The main aim of this paper is to study the application of Weyl module resolution in the case of two rows, which will be specified in the skew- partition (6, 6)/(1,1) and (6,6)/(1,0), by using the homological Weyl (i.e. the contracting homotopy and place polarization).
The aim of this work is to study the application of Weyl module resolution in the case of two rows, which will be specified in the partition (7, 6) and skew- partition (7,6)/(1,0) by using the homological Weyl (i.e. the contracting homotopy and place polarization).
The main purpose of this paper is to study the application of weyl module and resolution in the case skew- shapes (6, 5) / (1, 0) and (6, 5) / (2, 0) by using contracting homotopy and the place polarization.
The title compound was synthesized by 2:1 condensation between adamantan-1-ylamine and benzene-1,4- dicarbaldehyde in n-BuOH and produced a good yield 87% of new bis Schiff base. The compound skeleton was affirmed by FTIR, 1H NMR, LC-MS, and X-ray powder diffraction. The structure was solved by a parallel tempering process and refined by using Rietveld refinement. Two adamantan-1-ylimino groups are connected in the anti-positions to the planar central 1,4-dimethylbenzene group. All rings of the adamantyl group possess normal chair conformation.
A number of nitrones have been synthesized in three different procedures, starting with N-phenyl hydroxylamine, followed by the condensation reaction with some selected aldehydes. Furthermore, these nitrones were employed in the preparation of a number of new isoxazolidines. Cycloaddition reaction of nitrones to styrene produced the desired products.
The objective of this study is to select a suitable observing region at Baghdad location (44o 22' 48", 33o 16' 30") with low interference that may affect frequency of 1.42 GHz. Baghdad University Radio Telescope (BURT) is used in this study to determine a convenient region for observation in Baghdad sky. Different azimuths and elevations were chosen at different observations time. The results of this study showed that the best observations regions were located at azimuth (120o-160o) and (210o-260o). These regions included less sky temperature and estimated to be (42.8 to 163) K. The sky temperature model could be represented as a polynomial of third degree that could fit the behavior of the observation points.
In this paper, the terms of Lascoux and boundary maps for the skew-partition (11,7,5) / (1,1,1) are found by using the Jacobi-Trudi matrix of partition. Further, Lascoux resolution is studied by using a mapping Cone without depending on the characteristic-free resolution of the Weyl module for the same skew-partition.
This research is concerned with the study of the projective plane over a finite field . The main purpose is finding partitions of the projective line PG( ) and the projective plane PG( ) , in addition to embedding PG(1, ) into PG( ) and PG( ) into PG( ). Clearly, the orbits of PG( ) are found, along with the cross-ratio for each orbit. As for PG( ), 13 partitions were found on PG( ) each partition being classified in terms of the degree of its arc, length, its own code, as well as its error correcting. The last main aim is to classify the group actions on PG( ).
Uranium concentration was estimated in urine samples of three age groups, G1≤ 30 years, n=28, G2 age range of 31-40 years, n=28, and G3 of age > 40 years, n=32, using two types of detectors CR-39 and LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) for results comparison. Results showed that uranium mean level values for CR-39 were 1.961 ±0.08 µg/L, 1.810 ±0.09 µg/L and 1.814 ±0.076 µg/L for G1, G2 and G3 respectively, while the mean values of uranium concentration using LR-115 were 0.972 ±0.07 µg/L, 0.922 ±0.07 µg/L and 1.018 ±0.08 µg/L in G1, G2 and G3 respectively, with significant statistical difference between the results of CR-39 and LR-115 for each age group. Mean level values for females was 2.023± 0.09 µg/L and 1.813± 0.05 µg/L for males using CR-39 and it was 1.105± 0.09 µg/L for females and 0.933± 0.04 µg/L for males using LR-115, with significant statistical difference between results for each gender. It was concluded that G1 ≤ 30 years have the highest uranium pollution, noting that females were more polluted with uranium than males.
The nuclear density distributions and size radii are calculated for one-proton 8B, two-proton 17Ne, one-neutron 11Be and two-neutron 11Li halo nuclei. The theoretical outlines of calculations assume that the nuclei understudy are composed of two parts: the stable core and the unstable halo. The core part is studied using the radial wave functions of harmonic-oscillator (HO) potentials, while the halo is studied through Woods-Saxon (WS) potential. The long tail behaviour which is the main characteristic of the halo nuclei are well generated in comparison with experimental data. The calculated size radii are in good agreement with experimental values. The elastic electron scattering form factors of the C0 component are also calculated for the aforementioned nuclei. The calculated form factor results give predictions for the results of future experiments on electron-radioactive ion beam colliders.
