Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences

Publications
One hundred and sixty male broiler chicks were fed at one day of age aflatoxin (AF) at a rate of 3.5 mg/kg alone, or with groups injected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts (40000) at 14 days of age. Adsorbent (Mycofix® plus 3.0) was incorporated at a rate of 0.25% in the above mentioned groups from one day of age till the end of the experiment. The study was conducted to reveal the effect of a aforementioned different diets and treatments on live body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, blood parameters (total red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume), biochemical profile of serum (alkaline phosphatase and β-carotin), liver weights, bursal and thymus indexes, caecal lesion scores and mortalities. The results indicated that AF was responsible for a significant (P
 
A study was conducted to assess the type and prevalence of abnormalities occurring in the female reproductive tracts of 405 buffalo cows slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. Out of the 405 buffalo genital tracts examined, various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 216 (53.3%) of cases. Twenty two (5.4%) were pregnant and the remaining 41.2% (167/405) were macroscopically normal. The most common abnormalities encountered were endometritis 50 (12.3%), ovarobursal adhesions 26 (6.4%) and hydrosalpinx 20 (4.9%). Other abnormalities recorded were follicular cyst, luteal cyst, cystic corpus luteum, paraovarian cyst, ovarian sarcoma, inactive ovaries, senility anestrous, pyosalpinx, hemosalpinx, obstruction of oviduct, salpingitis, double oviduct, hydrometra, mucometra, pyometra, permetritis, parametritis, uterine edema, perimetrial adhesions, parametrial adhesions, parauterine abscess and uterine tumor. Histopathological examinations in this study revealed that reproductive tract lesions seem to be an important problem with possible subsequent infertility and sterility in buffalo cows leading to animals slaughtered.
 
This study was conducted on two flocks of sheep suffering from abortion in Mosul city, Iraq. The clinical findings in ewes were abortion during the 3-4 months of gestation period in the both flocks. The total percentage of abortion was 11.7 %, whereas stillbirth percentage was 4 %. Brucella spp. was isolated from four (33.3 %) of the 12 samples (stomach contents of the aborted fetuses). All culture – positive samples had also positive with direct smears. By a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Brucella antigens were detected in the fetal stomach contents of 5 samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified ELISA were 100 % and 87.5 % respectively. The test had a good negative predictive value but only a moderate positive predictive value. Therefore, the test would be useful for confirming the existence of suspect disease. Comparison of modified ELISA with bacterial isolation demonstrated a close agreement (Kappa value = 0.92). Of the 12 serum samples from aborted ewes, eight samples were positive with Rose Bengle test (66.7 %), more than 10 samples (83.3 %) were detected by indirect ELISA test.
 
Through examination of 176 samples of the fresh water fish Liza abu obtained from Tigers River in Mosul city 2005, the percentage of total internal parasites infection was 57.38%. They were the trematode larval stage Diplostumum spathaecum 44.88%; the cestode larval stage of Ligula intestinalis 32.95%, oocyst of Cryptosporidium spp. 28.97%, oocyst of Eimeria spp. 23.29%. Cryptosporidium was recorded for the first time in Mosul city during examination of intestinal contents. They appeared after staining with modified Zeihl- Neelsen as bright red spherical oocysts with a diameter of 3-7 µ. The effect of season on types of infection was also studied.
 
Reproductive efficiency of young male and female rats yielded from mothers treated with lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W) and vitamin E as an antioxidant (500 mg/kg) during lactation period was studied. 27 pregnant albino rats aged 4-5 months divided into 3 groups, the first group given 0.2 ml distilled water through oral intubations (control). The second group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W), while the 3rd group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W) with vitamin E (500 mg/kg B.Wt). Lead acetate treatment did not cause significant difference (P>0.05) in young male rats body, testes, epididymal (head, tail), prostate gland, seminal vesicle weights, number of epidiymal sperms count, percentage of live/dead sperms and sperms abnormalities accompanied with a significant increase (P
 
The glutathione, malondialdehyde brain tissue, alanine amimotraferase, aspartate amimotraferase and albumin in suckling pups from dams treated with lead acetate and their interaction with vitamin E or C for 21 consecutive days (lactation period).
The onset of movement, open field activity tests and negative geotaxis in suckling pups at(21 days) from dams treated with lead acetate and their interaction with vitamin E or C for 21 consecutive days (lactation period).
The approach, touch, click, tail pinch responses in suckling pups at (21 days) from dams treated with lead acetate and their interaction with vitamin E or C for 21 consecutive days (lactation period).
The landmarks development in suckling pups from dams treated with lead acetate and their interaction with vitamin E or C.
The body weight in suckling pups from dams treated with lead acetate and their interaction with vitamin E or C for 21 consecutive days (lactation period).
The current study investigated the effect of administration of vitamin E (600mg/ kg diet) concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally) and vitamin C (100mg/kg, orally) concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally) to the female lactating rats on the neurobehavioral, landmarks development and some biochemical tests in their pups. Administration of lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in open field activity test including (the number of squares crossed and rearing test within 3 minutes), olfactory discrimination test, triglycerides and malondialdehyde brain tissue, with a significant decrease in glutathione brain tissue and high density lipoproteins in their pups. The present study demonstrated that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin C and lead acetate produced a significant decrease in righting reflex test in their pups. Administration of vitamin E concomitantly with lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in glutathione level accompanied with a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and triglycerides levels in their pups. The present study showed that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin E or C with lead acetate produced a significant decrease in rearing test, whereas a significant increase in high density lipoproteins in their pups. It is concluded that administration vitamin E or C to the female lactating rats reverse the adverse effects produced by lead acetate on neurobehavioral. Vitamin E had positive effect on the levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde brain tissue, triglyceride and high density lipoproteins in their lactating pups.
 
