Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics

Online ISSN: 2423-4222
Publications
for cranial measurements).
-Map of northeastern Iran with collecting sites for Dryomys nitedula, indicated with number 22.
-Map of northeastern Iran with collecting sites for different species of Family Dipodidae, indicated with numbers (the numbers are the same as in text and tables 1-2).
Article
Samplings were done in different locations of northeastern Iran and different specimens were collected during two years. The specimens belong to 26 different species attributing to 6 families: Scuridae (Spermophilus fulvus), Cricetidae (Microtus transcaspicus, Microtus paradoxus, Blanfordimys afghanus, Chionomys nivalis, Ellobius talpinus, Ellobius fuscocapillus, Cricetulus migratorius), Calomyscidae (Calomyscus sp. Seems to be C. uratensis), Muridae (Mus musculus, Apodemus witherbyi, Nesokia indica, Rattus norvegicus, Rattus pyctoris, Gerbillus nanus, Meriones libycus, Meriones crassus, Meriones meridianus, Meriones persicus, Tatera indica, Rhombomys opimus), Gliridae (Dryomys nitedula) and Dipodidae (Allactaga elater, Allactaga hotsoni, Jaculus blanfordi, Jaculus thaleri). Standard external characters as well as cranial and dental ones were given.
 
Niche overlap estimates between taxon pairs (D statistic in upper right and I statistic in lower left).
Identity test estimates between taxon pairs (D statistic in upper right and I statistic in lower left).
Article
The mtDNA data presently being used for estimating biodiversity is not sufficient for evaluating the Motacilla alba complex species status. Because there is a lack of congruence between morphological and mtDNA data, there are debates about the best approach to use. In this study, we utilize niche modelling to study nine taxa of M. alba complex. Using eight bioclimatic- environmental layers, altitude, and slope MaxEnt modeling was applied to predict distributions. A total of 9087 input points for presence of species were also used. Results showed nine distinct ecological boundaries based on MaxEnt and ecological niche modeling (ENM) tools. The results provide some ecological variables for determining the ecological requirements and distribution patterns of the white wagtail species complex in the Palearctic region.
 
Geographic origin of the Mus musculus samples.
Scatterplot of CDA for the second upper molar of Mus m. domesticus, M. m. musculus, and M. m. castaneus.  
Dendrogram using average linkage (between groups) of centroids of the harmonic coefficients, illustrating the degree of similarity among sub-species.  
Article
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a polytypic species, with its geographic distribution largely the result of human migrations during the Late Glacial and Holocene. This study used geometric morphometry (GM) on upper and lower molars to discriminate among the 3 subspecies of the house mouse present in Iran. Moreover cranial remains of this species were uncovered on several archaeological sites of the Iranian Plateau. The GM results were applied to sub-fossil lower molars from Esfahan (Qaleh Bozy), Kordestan (Kani Mikaiil), Qazvin (Zagheh), and Jiroft (Konar Sandal). The present-day Iranian populations that have been previously separated into three subspecies (M. musculus musculus, M. musculus domesticus, and pro-castaneus type) by molecular studies can also be distinguished by dental geometric morphometrics. These subspecies are distinguished by variation in the shape of the first and second upper molar (M1/, M2/) and the first lower molar (M/1). Comparison of these results to the Late Glacial/Early Holocene material from the above mentioned fossil bearing localities) shows marked similarity with the extant house mouse of the southeastern Iranian Plateau, the pro-castaneus type. INTRODUCTION The house mouse, Mus musculus, a worldwide complex species, is the most recent phylogenetic offshoot of the genus Mus (Boursot et al., 1993). According to genetic studies, the Indian subcontinent is considered to be the origin of the species (Bonhomme et al., 1994; Boursot et al., 1996; Darvish et al., 2006; Din et al., 1996). A well-preserved mouse skull was recovered from a pedogenically modified 2 million year old mudstone layer east of Chandigarh, India and was designated M. linnaeusi (Patnaik et al., 1996). Comparison of the fossil skull with those of the extant species of the subgenus Mus reveals its close relationship to the house mouse lineage (Patnaik et al., 1996). Subsequent to establishment of M. musculus in northern India, radiation in several directions led to well-defined peripheral subspecies (Bonhomme et al., 1994). Currently, this species includes three geographically and genetically distinct subspecies: M. musculus musculus, M. musculus domesticus, and M. musculus castaneus, which are sometimes elevated to species level (Boursot et al., 1996; Darvish, 2004; Darvish et al., 2006; Orth et al., 1996; Rajabi Maham, 2007; Vanlerberghe et al., 1986). The nominotypical subspecies, M. musculus musculus, occurs in Eastern Europe and throughout northern Asia, M. musculus domesticus is distributed in Western Europe and has colonized much of the world as a commensal with humans, and M. musculus castaneus extends from Central Asia throughout southeastern Asia; it has spread to Taiwan and eastward through the Moluccas to New Guinea and also to the Mariana Isles (Wilson & Reeder, 2005). The systematic status of the intermediate
 
Article
1 st instar larvae of Myrmecaeurus trigrammus (Pallas, 1771) collected in Behesht Mustapha Marivan reared in laboratory condition , larvae fed with ants.The molting time, onset of diapause, carefully recorded .Characteristics of 3 rd instar larva, and the morphological details of larva, and imago ,described and figures drawn. INTRODUCTION Antlions (Family Myrmeleontidae) belong to the super order Neuropterida ,order Neuroptera, sub order Myrmeleontiformia , family Myrmeleontidae and subfamily Myrmeleontinae.There are 2000 already described species in the Family of Myrmeleontidae in the world , between them ,1800 species in the subfamily Myrmeleontinae (Aspoeck et al 2001). The adult Antlions have chewing mouthparts and generally feed on pollens of flowers; the larvae live in pitfalls, dug into soil. They have sucking mouthparts , suck blood of ants or other small arthropods.The pupation of larvae occurs in a spherical cocoon ,made of small soil particles .Adults are not good fliers, and could be encountered in vegetations during early morning and or in dusk (Aspoeck et al 1980). There are more than 80 reported species for the fauna of Iranian Myrmeleontidae .There are few studies on the larval morphology and life cycle of the Antlions of Iran. The life cycle and morphology of the larvae of Cueta lineosa and C.luteola was already studied by Mirmoayedi in Iran (Mirmoayedi 2003a, b). Krivokhatsky has contributed to the study of larval morphology of Isoleon amseli in Russia(Krivokhatsky, 1996), and Mansell studied the behaviour of larvae of Callistoleon illustris in South Africa(Mansell, 1988).Hoelzel contributed much to the study of adult Myrmeleontids of Iran, but in his articles there is not any description of larval morphology (Hoelzel, 1972) MATERIAL AND METHODS 1 st instar larvae of Myrmecaelurus trigrammus, collected in 7th August 2005 from Behesht Mostapha in suburb of Mraivan (35° 45'N, 46°20'E), a city of 1280m altitude located on foothills of North West Zagros Mountains in western part of Iran, and bordering Iraqi frontier. Zaribar lake with an area of 1550 hectares often frozen in winter ,is located in west part of the city and contributes to the humidity in summer time and coldness of environment in winter .The larvae collected from pitfalls under canopy of annual weeds, and reared in incubators, regulated with following
 