In this paper, investigations were carried out on the effects of simultaneous partial substitution of Tl at the Hg site on the physical properties of an Hg1-xTlxBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ cuprate superconductor with x= 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. Two steps of the solid state reaction method were used to prepare samples in capsule. The results showed that the optimum sintering temperature was equal to 850 ᵒC and the sintering time was equal to 20 h for the prepared samples. The best conditions for constitution and stabilization of the high Tc phase-1223 were obtained by investigating the effects of Tl substitution on Hg site and oxygen content (δ) on the superconducting properties. Structural investigation revealed that all the samples have a tetragonal structure with two phases, namely an Hg-1223 high Tc phase as a main phase and an Hg-1212 low Tc phase. Besides, some impurity phases like CuO and CaHgO2 were found. The increase of Tl content in Hg1-xTlxBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ compound from 0 to 0.4 caused a change in the lattice parameter, density of the unit cell (ρm), and c/a values. HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ compound exhibited a critical transition temperature that is equal to 115 K. On the other side, the results showed that the highest Tc was 119 K for Hg0.8Tl0.2 Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+δ. The oxygen content (δ= 0.46) was expected to be the optimum hole doping for Hg0.8Tl0.2 Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+δ compound, which means in our opinion that δ plays a remarkable role in the assessment of Tc.
Iodine-131 has become an essential radionuclide used in nuclear medicine for clinical and research purposes. The increase use of this radionuclide in medicine for diagnostic and treatment of thyroid diseases creates a demand to obtain a feasible methodology for occupational or accidental monitoring of internal contamination. In this study, two techniques were employed to find an appropriate one of in vivo bioassay for evaluating Iodine-131 body content. A scanning Whole Body Counter (WBC) equipped with 6NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, an anthropomorphic phantom and point source were used. The results showed that the counter sensitivity, as a first approach (conventional method), had a logarithmic and significant correlation with neck weight. On the other hand, the counting rate in the Compton band was considered, which is a measure of gamma ray attenuation, and found to have a direct relationship with body weight. The new technique, which is considered the variation of the counter sensitivity with the Compton to photopeak counting rate ratio, had the same regression but less uncertainty than the conventional approach. Finally, the theoretical MDA with neck weight was calculated for all the phantom configurations.
In the present work, radium (226Ra), thorium (232Th), potassium (40 K), and cesium (137Cs) (Bq/kg) was measured for 24 soil samples of some districts of Al-Doura city in Baghdad governorate. The gamma spectrometry method with NaI (Tl) detector was used for radiometric measurements. The average values of specific activity for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in soil samples were 38.03, 42.48, 16.34 and 2.76 Bq/kg, respectively. The radiation indicators were measured and the average values recorded were 100 Bq/kg, 44.6 nGy/h, 0.27 Bq/kg, 0.373 Bq/kg, 0.219 mSv/y, 0.055 mSv/y and 0.689 Bq/kg for the parameters of radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the external hazard index (Hex), the internal risk index (Hin), and the annual effective equivalent dose for the indoor (In Eff.), outdoor annual effective dose equivalent (Out Eff.) and representative gamma index (Iγr), respectively. All the health hazard indices were well below their recommended limits, except in one soil sampling site (AL-Eskan site) which were found to be 0.495 Hex and 0.668 Hin.
The bound radial wave functions of Cosh potential which are the solutions to the radial part of Schrodinger equation are solved numerically and used to compute the size radii; i.e., the root-mean square proton, neutron, charge and matter radii, ground density distributions and elastic electron scattering charge form factors for nitrogen isotopes 14,16,18,20,22N. The parameters of such potential for the isotopes under study have been opted so as to regenerate the experimental last single nucleon binding energies on Fermi's level and available experimental size radii as well.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial chronic autoimmune disease, with a wide spectrum of effect. The main feature of the disease is the production of a wide variety of autoantibodies as a result of immune tolerance loss. The work aims to evaluate the miRNA-146a gene polymorphism potential association with disease activity and chronicity changes in SLE patients. The study included 100 SLE patients and 50 matched controls. The systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) was assessed. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of miR-146a gene (rs2910164) polymorphism was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing technique in patients and control. 100 SLE patients were all females and with a mean of age 31.3 ± 10 years (16-63years) and disease duration of 5.8 ± 3.7years (1 month to 15 years). Most clinical manifestations presented in patients were 52% malar rash, 45% oral ulcers, 54% arthritis, and 45% neurological disorder. Proteinuria, ESR, creatinine and AST were significantly higher (65% vs. 10%, 4.1±36.1 vs. 11.8±9.9 mm/hr, 0.62±0.11 vs. 0.70±0.14 mg/dl and 25.37±26.50 vs. 17.23±3.58 U/L respectively) while the PLT was significantly lower (231.9±88.8 vs. 282.3±67.3 103/mL) (p< 0.001) among SLE patients as compared to control. There were no significant variations in all study parameters across miRNA-146a genotypes (p greater than 0.05). There was a significant association of the homozygote GG genotype (66.7%) with the active SLE state (p=0.013). In conclusion, the results suggest a risk effect for the female gender and adult at a young age in the etiology of SLE. The miRNA-146a GG genotype is associated with increasing the disease activity and miRNA-146a polymorphism is not associated with the risk in SLE.