Effect of different doses of chlorpheniramine on the toxicity score of acute dichlorvos poisoning Chlorpheniramine (ChP) was injected intramuscularly immediately after dichlorvos (12 mg/kg, orally), N = 8 chicks/group. * Significantly different from the respective control group, P<0.05.  
Effect of dichlorvos and chlorpheniramine on the plasma and whole brain cholinesterase activity.
The protective and therapeutic effects of the H1–antihistamine chlorpheniramine against an acute poisoning induced by organophosphorus insecticide dichlorvos in a 7–14 days old chicks model were evaluated and compared with that of the standard antidote atropine. Chlorpheniramine or atropine at 20 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m.) given immediately after oral dichlorvos dosing increased the LD50 value of dichlorvos (10.85 mg/kg, orally) in the chicks by 77 and 123 %, respectively. Chlorpheniramine at 20 mg/kg, i.m. given immediately after dichlorvos (12 mg/kg, orally) significantly delayed the onset of acute signs, time of death, decreased toxicity score and increased the percentages of survivors (62.5 %) during 2 and 24 h after dichlorvos dosing. The antidotal effect of chlorpheniramine and atropine groups at a dose of 20 mg/kg, i.m. given immediately after oral dichlorvos were close to each other in delaying the onset signs of poisoning and time of death. They also significantly increased the percentages of survivors and decreased of toxicity scores. Chlorpheniramine at 20 mg/kg, i.m. significantly decreased plasma (34%) and brain (52%) cholinesterase activities in comparison with the control group. Dichlorvos dosing at 8 mg/kg, orally significantly reduced plasma (83%) and brain (93%) cholinesterase activities in comparison with the control and chlorpheniramine groups. Chlorpheniramine given after dichlorvos dosing significantly protected the plasma and brain cholinesterase from further decreased in its activities caused by dichlorvos dosing by 29 and 41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study suggests that chlorpheniramine have a protective and therapeutic effects in case of dichlorvos poisoning in chicks resembling that of atropine.
 
LD50 of aqueous leaves extract of N. oleander in rabbits injected subcutenously. (X): means death, (O): means survival.  
The median lethal dose was evaluated in rabbits subcutaneously injected with Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract . The clinical signs , postmortem changes , hematological and biochemical changes were recorded. The results revealed that the median lethal dose was 157.37 mg / kg B. wt. The live animals showed nervous signs in the second days after treatment as crying, ataxia , abdominal respiration , inaddition to a significant increase in body temperature and loss in the body weigth then all animals die during 4 -5 day.The postmortem changes included hemorrhages , and congestion in all organs particularly in the subcutaneous tissue. Hematological changes including increase in the packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration ,and erythrocytic count and leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia .Significant increase in the aspartate and alanine aminotraferease activities , serum sodium and potassium ions , and inhibition in blood cholinesterase activity in both erythrocytes and plasma in 2 and 24 houres after injection as compared to the values in animals before injection.
 
This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water) for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight). The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight), caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight) with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water) for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.
 
The study was undertaken to show the effect of thymus vulgaris oil administration at (0.3, 0.6 ml/kg) orally for 60 days on male fertility and epididymal sperms characters in male rats at age of 100 days. The animals treated with thyme oil at a dose of (0.6 ml) revealed a significant decrease in the weight of testes, body of epididymis, percentage of live/dead sperms and epididymyal sperm count, with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. On the other hand the animals treated with thyme oil at a dose (0.3 ml) show a significant decrease in the weight of body of epididymis, epididymal sperm count and the percentage of live/dead sperms accompanied with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. Its concluded from this study that thymus vulgaris has an inhibitory effect on reproductive system and spermatogenesis in mature male rats.
 
Standard wounds were made in the backs of 18 rabbits. The rabbits were then divided into 6 equal groups. Rabbits of group (1), constituted a control group and their wounds were treated with physiological saline solution. In group (2), the wounds were treated with Cefotaxime at a concentration of 500 mg. Wounds of the third, fourth, and fifth groups were treated with 5%, 3.75%, and 2.5% apple cider vinegar respectively. Wounds of the sixth groups of rabbits were treated with a combination of equal amounts of Cefotaxime and apple cider vinegar 3.75%. All of the wounds were infected with various isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the time of infected. Wound treatment was done each 48 hours until complete healing. Results of this study indicated that using apple cider vinegar 3.75% gave results similar to those obtained by using the antibiotic (same rates of bacterial reduction). However, using a combination of equal amounts of apple cider vinegar and the antibiotic lead to more rapid and more better healing than using each one of them alone.
 
This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in studfarms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolationof bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total ofisolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%), followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%), (6.7%) for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiellapneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3%) for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcuszooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%), and Escherichia coli (1.3%). The most bacterial isolateswere resistant to amoxicillin (100%), ampicillin (90.9 %), and erythromycin (65.9%), while the most isolates were sensitive tokanamycin (70.4%). It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could beClostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant toamoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.
 