Wild goat habitat suitability ensemble maps in the study area.
Binary maps of suitable area resulted by each model in cold season.
AUC values of each model in both seasons.
Article
Habitat with its components is the most important need of wildlife species. So that, habitat management is a critical procedure in wildlife conservation. In the present study, desirable habitats of Kavir National Park for Wild goat are determined in two distinguished warm and cold seasons, applying Random Forests, Maximum Entropy, and Classification Tree algorithms, and for this matter "Salford Predictive Modeler" and MaxEnt software were used. Consequently, an ensemble habitat suitability map was provided based on weight-averaging method. The results illustrated that elevation, water resources, vegetation type, and slope are the most important factors in predicting Wild goat's suitable habitats with a slightly different impact on each season. In general, among the existing plant species, Wild goat prefers Artemisia sieberi, Stipa arabica, Zyghophylom eurpterum, and Sieditzia rozmarinus. Also, the altitudes higher than 1050 meters above sea level, slopes over 20 to 35 percent, and distances less than 5,000 meters to water resources are desirable. Meanwhile, several suitable patches for Wild goats were found which are greatly in need of conservation. Considering the importance of water resources in this region, in order to improve the quality of the habitat, further study on water resources status is suggested.
 
Article
The genus Jaculusis distributed in Palearctic desert and semi-desert areas, extending from Central Asia to the Western Sahara in the North Africa. In Iran three species of three-toed Jerboa have been reported: Jaculus jaculus from the south west and west of Iran, Jaculus blanfordi from the northeast, east and central part of Iran and Jaculus thaleri from the east of Iran. In present study, the phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Jaculus from Iran were examined using molecular, geometric morphometric and morphologic data. Our molecular analyses indicated two monophyletic clades which contain J. jaculus and J. blanfordi. There is a high amount of genetic interspecific distance (12.7%) between J. jaculus and J.blanfordi, while the intraspecific divergence within these two species is low. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of morphometric variables were significant.
 
Article
Daphnia a wide spread member of Cladocera live in different aquatic environments ranging from hypersaline swamps to freshwater lakes, lagoons, streams and rivers. To improve our knowledge in the diversity of the genus Daphnia in Iran, and promoting its biogeographical information in the region, an investigation on the morphology and identification of the Iranian species of the genus was carried out during the spring of 2013 and 2014. The Southern Caspian Sea Basin (SCSB) and Urmia Lake Basin (ULB) Daphnia fauna has been studied based on historical literature records and new collections. Zooplanktons were sampled from 70 randomly chosen localities across ca. 2500 km wide longitudinal gradient in the SCSB and ULB basins including both permanent habitats (lakes and reservoirs), and small temporary water bodies (ponds and lagoons), both freshwater and saline. In the samples, 34 populations were identified based on the morphological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) approaches. Cladistic analysis of Iranian species of genus Daphnia, based on 64 morphological characters obtained from the literature, confirmed the traditionally basic division of the genus into two subgenera, Daphnia and Ctenodaphnia. This split was supported by enough number of synapomorphies in the cladistic analysis. The relationships between all taxa within both subgenera were determined clearly. Cladistic analyses is a powerful tool to phylogenetic studies especially when more characters are defined and character states determined carefully. Finally, regional identification key for ten Iranian species of the genus Daphnia was provided.
 
The Chabahar Bay.  
The list of discriminative morphological characteristics of L. curtus (Based on Karthikeyan and Balasubramanian (2007), Rasmussen (2001) and present findings).
Specific features of the teeth and scales. a: general aspect of L. curtus, b: ventral view of the trunk (ventral scales are highlighted), c: Upper jaw, palatine (black) and maxillary (gray) bones, d: dorsal view of the head, e: lateral view of the head, f: ventral view of the head. 1, Tail; 2, Vent; 3, Head; 4, Maxillary teeth; 5, Palatine teeth; Scales of 6, Rostral; 7, Supralabials; 8, Parietals; 9, Temporals; 10, Postocular; 11, Preocular; 12, Supraocular; 13, Frontal; 14, Prefrontals; 15, Nasals; 16, Infralabials; 17, Mental; 18, Sublinguals; 19, Mid Mandibo-Pharyngial.  
Article
A morphological study of the short sea snake, Lapemis curtus was carried out. Two specimens of L. curtus were collected during fieldwork in vast area of west of the Chabahar Bay Mouth (Gulf of Oman) in 2011 A list of new important identification morphological characteristics of this species is also provided.
 
Article
There is little known about the systematics and population structure of Indian gerbils (Tatera indica) in Iran. In the present study six populations of T.indica from different localities of Iran were compared according to morphology, morphometry and karyological studies to determine the status of these populations at the sub specific level. The univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses of four external and 18 cranial morphometric characters in Tatera indica (Rodentia: Muridae) were performed using 84 specimens collected from widely scattered geographical localities.The results of MANCOVA showed that there are no significant differences between sexes. In order to show variation between samples and the significance of cranial variables CDA and PCA analyses were carried out using log-transformed data. The results of CDA analysis indicated discrimination between samples. The results of the univariate and multivariate analysis showed that the morphometric characteristics of the Indian gerbil populations in Iran are slightly different. Also, the results of the GM analysis showed two major phonetic groups which indicates separation of the northern and the southern populations. Karyological results showed that 2N=68 and NFa=80 in all karyotyped specimens which are similar to findings of previous authors. There are not any variations in 2N and NFa of the studied specimens. On the basis of the CDA, PCA and GM analyses there are two main phenetic groups in these populations which might be related to the sub-specific condition of them. However, due to methodological problems, other techniques such as molecular studies must be applied for determination of true status of these groups. INTRODUCTION The gerbils of the genus Tatera Lataste, 1802 (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) are widespread in the sandy plains, grasslands and savannas of the sub-saharan Africa, Near East, Middle East and the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. They are also common in the cultivated areas, where they nowadays cause considerable agricultural damage (Colangelo, et al, 2005). This genus is generally considered to be more primitive phylogenetically and less specialized (Roberts, 1997). On the basis of the last taxonomic revisions 12 species listed in this genus, 11 of which occur in Africa (T.afra, T.brantsii, T.bohemi, T.guineae, T.inclusa, T.vicina, T.kempi, T.leucogaster, T.nigricauda, T.phillipsi and T.robusta) and only one species in Asia (T. indica) (Corbet, 1978; Corbet and Hill, 1991).. It is proposed that on the basis of morphological characters the only Asian species, T.indica, can be
 
Habitat of Caradrina turcomana in the Akhlamad area in Binaloud Mountain ranges of Northeast Iran (left) and Khabr National Park in Kerman province, South Iran (right).
Article
The genus Caradrina Ochsenheimer, 1816 is restricted to Holarctic and Ethiopian regions. Small inconspicuous appearance of its species is such that determination of the well over 150 species is one of the most difficult problems among all Noctuidae. According to light trap samplings which were made in different parts of Iran during 2010-2016, the present paper offers new data on the distribution of Caradrina species in Iran and reports Caradrina turcomana Hacker, 2004, as a new record for the Iranian fauna. Furthermore, we provide a catalogue of the genus Caradrina of Iran including 56 species and 11 subspecies togeather with available information on the type locality, synonyms, distribution and bionomics for all of the recorded species as well as discussion on the recent relevant publications.
 
