J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1439-0396
Publications
Article
The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC, suggests that the maximum level of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds should be set at 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six one-day-old male Hubburd broiler chickens were divided into two groups, a Control (basal diet) and an Ochratoxin A (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The growth and slaughter performance traits were recorded. The liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus weights were measured. The erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers were assayed in blood samples, and the heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L) ratio was determined. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), lysozyme, the total protein and the electrophoretic pattern were evaluated in serum samples. Liver enzymes (alanino aminotransferase, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and kidney function parameters (uric acid and creatinine) were quantified. The results revealed that feeding a 0.1 mg OTA/kg contaminated diet to chicks caused a decrease in the absolute thymus weight (p < 0.05) and a lower total protein (p < 0.01), albumin (p < 0.01), alpha (p < 0.05), beta (p = 0.001) and gamma (p = 0.001) globulins serum concentration in the Ochratoxin A group. Moreover, the albumin-to-globulin (A/G) ratio of the OTA-treated animals resulted to be higher (p < 0.05). Feeding broiler chickens, a diet contaminated with the maximum level admitted by the European Commission Recommendation (0.1 mg OTA/kg), did not affect the animal performance, slaughter traits, organ weights, haematological parameters, liver enzyme or renal function parameters concentrations but had an overall immunosuppressant effect, with reduction in the thymus weight and of the total serum protein, albumin, alpha, beta and gamma globulins concentration.
 
Article
The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC indicates that the maximum tolerable level of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds is 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six 1-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups, a control (basal diet) and an OTA (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The OTA concentration was quantified in serum, liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were evaluated in the liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The glutathione (GSH) content, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in the liver and kidney samples. Histopathological traits were evaluated for the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver samples. Moreover, the chemical composition of the meat was analysed in breast and thigh samples. In the OTA diet-fed animals, a serum OTA concentration of 1.15 ± 0.35 ng/ml was found, and OTA was also detected in kidney and liver at 3.58 ± 0.85 ng OTA/g f.w. and 1.92 ± 0.21 ng OTA/g f.w., respectively. The TBARS content was higher in the kidney of the ochratoxin A group (1.53 ± 0.18 nmol/mg protein vs. 0.91 ± 0.25 nmol/mg protein). Feeding OTA at 0.1 mg OTA/kg also resulted in degenerative lesions in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver. The maximum tolerable level of 0.1 mg OTA/kg, established for poultry feeds by the EU, represents a safe limit for the final consumer, because no OTA residues were found in breast and thigh meat. Even though no clinical signs were noticed in the birds fed the OTA-contaminated diet, moderate histological lesions were observed in the liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius.
 
Article
In recent years, aquaculture research has focused on probiotics, prebiotics, and β-glucans, in order to improve health status and growth performance. Information regarding the effects of β-glucan on growth performance and intestinal immunity of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is scarce. An experiment was therefore conducted to investigate the effects of a yeast β-glucan preparation (MacroGard(®) ) on growth performance, intestinal morphology and haemato-immunological indices of mirror carp. Carp (initial weight 11.1 ± 0.0 g) were fed highly purified diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.1%, 1% or 2% MacroGard(®) for 8 weeks. Fish fed diets containing 1% and 2% MacroGard(®) showed significant improvements in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio compared to fish fed both the control and the 0.1% MacroGard(®) containing diet. Histological appraisal of the intestine showed a significantly higher infiltration of leucocytes into the epithelial layer of fish fed diets supplemented with 1% and 2% MacroGard(®) in the anterior intestine compared to fish fed the control and 0.1% MacroGard(®) diet. This effect was not observed in the posterior intestine. There were no significant differences in the intestinal absorptive surface area and number of goblet cells in either intestinal region. At the end of the experiment, the haematological status of the fish was examined. Compared to control fed fish, the haematocrit value was significantly elevated in fish fed the 2% MacroGard(®) diet. Furthermore, the blood monocyte fraction was significantly higher in fish fed the 1% and 2% MacroGard(®) diets. No significant changes were observed in the other blood parameters assessed. The present study shows that high dietary β-glucan inclusion increases growth performance without detrimental effects on the health indicators assessed. Increased intraepithelial leucocytes in the anterior intestine may indicate a localized immune response; no detrimental effects on intestinal morphology were observed.
 
Article
Effectiveness of fibrolytic enzymes supplementing a range of forage to concentrate (F:C) diets was assessed with goat (G) or cow (C) inoculum using the gas production (GP) technique. Four F:C diets were evaluated: forage (1:0), high forage (0.7:0.3), medium forage (0.5:0.5) and low forage (0.3:0.7) diets, supplemented or not with Promote(TM) (PRO) at 1 or 2 ml/kg dry matter (DM). The GP kinetic was different between F:C (1:0 < 0.7:0.3 < 0.5:0.5 < 0.3:0.7) and inoculum. Responses to enzyme were positively related to forage level and differed with inoculum. The neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre degradation were depressed by the concentrate in the substrates fermented with C and were not altered or even enhanced in G sets. Results confirm that increasing starch proportion modified the pattern of microbial fermentation, while no influences were detected in the improvement of cell wall degradation with fibrolytic enzymes. Another in vitro experiment was conducted to investigate factors by which endo-beta-1,4-glucanase activity (EA) of PRO is compromised in a factorial design (3 x 4 x 3) for three pH (4.0, 5.5 and 6.5), four temperatures (30, 40, 50 and 70 degrees C) and three doses (1, 2 and 3 ml/kg DM of substrate). Maximum EA were obtained for pH 4.0, 50 degrees C and 3 ml/kg DM. Optimal conditions for PRO proved to be outside the normal ranges in ruminal environment.
 
Article
Optimal ratio of lysine (Lys) to threonine (Thr) in diets for growing barrows [genotype: Piétrain × (Large White × German Landrace)] was established at 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 kg body weight (BW). N balance studies were conducted with diets based on constant mixture of wheat, barley, soybean meal and field peas. Supplementation of crystalline amino acids (AA) provided diets with Lys (diet A) and Thr (diet B) in first limiting position. For each BW range, totally 28 individual N balance data were utilized for assessing model parameters (exponential N utilization model) of dietary efficiency of Lys and Thr, respectively. Observed maximal dietary efficiency of Lys and Thr provided the database for conclusion of optimal dietary Lys to Thr ratio. Based on applied experimental conditions, BW dependent Lys to Thr ratio could not be concluded. On average, the dietary ratio Lys to Thr = 1:0.61 ± 0.02 was obtained as optimal for growing pigs.
 
Article
Unlabelled: Safflower seed has the highest concentration of linoleic acid among 80 oilseeds but little information exists on the effective use of SS for lactation cows. It was hypothesised that a diet supplemented with an Iranian SS variety (IL-111) in combination with fish oil (FO) would result in higher concentrations of trans-18:1 (including vaccenic acid) and conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat than feeding an unsupplemented control diet. Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing: (i) Control: (C); (ii) 25 g of roasted SS IL-111 (RSS); (iii) 20 g FO and (iv) 25 g RSS + 10 g FO (RSS + FO) per kilogram of dietary DM on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, milk production and fatty acid profile. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design study. The experiment had four periods of 21 days. Milk Fat percentage was lower (p < 0.01) with FO supplementation and averaged 19.0 and 21.5 g/kg milk with FO and RSS + FO compared with 30.3 and 32.5 g/kg with C and RSS. Feed intake also was lower (p < 0.01) with FO vs. C (23.1 vs. 24.5 kg/day) but feeding RSS resulted in greater feed intake compared with other treatments (26 kg/day). Despite lower feed intake with FO, milk production did not change from controls but feeding RSS + FO resulted in greater milk yield than controls (42.6 vs. 39.3 kg/day). Ruminal pH was greater (p < 0.01) in cows fed FO than other treatments. Supplemental FO alone or in combination with RSS resulted in dramatic increases (p < 0.01) in c9,t11-18:2 in milk fat (12.7 and 13.2 g/day vs. 5.8 and 7.02 with C and RSS). It was surprising to note that 25 g/kg RSS can improve feed intake.
 