Lethal aflatoxicosis in broiler birds caused liver congestion, discoloration, enlarged pancreas. Aflatoxin (1087 ppb) was detected in the feed given to these broilers The mean of aflatoxin (ppb) in the tested broiler feeds are presented in Table 1.
Ten broiler flocks claimed to be suffering from aflatoxicosis in Ninavah governorate were subjected to study the correlation between natural contamination of feed samples with aflatoxin and European production efficiency factor (EPEF). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was adopted for estimation of AF level in broiler feeds. Growth performance parameters were recorded including final body weight, mortality, feed consumption and conversion ratio. Aflatoxins levels in feeds were ranged from 31 to 2381.8 ppb and EPEF was between 91.55-151.05. There was a highly negative correlation between AF concentration in broiler flock feeds and their EPEF (-0.828).
 
Three experiments were conducted to elucidate the alleviation effects of Mycofix plus 3.0 on Newcastle antibody formation during aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Three levels of Mycofix (0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.25%) and aflatoxin (2.5ppm, 3.5ppm, and 5ppm) were used. Chickens were vaccinated at 8 and 18 days of age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Haemagglutination inhibition tests were employed for determination Newcastle antibody titers at 28 days. The results showed that, Mycofix , and only at its high level of addition (0.25%) was effective in ameliorating the negative effect of aflatoxin at the rates 2.5ppm and 3.5 ppm levels of inclusion on antibody production but not at the high level of 5ppm on antibody production, comparing with titers in control groups.
 
This study includes effect of Immunizaton by intrapertoneal inoculation of unembryonated eggs, embryonated eggs , died larvae , live larvae and excretory / secretory products of larvae (L2) of T.canis and T.leonina to protect white mice (Balb/c) from the experimental infection by T.cati and T.leonina the results showed that the highest rate of protection is 69. 56% then , 68.77%, 65.83% , 65.20% and 55.70% when the mice immunized by excretory/ secretory products, Live Larvae, died Larvae, embryonated eggs and unembryonated eggs of T.canis antigens against the challenge dose of T.cati the highest protection rate against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by inoculation of live larvae of T.leonina (58.63%) by using a challenge dose same to the immunization dose. while the highest protection rate obtained by T.canis against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by immunization with live larvae(54. 74%).
 
Six sheep farms in Mosul city, Iraq randomly selected, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to Albendazole. On each of 6 sheep farms, 20 lambs were randomly distributed into two equal groups untreated control group, and albendazole (benzimidazole) group (10 mg/kg BW). Faecal egg counts and larval cultures were done at 7, 14, and 21 days after anthelmintic treatment. Resistance was apparent for albendazole on 4 farms out of 6 (66.7%). Post-treatment larval cultures indicated: Strongyloides papillosus, Marshalligia marshalli, Nematodirus spathiger and Haemonchus contortus.
 
Scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge, mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats. Diagnosis All examined skin scraping samples which positive by direct and concentration methods were revealed the presence of small ectothrix spores of fungi arranged as longitudinal chains out site of the shaft of the hairs Fig 2.  
Small ectothrix spores of fungi arranged as longitudinal chains out site of the shaft of the infected hair (1000x).  
Colony of T.mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar after 21 days at 25 ºC.  
Reddish-brown color reverse side of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar after 21 days at 25 ºC. On Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar with 5% of Nacl, the colonies appeared after 14 days at 25 ºC as heaped with buff to brown in color with suede like surface texture and characteristically have very dark reddish brown reverse pigmentation Fig 5, 6.  
Colony of T.mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar with 5% of Nacl after 14 days at 25 ºC.
The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%), clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71%) of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57%) from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.
 
Ten duodeni of adult ram were fixed in chilled acetone, 80% ethyl alcohol, formol- alcohol solution, alcoholic bouinssolution and neutral buffered formalin solution. The distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases were similar in theirlocation but different in their intensity and distribution according to different fixative The distribution of alkaline phosphatasein absorptive columnar cell was more intense than in goblet cells, whereas the concentration of acid phosphatase was moreintense in goblet cells than in absorptive cells in the mucosa of sheep duodenum. The study revealed that the samples wasfixed with chilled acetone gave highest reaction for alkaline and acid phosphatases than other fixative samples. No reaction foralkaline phosphatase include the lower parts of intestinal glands, paneth cells and sub mucosal glands in different fixative,whereas, paneth cells and sub mucosal glands revealed wreaked reaction for acid phosphatase in samples fixed in 80% ethylalcohol and chilled acetone respectively in duodenum of native sheep.
 