A. The map of Gheshlagh basin in the vecinity of Sanandaj city, the blank squres show the sampling stations. B. The location of sampling in the western Iran. The filled circles show the places from where Clinostomum complanatum has been reported.
Image of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae, A. whole worm, B. genital complex. AT: anterior testis, CS: cirrus sac, O: ovary, OO: ootype, PT: posterior testis.
Phylogenetic tree inferred from Maximum Likelihood (GTR+ G model) of ITS sequences of Clinostomum spp. the numbers indicate the bootstrap support values from 1000 replicates, R (bold letter) correspond four sequences each of a species of fish used in the current study.
Measurements of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae in the present study in comparison with previous studies. Values indicated with μm
The list of fish species infected with Clinostomum complanatum metacercaria in Iran, along with their family and localities in Iran
Article
Clinostomum spp. have a long uncertain taxonomic history which also have attracted great attentions. This could be due to their zoonotic potential and the presence of yellow grubs in the fish as a second intermediate host. In the current study, a total of 3oo freshwater fish belonging to the nine species were collected from two stations in the Gheshlagh basin, Kurdistan Province. Four species including Alburnus mossulensis, Capoeta damascina, Garra rufa and Squalius cephalus were found to be infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence (4.1%) and mean abundance (0.31±0.37) were observed in C. damascina. The metacercariae were identified using molecular (Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)), SEM and morphological analysis as Clinostomum complanatum. The phylogenetic analysis of four sequences of ITS gene were conducted. The specimens were placed within a lineage of C. complanatum and formed a clade with other Clinostomum species in the Palearctic region. The current study revealed the C. damascina, G. rufa and A. mossulensis as new hosts for C. complanatum and first report of this metacercariae in the region. Furthermore, the present study demonstrate the first molecular and morphological data on C. complanatum of the Iranian freshwater fish.
 
Loxosceles rufescence. 1) Male prosoma; 2) Female Prosoma; 3) Spermathecae, dorsal view; 4) Lateral aspect of right palp. Scale bar= 0.5mm.  
Loxosceles rufescence. 1) Male prosoma; 2) Female Prosoma; 3) Spermathecae, dorsal view; 4) Lateral aspect of right palp. Scale bar= 0.5mm. Material: 3♀,1♀ subadult (ZMFUM), Iran, Khorasan Razavi Prov., Mashhad, (36°16΄24.95″N, 59°34΄36.75″E), 01.viii.2013, M. Hatami; 1♂ (ZMFUM), Iran, Tehran Prov., Tehran (35°43'N, 51°25'E), iv.2012, A. Zamani; 1 subadult♀ (ZMFUM), Golestan Prov., Gorgan (36°50΄19″N, 54°26΄05″E), 5.vi.2011, R. Kashefi.
Article
The ecribellate haplogyne spiders of the genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe, 1832, known as recluse or violin spiders, are well known because of their ability to occasionally cause significant skin necrosis also known as loxoscelism (Vetter, 2008; Saupe et al., 2011). The venom of these spiders contains an unusual enzyme, sphingomyelinase D, which, when incorporated into the skin and subcutaneous tissues, ultimately causes platelet aggregation, endothelial hyperpermeability, hemolysis, and neutrophil-dependent skin necrosis (Saupe et al., 2011). Based on the morphology of their spinnerets these spiders are now classified in the sub-family Loxoscelinae, in the Sicariidae (Gertsch 1949; Gertsch, 1967; Gertsch and Ennik 1983; Vetter, 2008). The family Sicariidae currently includes spiders of only two genera, Loxosceles with more than 100, and Sicarius Walckenaer, 1847 with more than 21 described species respectively (Platnick, 2013). The Mediterranean recluse, L. rufescens (Dufour 1820), is a widely distributed species, originating from somewhere in the circum-Mediterranean region but has been distributed to other regions by means of human activity (Harvey, 1996). This species is now reported from Mediterranean countries and other regions including Turkmenistan, East Asia, United States and Australia (Harvey, 1996; Yigit et al., 2008). There were unidentified records of the genus Loxosceles from Iran (Goodarzi, 1994; Moradmand and Jäger, 2011; Kashefi et al., 2013) but, the first record of the Mediterranean recluse spider, L. rufescens, was provided by Zamani and Rafinejad (in press) from Tehran Province. This species is distinguished from its closely related species by the following characteristics: the tibia of male's palp is short, thick and not very prolonged. The embolus is about as long as the width of the globular bulb (Fig.1, 3); paired spermathecae, closed together at the midline, with single large and rounded lobe (Fig. 2, 4). In this paper we provided a new data on the geographic distribution of L. rufescens and its envenomation from northeast of Iran (Fig. 5). All specimens were collected in daytime from houses. The examined specimens are preserved in the Zoological Museum, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran (ZMFUM). Whole specimens, male palps and epigynes were photographed using an Olympus DP-71 camera connected to an Olympus SZH-10 stereomicroscope. The epigynes were macerated either with KOH or lactic acid.
 
-Right antenna: 1-E. indicus, 2-E. johnstoni, 3-E. nephantidis, 4-E. phthorimaeae, 5-E. viridiceps (original). 
Article
Six species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) were reported from Southeastern Iran. Five species viz., Elasmus indicus Rohwer, 1921, Elasmus johnstoni Ferrière, 1929, Elasmus nephantidis Rohwer, 1921, Elasmus phthorimaeae Ferrière 1947, Elasmus viridiceps Thomson, 1878, are recorded for the first time from Iran. Elasmus nudus (Nees, 1834) is already recorded from this country. Available biological data, geographical distribution as well as short taxonomic comments are given for each species. A key for identification of Iranian species of the genus Elasmus is presented.
 