Chronic inflammation can induce proliferative events and posttranslational DNA modifications in prostate tissues through oxidative stress. The miR-155 expression is abnormally increased in tumors. Therefore, this study aims to explore the clinical significance of serum TNF-α and IL-1α as well as miR-155 expression in prostate cancer (PC) patients. A total of 50 blood samples from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were collected from the Oncology Department, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, along with samples from 50 healthy volunteers. Serum TNF-α and IL-1α levels in Iraqi males with prostate cancer were estimated by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The total RNA was extracted from all subjects and converted to cDNA using Stem-Loop technique and the expression was measured by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) using SYBR Green with specific primers. The results showed that serum TNF-α and IL-1α levels were significantly higher in the clinical stage of tumor node metastasis (TNM) as compared to those in the control (p<0.05). The miR- 155 level was significantly elevated in the patients compared with the control (p<0.05), being positively correlated with advanced stages. It is concluded that circulating miR-155 could act as a promising marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of PC.
In a recent study, a special type of plane overpartitions known as k-rowed plane overpartitions has been studied. The function denotes the number of plane overpartitions of n with a number of rows at most k. In this paper, we prove two identities modulo 8 and 16 for the plane overpartitions with at most two rows. We completely specify the modulo 8. Our technique is based on expanding each term of the infinite product of the generating function of the modulus 8 and 16 and in which the proofs of the key results are dominated by an intriguing relationship between the overpartitions and the sum of divisors, which reveals a considerable link among these functions modulo powers of 2.
The interacting boson models, and were used to perform a complete study of even –even 160-168Yb isotopes .The low –lying positive parity states, dynamic symmetries, reduced electric quadrupole transition probability , quadruple momentum , and potential energy surface for 160-168Yb were investigated. Energy level sequences and energy ratios showed the gradual transition of the properties of these nuclei from the γ-unstable features to the rotational features . Adding the pairing parameter to Hamiltonian had a very slight effect on this feature, but it raised the β band, since it represents symmetry breaking such as in γ-unstable features . This applies to the experimental decay scheme of 160-168Yb isotopes. In , proton and neutron quadruple deformation parameters and showed values equal to -1.24 and approximately 0.7, respectively, which supports the same idea in the interacting boson model . A contour plot of the potential energy surface for 160-168Yb isotopes showed that the minimum potential occurs at approximately .
This research aims to evaluate the serum levels of vitamin D and interleukin 17 (Il-17) in pregnant women, then finding the correlation between these maternal parameters and fetus biophysical profile. Healthy pregnant women (n=45) and non-pregnant control (n=45) were involved in the study, who attended Baghdad medical laboratory, Baghdad, Iraq, with an age range of 20 to 40 years. An analytical study was conducted from October 2019 until January 2020. The results of the study show that the mean value of vitamin D level significantly increases (P≤0.05) in pregnant women (11.07±0.93 ng/ml) in comparison with that in non-pregnant control (8.03±0.69 ng/ml). The level of IL-17 was significantly higher (P≤0.001) in the pregnant women (468.38±50.62 Pg/ml) as compared to non-pregnant ones (144.39±3.98 Pg/ml). Also, the results show no significant correlation (0.162) between maternal vitamin D and (F.H.R.), which was measured by ultrasound sonography. Also, there is no significant inverse correlation between maternal Il-17 and fetal growth measurement. It can be concluded from the current study that some of the signs of the physical appearance of the fetus that were studied in the second trimester (13-28 w) and third trimester (29-41 w) of pregnancy do not correlate with the level of vitamin D in the mother’s blood. Also, there is a weak inverse relationship between this appearance and the mother’s immune response, represented by measuring the level of IL-17, which needs more studies in the future.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the furthermost common form of DM which is identified by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. This study aims to detect the role of interleukin-17 (IL-17) in patients with T2DM compared with the healthy control and to investigate the relationship between IL-17 and insulin resistance. The study involved 50 Iraqi T2DM patients, randomly selected with an age range of 33-71 years .For the purpose of comparison, 30 Iraqi healthy persons with an age range of 33-71 years were also included. Patients and control groups were characterized in terms of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance(HOMA-IR),fasting serum glucose (FSG) and lipid profile. The means of IL-17 (368.45 vs. 128.50 pg/ml), HOMA-IR (7.94vs. 2.14),FSG (152.82 vs. 81.53 mg/dl), fasting serum insulin (FSI) level (19.37 vs. 10.71 μIU/ml), Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL),and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) were significantly higher in T2DM patients as compared to controls. While, levels of Total Cholesterol (TC)and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)showed non-significant differences. In conclusion, IL-17 seems to play a significant role as a risk factor for the development of T2DM.Also, higher (HOMA-IR) gives rise to a hyperglycemic state and is a major risk factor for the development of T2DM.