Ten duodeni of adult goat were fixed in chilled acetone, 80% ethyl alcohol, alcohol-formalin solution, alcohol bouinssolution and buffered neutral formalin solution. The distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases noticed in absorptive andgoblet cells that lining the duodenal mucosa of black goat, but different in their intensity and distribution according to differentfixatives. The distribution of alkaline phosphatase in absorptive columnar cells that lining intestinal glands was more intensethan other cells, whereas the concentration of acid phosphatase was more intense in goblet cells than other cells in the mucosaof goat duodenum specially in samples fixed in chilled acetone and ethyl alcohol 80%. The study revealed that the sampleswere fixed with chilled acetone gave highest reaction for alkaline and acid phosphatases than other fixative samples. Noreaction for alkaline and acid phosphatases included some absorptive cells lining villi, all cells lining the lower parts ofintestinal glands, paneth cells and submucosal glands in different fixatives, except submucosal glands revealed positivereaction for acid phosphatase in samples fixed in chilled acetone and 80% ethyl alcohol, paneth cells reveal positive reaction for the same enzyme in samples fixed in 80% ethyl alcohol in all examined areas of the duodenum wall of the native blackgoat.
 
Effect of soybean seeds, insulin, and glibenclamide as alone and combination of soybean with either insulin, or glibenclamide on body weight, and serum lipid profiles. 
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soybean seeds administration alone or combined with either insulin or glibenclamide on serum lipid profiles in diabetic rats. Male Wister rats were induced diabetes by a single subcutaneous injection of alloxan 100 mg/kg.b.w.The rats randomly divided into six groups (eight rats in each group): The first group served as a control, the second group was administered soybean seed 400 mg/kg.b.w orally as suspension, the third group injected insulin 10 I.U/kg.b.w, subcutaneously, the fifth group administered glibenclamide 5 mg/kg.b.w. orally. Accompaniment of soybean seeds with either of insulin or glibenclamide given the fourth and sixth groups, using the same routes and doses in the individual groups. All treatments were once daily for two weeks. Soybean seeds treatment alone resulted in an improvement of body weight and decrease of triglyceride and total lipids levels. While treatment with insulin or glibenclamide as alone or combination with soybean seeds showed a significant reduction in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and total lipids, beside a significant increase in both body weight and high density lipoprotein. Beneficial effects were seen when soybean seeds combined with either of insulin or glibenclamide treatment. These results indicate the usefulness of soybean seeds in the management of diabetes through the hypolipidemic effects of soybean seeds in diabetic rats.
 
Mean blood serum cholesterol,liver glycogen and glutathione content, heart malonaldehyde content, brain cholesterol, acetyl cholinesterase levels in mg/dl±SE after oral administration of different doses of crude extract and proteinous materials of Aloe vera in normal fasted mice.
Mean blood serum cholesterol,liver glycogen and glutathione content, heart malonaldehyde content, brain cholesterol, acetyl cholinesterase levels in mg/dl±SE after intraperitoneal administration of different doses of crude extract and proteinous materials of Aloe vera
This research was carried out mainly to investigate the effects of the aqueous extract and proteinous fractions of Aloe veraleaves on cholesterol, acetycholinesterase in brain, glycogen, glutathione in liver and malonaldehyde levels in heart in normalmale albino mice. The antioxidant properties and inhibition of acetylcholine-sterase in tissue were detected. Intraperitonealadministration of Aloe vera extract in concentration of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the levels of AchE in brain by (-88.27%) and glutathione content in liver by (-35.48%), and increased the levels of glycogen in liver and malonaldehyde inheart by (22.60%, 85.50%) respectively. At a concentration of 300 mg/kg Aloe vera extract significantly increased the level ofcholesterol in brain by (24.39%). These results clearly show the antioxidant property of the extract of Aloe vera leaves.
 
This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly), central nervous system activity tests (weekly), hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30). The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg) at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis) tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg). Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.
 
Molar area of rabbit mandible showing osteoclasts resting on the surface of trabecullae of the spongy bone (arrows). Dexamethasone 1.56 mg/kg. H&E X600.
Effect of dexamethasone on rabbit osteoclasts
Molar area of rabbit mandible showing osteoclast (long arrow) separated from the surface of the bone by Howship's lacuna. Thick small arrow is another osteoclast. Dexamethasone 3.12 mg/kg. H&E X 600.
This study was planned to determine whether a short period dexamethasone treatment induce alveolar bone loss or not, therefore, twenty six male albino rabbits were divided into three groups as follow: Test groups I (10 rabbits) received 1.56 mg/kg dexamethasone intraperitoneal injection daily for two weeks, test group II (10 rabbits) received 3.12 mg/kg dexamethasone intraperitoneal injection daily, and the control group (6 rabbits) received saline solution for same period. The animals were sacrificed and histological sections were prepared from the alveolar bone of molar areas of mandible, as well as morphometric analysis of osteoclasts number was performed. The results showed a significant increase in the number of osteoclasts, which indicates that bone loss, is quite inevitable secondary to dexamethasone treatment even in a short period of treatment for two weeks.
 