Article
There are few reported estimates of amino acid (AA) kinetics in adult mammals and none exist in adult dogs. The study objectives were to evaluate the use of oral isotope delivery in contrast to the more commonly used intravenous (IV) delivery to estimate AA kinetics in adult dogs and to estimate splanchnic extraction and gastric emptying using a commonly accepted mathematical model. Dogs received 25 × 1/2-hourly meals (13 g/kg BW/day) and either an oral or IV bolus of l-[1-(13) C]Phe (12 mg/kg BW). Blood samples were taken immediately before each feeding. Concentrations of plasma Phe were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. There were no differences in baseline plasma Phe concentrations (34 μm ± 0.61), Phe distribution volume, Phe pool size and rate constants between dogs when the tracer was administered IV or orally (p > 0.25). Decay curve for plasma l-[1-(13) C]Phe differed between IV and oral dosing protocols with IV dosing fit best using a two-compartment model. Phe disappeared from plasma at a mean rate of 2.8%/min. Estimates of gastric emptying and splanchnic extraction did not differ based on oral or IV tracer dosing when the decay curves were fit with the two-compartment model (p > 0.40). The half-life for gastric emptying was 18 min, and first-pass Phe extraction by the splanchnic bed was 24% of the dietary Phe. These results suggest that oral isotope dosing can be used as an alternative to IV isotope dosing in studies that utilize a primed, constant dosing approach to measure protein and amino acid kinetics.
 
Article
Research has shown that broiler chickens reared on a low-protein diet have a more efficient protein digestion. However, information on the fate of absorbed amino acids in relation to the dietary crude protein level in poultry is sparse. Therefore, this study aimed at developing a methodology for a 1-(13)C(1)-leucine breath test combined with indirect calorimetry, and to apply this technique using broiler diets known to induce differences in protein retention. From 14 days of age onwards, broiler chickens were reared on one of two isocaloric diets with substitutions between fat and protein [low-protein (LP) vs. high-protein (HP) diet: 130.4 vs. 269 g protein/kg; and 101.8 vs. 27.9 g fat/kg]. Every 4 or 5 days, three chickens per diet were placed in the respiratory cells for 48 h. The broilers were intubated with 40 mg 1-(13)C(1)-leucine/kg body weight, followed by breath sampling for 4 h at 15-min intervals and mass spectrometric analysis of the (13)C:(12)C ratio in the samples. The CO(2) level in the respiratory cell air was monitored and excreta samples were collected. The methodology to study l[1-(13)C(1)]leucine decarboxyation in chickens using a breath test combined with indirect calorimetry was accomplished. Results of the nitrogen balance test indicated that the LP broilers had an improved dietary protein retention compared with the HP animals. Moreover, LP chickens decarboxylated a significantly lower percentage of l[1-(13)C(1)]leucine, demonstrating several 'protein- or amino acid-sparing' mechanisms in animals reared on a diet with lower protein level, both at the digestive and at the postabsorptive level.
 
Article
Pasture-fed cattle show yellow pigmentation of their fat due to beta-carotene stored in this tissue. beta,beta'-Carotene-15,15'-oxygenase (betaCO) is an enzyme expressed in different tissues, and it cleaves beta-carotene into retinal. We compared the expression and activity of betaCO in duodenum and liver of cattle with pigmented or non-pigmented fat. In the duodenum, in situ hybridizations showed expression of betaCO in epithelial cells and crypts of the mucosa that was similar in animals from pigmented and non-pigmented fat; liver showed diffuse signal at lobules, but pigmented animals showed higher signals near the portal space. Analyses by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction also showed amplification of mRNA for betaCO in duodenum and liver, with no difference between pigmented or non-pigmented animals. Enzyme activity was similar in the duodenum, but pigmented animals had higher enzyme activity (p = 0.004) in liver. Cattle with pigmented fat had higher expression and activity of betaCO in liver, but its level was not high enough to prevent the storage of beta-carotene in adipose tissues.
 
Article
The distribution of Chlorocholine chloride (CCC) in the eggs of laying hens was studied using 15N-CCC. Twelve layers (37 weeks old) were divided into four groups and used in this study consisting of three feeding phases. In phase one (7 days), all the hens received a CCC-free diet [165 g CP/kg dry matter (DM); 11.58 MJ ME/kg DM]. In phase two (11 days), four levels of 15N-CCC: 0, 5, 50 and 250 ppm were added to the respective diets, while in phase three (7 days), CCC-free feed was again offered. Egg samples were taken and the 15N content of egg yolk and albumin were determined. At the end of phase two, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in 15N content in egg yolk from hens fed the 50 and 250 ppm CCC diets and in albumin from hens fed the 250 ppm CCC diet. The estimated 15N-CCC residue was 1.71, 6.64, 28.80 ppm in egg yolk and 1.58, 1.08 and 4.50 ppm in albumin from hens fed 5, 50 and 250 ppm CCC, respectively. The CCC residue, from quantitative analysis ranged from 0.21 to 0.93 and 0.93 to 2.43 ppm in yolk of hens fed 50 and 250 ppm CCC, respectively, whereas a range of 0.40–1.46 ppm, was found in the albumin of hens fed 250 ppm. The difference in measured CCC in yolk and albumin and that estimated from 15N-CCC could have been due to breakdown products of 15N-CCC. Seven days after withdrawal of 15N-CCC, the estimated 15N-CCC residue in egg yolk decreased to 0.43, 2.45 and 15.59 ppm, on 5, 50 and 250 ppm CCC dietary treatments, respectively, and to 2.46 ppm in albumin from hens fed 250 ppm CCC. The higher increase in 15N content could have been due to a higher incorporation of 15N-CCC into yolk than albumin during the process of rapid yolk deposition. This experiment showed that consumed CCC is distributed both into yolk and albumin in a dose dependent manner and that CCC is metabolized in laying hens. However, the level of CCC in the diet which could lead to accumulation of detectable CCC levels in eggs as observed in this study, is much higher than the established maximum residual limits in grains. Die Verteilung von Chlorcholinchlorid (CCC) in Eiern von Legehennen wurde mit Hilfe von 15-N-CCC untersucht. Zu diesem Zweck wurden 12 Legehennen (37 Wochen alt) in 4 Gruppen geteilt und in 3 Versuchsphasen unterschiedlich gefüttert. In der Phase I (7 Tage) erhielten alle Hennen eine CCC-freie Diät mit 165 g RP und 11,58 MJ ME pro kg TrM. In der Phase II (11 Tage) wurden an die 4 Gruppen zusätzlich unterschiedliche Mengen an 15-N-CCC (0, 5, 50 und 250 ppm) verabreicht, während in der Phase III (7 Tage) wieder die CCC-freie Diät angeboten wurde. Es wurden Eier gesammelt und der N-15-Gehalt im Eiweiß und Eigelb bestimmt. Am Ende der Versuchsphase II wurden signifikante (p < 0,05) Gehalte an N-15 im Eigelb der Hennen, die 50 bzw. 250 ppm N-15-CCC erhielten, gefunden. Im Eiweiß dagegen konnten nur signifikante Werte in der Gruppe nachgewiesen werden, die 250 ppm CCC über das Futter aufgenommen hatten. Der über die N-15-Analyse errechnete CCC-Rückstand betrug im Eigelb 1,71 bzw. 6,64 bzw. 28,80 ppm und im Eiweiß 1,58 bzw. 1,08 bzw. 4,50 ppm in den Legehennengruppen, die 5 bzw. 50 bzw. 250 ppm CCC erhielten. Der CCC-Rückstand, ermittelt mit Hilfe einer quantitativen Analyse, betrug 0,21–0,93 bzw. 0,93–2.43 ppm im Eigelb der Hennen, die 50 bzw. 250 ppm CCC erhalten hatten, während im Eiweiß bei den Hennen, die 250 ppm CCC erhielten, ein CCC-Rückstand von nur 0.40 bis 1.46 ppm gefunden wurde. Der Unterschied im gemessenen CCC im Eiweiß und Eigelb zum errechneten 15-N-CCC könnte darin zu suchen sein, daß das CCC verstoffwechselt wurde. 7 Tage nach dem Absetzen von 15-N-CCC verringerte sich der errechnete 15-N-CCC-Rückstand im Eigelb auf 0,43 bzw. 2,45 bzw. 15,59 ppm in den Fütterungsgruppen mit 5 bzw. 50 bzw. 250 ppm CCC und im Eiweiß auf 2,46 ppm bei den Hennen, die 250 ppm CCC mit dem Futter erhielten. Dieses Experiment zeigt, daß aufgenommenes CCC sowohl im Eiweiß als auch im Eigelb in Abhängigkeit der verabreichten Menge eingelagert und daß CCC im Organismus der Henne metabolisiert wird. Jedoch war in dieser Studie der verabreichte Anteil an CCC in den Gruppen II und III viel höher als die Menge an CCC, die normalerweise im Getreide als Rückstand zu finden ist.
 
Article
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the metabolic products of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) in eggs and meat of laying hens fed a diet containing (15)N-CCC. Ten brown laying hens were randomly divided into two groups of five each. One group was offered (15)N-CCC free diet while the other group received a diet with 100 ppm (15)N-CCC for 11 days. Samples of eggs and meat from the laying hens were collected. Egg yolks and albumen were separated. Meat was collected from the breast and femur. The metabolic products of CCC were measured using ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ion trap-ESI-MS/MS). Determination of CCC or its metabolites in eggs and meat showed that CCC was metabolised to choline. Corresponding MS/MS spectra were obtained for m/z 104 (choline) or 105 ((15)N-choline), whereas nothing was detected at m/z 122 (CCC) or 123 ((15)N-CCC). The results from this study indicate that CCC will be metabolised in tissues of laying hens.
 