(a) C. homalodemus homalodemus ♂ (b) C. homalodemus homalodemus ♀ (c) C. homalodemus ♂ (d) C. homalodemus ♀ (e) C. trachypterus trachypterus ♂ (f) C. trachypterus trachypterus ♀.
(a) C. trachypterus robertsi ♂ (b) C. trachypterus roberstsi ♀ (c) C. trachypterus ♂ (d) C. trachypterus ♀ (e) C. turanicus ♂ (f) C. turanicus ♀
Morphological trails and measurement (mm) for wild-caught 2019) Chrotogonus spp.
Article
We studied inter and intra-specific morphometrical variability across six species/subspecies of Chrotogonus Serville, 1838 (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) consisting on Chrotogonus homalodemus homalodemus (Blanchard, 1836), C. homalodemus (Blanchard, 1836), C. trachypterus trachypterus (Blanchard, 1836), C. trachypterus robertsi Kirby, 1914, C. trachypterus (Blanchard, 1836), and C. turanicus Kuthy, 1905 from Sindh, Pakistan. The investigation was based on a comparative study of external morphological measurements of the six major body parts including: Antennal segments, length of head, length of pronotum, length of tegmina, length of wings, and total body length. Interspecific morphometric variation showed highest variation as 16.00 ± 04.33mm in the length of tegmina of C. homalodemus and lowest variation 01.98 ± 00.05mm in length of pronotum of C. trachypterus robertsi while intraspecific morphometric variation amongst females was highest than males. The species of Chrotogonus are closely similar and no satisfactory field characters exist by which may be distinguished. This study will fill the specific identification gap amongst this taxon.
 
Locality of recorded species of Tardigrada in Iran.
General anatomy of E. testudo. Scale bars equal 25 μm (A) Differential interference micrograph showing ventrolateral view of the left side of an adult E. testudo specimen. The anteroposterior axis includes a head and four trunk segments, each with a pair of legs (left legs are in focus). (B) Light micrograph of an adult laying eggs in its exuvia during molting. (C) DIC micrograph of the ventral head of an adult E. testudo specimen. (D) DIC micrograph of the leg claws of the anterior three right legs. Abbreviations: bu, buccal tube; C, claw; e, eggs; fu, furca; L, leg; mo, mouth; st, stylet.
General morphology of E. testudo. Scale bars equal 25 μm (A) lateral view of lateral filaments of this species. (B) Dorsal view of lateral filaments in E. testudo. (lf: lateral filaments).
Structure of the E. testudo head and pharynx. Scale bar equals 25 μm. (A) Ventralmounted specimens. (B) Dorsal-mounted specimens. The ventral lobe extends on both sides of the buccal tube, but dorsal lods are short. Abbreviations: bu, buccal tube; C, claw; hf, head filaments; hp, head papila ; fu, furca; mo, mouth; st, stylet.
General morphology of E. testudo claws. Scale bars equal 25 μm (A) First legs (B) Second legs (C) Thirty legs.
Article
Tardigrada is a phylum closely allied with the arthropods. They are small (0.05-1.20 mm), hygrophilous micrometazoans, have four pairs of lobe-like legs and are either carnivorous or feed on plant material. Most of the tardigrade species are limno-terrestrial. In two moss and lichen samples collected in Mashhad, one heterotardigrade species was found. Echiniscus testudo (Doyère, 1840) belongs to the Echiniscidae group and differs from most of other species in this group mainly by having a different claw configuration and by some morphometric characters. This study is the first report of tardigrades from Iran.
 
Locality of recorded species of Tardigrada in Iran.
General anatomy of E. testudo. Scale bars equal 25 μm (A) Differential interference micrograph showing ventrolateral view of the left side of an adult E. testudo specimen. The anteroposterior axis includes a head and four trunk segments, each with a pair of legs (left legs are in focus). (B) Light micrograph of an adult laying eggs in its exuvia during molting. (C) DIC micrograph of the ventral head of an adult E. testudo specimen. (D) DIC micrograph of the leg claws of the anterior three right legs. Abbreviations: bu, buccal tube; C, claw; e, eggs; fu, furca; L, leg; mo, mouth; st, stylet.
General morphology of E. testudo. Scale bars equal 25 μm (A) lateral view of lateral filaments of this species. (B) Dorsal view of lateral filaments in E. testudo. (lf: lateral filaments).
Structure of the E. testudo head and pharynx. Scale bar equals 25 μm. (A) Ventralmounted specimens. (B) Dorsal-mounted specimens. The ventral lobe extends on both sides of the buccal tube, but dorsal lods are short. Abbreviations: bu, buccal tube; C, claw; hf, head filaments; hp, head papila ; fu, furca; mo, mouth; st, stylet.
General morphology of E. testudo claws. Scale bars equal 25 μm (A) First legs (B) Second legs (C) Thirty legs.
Article
Tardigrada is a phylum closely allied with the arthropods. They are small (0.05-1.20 mm), hygrophilous micrometazoans, have four pairs of lobe-like legs and are either carnivorous or feed on plant material. Most of the tardigrade species are limno-terrestrial. In two moss and lichen samples collected in Mashhad, one heterotardigrade species was found. Echiniscus testudo (Doyère, 1840) belongs to the Echiniscidae group and differs from most of other species in this group mainly by having a different claw configuration and by some morphometric characters. This study is the first report of tardigrades from Iran.
 
Two scutal punctuation pattern as a section in mid scutum Hyalomma marginatum rufipes I) small and distant, II) large and compact.  
Primers used in the present study. 
Phylogenetic trees reconstructing evolutionary relationship among H. marginatum group and other Hyalomma species, phylogenetic tree of COI (A) and ITS2 (B) sequences data using NJ method with 1000 replicates bootstrapping, green boxes representing a clade including sequence of this study (as bold) and GenBank sequences with accession number and abbreviated country name, taxon Rhipicephalus sanguineus is taken as outgroup, thicker branches showing bootstrap value greater than 90%, × sign (A) indicating a morphologically hybrid or intermediate taxa were stated in Rees et al., (2003), Ch. China, Et. Ethiopia, Ir. Iran, Sp. Spain.  
The quantity and concentration of PCR ingredients. 
Article
Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) along with three other closely related species is considered as marginatum group. The species had proven as main vector of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, the cause of human death in Asia, Africa and Europe. This tick is also a vector of parasitic protozoan Theileria annulata, agent of tropical theileriosis in cattle. Unfortunately, H. rufipes species status not recognized or confirmed in tick’s fauna of Iran, then we decided to show most taxonomic characteristics and confirm the presence of species in Iran by molecular methods. Tick specimens were collected from cattle in Manujan township, Kerman province, southern Iran. Specimens were identified morphologically using suitable taxonomical identification keys. The morphologically identified specimens were subjected to molecular studies. Morphological and molecular analysis clearly confirmed the occurrence of H. rufipes in Iran. Since birds probably serve as host of immature marginatum group ticks especially H. rufipes thus monitoring of populations of H. rufipes in the country is needed as the future studies. Key words: Hyalomma rufipes, Ixodidae, marginatum group, morphological variation, COI, ITS-2, Iran
 
Article
Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) along with three closely related subspecies is considered as marginatum group. The subspecies had proven as main vector of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, the cause of human death in Asia, Africa and Europe. This tick is also a vector of parasitic protozoan Theileria annulata, agent of tropical theileriosis in cattle. Nonetheless, taxonomical status of this tick not recognized or confirmed in tick’s fauna of Iran, then we decided to show most taxonomic characteristics and confirm the presence of this subspecies in Iran by molecular methods. Tick specimens were collected from cattle in Manujan township, Kerman province, southern Iran. Specimens were identified morphologically using suitable taxonomical identification keys. The morphologically identified specimens were subjected to molecular studies. Morphological and COI gene analysis clearly confirmed the occurrence of H. m. rufipes in Iran, however, according to ITS2 fragment H. m. rufipes can be the same H. m. marginatum. Thus, it seems that based on most popular molecular markers, H. m. rufipes and its relative H. m. marginatum really should be assigned as a polymorphic species H. marginatum.
 