Enlargement of trocar site to exteriorize the grasped jejunal loop through it. 
Extracorporeal suturing of the two ends of the resected intestine by simple interrupted sutures using polygalactin size 3-0. 
Sites for inserting suspending suture materials. 
Intracorporeal suturing of the opened ends of the gut by simple interrupted sutures using polygalactin size 3-0. Laparoscopic Postoperative Checking: One laparoscopic check for each operated animal was carried out following 1-2 weeks post operation for the following reasons: Peritonitis; Intra-abdominal adhesions of the viscera; Peristaltic movement of the bowel; Presence or absence of leakage, or perforation at the site of anastomosis; presence of strangulation or volvulus; and presence of intra-abdominal abscess. Biopsy Collection: Under the effect of general anesthesia and conventional laparotomy, biopsies were collected from the experimental animals at 15, 30, and 60 days after anastomosis. The biopsy involved the site of anastomosis for about 15 cm in length. The samples were thoroughly washed with normal saline solution and freshly stored in clean jars containing 100 ml of normal saline for further study. They were studied for; adhesions, leakage, abscess around the anastomotic site, distention and any other gross lesions. 
The aim of this study was to evaluate operative laparoscopy in comparison with conventional laparotomy for intestinal resection and anastomosis in dogs. Eighteen adult dogs were equally and randomly divided into 3 groups: Group I: Intestinal anastomosis was performed extracorporeally, by laparoscopic-assisted surgery, in which a 5cm loop of small bowel was exteriorized through a mini-laparotomy opening (an enlarged trocar incision 1.5-2 cm in length), then surgically resected and anastomosed by simple interrupted suture 3-0 polygalactine. Group II: Underwent laparoscopic intracorporeal intestinal resection and anastomosis, in which the loop of the small bowel was suspended into the ventral abdominal wall, then it was resected and anastomsed with simple continuous suture by polygalactine 3-0. Group III: Small bowel resection and anastomosis was conducted by conventional laparotomy technique with simple interrupted pattern by polygalactine 3-0 suture. The result showed that laparoscopic intestinal resection and anastomosis by either intra- or extracorporeal techniques can be applied in dogs safely and have less morbidity rate. Intra abdominal adhesion of the omentum and even the bowel to the abdominal wall occurred in group III but not in groups I and II. The post operative hospitalization time was earlier in group I and II, as indicated by the earlier return of intestinal motility and appetite, in comparison to group III where it was delayed.
 
Site of anastomosis with low degree of stenosis in one animals of the second group after 30 days of operation.  
Site of anastomosis with higher degree of stenosis in one animals of the first group after 30 days of operation.  
Remnant of suture material surrounded by inflammatory cells in the first group after 15 days of operation (H & E, X416).  
Formation of squamous epithelium with intensive proliferation of fibrous tissue in the second group after30 days of operation (H & E, X166).  
Fibrosis (f) extending from lamina properia to the muscular layer and proliferation of epithelial stratified squamous layer in the third group after 15 days of operation (Mallory trichrome, X416).
This study was performed to compare three methods of esophageal anastomosis. Twenty four healthy adult dogs were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups; each one consisted of 8 animals. In group 1; two layers were used to perform the esophageal anastomosis. The first layer represented simple interrupted suture to close the mucosa with knot inside the lumen, and the second layer represented horizontal mattress interrupted suture to close the other layers of esophagus. While in group 2; one layer of cross interrupted mattress suture was used to close all layers of esophageal wall, and in group 3; one layer of Schmieden's suture was used to close all layers of esophageal wall. The results of clinical, radiological and histopathological studies after 15 and 30 days of surgical operation revealed that most of the animals showed different degrees of difficulty concerning the moderate dysphagia and regurgitation. The radiological study showed significant difference of stenosis. The best results were recorded in the second group where the mean degree of stenosis was 7.69%, however the mean degree of stenosis was 42.80% in the first group, while the mean degree of stenosis in the third groups was 37.81%, through 30 days. The histopathological study of group 2 showed rapid healing of the site of anastomosis, lack of granulation tissue and consequently the less degree of stricture and other complications as compared with groups 1 and 3. The Schmieden's suture was characterized by its standard short time as compared with group 1 and 2, although accompanied by some complications. In conclusion this study revealed that the cross mattress suture used in the second group characterized by faster healing and minimal amount of fibrous tissue formation manifested by decrease in moderate degree of stenosis as compared with the two other suture patterns used in the first and third groups.
 
This study was conducted to evaluate the application of the massage method of the uterus and ovaries by rectal palpation to treat true anoestrus in local Iraqi buffaloes. The study was conducted during the period from September 2007 to May 2008, on 236 buffalo cows including 113 multiparous and 123 heifers. Multiparous buffalo cows were divided into treated group (n=63) and control group (n=50), heifers were divided in to treated group (n=73) and control group (n=50). Results of the present study indicated a significant effect of the massage method for the uterus and ovaries in heifers by producing oestrus (80.82%), as well as a significant effect of treatment on multiparous buffalo cows was observed (58.73%). The response of heifers to treatment with massage method was significantly higher than multiparous buffalo cows. It could be concluded that using manual massage for uterus and ovaries by rectal palpation is a successful method for treating true anestrous in buffaloes.
 
This study was conducted to investigate the role of Ginger as antihyperlipidemic agent and its histopathological effects inrats exposed to oxidative stress. Results of rats treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 1% in drinking water, showed highlysignificant increase in the level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol(VLDL-C) and atherogenic index, which are indicators for the occurrence of serum hyperlipidemia. Rats treated with H2O2then with Ginger at 2 mg/kg in diet, revealed significant decrease in the level of LDL-C, VLDL-C and atherogenic index.Histopathological study illustrate no changes in rats treated with Ginger in heart and liver tissues, while rats treated with H2O2then with Ginger, showed amelioration in histological picture of heart and liver tissues compared with rats treated with H2O2.In conclusion, The Ginger considered as a good antihyperlipidemic agent.
 