Article
Diets with graded levels of the experimental microbial phytase SP1002 (0, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 FTU/kg) were fed to juvenile Nile tilapia (average BW = 68.8 g) for 60 days (n = 4). A digestibility trial ran parallel to the growth trial using 0.3 g TiO2/100 g as an indigestible marker. The efficiency of phytase supplementation was evaluated by parameters of growth response, crude protein and mineral utilization (using body composition data), apparent nutrient digestibility, mineral content in scale and vertebra and inorganic phosphorus in blood plasma. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey-test using SAS-program. Significant improvements (p < 0.01) were found for growth, FCR and SGR, mainly for diets with 1000 and 2000 FTU/kg phytase supplementation. Protein utilization was significantly increased and maximized between 1000 and 2000 FTU/kg. Phosphorus utilization increased significantly up to 4000 FTU/kg. Digestibility of protein and phosphorus was also significantly improved. Phosphorus concentration in the blood, vertebra and scale increased significantly after phytase addition. Similarly, calcium and magnesium concentration in vertebra and scale were increased. Generally, phytase supplementation between 1000 and 2000 FTU/kg resulted in growth rates and mineralization parameters similar to a control diet with inorganic phosphorus.
 
Article
The relationship between weight and body measurements of 227 Alpine ibex Capra ibex (162 males and 65 females, age range: 2-16 years) were analysed by linear and multiple regression. The animals were live-captured across all seasons of the year, in the Western Italian Alps, 1986-1994. The relationship between weight and body measurements changed with sex and season. In male ibex, the best annual estimation of the body weight was obtained using as predictor variables the squared value of the chest girth and age. In females, the best predictive variables were age, total body length and withers height. Age was always selected as a predictor variable, when considered in the prediction models. The use of chest girth and the squared value of the chest girth as predictive variables in the regression equation, being the most highly correlated linear measurements with total weight, did not result in an accurate prediction of ibex body weight. The best prediction was obtained using age and different linear measurements in stepwise multiple regression, nevertheless the standard error of the estimate and the magnitude of the 95% prediction interval were great. The use of linear measurements cannot be considered accurate nor precise predictors of body weight in Alpine ibex.
 
Article
Maize silage is commonly used as feed for farm animals. The aim of this study was to monitor the time-dependent degradation of non-recombinant chloroplast DNA (exemplified by the rubisco gene) in comparison with the recombinant cry1Ab gene in the course of the ensiling process. In parallel, the Cry1Ab protein content and fragment sizes were determined. Fragments of the rubisco (173, 896, 1197, 1753 and 2521 bp) and of the cry1Ab gene (211, 420, 727 and 1,423 bp) were selected to investigate the DNA degradation process. The detection of the Cry1Ab protein was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Rubisco gene fragments of 173 bp were still detectable after 61 days, while fragments of 1,197 and 2,521 bp were detectable up to 30 days and on the first day only respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed that fragments of the cry1Ab gene with sizes of 211 and 420 bp were detectable up to 61 days, fragments with sizes of 727 and 1,423 bp, 30 and 6 days respectively. The ELISA showed a decrease of the Cry1Ab protein in maize silage during the ensiling process. No marked degradation was observed during the first 43 h. Thereafter, a sharp decrease was measured. After 61 days, 23.6 +/- 0.9% of the initial Cry1Ab protein was still detectable. Immunoblotting confirmed the results of the ELISA showing a positive signal of approximately 60 kDa size for 8 days of ensiling; no further immunoactive fragments were detectable by immunoblotting. In conclusion, the ensiling process markedly decreases the presence of long functional cry1Ab gene fragments and full size Cry1Ab protein.
 
Article
The objectives of this study were to establish the characteristics of oestrous behaviour in Ovsynch (induction of ovulation through administration of GnRH-PGF2-GnRH in a systemic manner on 0, seventh and ninth day respectively) and Ovsynch plus Norprolac (Quinagolide hydrochloride – an inhibitor of prolactin secretion) treated Murrah buffalo heifers and to determine the relationships between this behaviour and the plasma concentrations of oestradiol-17β (E2), total oestrogen, and progesterone. Oestrus was detected by visual observations of oestrus signs, per rectal examination of genitalia and bull parading thrice a day during treatment period. Among all the symptoms, it was observed that bull mounting of heifers in oestrus was highest. Examination of genital tracts per rectum revealed that the cervix was relaxed, uterus was turgid and ovaries had palpable follicle in animals with oestrus. The peak concentrations of E2 (10.81 ± 0.62 pg/ml) and total oestrogen (17.11 ± 1.21 pg/ml) occurred at 9.45 ± 0.85 and 9.64 ± 0.93 h after second GnRH administration, respectively, in Ovsynch treated animals. However, the peak levels of E2 (20.02 ± 2.87 pg/ml) and total oestrogen (32.71 ± 3.15 pg/ml) occurred at 10.18 ± 0.50 and 10.36 ± 0.75 h after second GnRH administration, respectively, in Ovsynch plus Norprolac treated animals. Plasma progesterone concentration was basal (0.20 ± 0.001 ng/ml) during the peri-oestrus period. The plasma progesterone concentration was the lowest on the day of oestrus and increased to register a peak on day 13 ± 2 of the cycle. Oestrous behaviour was positively correlated with the peak concentration of E2 (p < 0.001) and total oestrogen (p < 0.001) during the peri-oestrus period. Inhibition of prolactin by Norprolac administration significantly increased the concentration of E2 and total oestrogen during oestrus in buffaloes in comparison to those recorded in animals subjected to Ovsynch protocol alone. In conclusion, our results suggest that the peak concentrations of E2 and total oestrogen and mean level of E2 and total oestrogen during the peri-oestrus period are the important factors contributing the behavioural manifestation of oestrus in buffalo cows.
 
Article
Ruminal production of biohydrogenation intermediates in response to unsaturated oils was assessed using 24 Jersey cows fed a control diet or the control diet supplemented at 35 g/kg dry matter (DM) with canola, soya bean, or a mixture of equal amounts of canola plus soya bean oil for 4-weeks. Total fatty acid content averaged 63 or 35 g/kg DM for oil-supplemented diets or control. Oleic acid accounted for 6, 29, 21 or 12 g/kg DM in the control, canola, mixture, or soya bean oil diet, respectively. Linoleic acid averaged 17, 19, 26, or 33 g/kg DM and linolenic acid 5, 5, 6 or 8 g/kg DM for control, canola, mixture, or soya bean oil. Concentrations of cis12-, trans11-, trans13+14, and trans15-18:1 were 0.81, 2.99, 2.24, and 0.73 mg/g rumen fluid, respectively, in response to soya bean oil and were 126, 90, 45, and 38% greater compared with other diets. Trans11cis15-, cis9trans11- and cis9 cis11-18:2 also were greater when soya bean oil (0.30, 0.34 and 0.01 mg/g, respectively) was fed compared with other treatments (0.12, 0.21 and 0.004 mg/g, respectively). Feeding canola oil resulted in greater concentrations of trans4-, trans5-, trans6+7+8-, trans9- and trans10-18:1 (0.20, 0.25, 0.87, 0.39 and 0.70 mg/g, respectively) compared with other diets (0.09, 0.15, 0.36, 0.20 and 0.46 mg/g, respectively). Trans10cis12-18:2 concentration did not differ as a result of diet and averaged 0.002 mg/g rumen contents. The pattern of 18:1 and 18:2 isomers formed during ruminal biohydrogenation depends greatly on dietary profile of unsaturated fatty acids.
 
Article
This study investigated the effect of the dietary protein concentration on lipid concentrations in fillet and liver and concentrations of lipids in plasma and lipoproteins in African catfish. Two experiments were carried out, in which African catfish were fed diets with various protein concentrations. In experiment 1, semisynthetic diets with various concentrations of casein (350, 450 or 550 g protein/kg) were used. In experiment 2, diets were based on a commercial trout diet supplemented with various amounts of casein or carbohydrates, resulting in protein concentrations between 282 and 545 g/kg diet. In both experiments, the dietary protein concentration had a significant effect on growth, feed conversion ratio and carcass composition. Maximum of body weight gains and feed efficiency ratios were reached in both experiments at the highest dietary protein concentrations. Increasing the dietary protein concentration continuously increased masses of fillets and reduced masses of the liver and adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity. Fish fed the diets with the highest protein concentrations had the lowest concentration of total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol in the fillets, the highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in total lipids of fillets and the lowest concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Fish fed the diets with the highest protein concentration also had the lowest concentrations of triglycerides in the liver, the highest percentages of PUFA in liver total lipids and the lowest percentages of SFA. Moreover, fish fed diets with high protein concentrations (501 and 545 g/kg) had significantly lower concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids in plasma than fish fed diets with lower protein concentrations. In conclusion, this study shows that the dietary protein concentration does not only influence growth, feed efficiency and carcass composition in African catfish, but also influences their lipid metabolism and lipid concentrations of liver and fillet.
 