Cytokines and chemokines are small-secreted proteins involved in many aspects of cell development, differentiation, and activation functions. A prominent characteristic of these molecules is their effect on the immune system in relation to the development of cell trafficking and immune tissues and organs. Furthermore, they play an important role in initiating and coordinating the organized and sequential recruitment and activation of cells into Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lungs. We aimed to evaluate the levels of interleukin -17 (IL-17) and the chemotactic chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) in the sera of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. About 90 subjects were included, involving 50 patients with pulmonary TB and 40 apparently healthy individuals who were selected as a control group. Sera were obtained for measuring IL-17 and CCL-5 levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results revealed that serum levels of IL-17 showed no significant differences between each patient's group and control. In contrast, the serum level of CCL-5 was significantly increased in pulmonary tuberculosis patients compared to control (P ≤0.01). The mean ±SE values of IL-17 level in PTB patients and controls were 43.06 ±3.64 and 41.009 ± 0.009 pg/ml, respectively. While, the mean ±SE values of CCL-5 level in PTB patients and controls were 455.40 ±25.35 and 80.86 ± 5.96 ng/L, respectively. The results of the current study suggest that high levels of CCL-5 in the sera of PTB patients may indicate an important role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, this chemokine could be considered as a useful biomarker for the severity of PTB infections.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) represents a group of multifactorial autoinflammatory arthritis diseases. A dysregulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is proposed to have a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is one of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, this study aimed to define the role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of JIA. Accordingly, the serum level of IL-18 was determined in 59 Iraqi JIA patients and 58 matched controls. The results revealed a significantly increased median of IL-18 in the patients as compared to the control. A similar increased level was observed in subgroups of patients characterized according to gender, seropositivity for C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factors, juvenile arthritis disease activity score 27 (JADAS27), type of medication, and JIA subtypes. However, JADAS27 showed a significant positive correlation with IL-18 level. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that IL-18 occupied a significant area under the curve, and therefore its significance as a biomarker was suggested. In conclusion, IL-18 is an important biomarker for JIA and may have a role in pathogenesis of disease.
Demodex species are external parasites; they are transmitted via direct contact, and when present in elevated numbers it may induce several ocular diseases. However, the symptoms are very similar to other diseases; hence, its’ role is often neglected. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is important in order to avoid mistreatment. In this study, infestation rates in both blepharitis and chalazia were compared to an asymptomatic group, with relation to gender, age, personal hygiene, time of year, and residency. All specimens were examined immediately after collection. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Demodex mites and ocular diseases. These mites were predominantly found in patients with chalazia (62.50%) followed by blepharitis (58.91%), while they were only observed in (22.64%) of asymptomatic patients, statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between infestation and both ocular diseases (P<0.01). The infestation rates increased significantly with age reaching (100%) in patients above 70 years old, and especially during cold months with high humidity. These mites were also found in rural areas (57.59%), followed by urban areas (44.09%) and a significant relationship was found between residency and infestation rate (P≤0.05). However, no significant relationship was found according to gender nor personal hygiene.
Coronavirus 2 is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which leads to severe acute respiratory illness. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been linked to leukocyte infiltration and chemokine activation during inflammatory responses. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) family are thought to dampen the proinflammatory effects of these MMPs. The molecular pathways of lung fibrosis are mediated by MMPs and TIMPs. In this study, we sought to investigate the probable link between MMPs, specifically MMP-3, TIMP-2, and COVID-19. The study included 58 COVID-19 patients and 30 apparently healthy individuals matched in terms of age and sex. Multiplex real- time PCR was used to detect the ORF1ab, E, and N genes of SARS-Cov-2, ELISA was used to evaluate the quantities of soluble MMP-3, TIMP-2, and C reactive protein in serum. The results showed that the serum levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-2 were noticeably higher in COVID-19 patients than healthy controls; which and was statistically significant (p <0.001). Estimation of serum MMP-3 and the inhibitor TIMP-2 may have a useful indication for COVID-19 diagnosis.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, has been announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), which results in the collapsing of the healthcare systems in several countries around the globe. Machine learning (ML) methods are one of the most utilized approaches in artificial intelligence (AI) to classify COVID-19 images. However, there are many machine-learning methods used to classify COVID-19. The question is: which machine learning method is best over multi-criteria evaluation? Therefore, this research presents benchmarking of COVID-19 machine learning methods, which is recognized as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In the recent century, the trend of developing different MCDM approaches has been raised based on different perspectives; however, the latest one, namely, the fuzzy decision by opinion score method that was produced in 2020, has efficiently been able to solve some existing issues that other methods could not manage to solve. because of the multiple criteria decision-making problem and because some criteria have a conflict problem. The methodology of this research was divided into two main stages. The first stage related to identifying the decision matrix used eight different ML methods on chest X-ray (CXR) images and extracted a new decision matrix so as to assess the ML methods. The second stage related to FDOSM was utilized to solve the multiple criteria decision-making problems. The results of this research are as follows: (1) The individual benchmarking results of three decision makers are nearly identical; however, among all the used ML methods, neural networks (NN) achieved the best results. (2) The results of the benchmarking group are comparable, and the neural network machine learning method is the best among the used methods. (3) The final rank is more logical and closest to the decision-makers' opinion. (4) Significant differences among groups' scores are shown by our validation results, which indicate the authenticity of our results. Finally, this research presents many benefits, especially for hospitals and medical clinics, with a view to speeding up the diagnosis of patients suffering from COVID-19 using the best machine learning method.
