed by erosion of about 200 acres of river bank below the gage. Solute content at the gage ranged from 80 to 450 mg/l, dominated by calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate, plus silica in the most dilute snowmelt and chloride in the most concentrated low flows. Solute load totaled about 130,000 tons, of which the principal constituents in Pyramid Lake-sodium plus equivalent bicarbonate and chloride-amounted to almost 40,000 tons. The total solute load during a year of average flow may be 45,000-55,000 tons, including 18,000-22,000 tons of principal lake constituents.
 
Article
The application of a water balance model in finding “solutions” to the supply/demand problem was demonstrated using the South Platte River basin as a case study. Solutions were ascertained by hand, using both “average” and “stress” supply/demand conditions, and were developed for 1980, 2000, and 2020; nonquantifiable boundary conditions were incorporated by judgement. The solution obtained for a particular set of conditions is not unique and has strong normative characteristics; thus it must be judged by various interest groups having different ethical positions. The water balance model has a tabular display format and so the “model” is merely a simple table, i.e., a “water balance table.” In this work the water balance table was displayed on an eight-foot by eight-foot color-coded magnetic board. The board provides a means to both find and display the needed supply/demand “solution.” The tabular display facilitates understanding of the systemwide solution and the formulation of value judgments. Based upon these value judgments and an initial “straw man” solution, successive negotiated solutions can be found which can minimize “conflict.”
 
Article
This paper describes the meteorological patterns that produced the combination of heavy rains in August 1971 that resulted in record floods in New Jersey. Daily and hourly precipitation data and selected recurrence frequencies of rainfall amounts are tabulated. History of previous heavy rainfalls in New Jersey indicates that occurrences of very heavy rains are frequently associated with tropical disturbances. Flood damages, fatalities, warnings issued and areas of record river stages are summarized.
 
Article
An understanding of temporal trends in total stream-flow (TSF), base flow (BF), and storm runoff (RO) can help in the development of water management plans for watersheds and local communities. In this study, 47 streams across Pennsylvania that were unregulated and unaffected by karst environments or coal mining were studied for flow trends and their relationships to selected climate parameters for the period 1971 to 2001. LOWESS curves for annual flow showed that almost all of the selected streams in Pennsylvania had downward trends in total TSF, BF, and RO. Using a seasonal Mann-Kendall analysis, downward trends were significant at an = 0.05 level for 68, percent 70 percent, and 62 percent of the streams and at an = 0.10 level for another 19, 17, and 13 percent of the streams for TSF, BF, and RO, respectively. The ratio of BF to TSF (RBS) had significant upward trends for 34 percent of the streams at an = 0.05 level and for another 9 percent of the streams at an = 0.10 level, indicating that TSF decreased relative to BF for more than 40 percent of the streams during the previous 30 years. Downward trends in TSF, BF, and RO were most common for the months of June, July, and December. Trend analyses using monthly and annual total precipitation and mean temperature showed some association between climate and the streamflow trends, but Spearman's correlation and partial Mann-Kendall analyses revealed that the trends in TSF, BF, and RO could not be explained by trends in precipitation and temperature alone, and thus urbanization and development may have played a role.
 
Article
As a part of a water quality survey of the Spoon River, Illinois, algal genera were identified and their densities were enumerated. Weekly samples were collected at five stations starting on June 1, 1971. This report presents the first year's results. Algal densities for each station were found to be distributed geometrically normal. Total algal densities increased as water progressed downstream. Although water temperature has been observed to be an important factor affecting the density and the composition of algae in streams, attempts to correlate algal densities with temperatures for the Spoon River were not fruitful. Correlations of algal densities with dissolved oxygen, flow, and coliform densities also could not be made. The dominant genera observed were Cyclotella, Navicula, Scenedesmus, and Euglena. On the average diatoms accounted for 87% of all algae counts. The average diversity indices varied about 1.0 to 1.5 for five stations. There did not appear to be any advantage in the use of diversity index over that of algal density and genera richness in characterizing algae in the Spoon River.
 
Top-cited authors
Jeff Arnold
  • United States Department of Agriculture
Ranjan S. Muttiah
  • University of Texas at Arlington
Ramesh Srinivasan
  • National Research Council Canada
Derek B. Booth
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
C. Rhett Jackson
  • University of Georgia