Article
Adult African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) (AGRs) (n = 231) of both sexes (117 bucks, 114 does) were live-trapped in the wild in Zaria, Nigeria. Live weight (LW), daily feed consumption (FC) and water consumption (WC) of the AGRs were measured during the cold-dry (CDS), hot-dry (HDS) and rainy (RS) seasons for 2 years with the aim of determining seasonal, sex and LW variations. Feed consumption was significantly different (p < 0.001) between all the seasons, with the lowest mean value recorded during the HDS, while the highest was obtained during the RS. Water consumption was also lowest (p < 0.001) during the HDS but did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between the CDS and RS. Both feed and water consumptions were higher (p < 0.01) in the males (bucks) than the females (does) during the CDS and HDS, but the sex difference was not significant (p > 0.05) during the RS. Feed consumption correlated positively (p < 0.0001) with WC and relative humidity, but negatively (p < 0.0001) with LW, ambient temperature and heat index. In conclusion, both feed and water consumptions in AGRs decrease with increased seasonal heat and adult LW and are lower in does than in bucks during the dry seasons (CDS and HDS). Intervention may be indicated during the HDS to improve feed and water consumptions for optimal performance of the AGRs.
 
Article
From 1994 to 2004, Hill's Pet Nutrition received 4495 canine (65%) and feline (35%) uroliths from Benelux veterinary practitioners. They were sent to the Minnesota Urolith Center, USA for analysis. In 1994, 110 uroliths were analysed - 85% from dogs - and in 2003, 1067 uroliths were analysed - 59% from dogs. During this period, substantial changes were observed in composition. In 1994, 77% of the cats had uroliths composed of struvite, and 12% had uroliths composed of calcium oxalate. In 2003, feline uroliths were composed of 32% struvite, and 61% calcium oxalate. The same evolution was observed in the dogs. In 1994, 51% of canine uroliths were composed of struvite, and 33% of calcium oxalate. In 2003, 40% had struvite uroliths, and 46% had calcium oxalate uroliths. A significant effect of the size, the breed, and the gender were noticed in the dogs. The mean age of uroliths appearance was 7.3 years in the dogs and 7.2 years in the cats. The findings are similar to those previously published in the USA.
 
Article
The study of physiological changes occurring during selection contributes to an improved understanding of relationships leading to efficiencies in animal production. To investigate the effects of food restriction in gastrocnemius muscle protein expression, 20% weight reduction was induced in New Zealand White (meat producing) and wild rabbits, using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. Lower expression levels of myosin heavy chains were found in the Wild Rabbits Restricted Group, while myosin light chain and alpha-crystallin proteins were not detected in restricted groups. Glyceraldeyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen phosphorylase expression levels were similar for all experimental groups. Phosphopyruvate hydratase beta was not detected in the wild rabbit restricted diet group. Pyruvate kinase levels were 50% lower in the New Zealand Restricted group. LIM protein detection was absent in the control New Zealand group. Results also show relevance of actin in preserving muscle structure in depressed food availability, the sensitivity of both myosin light chain and alpha-crystallin protein to restricted feed and the role of PK in the resistance of New Zealand rabbits to food restriction.
 
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of different particle fractions in non-pelleted (meal) and pelleted diets on the development of pre-ulcerative gastric alterations. Furthermore, the effect of increased crude fibre supply (lignocellulose) on the integrity of gastric mucosa were investigated. For that purpose, 49 piglets were divided into eight feeding groups and fed pelleted diets differing in grinding intensity (very coarse/coarse/fine/very fine) and addition of lignocellulose (0/2.5%) for 6 weeks. A coarsely ground meal was used as control diet. Mucosal integrity of the pars non-glandularis was characterised by macroscopical and histological score and basal epithelial conductance. Feed structure was assessed by sieve analysis (wet/dry). The use of coarsely ground meal (25% >2 mm, 29% <0.4 mm) had almost no negative effects on the gastric wall: three of seven pigs had slight histological and none had macroscopical lesions. Irrespective of the original grinding intensity before pelleting, offering pelleted diets led to mucosal changes similar in severity (one out of seven pigs fed coarsely ground and pelleted diets had no macroscopical alterations, whereas all pigs fed finely ground and pelleted diets showed altered tissues). Increasing the proportion of coarse particles in the pellet (from 25 to 29% >2 mm) did not show any ulceroprotective effect. An increase of crude fibre content (42–54 g/kg dm) by adding lignocellulose did not result in a decreased ulcerogenity. Unpelleted diets are recommended as more favourable for alleviating the problem of gastric ulcers in pigs as the pelleting process is equal to a secondary grinding process. According to our results, an upper level of fine particles seems to be reasonable (a minimum level of coarse particles is not ulceroprotective). In this study, an amount of 30% <0.4 mm resulted in higher risks for ulcerations.
 
Article
We performed a 4-year survey (2006-2009, 1255 samples) of fungal secondary metabolites in feed material (cereal and corn grains) and feedstuffs (silages, mixed feeds). Five major mycotoxin groups were studied, including aflatoxins (AF), ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes [deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin], zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins (FUM). The metabolites were identified using HPLC methods with fluorescent, UV and MS/MS detection. Both immunoaffinity and SPE columns were used for sample preparation. In eleven samples, the concentration of several mycotoxins exceeded the recommended guidelines for feedstuffs. DON was detected at the highest concentration in the majority of analysed samples (cereal grains, silages and mixed feeds, maximum values ranged from 409 to 14 470 ng/g). Corn grains also contained other Fusarium toxins (FUM) at maximum levels ranging from 435 to 9409 ng/g. The highest average(positive) concentration of the other trichothecenes (NIV, T-2 and HT-2 toxins) was <5.0-139 ng/g. ZEA was found at the highest concentration in corn grains and silages (maximum values ranging from 292 to 603 ng/g and 116 to 1150 ng/g, respectively). The highest average(positive) concentration and the maximum level of OTA were detected in cereal grains (33.0 ng/g in 2009 and 760 ng/g in 2007, respectively). Less than 7% of the 557 samples were contaminated with AF at low levels (maximum of 0.61 ng/g). Our results support the need for further monitoring of mycotoxins in Polish feedstuffs and their components.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the iodine (I) requirement in adult cats. Forty-two healthy euthyroid cats (1.6-13.6 years old) were utilized in a randomized complete block design. Cats were fed a dry basal diet (0.23 mg/kg I) for a minimum of 1 month (pre-test) then switched to a different basal diet supplemented with seven levels of KI for 1 year (experimental period). Analysed I concentrations were 0.17, 0.23, 0.47, 1.1, 3.1, 6.9 and 8.8 mg I/kg diet [dry matter (DM) basis] and used to construct a response curve. Response variables included I concentrations in serum, urine and faeces, urinary I:creatinine ratio, I balance, technetium(99m) pertechnetate (Tc(99m)) thyroid:salivary ratio, complete blood count and serum chemistries as well as serum thyroid hormone profiles. No significant changes in food intake, weight gain or clinical signs were noted. Serum I, daily urinary I, daily faecal I and urinary I:creatinine ratio were linear functions of iodine intake. An estimate of the I requirement (i.e. breakpoint) was determined from regression of Tc(99m) thyroid:salivary ratio (scintigraphy) on I intake at 12 months [0.46 mg I/kg diet (DM basis) as well as 9 months I balance (0.44 mg I/kg diet (DM)]. The I requirement estimate determined in our study at 12 months for adult cats (0.46 mg I/kg) was higher than current Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) recommendations (e.g. 0.35 mg I/kg), but was lower than the 2006 National Research Council (NRC) I recommended allowance (e.g. 1.4 mg I/kg).
 
