Issues in Mental Health Nursing

Published by Informa Healthcare
Online ISSN: 1096-4673
Print ISSN: 0161-2840
Publications
This community-based study involved 20-minute semi-structured interviews with adults living in the Southeastern United States (n=174). Participants reported their perceptions and experiences related to the 9/11/2001 attacks on the US. Data were collected approximately six months after the attacks. A nearly universal initial response of shock and disbelief was noted, accompanied by a shattering of a "myth of invulnerability" of the US to such attacks. Analysis revealed a pattern of recalled responses consisting of three phases: (a) the unimaginable, (b) responses of accommodation, and (c) the manageable. These phases are described with examples from the interview data. Sociocultural and mental health implications or this preliminary study are discussed.
 
Much attention has been focused on New York City firefighters and their responses to the traumatic events of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, given their extensive involvement in rescue efforts, and the overwhelming loss of life among the fire department employees. It quickly became evident that the impact of this horrendous event had resonated deeply not only on the families and children of the firefighters who gave their lives, but also on those who had survived. The goal of this study was to conduct semi-structured focus groups of women whose firefighter husbands were directly involved in rescue efforts at Ground Zero. We hoped to identify patterns in survivors' responses to the events as well as any coping mechanisms that the participants used to manage their exposure to the tragedy. An analysis of transcripts from interviews reveals the nature and extent of the impact of the trauma on these women, their husbands, and their children. There were two recurring themes that were apparent from the interview data. Women used patterns of connectedness to other spouses to cope with the emotional impact of the event. In addition, participants reported a constant need to be vigilant in helping their families cope. Issues related to the family's physical, mental, and spiritual health in the context of nursing practice are discussed.
 
Characteristics of the Participants (n = 22)
This exploratory study was designed to test the effectiveness of Foubert's intervention, The Men's Program, on a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Hispanic men who are not enrolled at a University or College. We explored participants' perceptions of, reactions to, and experience of the program. The information collected will be used to adapt the program to this specific population in order to increase cultural relevancy and specificity and create lasting attitudinal change. Three groups of six-eight Hispanic males (n = 22) were exposed to the intervention program. The Bystander Attitude Scale and the Rape Attitude and Beliefs Scale were administered as pre- and post-test measures. A short focus group was conducted to ask the men about their experience of the intervention. Analysis showed a significant increase in participants' willingness to intervene (p = 0.005) along with a decrease in rape myth acceptance in four of the five subscales (Justice p = 0.03; Status p = 0.004; Tactics p = 0.04; and Gender p = 0.002) after exposure to the intervention. Analysis of focus group material yielded several interesting themes about knowledge of rape, family and culture, perceptions of women, and the program material. This study showed promising change in attitudes about rape beliefs and bystander behaviors in Hispanic males exposed to an educational intervention. Through the information obtained, a cultural adaption from the analysis of the focus group data will be implemented during Phase 2 of the study. The adapted intervention will be tested before, after, and 1- and 3-months post-intervention to test whether the change in attitudes and behaviors are sustainable over time.
 
This descriptive study is a secondary analysis of data that examined depressive symptoms in a random sample of 429 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older. Participants were classified as having consistently high (n = 20). consistently low (n = 327), or fluctuating (n = 82) levels of depressive symptoms, based on scores from the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D; L. S. Radloff, 1977) at three time points over the course of 18 months. Differences in stress (life events and daily hassles), health (self-assessed health and physical complaints), and biographic variables among the 3 groups were examined. One quarter of the sample reported high depressive symptoms at least once over 18 months. There were significant differences among the 3 symptom groups on each of the stress and health measures and on marital status. The findings support the relationship among stress, health, and depressive symptoms over time. Implications for clinicians and researchers are discussed.
 
This paper presents a history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia from 1848 to the 1950's, or the asylum years to the era of the mental hospital. The research for this historical overview was conducted as part of a literature review for a mental health nursing doctoral thesis, which included an account of the evolution of the profession from asylum attendant to the present time. The literature reviewed for this project revealed a distinct lack of a coherent, chronological account of the historical development of mental health nursing in Victoria, and this paper seeks to address that knowledge gap.
 
Researching examples of historical hospital-based training can provide some measure of the improvements in mental health nursing education which have taken place over time. Claremont Hospital for the Insane was the only major stand-alone psychiatric institution in Western Australia, and recent research into its mental health nursing training program between 1903 and 1958 provides an example of how nursing training could suffer in the hospital setting. There is much to learn from Claremont's experience: Not just to measure how far mental health nursing has progressed since that time, but also as a reminder of why and how accountability, supervision, and independent auditing all help to ensure quality delivery of training.
 