The coronavirus is a family of viruses that cause different dangerous diseases that lead to death. Two types of this virus have been previously found: SARS-CoV, which causes a severe respiratory syndrome, and MERS-CoV, which causes a respiratory syndrome in the Middle East. The latest coronavirus, originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan, is known as the COVID-19 pandemic. It is a new kind of coronavirus that can harm people and was first discovered in Dec. 2019. According to the statistics of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of people infected with this serious disease has reached more than seven million people from all over the world. In Iraq, the number of people infected has reached more than twenty-two thousand people until April 2020. In this article, we have applied convolutional neural networks (ConvNets) for the detection of the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) coronavirus images that assist medical staffs in hospitals on categorization chest CT-coronavirus images at an early stage. The ConvNets are able to automatically learn and extract features from the medical image dataset. The objective of this study is to train the GoogleNet ConvNet architecture, using the COVID-CT dataset, to classify 425 CT-coronavirus images. The experimental results show that the validation accuracy of GoogleNet in training the dataset is 82.14% with an elapsed time of 74 minutes and 37 seconds.
Immunological genes, including TLR3 and RIG-I, have recently been established to have linked to predisposition to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its severity. The purpose of this case-control study (100 recovered COVID 19 cases and 100 healthy individuals) was to determine the role of gender, age, TLR3 and RIG-I genes in COVID-19 aggressiveness. TLR3 and RIG-I gene expression was detected using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). COVID-19 infection intensity increased with age and no statistical difference between males and females (p>0.05) was found. TLR3 and RIG-I gene expression levels were higher in patients compared to healthy which is positively connected to infection severity development. The aforementioned genes have a favorable relationship in screening COVID-19 infection. According to receiver operating characteristic curve these genes have high sensitivity in assessing COVID-19 infection. This study found that age, TLR3 and RIG-I genes may play a role in COVID-19 predisposition worsening.
In this paper, we model the spread of coronavirus (COVID -19) by introducing stochasticity into the deterministic differential equation susceptible -infected-recovered (SIR model). The stochastic SIR dynamics are expressed using Itô's formula. We then prove that this stochastic SIR has a unique global positive solution I(t).The main aim of this article is to study the spread of coronavirus COVID-19 in Iraq from 13/8/2020 to 13/9/2020. Our results provide a new insight into this issue, showing that the introduction of stochastic noise into the deterministic model for the spread of COVID-19 can cause the disease to die out, in scenarios where deterministic models predict disease persistence. These results were also clearly illustrated by Computer simulation.
Since the first outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 31, 2019, COVID-19 pandemic has been spreading to many countries in the world. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has caused a major global crisis, with 554,767 total confirmed cases, 484,570 total recovered cases, and 12,306 deaths in Iraq as of February 2, 2020. In the absence of any effective therapeutics or drugs and with an unknown epidemiological life cycle, predictive mathematical models can aid in the understanding of both control and management of coronavirus disease. Among the important factors that helped the rapid spread of the epidemic are immigration, travelers, foreign workers, and foreign students. In this work, we develop a mathematical model to study the dynamical behavior of COVID-19 pandemic, involving immigrants' effects with the possibility of re-infection. Firstly, we studied the positivity and boundedness of the solution of the proposed model. The stability results of the model at the disease-free equilibrium point were presented when . Further, it was proven that the pandemic equilibrium point will persist uniformly when . Moreover, we confirmed the occurrence of the local bifurcation (saddle-node, pitchfork, and transcritical). Finally, theoretical analysis and numerical results were shown to be consistent.
The study of petroleum systems by using the PetroMoD 1D software is one of the most prominent ways to reduce risks in the exploration of oil and gas by ensuring the existence of hydrocarbons before drilling. The petroleum system model was designed for Dima-1 well by inserting several parameters into the software, which included the stratigraphic succession of the formations penetrating the well, the depths of the upper parts of these formations, and the thickness of each formation. In addition, other related parameters were investigated, such as lithology, geological age, periods of sedimentation, periods of erosion or non-deposition, nature of units (source or reservoir rocks), total organic carbon (TOC), hydrogen index (HI) ratio of source rock units, temperature of both surface and formations as they are available, and well-bottom temperature. Through analyzing the models by the evaluation of the source rock units, the petrophysical properties of reservoir rock units, and thermal gradation with the depth during the geological time, it became possible to clarify the elements and processes of the petroleum system of the field of Dima. It could be stated that Nahr Umr, Zubair, and Sulaiy formations represent the petroleum system elements of Dima-1 well.
The current research included obtaining the best performance specifications for a silicon device with a mono-crystalline type pn junction (pn–Si). A simulation of the device was performed by the use of a computer program in one dimension SCAPS-1D in order to reach the optimum thickness for both p and n layers and to obtain the best efficiency in performance of the pn-Si junction. The optimum device efficiency was eta (η) = 12.4236 % when the ideal thickness for the p and n layers was 5µm and 1.175µm, respectively (p=5 µm and n=1.75µm). The research included studying the effects of different spectra of solar illumination using simulation of the device; the usual solar spectrum AM1_5 G1 sun. Spectrum, Black body spectrum, White spectrum constant photon flux, White spectrum constant photon power, Monochromatic spectrum constant flux, and Monochromatic spectrum constant power. The highest efficiency was obtained from the monochrome spectrum with constant power (eta (η) =22.4338 %). The effects of different temperatures on the device was studied on 250K, 300K, 350K, 400K, and 450K. The highest efficiency was revealed for Monochromatic spectrum constant power (eta (η) =24.5381 %) when the temperature was 250K.