Ingredients and composition of the basal diet for the starter broilers (as fed-basis) 
Effect of non-phytate phosphorus concentrations in diets on growth performance of male broilers from 1 to 21 days of age* 
Effect of dietary nonphytate phosphorus concentrations on tibia ash (dry defatted) content of male broilers from 1 to 21days of age* 
Results of nonlinear regression analysis to estimate the non-phytate phosphorus needs of the male broilers 
Article
This experiment was conducted to investigate the requirement of non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) and efficacy of a genetically engineered yeast phytase in performance and tibia characteristics by male Lingnan Yellow broilers from 1 to 21 days of age. A total of 2640 1-day-old male chicks were randomly allotted to one of 11 dietary treatments, which consisted of six replicate floor pens with 40 birds per pen. All treatments had the same levels of all nutrients except for phosphorus and phytase. The control group (treatment 1) was fed the basal diet without dicalcium phosphate or phytase supplementation. Dietary concentrations of nPP were 0.11%, 0.19%, 0.27%, 0.35%, 0.43%, 0.51% and 0.59% respectively for treatments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, through addition of dicalcium phosphate (chemistry grade) to the basal diet. Diets 8-11 were supplemented with a genetically engineered yeast phytase 250, 500, 750 U/kg and a commercial phytase product 500 U/kg in basal diet respectively. The results showed that 0.46% and 0.51% nPP were required for maximum body-weight gain and optimum tibia development indicators respectively. However, 0.59% nPP had a negative effect on bird growth. The equivalency value of the genetically engineered yeast phytase was estimated to be 874 U/kg to liberate 0.1% nPP.
 
Article
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been identified as a novel hormonal factor involved in the regulation of metabolic adaptations during energy deprivation. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of the FGF21 gene in the liver of dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Therefore, the relative mRNA abundance of FGF21 in liver biopsy samples of 20 dairy cows in late pregnancy (3 weeks pre-partum) and early lactation (1, 5, 14 weeks post-partum) was determined. It was observed that hepatic mRNA abundance of FGF21 at 1 week post-partum was dramatically increased (110-fold) compared to 3 weeks pre-partum (p < 0.001). With progress of lactation, mRNA concentration of FGF21 was declining; nevertheless, mRNA abundance at 5 and 14 weeks post-partum remained 25- and 10-fold increased compared to 3 weeks pre-partum (p < 0.001). Using a gene array technique, it was found that many genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis were up-regulated during early lactation compared to late pregnancy. Moreover, there were positive linear correlations between hepatic mRNA concentration of FGF21 and mRNA concentrations of genes involved in ketogenesis as well as carnitine synthesis and carnitine uptake at various time-points during lactation, indicating that FGF21 could play a role in ketogenesis and carnitine metabolism in the liver of dairy cows (p < 0.05). In overall, the present study shows that expression of the FGF21 gene is strongly up-regulated during the transition period. It is assumed that the up-regulation of FGF21 might play an important role in the adaptation of liver metabolism during early lactation in dairy cows such as in other species.
 
Article
In this paper, an overview is given of the composition of 30 commercially available parrot seed mixtures. As parrots dehull the seeds, the analysis of the total seed mixture tends to differ from that of the ingested feed. Statistical evaluation and comparison of the dehulled seeds vs. the whole seeds indicates that most parrot species are fed a diet rich in fat (31.7 +/- 13.1% crude fat) and energy (22.4 +/- 2.9 MJ ME/kg). As the analysis of the total seed mixtures underestimates fat and energy content of the ingested feed, it is suggested that researchers, bird nutritionists and bird food producers should calculate diets based on the analysis of the dehulled seeds. Finally, the calculated data were compared with the composition of formulated pelleted/extruded diets on the market. These data indicate that the energy density of most diets (15.6 +/- 1.4 MJ ME/kg) is far below the energy density of common seed mixtures.
 
Article
A study was conducted in a completely randomised design to evaluate the effects of providing almost all important essential amino acids (EAA) in low-crude protein (CP) diets equal to that of higher CP diets in broiler chickens. Also the effects of additional mixture of glycine (Gly) and glutamic acid (Glu) or supplementation of excess EAA to low-CP diets on the live performance and excreta characteristics including pH, moisture, nitrogen, uric acid and ammonia concentration were measured to ascertain the optimum CP concentration for the maximum performance and reduced excreta ammonia concentration. Male, broiler chickens growing from 10 to 28 days of age were fed eight experimental diets. Reducing dietary CP below 19% negatively affected performance. Adding the Gly and Glu mixtures to 17% CP diets improved live performance. Reducing CP to 19% with a normal amino acids status declined N, ammonia, uric acid, moisture and pH of excreta significantly. These findings suggest that diminishing dietary CP from 23% to 19% while maintaining adequate EAA levels during 10-28 days of age results in not only a significant decline in N emission, but also a probable reduction in the NH(3) volatilisation because of reduction in pH and moisture. Contrary to expectations, reduction of dietary CP below the minimum level (19%) resulted in more ammonia. All these factors may improve on litter and air quality within the housing facility and reduce the ventilation rate required to emit the elevated ammonia gas concentrations.
 
ME requirement of Beagle and FBI puppies as a multiple of the requirement used for adult dogs (0.544 MJ ME/kg BW/day) in relation to percent of realised adult body weight.
Composition and average nutrient content of the basic ration before mineral supplementation (n = 114)
Body weight and food/energy intake of Beagles and FBIs (means of each 14 day period)
Article
To ensure an optimal growth is crucial in raising healthy dogs, especially in large and giant breeds. Dogs with a moderate growth velocity tend to have lesser problems with developmental orthopaedic diseases than those with forced or maximum weight gain. In this study, the energy needs of growing dogs from two different breeds (Beagles as a medium-size breed and Foxhound crossbreds as a large-size breed) to ensure a growth development as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC) were determined at the age of 6-28 weeks. After weaning at the age of 6 weeks, the food rations sufficient to meet the energy requirements of each individual puppy were adjusted every other day according to growth level, guaranteeing a development consistent with the recommended weight curve for the respective breed size. The food and therefore energy intake of the puppies was registered daily; it ranged from 0.72 to 2.34 times the maintenance requirements with little effect of age. During the whole period, however, there was a consistent breed difference: Foxhound-Boxer-Ingelheim Labrador crossbreds (FBIs) had higher energy intakes expressed as multiples of maintenance than Beagles, suggesting that during the major period of growth, the energy requirement is not a function of age. Adult Beagles and FBIs showed similar differences in energy requirements as already during growth as shown in this study. This indicates that breed differences in energy requirements have already to be taken into account during growth. On the other hand, the results showed clearly lower energy needs for growth in these two different breeds than recommended in the NRC.
 
Article
This study investigated vitamin A compounds in the plasma of healthy free-ranging Central European raptors with different feeding strategies. Plasma samples of nestlings of white-tailed sea eagle [white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE), Haliaeetus albicilla) (n = 32), osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (n = 39), northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) (n = 25), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) (n = 31), and honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus) (n = 18) and adults of WTSE (n = 10), osprey (n = 31), and northern goshawk (n = 45) were investigated with reversed-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In WTSE, northern goshawks and common buzzards retinol were the main plasma component of vitamin A, whilst in ospreys and honey buzzards, 3,4-didehydroretinol predominated. The median of the retinol plasma concentration in the nestlings group ranged from 0.12 to 3.80 μm and in the adult group from 0.15 to 6.13 μm. Median plasma concentrations of 3,4-didehydroretinol in nestlings ranged from 0.06 to 3.55 μm. In adults, northern goshawks had the lowest plasma concentration of 3,4-didehydroretinol followed by WTSE and ospreys. The plasma of all investigated species contained retinyl esters (palmitate, oleate, and stearate). The results show considerable species-specific differences in the vitamin A plasma concentrations that might be caused by different nutrition strategies.
 
Article
The effect of a low-selenium diet on thyroid hormone metabolism was investigated in growing kittens. Twelve specific-pathogen-free kittens with ages ranging from 16 to 18 weeks were divided into two groups of equal number with equal sex distribution in each group. One group was fed a yeast-based low-selenium diet (0.02 mg Se/kg diet) while the other group was fed the same diet supplemented with Na2SeO3 at 0.4 mg Se/kg diet for 8 weeks. Food intake, body weight and body weight gain were not affected by the low-Se diet during the study period. However, kittens given the low-Se diet had significantly reduced plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Plasma total thyroxine (T4) increased and total 3,5,3'triiodothyronine (T3) decreased significantly in kittens fed the low-Se diet at the end of the study. These results suggest that type I deiodinase in cats is a selenoprotein- or a selenium-dependent enzyme.
 
Article
Alterations of the phospholipid (PL) compositions of body fluids are assumed to be indicative of inflammatory diseases, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, we have shown that particularly the phosphatidylcholine/lysophosphatidylcholine (PC/LPC) ratio determined in human synovial fluids (SF) and sera represents a reliable measure of the inflammatory state in RA patients. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the PC/LPC ratio is also affected by nutrition habits. In the present study, the PL and the corresponding acyl chain compositions of human body fluids (SF and serum of RA patients as well as serum from healthy volunteers) are compared with those of two other mammalian species (horses and dogs suffering from degenerative joint diseases as well as healthy controls) by high-resolution 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The most important result of this study is that the PL compositions of SF and serum of horse and dog are comparable with those of human body fluids. Compared with humans, however, the horse body fluid contains less PCs with highly unsaturated arachidonoyl residues, while that of dogs possesses the highest content of arachidonoyl-containing PC. These species-related differences stem primarily from different nutrition habits (meat vs. plants).
 