A bacteriological study was conducted on the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from ruminant milk (Buffaloes, Cow,Sheep, Goat). Four hundred milk samples were collected from these animals (100 samples from each) from different locationsin the Ninevah governorate during the period from October 2008 till May 2009. The results showed that the percentage ofStaphylococcus aureus isolation from the above mentioned animals was as follows: Buffalos (78%), Cow (55%), Sheep (65%),Goat (49%). Sensitivity test applied on the isolated organisms showed different result between milk samples of differentanimals and within the same species. It is interesting to note that some of our S.aureus isolates were resistant to methicillin,and thesis resistance was 50% in buffaloes; 20% in cow and sheep and 20% in goat.
 
This study included 184 serum samples collected from goats, the samples were distributed between aborted, vaccinated and unvaccinated females in the period between February–September 2007 in Mosul city. Rose Bengal Test and 2-mercaptoethanol test were used to evaluate antibodies in serum samples. The results showed that the percentage of positive cases reached 72% , 25.6% and 52.9% in vaccinated, unvaccinated and aborted females, respectively by using rose Bengal test. Where as the percentages of positive cases reached to 83.3%, 51.7% in vaccinated and unvaccinated animals, respectively and decreased to 11.1% in aborted animals when positive rose Bengal test samples were tested with 2-mercaptoethanol test.
 
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the females of the local breed buffaloes. A 400 sera samples were collected from 49 herds from different nine geographical area in Ninavah province by using latex agglutination and modified latex agglutination tests. The results shows that the total prevalence rate of the antibodies was 30%, and this percentage was differ according to the region. The highest percentage appeared in Badosh and Qnetra at 52.3%, 51.2% respectively, while the lowest was in Hawiaslan 4.3%. The antibodies titer most appear was 80 in percentage 30.5%, while the titer 640 was lowest in percentage 1.7%. Also recorded that numbers of the active cases was highest in percentage 81.4% compared with inactive cases was lowest in percentage 18.6%, also noted that the seropositive samples decreased with age.
 
This study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of brucellosis in non vaccinated goats in different areas in Mosulcity and to compare Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests for the detection of the antibodies. A total of 102 blood serumsamples were examined, representing 396 goats distributed in different areas. Results of Rose Bengal test showed that the totalseroprevalence of brucellosis was (6.8%) and the highest rate in Al-Rahmania (11.1%), and lowest (7.1%) in Al-Muthana area.No seroprevalence of Brucellosis was recorded in Googjaly and Basheka areas. Indirect ELISA test showed that the totalpercentage was (24.5%) and the highest (55%) were reported in Al-Rahmania area and the lowest percentage was (10%) inBasheka area. The compatibility between the two tests was (0.30) on Kappa value indicating sensitivity of indirect ELISA testcompared with Rose Bengal test in detection antibrucella antibodies in serum goats.
 
Competitive ELISA test was used in this study to identify brucella antibodies in cattle sera in Mosul, and assessing the results that are given by Rose-Bengal test. Results of testing 126 cattle sera revealed that the seroprevalence was 16.7% using C-ELISA and 18.3% using RBT. There were differences in seroprevalence according to sex of animals, females showed higher seroprevalence than males, it was 19.1% and 20.2% in females and 9.4% and 12.5% in males by C-ELISA and RBT respectively. Also there were differences in seroprevalence according to age of animals and pregnancy status of females. Kappa value revealed that there was little agreement between C-ELISA and RBT, (Kappa value was 0.229). RBT was not accurate in giving real seroprevalence, since there were 13 false-negative samples from 21 samples positive with C-ELISA, and there were 15 false-positive samples from 105 samples negative with C-ELISA. Results of tube agglutination test and 2-Mercaptoethanol test indicated a decline of titers from those of previous studies, lower titer of TAT was 1/10 (19.05%) and most of titers were lower than 1/40 (76.2%) in 2-Me test. This study concluded that the brucella antibodies in cattle sera in Mosul was increased from previous years and most of cases were acute.
 
Results of avian influenza virus antigens detection
Rapid avian influenza virus antigen test kit and rapid H5 avian influenza virus antigen test kit were used to detect avian influenza antigens by examine 1143 samples taken from broilers, layers, house chickens, local poultry markets and poultry slaughters houses in period from January to December 2007 in Mosul city. Cloacae feces swab method was used for all samples and results showed that all tested samples were negative for both AIV and H5 antigens. In conclusion Mosul city was free from avian influenza virus till Dec 2007 and this test is rapid, easy and a reliable field test and can be done frequently.
 
The study was designed to evaluate the immune response of puppies, injected by different protein fractions extracted from protoscolieces, obtained from ovine hydatid cyst. Indirect heamagglutination revealed a remarkable increase in the antibody titers for the immunized groups (A1.5, A3, B1.5, and B3) before and after challenge when compared with the control. Biological variations showed decline in numbers of adult Echinococcus granulosus in the immunized groups when compared with the control. Other variations proved dropping in numbers of the worms within the same immunized groups. Subsequent reductions of cestodes were reported which were 83.8%, 81.3%, 78.2% and 74.6% for the groups A3, A1.5, B3, and B1.5, respectively.
 