This research includes the use of CdTe in the design of a solar cell. The SCAPS-1D computer program was used to simulate thin cell capacity of CdTe/CdS by numerical analysis with the addition of a buffer layer (Zn2SnO4) to enhance cell efficiency. The thickness of the window layer (n-CdS) was reduced to 25nm with the inclusion of an insulating layer of 50 nm thickness to prevent leakage towards the forward bias with respect to the lower charge carriers. As for the absorber layer thickness (p-CdTe), it varied between 0.5µm and 6µm. The preferable thickness in the absorbent layer was 1.5µm. Different operating temperatures (298K-388K) were used, while the highest conversion efficiency (η=18.43%) was obtained with the rest of the solar cell parameters (Voc=0.967 V, Jsc= 26.66 mA/cm2, FF=71.40%).
During this paper, new Schiff's base derivatives [F1-F5] were prepared through the reaction of dapsone drug with different substituted benzaldehyde compounds. Schiff's bases were then converted into 2,3-dihyroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives [F6-F10] through the reaction with 2-amino benzoic acid in ethanol. The synthesized compounds were identified by their physical properties using UV-Vis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR analyses. The liquid crystalline properties of some prepared compounds revealed smectic and nematic phases. Using two separate bacterial species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram -ve) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram +ve), the antimicrobial activities of certain synthesized compounds [F1,F2,F7,F8] were investigated using the agar diffusion process. The findings revealed that some of the assayed compounds had antimicrobial activities against the bacteria tested.
In this work, the circular patch antenna was fabricated and analyzed. Microwave Studio (version 2019) computer simulation technology (CST) was used to design the circular patch antenna. The material FR-4 was used to build this antenna, using the computer numerical control (CNC) method to implement this work. For the purpose of accomplishing this design, the values of the resonant frequency, dielectric constant and dielectric thickness of the material used as in 4.424, 2.4 GHz and 0.159 cm respectively were used as inputs to the CST program to get the said program outputs for the required antenna radius with the logarithmic function (F) of the circular patch antenna 1.6909 cm and 1.7415 cm respectively. Practically, the best values for the antenna were obtained in terms of return loss, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), and input impedance, -25.72 dB, 1.1092, and 54.391 Ω respectively at the resonant frequency of 2.360 GHz. Where it were good values compared to the results of others.
Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease with disparities in clinical performance and consequences. It is a cluster of numerous subtypes with diverse biological topographies that cause alterations in response to treatments, relapse rates, and endurance. This task was designed to investigate the epidemiology of the diagnosed cases of ovarian cancer from 2014 to 2020 in Baghdad. A total of 51 cases of different ovarian cancer samples were collected from Al-Elwea Maternity Hospital and Medical City Teaching Hospital, Baghdad. Clinical information including patients' age, tumor size and location, pathological grade and stage were also collected. Results revealed high incidence of OC in patients at age of ˂55 years for the rate 59%. The most common type was epithelial serous ovarian cancer by 52.9% overall, with high frequency at right ovary by 63.3%. The dominant tumor size was 5cm in malignant cases. While the most frequent tumor stage was stage IC with rate of 29.6%, and Grade 3 was the foremost one by 40.7%. Conclusion: The most common type of cancer is epithelial serous ovarian cancer that occur in patients younger than 55years and presented at early stage of disease (IC) with high tumor grade (poor differentiation) at the time of diagnosis
The entry time of the prayer in Islam is a prerequisite condition for performing obligatory prayers, and prayer times to be performed in Islam coincides with the time changes of the position of the sun. The elliptical and equatorial coordinates of the sun were calculated for different latitudes. The prayer times for the city of Baghdad were calculated at (latitude = 33.34º N, longitude = 44.43 E) with high accuracy for the year 2021 AD. The results showed that all prayer times are affected by latitude according to each region except (Dhuhr prayer (, it changes with the change of the equation of time, because the equation of time does not depend on latitude, but rather on the sun’s declination, which depends on date. We also made improvements to the accuracy of calculating prayer times, where the disappearance of evening twilight (Isha prayer) was calculated when the sun was below the western horizon at an angle of (170 ) and for )Fajr prayer( at an angle of (180) below the eastern horizon. Minutes were added to enable entering the time for )Dhuhr prayer( (5 minutes) and )Asr prayer( (3 minutes). The results show that the shadow of the meridian varies every day of the year from one point to another on the surface of the globe, so it is non-existent if the sun is perpendicular to the earth at the time of the meridian, and it has a specific length if the latitude of the place exceeds the value (23.50) the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn), and its length increases as we move towards higher latitudes. In addition, the results of our program were compared with the program of the Islamic project for all prayer times for the cities of Baghdad and Mosul for one year, and it showed a good match for the results, with a difference in some times and days of no more than one minute due to the modifications we added to calculate the effect of altitude above sea level. Practical observation was also conducted to check the times of the Dhuhr, Asr and Maghrib prayers for several days during the year 2021 AD, and the results were identical with our theoretical results.