Article
This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (DL-alpha-Tocopheryl acetate) on performance, digestion of nutrients and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under chronic heat stress (34 degrees C). A total of 180 10-day-old Japanese quails were randomly assigned to six treatment groups, three replicates of 10 birds each. The birds with a 2 x 3 factorial design received either two levels of vitamin C (100 and 200 mg/kg of diet) or three levels of vitamin E (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg of diet). Then, 200-mg vitamin C/kg of diet, compared with that of 100 mg/kg of diet, and higher dietary vitamin E inclusions resulted in a higher performance. The interaction between vitamin C and vitamin E for final body weight change (p=0.01) and feed efficiency (p=0.02) was detected. Final body weight change and feed efficiency increased to a higher extent by increasing dietary vitamin C when higher vitamin E levels were fed. Carcass characteristics improved with an increase of both dietary vitamin C and vitamin E (p=0.004). The interactions on carcass characteristics were all significant (p=0.02) and manifested themselves in a way that they were improved to a higher extent by an increase of dietary vitamin C when higher vitamin E levels were fed. Digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP and EE) was greater with higher dietary vitamin C (p < 0.02) and also with higher vitamin E (p=0.07). There were no interactions detected for digestibility of nutrients (p=0.32). Taken together, the results of the present study conclude that a combination of 200 mg of vitamin C and 250 mg of vitamin E provides the greatest performance in Japanese quails reared under heat stress and can be considered as a protective management practice in poultry diet, alleviating the negative effects of heat stress.
 
Article
This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin E (dL-alpha-Tocopheryl acetate) and selenium (Se; Na2-SeO3) on performance, digestibility of nutrients and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under chronic heat stress (34 degrees C). A total of 120 10-day-old Japanese quails were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, three replicates of 10 birds each. The birds with a 2 x 2 factorial design received either two levels of vitamin E (125 and 250 mg/kg of diet) or two levels of Se (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg of diet). A 250-mg vitamin E/kg of diet compared with that of 125 mg/kg of diet and higher dietary Se inclusions (0.1 vs. 0.2 mg/kg) resulted in a better performance (p=0.001). The interaction between vitamin E and Se for feed intake (p=0.03), final body weight change (p=0.03) and feed efficiency (p=0.001) was detected. Carcass yield increased with increasing both dietary vitamin E and Se (p=0.001). The interactions on carcass characteristics were all non-significant (p > 0.06). Digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP and ether extract) was higher with higher dietary vitamin E (p=0.03), and DM digestibility was also higher with higher dietary Se (p=0.05). There were no interactions detected for digestibility of nutrients (p=0.28). From the results of the present study, it was concluded that a combination of 250 mg of vitamin E and 0.2 mg of Se provides the greatest performance in Japanese quails reared under heat stress and this combination can be considered as a protective management practice in Japanese quail diets, reducing the negative effects of heat stress.
 
Article
To study the effect of supplementation of tannin degrading bacterial culture (Streptococcus gallolyticus strain TDGB 406) on growth performance, nutrient utilization and urinary purine derivatives of goats fed on oak (Quercus semicarpifolia) leaves. For growth study, eighteen billy goats (4 month old, average body weight 9.50 ± 1.50 kg) were distributed into three groups of six animals each. The animals of group 1 served as control while animals of groups 2 (T1) and 3 (T2) were given (@ 5 ml/kg live weight) autoclaved and live culture of isolate TDGB 406 (10(6) cells/ml) respectively. The animals were fed measured quantity of dry oak leaves as the main roughage source and ad libitum maize hay along with fixed quantity of concentrate mixture. The feeding of live culture of isolate TDGB 406 (probiotic) did not affect dry matter intake and digestibility of nutrients except that of dry matter and crude protein, which was higher in T2 group as compared to control. All the animals were in positive nitrogen balance. There was no significant effect of feeding isolate TDGB 406 on urinary purine derivatives (microbial protein production) in goats. The body weight gain and average live weight gain was significantly higher (p = 0.071) in T2 group as compared to control. Feed conversion efficiency was also better in the goats fed on live culture of TDGB 406 (T2). The feeding of tannin degrading bacterial isolate TDGB 406 as probiotic resulted in improved growth performance and feed conversion ratio in goats fed on oak leaves as one of the main roughage source.
 
Comparison of the mRNA abundance 1) (means ± SEM) of the target genes and of the internal control in five different fat depots from rams slaughtered at 40 kg live weight
Article
Adipose tissue (AT) expresses adipokines, which are involved in the regulation of energy expenditure, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Visceral (v.c.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) depots largely differ concerning their metabolic characteristics as to the control of lipolysis and the sensitivity to insulin. The adipokines adiponectin, leptin and visfatin influence lipolysis and insulin sensitivity. Signalling by G-protein coupled receptor 41 (GPR 41) stimulates leptin release via activation by short-chain fatty acids. We hypothesized that the metabolic differences between v.c. and s.c. fat depots may also apply to the expression of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, visfatin, insulin receptor (IR) and GPR 41. Therefore, we aimed to compare the mRNA expression of adiponectin, leptin and visfatin, of the adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1/2) and IR as well of GPR 41 between several s.c. and v.c. fat depots in sheep. Samples from 10 rams were collected at slaughter (40 kg BW) from three s.c. depots, i.e. close to sternum (s.c.S), close to withers (s.c.W), and at the base of tail (s.c.T), and from two v.c. depots, i.e. from perirenal (v.c.P) and omental (v.c.O) fat. The mRNAs of both adiponectin receptors, as well as IR and putative GPR 41, were higher expressed in v.c. fat than in s.c. fat (p ≤ 0.05). Leptin mRNA abundance was greater in s.c. than in v.c. fat (mean ± SEM: s.c.: 2.55 ± 0.81; v.c.: 0.66 ± 0.21) and also differed among the five separately measured fat depots. Our results show differences in mRNA abundance for leptin, AdipoR1 and R2, as well as for IR and GPR 41 in s.c. compared with v.c. fat, thus confirming the need for individual consideration of distinct fat depots, when aiming to characterize adipose functions in ruminants.
 
Starter dry matter intake for calves with (Me14) or without (Me0) Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 day of age. *Significant difference between groups (p = 0.05).
Total dry matter intake for calves with (Me14) or without (Me0) Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 day of age. *Significant difference between groups (p = 0.05).
Least square means for performance and b-hydroxybutyrate of calves with (Me14) or without (Me0) Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 day of age
Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) of calves with (Me14) or without (Me0) Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 day of age. *Significant difference between groups (p = 0.05).
Article
Thirty calves were randomly assigned to two treatments and fed until weaning [42 days (d) of age]. Treatments were a control group (n = 15), which did not receive Megasphaera elsdenii (Me0) and a M. elsdenii group, which received a 50-ml oral dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 (10(8) CFU/ml) at day 14 day of age (Me14). Calves were given colostrum for the first 3 day followed by limited whole milk feeding. A commercial calf starter was offered ad libitum starting at day 4 until the end of the study. Fresh water was available throughout the study. Feed intake and growth were measured. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture to determine β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations. Fourteen male calves (seven per group) were euthanised on day 42 and digestive tracts harvested. Reticulo-rumen weight was determined and rumen tissue samples collected from the cranial and caudal sacs of the ventral and dorsal portions of the rumen for measurements of papillae length, papillae width and rumen wall thickness. Dosing with M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 improved starter dry matter intake (DMI), weaning body weight (BW) and tended to improve average daily gain. Calves in Me14 group had greater plasma BHBA concentration than Me0-calves during the last 3 weeks of the trial and had at day 42 greater reticulo-rumen weight, papillae width and papillae density compared to Me0. No differences in rumen wall thickness or papillae length were observed between the two groups. Total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate production did not differ between treatments, but butyrate production was greater in Me14 than Me0. Dosing M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 showed benefit for calves with improved feed intake and rumen development suggesting increased epithelium metabolism and improved absorption of digestive end products. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
 