This research was conducted for evaluation of the effect of pollutants of Tigris on some parameters of oxidative stress incommon carp. In addition to detection of Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, vitamins E and C and the results were compared withcontrol group. The results revealed that the presence of congestion on blood vessels in kidney with vacuolar degeneration inhepatic cells with infiltration of inflammatory cells and swelling and fatty change in the epithelial cells lining the renal tubulesin addition to coagulative necrosis with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue of kidney. Furthermore fattychange in cardiac muscles with infiltration of inflammatory cells and congestion of blood vessels in heart were observed. Thestatistical analysis referred to a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in glutathione and increase in the malondialdehydeconcentrations levels for the most tissues but there was no difference in E and C vitamins except that of the kidney which showa decrease in C vitamin level. It is concluded from the present study that there is a worse effect of pollutants in river of Tigrison the levels of lipid peroxidation indicators for carp fish tissues naturally exposed to those pollutants which may affects thenutritional and hygienic values of these fishes.
 
Four sub lethal concentrations 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5% of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. were used against the second instars larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica L.. The results of the microscopical preparations and statistical analysis have shown that this aqueous extract had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth and development on the ovaries and ovarian follicles of the adult flies obtained from previously treated larvae with four stage of age, 24, 48, 72, 96 hour after birth. The extract also led decreased in the numbers of ovarian follicles and their degradation. In some instances the microscopically preparations of the mid gut of the housefly have also shown that this aqueous extract has seriously affected the histological structure of the alimentary canal particularly the mid gut. It has led to the separation of the muscular layer from the epithelial lining.
 
The prevalence of suppurative arthritis in one hundred sheep from both sexes and different ages were studied. Aspiration of synovial fluid from knee joint of animals showed signs of lameness with reluctant to move in addition to decrease in the body weight and loss of appetite. Physical and bacterial examination of the synovial fluid was revealed green color, turbid and containing pus. Mucin clot showed difference in degree of clotting, and increased number in leukocyte, neutrophile but decreased in lymophocytes and monocyte. The result showed that Streptococcus dysagalactiae was predominate 61.1% while Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the less 5.5%, also the result showed that all the strains were more sensitive to the Ciprofloxacin. This study is considered to be the first attempt to isolate bacteria from Sheep joints in Mosul-Iraq.
 
This study was conducted to isolate and identify of Staph.aureus with its toxin from (41) sample of minced meat from different areas of Mosul city collected between April to July 2007. The positive samples to bacterial isolation reached 14.6%.In order to search the effect of bacterial toxin 0.2 ml and 0.4 ml of the toxins have been give orally and injected interperitonealy , respectively in albino mice. Histopathological changes of this toxin were described, the results showed the presence of vascular degeneration and apoptosis in hepatocyt as well as vascular and fatty degeneration in the tubercular epithelium of kidney. In the brain tissue the lesion was characterize by presence of vacuolation, gliosis and privascular odema, also the results revealed elongation and blunting of villi associated with lymphocytic proliferation in lamina properia of intestine. The histopathological changes were more severe in dose 0.4 ml as compared with 0.2 ml bacterial toxin.
 
The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas), rock mountain dove (C. livia), and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto).Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.
 
The aim of this study was to know the etiological agent of mortality which occurred in broilers and parent stocks farms inNinava province. The main noticed symptoms was swollen head. The suspected samples were inoculated in to embryonatedegg to isolate the suspected virus. Neutralization test was performed using hyperimmune serum of pneumo virus and sera frominfected birds. Experimental infection via nostrils was performed, samples from bronchi and lungs were taken forhistopathological examination. Results showed that gross lesions were observed after second passage of isolates, two whichshowed mortality after first passage. Hyperimmune serum and sera from infected birds neutralized the isolates, there wasvariation among isolates. Histopathological picture showed congestion of bronchiole , hemorrhage between alveoli with clot inmost of blood vessels with in the lung.
 
In this study 75 Awassi ewes 3-5 years old were used for the study of the following parameters; milk productionو time required for complete milking were recorded for each ewe twice a day. Fat and protein percentage were determined weekly, and somatic cell count was estimated one time each two weeks. The week effect on average milk production and time required for complete milking were significant (P<0.01), in favor of the first week which was the best one on milk production and a time needed to complete milking. Their values were 876.17 ± 22.94 gm/day and 67.23 ± 1.73 second/kgm respectively, while the effect on the percentage of fat and protein was significant for the favor of the last week of the study and were 7.1 ± 0.05 and 6.42 ± 0.06 respectively, compared with those of the first week of 3.43 ± 0.05 and 2.84 ± 0.04 respectively. It is concluded that milk production, time needed for complete milking and somatic cell count were affected by age. Better results have been seen in five years old ewes.
 