The present research aims to measure concentration of lead Pb214 in soil using remote sensing and GIS, associated radiological hazards in Baghdad, Iraq. Concentration of specific radioactivity of radioactive elements was measured and analyzed naturally and artificially in 48 soil samples for separate sites from Baghdad, Iraq using crystalline spectroscopy to detect germanium. The average radioactivity concentrations of lead were found, as it was found to have varying values from one site to another, as most of them exceeded the international permissible limit, as the highest concentration was recorded at 180 Bq in the sample H28 in Waziriyah district. Battery Lab (1), and the lowest concentration value is 40Bq in (H4, H15, H45) which represents (Dora Expressway, Mansour Street, Fuel Express, and Mahmoudiya Road 2). Remote sensing data techniques, and Global Positioning System (GPS) have been used to analyze the effect of the isotopic distribution of heavy bullets for the city of Baghdad. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), concentrations were measured and observed. Results of interpolation maps showed isotope of lead is concentrated in the center and west of Baghdad, and then graded with fewer values in other sites.
Twelve cigarette tobacco samples of various brands and origins were gathered from local markets of Iraq. . The CRn was determined utilizing CR-39 track detectors which were exposed to the various brands of cigarettes tobacco for 45 days. The results demonstrated that the highest value of 222Rn concentration was )157 Bq/m3( in Macbeth cigarette sample of Brazilian origin and the lowest value of CRn was (76.3 Bq/m3 (in Sumer cigarette sample of Iraqi origin,with an average value of (106.53±22.3 Bq/m3). The outcomes have demonstrated that cigarettes of a Brazilian origin contain higher CRn than other studied samples, however, it is still less than some other average values given in the literatures.
Currently, there is a growing interest in medicinal plants extracts as some plants have shown antitumor potential. The goal of this study was to test the anticancer activity of methanol extract of Conocarpous erectus leaves in breast cancer cells. Cytotoxicity was tested in vitro on breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 [Estrogen receptor + (ER+)] and MDA-MB231 [Estrogen receptor - (ER-)], in addition to normal fibroblast cells (REF). MTT assay was utilized to measure the growth inhibitory effects after 48 hours exposure to extracts. Viability results indicated that MDA-MB231 were sensitive (GI50 = 56.1µg/ml).However, no sensitivity was seen in both MCF7 and REF cells (GI50>100 µg/ml). Interestingly the sensitivity seen in MDA-MB231 cells was associated with a significant reduction in cell number and size. It can be concluded from this study that leaves extracts may provide a candidate therapy against breast cancer cells and sensitivity was not linked with ER expression. No effect was observed in normal cells.
Second harmonic generation (SHG) is a phenomenon observed in nonlinear optics that leads to frequency duplication for a high intensity laser incident on nonlinear crystal using BBO crystal. The SHG yield is achieved when the photons interact with a nonlinear optical material and effectively combine to form new photons with double frequency, and therefore double energy and half wavelength. This paper is concerned with the establishment of an SHG experiment to govern the process of producing half-wavelength laser beam from the input one. The theoretical effort was extended to compute the efficiency by using MATLAB software based on mathematical relationships. The values of the conversion maximum efficiencies, which were computed as a function of the input and output powers of the theoretical computations, were 15.6% and 16% at input and output power values of 0.6 and 0.1, respectively. The experimental results of the laser source of 532nm wavelength (fundamental frequency was 0.563x1015s-1) gave a half wavelength of 266nm (double frequency was 1.126x1015s-1). The conversion efficiencies, computed as a function of the input and output powers of the experimental measurements, were 14.32% and 12.97%, respectively.
The calculations of the shell model, based on the large basis, were carried out for studying the nuclear 29-34Mg structure. Binding energy, single neutron separation energy, neutron shell gap, two neutron separation energy, and reduced transition probability, are explained with the consideration of the contributions of the high-energy conﬁgurations beyond the model space of sd-shell. The wave functions for these nuclei are used from the model of the shell with the use of the USDA 2-body effective interaction. The OBDM elements are computed with the use of NuShellX@MSU shell model code that utilizes the formalism of proton-neutron.
Basal breccia unconformity layer between Anah and Euphrates Formations in AL-Haqlaniyah area, Western desert, include enormous sinkholes and cavities usually cause severe damages to any kind of engineering facilities built over it. Two-dimensional resistivity imaging has been applied to detect the depth and extent of the subsurface caves at five stations. Dipole-dipole array is chosen with an electrode spacing of 2 meters. 2D Dipole-dipole imaging inverse models show the resistivity values have a big variation between the anomalous background resistivity of rocks and part of cavities. These models showed shallow cavities at 1 to 3 m depth and others at 5to 6 m depth and extending to a depth of 23 m. The unconformity layer is less cohesive than the rocks beneath and above it. So it was the best area for the caves to be formed as a result of dissolving its rocks by leaking rainwater and groundwater. Therefore, it must be a pre-engineering preparation before starting any urban construction of the population in the study area or adjacent areas to avoid risks.