Article
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of changing skeletal Zn load (mobilization/restoring) on bone mineral composition and bone tissue metabolism. For this purpose, 36 65Zn-labelled, young-adult female rats were fed with either a purified diet with sufficient Zn (21 microg/g, control) for 26 days, or deficient Zn (1.4 microg/g) for 12 days followed by 14 days repletion with the control diet. The animals were killed at the onset of the study (reference: n=4), at the end of the Zn deficiency episode (control: n=4; Zn deficiency: n=4), subgroups (n=4) of Zn repleted animals at repletion days 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14, and at day 14 the remaining controls also (n=4). Zn deficiency reduced skeletal Zn concentration from 198 to 155 microg/g of bone dry matter. About half of mobilized skeletal Zn was refilled within 2 days of repletion and was completely restored until the end of the study. Concentrations of bone ash, Ca, P and Mg remained constant (means in bone dry matter: 51% bone ash, 191 mg Ca/g, 95 mg P/g, 4.4 mg Mg/g). Blood plasma concentrations of osteocalcin and daily urinary excretions of pyridinoline PYD and dexoxypyridinoline DPD were unaffected by treatment (mean: 57 ng/ml, 222 nmol/day, 137 nmol/day). Also daily urinary excretions of Ca, P and Mg remained fairly constant (means: 0.26 mg/day, 16 mg/day, 1.5 mg/day). 65Zn autoradiography of femur sections revealed a pronounced Zn exchange in the area of the metaphysis and epiphysis. We conclude that transient mobilization and restoration of skeletal Zn occurs mainly in trabecular bone, and does not involve major changes in bone mass, macro mineral content, or bone tissue turnover in young-adult rats.
 
Article
The objective of this study was to quantify the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) from sulphate and glycinate as representatives of inorganic and organic zinc sources. The semi-synthetic basal diet contained 2 microg/g of native Zn and was fortified with pure sodium-phytate (8 g/kg) in order to simulate conditions of common cereal-based meals. The basal diet was supplemented with either 53 microg/g of Zn from sulphate (control) or 10 microg/g of Zn from either sulphate (ZnSulphate) or glycinate (ZnGly). Twenty-four (65)Zn-labelled, growing rats weighing 133 g were allotted to the three diets (eight animals per treatment) and were kept pair-fed to ZnSulphate for 15 days. Zn contents in blood plasma, femur and whole body, as well as, plasma alkaline phosphatase activities were reduced compared with control indicating a zinc deficiency in ZnSulphate and ZnGly treatment. This allowed their differentiation in zinc bioavailability. True absorption of dietary Zn was significantly higher in ZnGly than in ZnSulphate (51% vs. 44%) while losses of endogenous faecal Zn and urinary Zn were not affected to a quantitatively relevant extent (mean: 17% and 2% of intake). This resulted in a +30% significantly improved Zn retention for ZnGly (33% vs. 25%) and a lower severity on Zn deficiency symptoms compared with ZnSulphate. Metabolic utilization accounted for 95% of absorbed dietary Zn for both Zn sources. Overall, the bioavailability of zinc glycinate was significantly superior by 16% to zinc sulphate (49% vs. 42%), mainly because of a higher absorptive potential at presence of a strong anti-nutritive component (phytate) in the diet.
 
Comparisons of different physiological parameters in young and adult Murrah buffaloes exposed to different temperatures 
Plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) concentration (ng/ml) in young and adult Murrah buffaloes exposed to different temperatures. Bars indicate SE. Significance of effects for age, p = 0.013; temp, p < 0.001; age · temp. interaction p = 0.375.  
Article
To know the temperature threshold for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) induction in lymphocytes and to assess physiological changes, if any, in relation to HSP70 induction in young and adult Murrah buffaloes, this study was divided into two parts: I. In vivo study: where assay of HSP70 was performed in blood samples collected from acutely exposed young and adult Murrah buffaloes (n = 6) inside a climatic chamber at 40, 42 and 45 °C for 4 h and thermoneutral temperature (22 °C). Physiological parameters viz., rectal temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate and skin temperature of different body parts were monitored to assess magnitude of stress in the animals owing to thermal exposure II. For in vitro study, equal numbers of lymphocyte cells were separated from blood collected from young and adult buffaloes and were subjected to four temperature treatments (38, 40, 42 and 45 °C) for 4 h. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in all the physiological parameters in both young and adult buffaloes was observed after exposure to 40, 42 and 45 °C for 4 h as compared to 38 °C. The average plasma HSP70 concentrations (ng/ml) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) at 40, 42 and 45 °C as compared to 38 °C in both young and adult and were higher in young than adult buffaloes at 38 and 45 °C. Heat shock protein 70 level in lymphocyte lysate showed highest concentration after 3-h exposure to all temperatures (40, 42 and 45 °C) in both young and adult buffaloes. The intensity of changes of all physiological parameters was more in young animals than in the adults indicating the greater susceptibility of younger animals to heat stress and was found to be changed at around 40 °C when animals were exposed to different temperatures, indicating the possibility that HSP70 production may be initiated at this temperature which is 2 or 3 °C higher than core body temperature.
 
Article
We investigated the influence of supplemental L-carnitine on foetal blood metabolites, litter characteristics, L-carnitine concentration in skeletal muscle and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis components in foetal hepatic and skeletal muscle tissues at day 40, 55 and 70 of gestating gilts. A total of 59 gilts (body weight = 137.7 kg) received a constant feed allowance of 1.75 kg/day and a top-dress containing either 0 or 50 ppm of L-carnitine starting on the first day of breeding through the allotted gestation length. Foetuses from the gilts fed diets with L-carnitine tended to be heavier (p = 0.06) and the circulating IGF-II tended to be lower (p = 0.09) at day 70, compared with the foetuses from the control gilts. Insulin-like growth factor-I messenger RNA (mRNA) was lower (p = 0.05) in hepatic tissue in the foetuses collected from gilts fed L-carnitine. Free and total carnitine concentration increased (p < 0.05) in the skeletal muscle from the foetuses collected from gilts fed supplemental L-carnitine. This study showed that L-carnitine had beneficial effects on the average foetal weight at day 70 of gestation, associated with changes in the foetal IGF system.
 
Ingredients and nutrient composition of basal diets
Mean (±SEM) heat shock protein 70 densities, plasma corticosterone concentrations, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios and body tempera- tures of 42-day-old chickens by diet and temperature regimen
Mean body temperatures (°C) of 42-day-old broiler chickens where diet · emperature regimen interactions were significant
Article
The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38 ± 1 °C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress.
 
Article
Inorganic selenium (Se) in the form of selenite is applied to livestock to avoid Se deficiency. Selenite is, however, an artificial Se source in diets of unsupplemented chickens. It is therefore hypothesized that organic Se sources, such as Se-enriched yeast and wheat, could be a more suitable Se supply in animal nutrition, although information on the transition of Se from organic Se sources in fast-growing chickens is scarce. In this work, chickens were fed a low Se diet (0.27 ± 0.01 mg Se/kg, Se-enriched yeast) until 20 days of age, after which the Se concentration was increased to maximum concentration allowed by the poultry industry in Europe (0.5 p.p.m. Se). At the same time, a daily contribution of carrier-free (75) Se tracer from labelled wheat was administered from day 20 to 27. The chickens showed S and Se homeostasis, as the concentration of S and Se in liver, blood or kidney remained about constant, and steady state of S and Se in the other organs was reached 1 day after the diet shift. The uptake of (75) Se was readily seen in all organs. After 1 week, the depuration of the (75) Se tracer was followed, and biological half-lives and retention in individual organs were determined. The shortest biological half-lives were observed in major metabolic organs, the liver, kidney and pancreas with half-lives close to 4 days. There was a significant (p < 0.05) uptake in lung, brain and muscle that reached steady state when the administration of (75) Se was terminated. The half-life of (75) Se in heart was 9 days and 7 days in blood. The longest half-lives were observed in muscle (12 days), brain and lungs (13 days). All half-lives were shorter than in Se deplete animals.
 
Article
Previous studies from our laboratory have shown positive benefits of linoleic acid (LA) feeding for attenuation of rat heart failure (HF). However, another research group concluded LA feeding was detrimental to cardiac function, using the American Institute of Nutrition 76A (AIN) diet as a background diet for the experimental animals only. To reconcile these conflicting results and determine whether (i) AIN has effects on cardiovascular function, and (ii) AIN reverses the positive effects of LA feeding, studies were performed using spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats in both a survival study with lifetime feeding of AIN (control: Purina 5001) and a 2 × 2 factorial design for 6 weeks in young male SHHF rats with background diet and LA as variables. During a lifetime of AIN feeding, mortality from heart failure is significantly accelerated, cardiolipin altered and triglycerides increased. In young rats, 6 weeks on the AIN diet promoted increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increased fed and fasting blood glucose, increased serum inflammatory eicosanoids, decreased docosahexanoic acid, increased posterior wall thickness in diastole and an altered cardiolipin subspecies profile. The addition of LA to the AIN diet was able to rescue blood pressure. However, the combination increased retroperitoneal fat mass, body weight and fed blood glucose beyond the levels with the AIN diet alone. Because the AIN diet has wide ranging effects on cardiovascular parameters, our results suggest that it should not be used in animal studies involving the cardiovascular system unless induction of cardiac dysfunction is the desired outcome.
 