Article
Abstract This paper is a new report of a Holothuroidea (Apodida: Synaptidae: Protankyra) Protankyra pseudodigitata from Persian Gulf. Specimen was collected by a Van Veen Grab from subtidal soft bottoms in May 2016. The specimen recorded was small measuring 12 mm in length, body worm-like in shape with 12 digitate tentacles encircles the mouth. Podia are lacking in the Apodida but skin papillae are present. Ossicles consist of Anchor plates, Anchors and Miliary granules. Anchors are variable in development and each arm or one of them with one to 10 teeth and some of them without any teeth. The present study describes the taxonomic diagnoses of identified species bases on morphological characters.
 
-Distribution range of Eremias strauchi strauchi and the locations which in has been recorded in Iran: old records (Anderson, 1999) (left) and new records (right) 
Article
In this study a total of 29 Eremias strauchi strauchi specimens (10 males, 16 females and three juveniles), collected from different localities in northwest of Iran were examined. The study was based on morphological features including color pattern, morphometric measurements, pholidotic characters, as well as ecological and biological observations especially habitat, reproductive biology and distribution. Habitat features and new distribution localities were documented. Egg characters of Eremias strauchi strauchi such as shape, size, number and color are reported for the first time. Also, some other new information on this species has been given.
 
Stenodactylus affinis (SUHC -ERP 840) in natural habitat.  
Habitat of Stenodactylus affinis on the road from Bandar-e-Abbas to Minab, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran.  
Locality of the newly-collected specimen of Stenodactylus affinis (blue rectangle). Note the significant distance from the previous Iranian records (Tangestan, Aghajari, Ahvaz). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Yaser Gholami and Mojtaba Ra'naei for their kind cooperation during fieldwork in southern Iran.  
Article
During field work in southern Iran in March 2011 one adult female (gravid) Stenodactylus affinis was collected in the early morning from a hard-packed salt substrate with sparse vegetation on the road from Bandar-e-Abbas to Minab (N 27º 17', E 56º 28') at an elevation of 8 m below sea level. It was syntopic with Acanthodactylus blanfordi and Bunopus tuberculatus. The genus Stenodactylus (Fitzinger, 1826) is one of the gekkonid taxa that originated from the Afro-Arabian plate. The divergence in Stenodactylus is deep and dates back to several million years ago, probably in the Miocene (Fujita and Papenfuss, 2011). Geological events, such as the formation of the Red Sea during the Miocene, separated populations of Stenodactylus in Africa and Arabia. According to Fujita and Papenfuss (2011) the genus Tropiocolotes nested within Stenodactylus clade on an individual gene tree which make the genus Stenodactylus as paraphyletic genus. Hass (1957) using distinct morphological characters, described this species as the sole member of a new genus, Pseudoceramodactylus khobarensis. Based on their molecular data, Fujita and Papenfuss (2011) therefore resurrected Pseudoceramodactylus. Recently, this taxon has been reported from Qeshm Island, Iran (Dakhteh et al., 2007). The distribution of Stenodactylus sensu stricto is from northern Africa, south to northern Kenya, and from the Middle East eastward to southeastern Iran (Anderson, 1999; Krysko et al., 2007; Rastegar-Pouyani et al., 2007). The narrow-fingered geckonid lizards of the genus Stenodactylus (Fitzinger, 1826) consist of 12 species (Arnold, 1980b; Fujita and Papenfuss, 2011), of which two species have been documented from Iran (Anderson, 1999; Rastegar-Pouyani et al., 2007, 2008). up to now, Stenodactylus affinis is distributed in Khuzestan and Bushehr provinces in Iran (Anderson, 1999). In March 2011, we found one specimen of Stenodactylus affinis in Hormozgan province on the road from Bandar-e-Abbas to Minab in the early morning in a cloudy condition (Fig. 1). The vegetation of the area is sparse, including Artiplex, Artemisia shrubs and Tamarix tree on a hard-packed salt substrate (Fig. 2). Prior to this study, three records of occurrence of Stenodactylus affinis have been documented in Iran (Anderson, 1999; Rastegar-Pouyani et al., 2007, 2008). These records were from Ahvaz, Aghajari and Tangestan, all located in southwestern Iran (Khuzistan and Bushehr Provinces) (Fig. 3). We found our newly-recorded specimen (presented here) in southern Iran, Hormozgan province on
 
Article
The tribe Meteorini (Cresson, 1887) (Braconidae: Euphorinae) of Northern Iran was studied. The specimens were collected using Malaise traps during 2010 and 2011. A total of 13 species were collected and identified, among them eight species viz., Zele albiditarsus Curtis, Meteorus alborossicus Lobodenko, M. breviantennatus Tobias, M. cinctellus (Spinola), M. colon (Haliday), M. consimilis (Nees), M. ictericus (Nees) and M. vexator (Haliday) were recorded for the first time from Iran, including new records, number of Meteorini species in Iran is now raised from 6 to 14. Detailed morphological characters for the recorded species and an identification key to the known Iranian species of Meteorini are provided.
 