This research aims to study the structural analysis of the 2D reflection seismic data for the Judaida subsurface structure located in Kirkuk province, northern Iraq. It is located 60 Km southwest of Kirkuk oil field, and 35 Km southwest of Jambur oil field, the Daquq River passes through the study area. The reflectors in the seismic section were picked and identified by using the synthetic seismograms generated from the logs data of the Jd-1 well. Three main seismic reflectors, Fatha, Jeribe, and the Euphrates were chosen. These mentioned sedimentary formations were deposited during the Middle Miocene, Lower Miocene, and Early-Mid Miocene respectively. Time and depth maps were drawn for these three reflectors by processing average data from Jd-1well. The structural interpretation results showed a structural closure on both time and depth domains in the middle of the study area. Judaida structure represented an asymmetrical longitudinal anticline fold. The Northeast limb has a dipping angle of 6-8 degrees more dip than the Southwest limb that has a dipping angle of 1-6 degrees, and the direction of the axis of the general structure is towards the Northwest-Southeast. The general dipping of the fold is toward the north east.
An interpretive (structural and stratigraphic) study of the two,-dimensional seismic, data of East Nasiriya area (30 km to the south east of Nasiriya oil field within Thi-Qar province, southeastern Iraq) was carried out using Petrel 2017 program. The study area has an importance due to its location between many oil fields, but still without exploration of oil wells. Twenty five seismic lines were used, date back to different types of seismic surveys conducted in the region at different time periods. Also, the seismic velocity surveys of the nearest wells to oil fields, such as Nasiriya-1 and Subba-8, in addition to their sonic and density logs were used. A synthetic seismogram with a good matching with the seismic section was achieved to ensure the identification of the reflectors and reflectivity type (peak or trough) and follow up each one through the whole area of interest. Top Zubair reflector was picked using the composite line to link the seismic sections with each other after enhancing the ties between seismic lines. Time and depth maps were made using velocity maps created from the velocity model. The seismic, interpretation, in the area showed the existence of certain stratigraphic, features, in the ,studied reflector. Some distribution mounds and sand lenses were observed in the study area, which are continuous in more than two-dimensional seismic line in the area. These activity elements provide a reasonable explanation for the distribution of hydrocarbons in the area of study.
Coherent noise such as ground roll and guided wave is present in the seismic line DE21 (East Diwaniya south eastern Iraq) and it obscures seismic signal and degrades from the quality of data. To attenuate the coherent noise from the shot gather and the Stack of the seismic line, AGORA filter was applied in order to obtain the good signal as the hyperbola shape in shot gather and the reflectors will be clearly to interpret it later. It has given good results and the coherent noise was attenuated in high ratio on all the line. The spectrum analysis is confirmed the effectiveness of AGORA filter to attenuate the coherent noise.
This research deals with a 2D seismic structural and stratigraphic interpretation of Khan Al-Baghdadi area which is located in the western part of Iraq in Anbar governorate. Two main seismic reflectors are identified within the Silurian and Ordovician; these are the Hot_shale_1 within Akkas Formation and the Top Khabour Formation, which were deposited during the Paleozoic, based on synthetic seismogram of Akk_3 well near the study area. Time, depth, and velocity maps show the presence of two anticline structures trending east-west and located on the west side of the study area. The first is the Tulul structure (here denoted as A) and the second is denoted as B. Also, the maps show the increase in time towards the eastern side of the study area. The general slope of the reflectors is towards the southeast and the increase in the thickness of formations is gradually to the southwest and the northwest sides of the study area. The direct hydrocarbon indicator (DHI) was identified as sand lenses and flat spots on the studied reflectors, when applying seismic attributes like the instantaneous phase and the instantaneous Frequency), which give indicators of potential hydrocarbon accumulations. The primary reservoir in the study area is sandstone within the Khabour Formation, while the source and seal rocks are in the Hot_shale within Akkas Formation. They are interpreted to be present throughout Akkas Field, as gas-condensate accumulations, 100 km to the west of the study area and demonstrate the viability of the Paleozoic petroleum system in the Western Desert of Iraq.
For a finite group G, the intersection graph of G is the graph whose vertex set is the set of all proper non-trivial subgroups of G, where two distinct vertices are adjacent if their intersection is a non-trivial subgroup of G. In this article, we investigate the detour index, eccentric connectivity, and total eccentricity polynomials of the intersection graph of subgroups of the dihedral group for distinct primes . We also find the mean distance of the graph .
The purpose of this article is to partition PG(3,11) into orbits. These orbits are studied from the view of caps using the subgroups of PGL(4,11) which are determined by nontrivial positive divisors of the order of PG(3,11). The τ_i-distribution and c_i-distribution are also founded for each cap.
In this study the as-deposited and heat treated at 423K of conductive blend graphene oxide (GO)/ poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films was prepared with different PEDOT:PSS concentration (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1)w/w on pre-cleaned glass substrate by spin coater. The XRD analysis indicate the existence of the preffered peak (001) of GO around 2θ=8.24° which is domain in all GO/ PEDOT:PSS films characterized for GO, this result approve the good quality of the PEDOT:PSS dispersion in GO, this peak shifted to the lower 2θ with increasing PEDOT:PSS concentration and after annealing process. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and atomic force microscopy (AFM) clearly show the GO flakes and go to disappear with increasing the PEDOT:PSS concentration.