Article
High glycaemic feeds are associated with the development of insulin resistance in horses. However, studies that evaluated the effect of high glycaemic feeds used horses that either ranged in body condition from lean to obese or were fed to increase body condition over a period of months; thus, the ability of high glycaemic feeds to induce insulin resistance in lean horses has not been determined. This study evaluated the insulin sensitivity of 18 lean horses fed a 10% (LO; n = 6), 20% (MED; n = 6) or 60% (HI; n = 6) non-structural carbohydrate complementary feed for 90 days. Although both the MED and HI diets increased insulinaemic responses to concentrate feeding in relation to the LO diet (p > 0.05), neither induced insulin resistance, as assessed by glucose tolerance test, following the 90-day feeding trial. Interestingly, the post-feeding suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acids was less pronounced in HI-fed horses (p = 0.054) on days 30 and 90 of the study, potentially indicating that insulin-induced suppression of adipose tissue lipolysis was reduced. As insulin-resistant animals often have elevated plasma lipid concentrations, it is possible that altered lipid metabolism is an early event in the development of insulin resistance. The effects of high glycaemic feeds that are fed for a longer duration of time, on glucose and lipid metabolism, should be investigated further.
 
Ingredient and nutrient composition of the experimental diets
Iodine numbers for tissues from broilers fed the experimental diets
Abdominal fat deposition and fat cell counts for breast meat in broilers fed the experimental diets
Article
This study described the relation between the type and amount of dietary fat on the deposition of abdominal fat by broiler chickens. It was hypothesized that at higher fat intakes, the well-known lowering effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the deposition of abdominal fat would be diminished. Experimental diets were formulated to contain three levels of added fat (3%, 6% and 9%). Each level had different proportions of the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) by installing the ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 with the use of tallow and soybean oil. Arbor Acres chicks, aged 7 days, were fed one of the 15 experimental diets until they were aged 42 days. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. There was no systematic effect of the dietary fat type and the amount on the weight gain and the feed intake. The lowest SFA:UFA ratio of 1:5 produced the lowest feed conversion rates, irrespective of the amount of the fat in the diet. The abdominal fat deposition was similar in the birds fed on diets containing either 3% or 6% added fat, but deposition was lower than in those fed 9% fat. A decrease in the SFA:UFA ratio of the diet was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in abdominal fat, irrespective of the amount of fat in the diet. This observation leads to the rejection of the hypothesis stated above. A decrease in the dietary SFA:UFA from 1:1 to 1:4 caused a decrease in the number of the fat cells per surface unit of breast meat. It is concluded that an increased intake of soybean oil at the expense of tallow reduced the abdominal fat deposition and the number of fat cells in the breast meat of broiler chickens.
 
Article
The use of specific DNA sequences (DS) as a microbial marker in post-rumen digesta requires their persistence and integrity throughout gastric digestion. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the survival of microbial DS during gastric digestion and the factors involved. Gastric pH had a highly significant effect on the integrity of DS. pH 4.2 allows for a significant growth of microbes in the medium, but at pH 1.2, almost all of the DS were hydrolysed. In the presence of carboxymethylcellulose, the effect of pH was reduced, pepsin activity was inhibited and gene survival increased considerably. In the simulated abomasal conditions (pH = 2.3, 2 g/l of carboxymethylcellulose, and 40-min retention time), almost all of the bacterial genes and around 78% of the protozoa gene sequences retained their molecular integrity throughout gastric digestion, although factors such as acidity and viscera retention time might compromise the utilisation of DS as a microbial marker.
 
Article
In this pilot study, the effects of phosphorus (P) supply on inorganic phosphorus (P(i) ) net absorption in dairy cows were investigated. Three non-lactating, non-pregnant, rumen-fistulated Swedish Red breed dairy cows were studied in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Monosodium dihydrogen orthophosphate dihydrate (NaH(2) PO(4) *2H(2) O) was continuously infused into the abomasum for 4 days. The solutions provided 0, 14.4 or 28.8 g P(i) /day. Rumen fluid volume and outflow rate were estimated at day four of each experimental period using cobalt-lithium EDTA as an external marker. Acid insoluble ash in feeds and faecal samples was used to quantify P faecal excretion. Concentrations of P(i) in collected samples of rumen fluid, blood, faeces and urine were determined. P(i) flow into the small intestine increased (p < 0.05) with P(i) infusion. P(i) net absorption tended to increase (p = 0.08) but proportion of absorbed P(i) tended to decrease (p = 0.08). Urinary P(i) excretion was negligible and did not affect P homoeostasis (p = 0.50). There was no change in plasma P(i) concentration (p = 0.45) in response to P(i) infusion. The increase in total faecal P excretion (p < 0.05) with increasing level of infused P(i) was solely because of increased soluble faecal P(i) (p < 0.05). It is suggested that at P overfeeding, intestinal P(i) net absorption is saturable in dairy cows.
 
Article
In six normal-weight and six obese cats, the metabolic effect of propionate absorbed from the colon was assessed. Two colonic infusions were tested in a crossover design with intervals of 4 weeks. The test solution contained 4 mmol sodium propionate per kg ideal body weight in a 0.2% NaCl solution. Normal saline was given as control solution. Solutions were infused into the hindgut over 30 min. Blood samples were obtained prior to and at various time points after starting the infusion. As body condition did not affect evaluated parameters, all data were pooled. Plasma glucose concentrations showed differences neither over time nor during or after infusion with propionate or control. Plasma amino acid concentrations rose over time (p < 0.001), but were similar for both infusions. Plasma propionylcarnitine rose markedly towards the end of the propionate infusion and decreased afterwards (p < 0.001), whereas 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcarnitine was lower 30 (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.032) after ending propionate infusions and acetylcarnitine tended to fall at the same time points (p = 0.079; p = 0.080), suggesting inhibition of gluconeogenesis from pyruvate and amino acids, but initiation of propionate-induced gluconeogenesis. In conclusion, propionate absorbed from the colon is hypothesized to act as gluconeogenic substrate, regardless of the cat's body condition.
 
Article
The metacarpal bone mineral density of 136 healthy feedlot beef cattle of four different breeds (Charolaise, Limousine, Irish Crossbreed and Slovakian Crossbreed) raised and fed on standard conditions was measured by means of a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique in an ex vivo study design. The average reference values (mean ± SD) of bone mineral density (BMD) for animals aged between 12 and 22 months and weighing between 236 and 546 kg have been reported and the effects of (i) breed, (ii) gender, (iii) age and (iv) body weight on bone mineral density have been considered. A significant difference (i) among different breeds and (ii) between genders resulted, whereas a high correlation between bone density and (iii) age and (iv) body weight was detected within the same breed and gender, with body weight being the most important factor affecting BMD. A modern new technological insight into the study of bovine bone physio-pathology is proposed.
 
Article
To test whether mineral recommendations for horses are likely to guarantee adequate mineral provision for tapirs (Tapirus spp.), we investigated the apparent absorption (aA) of macro and micro-minerals in 18 tapirs from five zoological institutions in a total of 24 feeding trials with total faecal collection. Samples of feeds and faeces were analysed for Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu and Zn. The resulting aA coefficients and the linear relationships of apparently absorbable dietary mineral content to total dietary mineral content (per 100 g dry matter) were compared with data for domestic horses. While there were no apparent differences in the absorption patterns for P, K, Na, Fe, Cu or Zn, the absorption of both Ca and Mg was distinctively higher in tapirs than in horses. Tapirs are browsers that are adapted to a diet of higher Ca content and higher Ca:P ratio than equids, and high absorptive efficiency for Ca might have evolved to ensure that high dietary Ca concentrations do not lead to the binding of dietary P in the intestine, making it unavailable for hindgut microbes. Similar to other hindgut fermenters, in tapirs, absorption coefficients for Ca increased with dietary Ca:P ratio, and urinary Ca:creatinine ratios increased with dietary Ca. Several zoo diets used were deficient in one or more minerals. When compared with faeces of free-ranging animals, faeces of zoo animals had higher concentrations of most minerals, probably indicating a lesser diluting effect of indigestible fibre in zoo animals.
 
Top-cited authors
Harinder Makkar
  • Univ. Hohenheim/Univ. Nanjing/Univ. Gansu/Univ. Ulanbator
Vikas Kumar
  • University of Idaho
Ellen Kienzle
  • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
Marianne Diez
  • University of Liège
Marcus Clauss
  • University of Zurich