-Sampling localities and geographical distribution of chromosomal forms in the region. 1. Ardahan-Hanak-Altaş village, 2. Ardahan 10km E, 3. Ardahan-Göle-Yiğitkonağı village, 4. Ardahan-Göle- Boğatepe village, 5. Ardahan-Çıldır-Akçakale village, 6. Kars-Susuz, 7. Kars-Arpaçay, 8. Erzurum-Narman- Koçkaya village, 9. Kars-Selim, 10. Kars-Digor-Gülheyran village, 11. Kars-Digor 8.km, 12. Erzurum- Sarıkamış, 13. Erzurum-Horasan 5km E, 14. Erzurum-Köprüköy-Ilıcasu village, 15. Erzurum 20km E, 16. Erzurum 20km E, 17. Erzurum-Pasinler, 18. Iğdır-Tuzluca-Kazkoparan village, 19. Erzurum-Hınıs 15km N, 20. Ağrı-Tutak 5km S, 21. Ağrı-Hamur-Küpkıran village, 22. Ağrı-Taşlıçay-Yanalyol village, 23. Ağrı-Patnos- Sarısu village, 24. Van-Çaldıran, 25. Van-Erciş, 26. Muş-Malazgirt, 27. Erzurum-Çat-Yaylasuyu village, 28. Kars-Arpaçay. The karyotype of the Nannospalax specimens collected from Erzurum-Hınıs and Ağrı-Patnos province which are called Ağrı population, differs in the number of chromosomal arms (NF and NFa values) from those specimens collected by Coşkun et al. (2009) from Muş-Malazgirt and Van- Erciş (Table 1). The karyotypes resulted identical to those described by Matthey (1959) from Talin- Armenina and Coşkun (2003) from Ağrı and Van-Çaldıran, 2n = 50 POPULATION (FROM KARS AND ERZURUM, PROVINCE; LOCALITY NO: 8, 10, 13, 14, 27) The karyotypes of this population comprised 2n = 50 chromosomes. The autosomal complement consisted of nine meta/submetacentric and fifteen acrocentric pairs. The X chromosome was large sized metacentric, the Y chromosome was one of small acrocentric. The number of chromosomal arms is NF = 70 and number of autosomes NFa = 66 (Fig. 2B).  
Chromosomal data for the genus Nannospalax from East Anatolia. 2n: diploid number; m/sm: number of pairs of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes; a/st: number of pairs of acrocentric and subtelocentric chromosomes; X: X chromosome, Y: Y chromosome, NF(a): (autosomal) fundamental number (female).
Standard karyotypes of Nannospalax chromosomal forms, 2n = 48 in Ağrı population and 2n = 50 from Kars and Erzurum populations.  
Article
The Spalacidae are Southeast European and East Mediterranean blind rodents, highly adapted for life underground. Their taxonomy needs a modern revision including chromosomal data as well as morphology. Mole rats of the family Spalacidae range over Turkey and approximately 30 karyotypes of Nannospalax complex inhabit. The diploid number of chromosome of Nannospalax ranges from 36 to 62. Also, fundamental number of chromosomal arms, NF values vary from 66 to 92 while the fundamental number of autosomal arms, NFa ranging from 62 to 88. Unfortunely, karyological studies of the Nannospalax populations on the territory of Turkey on the whole are far from being satisfactory. Karyological studies of this group may yield further chromosomal forms in Turkey, which has a wide range of climatic and biotic conditions and the boundaries of the distribution region of the known species might be determined. In this study, chromosomal forms of Nannospalax in East Anatolia (Erzurum, Kars and Ağrı province) were investigated. The materials of 16 specimens of Nannospalax were collected at 8 different localities in the region. Preparations of mitotic chromosomes were obtained from bone marrows by means of the general air-drying technique. Skins and skulls of specimens have been deposited at the Dicle University, Science Faculty Biology Department. We have identified two chromosomal forms of Nannospalax in East Anatolia of which have diploid chromosome numbers (2n) are 2n = 48 and 2n = 50.
 
Localities of Vipera (Acridophaga) eriwanensis (Baran et al., 2005) (Nilson and Andren, 2001). ▲: localities of Vipera (Acridophaga) in Iran noted by Latifi (2000). •: newly found localities of Vipera (Acridophaga) in Iran, 1: Kiamaki Mountain. 2: Sabalan Mountain. 3: Susahab village. A: type locality of Vipera ebneri. B: type locality of Vipera eriwanensis.
Vipera (Acridophaga) eriwanensis collected from the eastern slope of Sabalan Mountain
Vipera (Acridophaga) ebneri collected from Susahab village in the western Alborz Mountains. TABLE 1. Morphological characters of examined specimens. Ven: number of ventral scales (Dowling, 1951). Gul: number of gular scales. Scd: number of subcaudal scales. Dor: number of dorsal scales (anterior/midbody/posterior). Sup: number of supralabial scales (right/left). Ifl: number of infralabial scales (right/left). Cir.oc: number of circumocular scales (right/left). Lor: number of loreal scales. (right/left) (Nilson and Andren, 2001) SVL: snout vent length (mm). TL: tail length (mm). Morphological data on Vipera ebneri and Vipera eriwanensis from Mallow et al. (2003) and data on Vipera (Acridophaga) of Iran from Latifi (1991). The number of subcaudal scales is presented for each sex separately; the remaining characters are for both sexes.
Article
a new record of Vipera eriwanenesis from Iran is published here. I found my specimen from a remote area in Sabalan Mountain in 1998 . it was already was described from Armenia and now it is widely distributed
 
Sampling sites, types of habitat and numbers (N) of collected specimens of P. waltoni. 
FIGURE1.Sampling sites: 1.Mahshahr, 2. Hendijan, 3. Bushehr, 4. Qeshm1, 5. Khamir, 6. Qeshm 2, 7. Minab. 
Dendrogram constructed from CVs at group centroids in specimens of P. waltoni collected from seven sites. 
P-values for Mahalanobis distances among fishes of the seven sites. P-values are bold where they are >0.05.
Article
Morphometric variation of 154 specimens of Periophthalmus waltoni from seven different sites in the Persian Gulf and Makran Sea (Gulf of Oman) were analyzed based on ten morphometric characters. Canonical Variate Analysis of the sampling sites suggested a partial separation between the northwestern sites and the central plus southeastern sites. Moving larvae were probably the main factor connecting P. waltoni populations from different sites and keeping them similar, morphologically and probably genetically. We concluded that environmental factors could be the main explanation for morphological differences between P. waltoni specimens from different stations. INTRODUCTION The Walton's mudskipper, Periophthalmus waltoni Koumans, 1941 is one of the three species of oxudercine gobies (Gobiidae sensu Agorreta et al., 2013) living in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman (Carpenter et al., 1997; Murdy, 1989). This species has been recorded in a wide range of intertidal habitats, including tidal mudflats and mangrove forests (Clayton, 1985; Rahimian & Pehpuri, 2006; Ghanbarifardi & Malek, 2007), and ecosystems characterized by different physico-chemical regimes (Yao, 2008). Being a partially closed sea basin, the Persian Gulf presents rather unique characteristics. Its entrance is the narrow Strait of Hormuz, and water circulation with the Makran Sea (Gulf of Oman) is limited. It is very shallow compared to other seas of comparable size, the average depth being only 35 m, and huge expanses are only a few meters deep; its greatest depth, at a few km from the Strait of Hormuz, is only 100 m. As a result of this physiography, the Persian Gulf experiences large seasonal fluctuations of surface water temperature. Temperature varies in surface coastal waters from as low as 10ºC in winter to 35ºC in summer, reaching higher values in shallow lagoons and tidal flats (Randall, 1995). Salinity is high, due to low rainfall and high evaporation rates, except in the north nearthe Arvandrud (Arvand River) where it is moderated by the discharge of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Salinity can reach 40 ppt in open waters and up to 50 ppt in shallow lagoons (Randall, 1995). The marine biodiversity of the Persian Gulf is relatively low (Swift & Bower, 2003). By contrast, the Gulf of Oman is broadly open, and 3/4 of its area is ≥ 1000 m deep, being up to 3000m deep in its outer portion (Randall, 1995). Because of its better circulation, closer contact with the Indian Ocean, and limited extension of shallow areas, the physical and chemical parameters of the Gulf of Oman are much more stable than in the Persian Gulf (Thoppil & Hogan, 2010). Phenotypic plasticity of fishes is often observed as an ontogenetic response to environmental change in the form of physiological, behavioural and morphological modifications (
 