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of laparoscopic intrauterine insemination to the improvement of fertilization and embryo recovery in Awassi ewes superovulated with FSH in breeding and non-breeding season. Twelve nonpregnant and cycling Awassi ewes of 3-4 years of age were randomly allocated in equal numbers (n = 6) to two groups. Each ewe was treated with a progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponge for 12 days. All ewes were superovulated with FSH in eight reducing doses for four days in the morning and evening from two days prior to sponge withdrawal. Ewes of group 1 were mated naturally at least two times with Awassi rams of proven fertility. Ewes of group 2 had intrauterine insemination and were conducted 44-46 h after sponge removal, under laparoscopic visualization of uterine horns, depositing 1 ml of semen in the distal portion of each uterine horn. Ovarian response was assessed by determining number of corpora lutea by laparoscopy on day 6 after mating. Embryo recovery was performed by hand assisted laparoscopy and by flushing both uterine horns. Ovarian response of the ewes superovulated with FSH was decreased to half in the non-breeding season. High number of unfertilized ova (P<0.05) was observed in ewes superovulated with FSH in the non-breeding season when naturally inseminated compared to ewes inseminated intrauterine using laparoscopic technique. Higher rates of embryo recovery (P<0.05) were achieved in superovulated ewes in the breeding season when ewes were inseminated by laparoscopic intrauterine insemination. The fertilization rates in ewes inseminated intrauterine using laparoscopic techniques in breeding season and non-breeding season were 88.1% and 37.98%, respectively. It could be concluded from the results of the present study that the use of FSH to induce superovulation in Awassi ewes combined with laparoscopic intrauterine insemination can increase the fertilization rate in the breeding season.
 
Bacterial isolates from milk samples obtained from the mastitic quarters.
The biochemical properties of the bacterial isolates obtained from milk samples of mastitic quarters.
A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis) were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.
 
To differentiate the beef from other types of meat consumed by human, DNA markers based on polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is performed by using universal primers designed on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to obtain amplified band 359 bp, then digested with some of restriction enzymes like Tru91, RsaI, Hinf I, Hae III, Alu I, Taq I, Mob I. The result revealed that, the Hinf I enzyme produce three bands 198, 117, 44 bp and the Hae III enzyme revealed two band 285, 74 bp, the Alu I enzyme also produced two band but the molecular weight are 190, 169 bp. The other enzymes did not reveal any digestion of the amplified bands and this result is a characteristic unique to beef compared with other types of meat when using same enzymes.
 
Suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. given once daily for 10 consecutive days (first nursing period) demonstrated in a dose – dependent manner significant decreased (P<0.05) the percentage of survival of the pups to weaning, body weight, index of development, whereas brain, heart, kindey, lung,liver / body weight ratio significantly increased (P<0.05) as well as delays in physical maturation (ear opening, fur development, tooth eruption, eye opening) in the pups. Swimming scores on postnatal day 9, 13, 15, 17, 20 was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in offspring from mothers treated with betamethasone 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. In conclusion, the results suggest that betamethasone induced developmental toxic effects in suckling pups exposed to its through the milk.
 
Heavy breed day-old chicks fed Isonitrogenous-Isocaloric diets supplemented with 0.0, 2.0 and 4.0% fresh bovine bile liquid, for three weeks. The three types of diets comprised the experimental dietary treatments, from which the effect of including bile liquid in heavy breed chicks diet on their most prominent economical traits were studied. Results showed that the three groups of birds, consumed almost the same amount of feed during the three weeks of experimental period. However, a significant increase in daily growth rate(DGR)occurred as a result of bile liquid in starter diets. The estimated superiority of this traits, DGR, was found to be 10.76% on an average basis, higher than that of the control group. A good reflection of this phenomenon on feed conversion ratio was observed, as birds fed diets contained 2.0 and 4.0% bile liquid surpassed the control group by 8.75 and 10.63%, respectively. Body weights at third week of age were 8.06 and 10.60% heavier for the two treated groups, respectively, than the control one. Results indicate that the nutritive value of starter diets supplemented with bile liquid warrant further investigation based on long term experiments to make a decision in this direction.
 
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease on some biochemical parameters in serum of broiler chickens. Two hundred and fifty Ross 1-day old unsexed broiler chicks were divided into two groups (unvaccinated and vaccinated), blood samples were obtained from each group weekly until 8 weeks old. The results revealed significant differences in values of some biochemical parameters according to various ages of chickens within either unvaccinated or vaccinated groups, the effect of different ages on parameters was more clearly observed in vaccinated group. It was also revealed from this study that vaccination had no effect on levels of glucose, total protein, total lipids cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Vaccinated chickens showed a significant reduction in the level of albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity accompanied with an elevation in the level of globulin and activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) compared with their values in non vaccinated chickens. These data suggest the interference of age and vaccination in broiler chickens on some biochemical parameters.
 
The aim of the present study was to examine the acute and sub acute toxicity of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism ofchicks which included determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and albuminlevels in serum of chicks. The biochemical changes induced by giving ciprofloxacin as a single dose (200 and 400 mg/kg.body weight intraperitoneally) included significant increases of cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein levels inserum, whereas albumin level significantly decreased, and there was no significant changes in high density lipoprotein levelsas compared with control group. Repeated treatment with ciprofloxacin (100 mg/kg. body weight intra peritoneal) for 14 dayscaused significant increase in cholesterol level, albumin level significantly decreased as compared with control group, whereasit did not change significantly high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, repeated treatment of ciprofloxacin also showedsignificant decrease of the body weights of the chicks as compared with control group. The results suggest that there are toxiceffects of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism as seen through changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin and low densitylipoprotein level.
 
Top-cited authors
Akeel Shareef
  • University of Mosul
Osama Azawi
  • University of Mosul
Eman G. Suleiman
  • University of Mosul
Jabbar A A Al-Sa'aidi
  • University of Al-Qadisiyah
E. H. Lazim
  • University of Mosul