Oral history methods were used to describe the experiences of American nurses who practiced in a state mental hospital before and during the introduction of antipsychotic medications. The nurses described their responsibilities for supervising staff, administering patient care, and assisting with special psychiatric treatments. They expressed resignation and frustration with trying to provide care despite obstacles such as unqualified physicians, crowded wards, and inadequate personnel and supplies. The nurses adopted a Cartesian approach in which they focused on the patient's body, instead of the patient's mind, and developed camaraderie among nurses through which they found acceptance and were able to continue to do a thankless job.
 
This historical perspective is focused on the contribution of Hildegard E. Peplau in laying the foundation for advanced practice nursing and the development of the roles of clinical nurse specialists and psychiatric nurse practitioners. An overview is provided of legal developments within the state that enabled Advanced Practice Nurses to provide mental health services. A description of a recent specialized state-funded initiative is outlined, focused on the development and contributions of psychiatric advanced practice nurses in community settings in New Jersey. Implications for the advanced practice nursing role in New Jersey are presented based on national and state initiatives.
 
The decade of the 1980s marks the establishment of a “Second Current” of feminism in this country, which began in the 1970s. From this historical vantage point, the relationship of women to society can be reassessed by viewing past progress and future new directions.
 
This study explored the discourse of mental illness contained within two UK newspapers over a 15-year period, excluding those stories that mentioned any reference to a diagnosis. Using frame analysis, a form of discourse analysis, ten distinct frames were identified and classified into "stories." These ten stories were categorized as: foreign, legal, drug, feature, trauma, tragedy, community care tragedy, social policy, inquiry report, and sports/celebrity stories. Each frame is described and the potential influence of such frames on both social policy and nursing practice is discussed.
 
The Mental Health Act in Japan was enacted in 1987. This study aims to determine whether the act has been effective in protecting patient rights by delineating the content and trends of patient rights violations at psychiatric hospitals through an analysis of newspaper reports. An analysis of 924 newspaper articles found 39 hospitals involved in patient rights violations. The results show that violations of patient rights have continued to occur after the implementation of the act. The reasons: for-profit policy of hospitals, a defective oversight system, and a lack of knowledge about the act by medical staff.
 
This paper presents an overview of recent evidence on general and specific risk factors for suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The authors highlight the significant factors contributing to the likelihood of suicide in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This information will enhance the delivery of nursing care to these patients in all health care settings. A review of literature was conducted by two methods of investigation: Medline and CINAHL search and a manual search through articles from 1990 to 1999. The lifetime risk of committing suicide is estimated at about 9-13% of persons with schizophrenia, and it is 20 to 50 times higher than that in the general population. Young white males diagnosed with schizophrenia who are depressed, unmarried, unemployed, socially isolated, and functionally impaired and who lack external support are the most vulnerable in the early stages of schizophrenic illness. Findings can be instrumental in identifying and treating patients who are most vulnerable and in making psychiatric nurses aware of the scenarios and critical stages of the disease process when suicide is most likely to occur.
 
A review of quantitative research studies published between 1991 and 1995 in 3 major mental health nursing journals revealed that approximately 10% (31 of 311) included a measure of religion or spirituality. This percentage (10%) is 3 to 8 times higher than that found in previous reviews of empirical research in psychological and psychiatric journals, suggesting that mental health nursing research is more sensitive to the role of religious-spiritual factors on mental health than research in related disciplines. The results are discussed in the context of the history and philosophy of nursing and in comparison to related disciplines. Methodological aspects of the research, especially the importance of multiple measures, are discussed, as are other salient findings.
 
The purpose of the study was to analyze the content of popular press magazine articles that focused on postpartum depression, published from 1998–2006. Replicating earlier research by 14. Martinez R., Johnston-Robledo I., Ulsh H. M., Chrisler J. C. Singing “the baby blues:” A content analysis of popular press articles about postpartum affective disturbances. Women & Health 2000; 31(2/3)37–56View all references, 47 articles were identified and their content analyzed in the areas of etiology, symptoms, treatment, resources, and demographic assumptions about readers. Popular press magazines contained contradictory information about the definition, prevalence, onset, duration, symptoms, and treatment of postpartum mood disorders. Health care providers should be proactive in directing childbearing women to factual sources of information on postpartum depression.
 
Top-cited authors
Brenda Happell
  • The University of Newcastle, Australia
Michelle Cleary
  • Central Queensland University
Lynne Hall
  • University of Louisville
Glenn E Hunt
  • Concord Repatriation General Hospital
Ruth Topsy Staten
  • University of Louisville