Length of palp and legs in female (mm) of Pardosa colchica Mcheidze, 1946.
Female leg spination of Pardosa colchica Mcheidze, 1946.
Length of palp and legs in female (mm) of Pardosa pontica (Thorell, 1875).
Sampling localities of Pardosa pontica (1) and P. colchica (2). Examined material (blue, red), recorded localities (black), province record without exact locality (black oval). One symbol may refer to several localities. 
Article
A survey of species belonging to Pardosa monticola species group from Iran showed a new report. A detailed study reveals that the only female specimen from West Azerbaijan Province belongs to P. colchica Mcheidze, 1946. Characters for distinguishing P. colchica and morphologically similar P. pontica (Thorell, 1875) are given and illustrated. The two species differ in colour and spination
 
Article
The Sexual dimorphism (SD) in body size is very common among the scorpions. In this study, the SD was investigated in two aspects of size and shape in the genus Odontobuthus Vachon, 1950 as a small genus of the family Buthidae. This genus has six fossorial species of which four are distributed in Iran. For this purpose, 43 morphometric variables, consisting of 38 metric measurements and five meristic characters were digitized in the six species, O. bidentatus, O. doriae, O. tavighiae, O. tirgari, O. sp.1 and O. sp.2. The results show that Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD) were significant in three species: O. doriae, O. tavighiae and O. sp.2. While O. sp.1 represented a SD for more aspects of shape, O. bidentatus did not show a significant SD for all studied traits. The amount of SD in size and shape were not the same in different species. The results showed that males have larger metasoma than females even when they are pulled to the same size. Having larger metasoma may correspond to a more efficient performance during mating, predation or combat with other males, so it should be under a high sexual selection. Type II ANOVA showed a significant interaction between species and sex for shape, but not for size. It suggests that the evolution of SD for size has been in parallel for all studied species, while it has been in different directions for shape. Among meristic variables, only the number of pectin denticles were sexually dimorphic, with males having more denticles than females in all studied species.
 
-Sampling location, the Persian Gulf (www.persiangulfonline.org).  
-Female Brachiella trichiuri from Trichiurus lepturus.  
Article
The Lernaeopodidae is a cosmopolitan family of copepods parasitic on both elasmobranchs and teleosts in marine and freshwater habitats. Trichiurus lepturus L. is a commercially valuable bentho-pelagic fish inhabiting continental shelves and slopes worldwide. In the present study 74 specimens of T. lepturus were caught in the Persian Gulf, 12 of which were infected with female Brachiella trichiuri Gnanamuthu, 1951. They were attached firmly to the branchial arches of the host, and had a mean body length of 4.56 ±0.30 mm. Prevalence, mean intensity (±SE) and mean abundance (±SE), of infection were 16.2%, 0.38 ±0.14 and 2.33 ±0.61, respectively. This is the first record of B. trichiuri from the Persian Gulf.
 
The entrance to the Moghan cave. 
Records of P. macrobullaris on elevation map: a) The Western Palearctic (Alberdi et al., 2013) and b) Iran (Benda et al., 2012) (green circles), and present study (red triangle). 
Photos of the Plecotus macrobularis Kuzjakin, 1965. a) dorsal view; b) ears connection in front at their bases; c) ventral view of head; d) triangle pad on the lower lip as a diagnostic character of the species.
Article
The Alpine long-eared bat, Plecotus macrobullaris Kuzjakin, 1965 is distributed in western half of Iran. The previous easternmost occurrence of this species was from Gandab (Semnan province), while the distribution of this species is poorly known. In the present study, P. macrobullaris is recorded from NE of Iran (Moghan cave, Khorasan-e-Razavi province) for the first time. Moreover, the presence of the Lesser Mouse-eared Myotis, Myotis blythii (Tomes, 1857) in the cave is confirmed after 1999.
 
Article
Karizes (Qanat) prepare a part of fresh water sources in main desert of Iran. The arid regions in deserts have isolated suitable aquatic habitats as strong barriers, thus only a few places with surface waters have remained accessible for water- related insects. This paper represents the results of only study on dragonfly species of Karizes. We identified 10 species of typical desert dragonflies of four different families that was collected in summer 2013. Some traits allow Odonata to exist in deserts, hence they may reveal some differences with those in non-desert regions. No endemic species was found in this part of the desert. It is concluded that there are typical opportunistic species with special adaptations that colonize in Karizes as a type of aquatic habitats. We reported Ischnura intermedia here as a new record for Iran and noted some differences with the type specimen.
 
Distribution range of E.turcmenicus in the northeastern part of Iran. (1-Mountains northwest of Mashhad, without precise location Darevsky (1978); (2-Bazangan village, east of Mashad Auer et al. (2008); (3-About 15 km southwest of Azadvar village, 34 km North West of Joghotai (presented in this study).
The morphological (9 morphometric and 10 meristic) characters examined in Eublepharis turcmenicus of the Razavi Khorasan province of Iran.
Mentals and postmentals of Eublepharis turcmenicus from Azadvar village, 34 km North West of Joghotai Razavi Khorasan province (left, Field No.758, right, Field No.866).(photo by R.Babaei Savasari).
Article
This paper presents the south westernmost record of the Turkmenian Fat-Tailed Gecko, Eublepharis turcmenicus Darevsky, 1978, from Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Five specimens (three adult females, one adult and one juvenile male) were studied from 15 km southwestern of Azadvar village, about 34 km north western of Joghotai County in Razavi Khorasan province. Morphometric and meristic characters of these specimens, coloration, and habitat of the species are presented in this paper.
 
Map of Iran; indicating the sampling localities of Platyarthrus schoblii (▲), Trichorhina tomentosa (▼), Armadillo alievi (■), A. officinalis (), Armadillidium azerbaidzhanum (), A. nasatum () and Schizidium golovatchi (•). Ar: Ardabil; E. A: Eastern Azarbaijan; Gi: Guilan; Hm: Hamedan; K.B: Kohgilouyeh-Boyerahmad; Ke: Kermanshah; Kh: Khouzestan; Ku: Kurdestan; Mz: Mazandaran; Qm: Qom; Qz: Qazvin; W.A: Western Azarbaijan; Zn; Zanjan.
A-D, Schizidium golovatchi; E, Armadillidium azerbaidzhanum; F, Armadillo officinalis. A, B, habitus, lateral view; C, head, dorsal view; D, pleon, dorsal view; E, habitus, lateral view; F, habitus, dorsal view. Scale = A-B, E-F, 2 mm; C-D, 1 mm.
Schizidium golovatchi, male. A, pereopod I; B, pereopod VII, rostral view; C, pereopod VII ischium, caudal view; D, pleopod endopodite I; E, pleopod exopodite I; F, pleopod exopodite IV; G, pleopod exopodite V. Scales: A-C, 0.2 mm; D-G, 0.1 mm.
Article
In the present study, seven species of terrestrial isopods are reported from Iran for the first time. These include Platyarthrus schoblii Budde-Lund, 1885; Trichorhina tomentosa (Budde-Lund, 1893); Armadillo alievi Schmalfuss, 1990; A. officinalis Duméril, 1816; Armadillidium azerbaidzhanum Schmalfuss, 1990, A. nasatum Budde-Lund, 1885 and Schizidium golovatchi Schmalfuss, 1988. The male of the latter species is described for the first time and its diagnostic characters are illustrated. Sampling localities for the species are presented on a map.
 
Article
In the present study, seven species of terrestrial isopods are reported from Iran for the first time. These include Platyarthrus schoblii Budde-Lund, 1885; Trichorhina tomentosa (Budde-Lund, 1893); Armadillo alievi Schmalfuss, 1990; A. officinalis Duméril, 1816; Armadillidium azerbaidzhanum Schmalfuss, 1990, A. nasatum Budde-Lund, 1885 and Schizidium golovatchi Schmalfuss, 1988. The male of the latter species is described for the first time and its diagnostic characters are illustrated. Sampling localities for the species are presented on a map.
 
Article
In our ecological study on Planktonic copepods of Bahrakan waters in August 2010, (Hendijan Harbor- NW Persian Gulf- Iran) a copepod species, Acartia (Acartiella) faoensis Khalaf, 1991 was collected. This current report is the first record of this species in Iranian waters of NW Persian Gulf.
 
Article
Barbus sublimus, described by Coad and Najafpour (1997) as a new species, was retrieved first from the Aala Rood, a river in Khuzestan province, southwestern Iran. In our latest sampling a population of this species was found, for the first time, in Fahlian Rood, a river in a different water basin, in Fars province, Southwest of Iran, where no specimen of the species was collected in previous samplings at this location. The detail of taxonomic work done on the specimens captured, species phylogeny, and the possibilities of its previous absence and then presence are described and discussed.
 
Article
Chironomidae (Diptera) which are distributed worldwide, are the most abundant and diverse insects in many freshwater ecosystems, as well as inland waters of Iran. However, very few researches were done for identification of this group in Iran, and there is a poor knowledge of their faunal diversity distribution in this country. To investigate chironomid larvae in Marbor river, Isfahan Province, seasonal samplings were done (2003-2004) in five selected sites along the river course, using Dredge sampler 3 times for every site. After collecting, the samples were preserved in formaldehyde at the site. Samples were sorted out in laboratory and the Chironomidae larvae were identified down to the generic level using the identification keys, and light and phase-contrast microscopes. Results revealed 39 genera from four subfamilies in Marbor River: Chironominae (15 genera), Diamesinae (2 genera), Orthocladiinae (17 genera) and Tanypodinae (5 genera). From these, 13 genera were reported for the first time in Iran. An identification key for the taxon in Marbor river was provided.
 
Article
Typical gobies are small in size and usually found as marine fishes. They inhabit on or whitin the substrates holes, and are mostly invisible. The present study identified two goby genera including Valenciennea and Gobiodon in Qeshm Island for the first time. Nuclear rhodopsin gene was sequenced in four goby species including G. citrinus, V. puellaris, V. sexguttata, as well as V. strigata. Furthermore, nuclear rhodopsin and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences of 38 Gobiidae species from GenBank were used to obtain a representative data-set in order to assess the phylogenetic position of the new samples and to compare the resultant tree with other related molecular reconstructions. Our phylogenetic tree was composed of two Clades. Clade 1 involved two genera including Gobiodon and Paragobiodon and Clade 2 involved three genera, including Valenciennea, Signigobius and Amblygobius. While, Valenciennea and Signigobius species were nested within Sub-Clade X, only Amblygobius species was nested within Sub-Clade Y. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships of four goby species using Rhodopsin and COI, as new markers. Our results on molecular phylogenetic analysis were in agreement with those of other studies using different molecular markers and morphological examinations.
 
Distribution map of the newly found specimens of A. bivittatus. 1: East Azerbaijan Province (previous records); 2: Hamedan Province (new record).
Habitat of A. bivittatus. A) Varzaqan county steppes, East Azerbaijan Province; B) a vineyard in Behar county, Hamedan Province.
Article
A total of 73 Ablepharus bivittatus specimens (34 males and 39 females) collected from two different localities in Iran (East Azerbaijan and Hamedan Provinces) were examined in terms of pholidotic characters, morphometric measurements and color-pattern features. We performed uni and multivariate analyses on the morphological data (six meristic and 14 morphometric characters) that showed sexual size dimorphism in this lizard. As well, the analyses showed the two studied populations were slightly differentiated. Females were larger than males for some of characters (snout to vent length [SVL], number of scale between the eyes and the nostril [SBEN], axilla-groin length [AGL], and the number of scales around mid-body [AMS]). In other words, sexual differences were female-biased. Furthermore, Ablepharus bivittatus specimens were recorded for the first time from a new locality (Hamedan Province) and the known range of species was extended in western Iran.
 
Article
ABSTRACT The objectives were to evaluate effects of adding alfalfa hay (AH) as moisture absorbent to corn forage upon ensiling on silage fermentation, effluent production and performance of late lactating Holstein cows. Corn forage with the initial dry matter content of 22%, left untreated or ensiled with 5 and 10% AH, on a fresh weight basis, for 90 days. Silage DM linearly increased, while effluent production, pH, NDF and water-soluble carbohydrates concentration linearly decreased as AH inclusion rate increased (P<0.05). An incomplete 2×3 Latin square experiment with nine late lactating Holstein cows consuming the above-mentioned silages showed similar nutrient intake and milk production and composition while a linear increase in organic matter digestibility with AH inclusion (P<0.05). Total chwing and eating times were unaffected, however, chewing and ruminating time spent /kg DM linearly decreased as AH inclusion rate increased (P<0.05). Ruminal pH and concentrations of VFA were similar across treatments. Results showed a strong effect of AH on reducing effluent from immature corn silage without having an adverse effect on silage fermentation and dairy cows’ performance. Using AH for controlling of effluent from corn silage is recommended. Keywords: Dairy cow, digestibility, feed intake, forage maturity, moisture absorbent
 
Article
Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus (Acari: Ixodidae: Rhipicephalinae) are the most important ectoparasites and biological vector of pathogen agents. The taxonomy of some Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus species is more debatable. The traditional taxonomy of ticks have been revolutionized using polymerase chain reaction. The specificity, efficiency and accuracy of PCR is highly dependent on the oligonucleotide primers. In this study, five primers designed for amplification of a fragment ITS2 so-called TAH-1, TAH-2, TRH (for Hyalomma) and TAH-3, TAH-4 (for Rhipicephalus). Successfully, 24 and 29 ITS2 sample was sequenced using these primers. As well as, an ITS2 phylogenetic tree were constructed using BEAST basis on the Bayesian Inference (BI) method. The most Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus species well differentiated using ITS2 fragment since the designed primer fail to amplify gene target in few cases.
 
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H.G. Kami
Omid Mirshamsi
  • Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad
Mehdi Radjabizadeh
Soheila Shafiei
  • Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
Steven Anderson
  • University of the Pacific