Nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA region were utilised to investigate phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries among Australian freshwater crayfish belonging to the genera Engaeus Erichson, 1846, Geocharax Clark, 1936 and Gramastacus Riek, 1972. Geocharax and Gramastacus were found to be monophyletic genera but one species currently assigned to Engaeus may belong to another genus. Relationships between the three existing genera were not resolved. Analysis of species boundaries within Geocharax suggests that there are an additional two species in this genus, and our analysis of Gramastacus indicates that undescribed populations from central New South Wales may comprise a second species. The data provide at least one instance of a taxon crossing the Great Dividing Range and provide confirmation of previously proposed hypotheses seeking to explain trans-Bass Strait distributions of species.
We inferred phylogeny among the three major lineages of the Acari ( mites) from the small subunit rRNA gene. Our phylogeny indicates that the Opilioacariformes is the sister-group to the Ixodida+Holothyrida, not the Ixodida+Mesostigmata+Holothyrida, as previously thought. Support for this relationship increased when sites with the highest rates of nucleotide substitution, and thus the greatest potential for saturation with nucleotide substitutions, were removed. Indeed, the increase in support ( and resolution) was despite a 70% reduction in the number of parsimony-informative sites from 408 to 115. This shows that rather than 'noisy' sites having no impact on resolution of deep branches, 'noisy' sites have the potential to obscure phylogenetic relationships. The arrangement, Ixodida+Holothyrida+Opilioacariformes, however, may be an artefact of long-branch attraction since relative-rate tests showed that the Mesostigmata have significantly faster rates of nucleotide substitution than other parasitiform mites. Thus, the fast rates of nucleotide substitution of the Mesostigmata might have caused the Mesostigmata to be attracted to the outgroup in our trees. We tested the hypothesis that the high rate of nucleotide substitution in some mites was related to their short generation times. The Acari species that have high nucleotide substitution rates usually have short generation times; these mites also tend to be more active and thus have higher metabolic rates than other mites. Therefore, more than one factor may affect the rate of nucleotide substitution in these mites.
The mite family Stigmaeidae (Acari : Prostigmata) is of considerable importance in biological control, but its genera are often poorly defined and have never been subjected to cladistic analysis. Herein, we report the stigmaeid genus Ledermuelleriopsis Willmann from Australia for the first time, present a preliminary phylogenetic analysis that demonstrates that Eustigmaeus Berlese and Ledermuelleriopsis Willman are distinct, review the genus at the world level, and provide diagnostic characters of the adult females for each of the 21 known species. We also catalogue habitats, distributions and localities of holotypes. Four new species from Australia are described and illustrated: L. parvilla, sp. nov. from old dune sand, L. barbellata, sp. nov. from wet-sandy heath litter, and L. pustulosa, sp. nov. and L. claviseta, sp. nov. from dry eucalypt forest litter. A key to adult females of all known Ledermuelleriopsis species is provided. The Australian species and L. incisa Wood from New Zealand can be separated from all other members of the genus by a synapomorphy: the reduction of the number of setae on the aggenital shield to one pair. Results of a preliminary morphological cladistic analysis for those stigmaeid genera in which the larvae and adults of both sexes are known, indicate that Ledermuelleriopsis is basal to a clade containing Cheylostigmaeus Willman and Eustigmaeus. Yes Yes
The Linotetranidae (Acari: Tetranychoidea) is a poorly known group of cryptic false spider mites associated with grasses and sedges. We review the family at the world level, provide the first phylogenetic analysis of the family, and describe the first Australian representatives: Austrolinus, gen. nov. and two new species: A. arenulus and A. kinnearae. Linotetranidae is redefined, and keys are provided for the families of the Tetranychoidea, and for all described genera and species of Linotetranidae.
The genera Tarsotomus and
Paratarsotomus are revised and keys to species of both
genera and to instars of Tarsotomus are provided.
Parabsolonia and Paranandia are
made new junior synonyms of Tarsotomus and 17 new
species of Tarsotomus are described:
T. abruptus, T. aiolos,
T. aleantis, T. ambitus,
T. anubis, T. argillus,
T. colossus, T. comosus,
T. desertorus, T. dianellus,
T. dioxis, T. heliophilus,
T. primitivus, T. pusillus,
T. pygmaeus, T. solatus, and
T. velopes. All of these new species except
T. primitivus belong to the new abruptus group which has
been found only in Australia. The type species of
Tarsotomus, T. hercules, is
redescribed from type material and from newly collected specimens and is
recorded from France, Iran and the Ukraine for the first time.
Absoloniana diversipes is found to be a new junior
synonym of T. hercules and records of this species from
Switzerland and Greece are shown to be based on misidentifications. The
species T. behningii, T. callunae,
T. macropalpis and T. sabulosus
are assigned to Paratarsotomus.
Tarsotomus rackae is found to be a new junior synonym of
Paratarsotomus sabulosus which is recorded from Germany
and the Ukraine for the first time. Observations on reproductive behaviour
were made for five Tarsotomus species. All of these
produce stalked spermatophores, which are often deposited on top of one
another. The prelarvae of two species of Tarsotomus were
studied and for both were found to be motile. Warm, dry and sparsely covered
habitats are found to be typical for Tarsotomus many
species of which are active on hot surfaces but lie inactively on their dorsum
at room temperature.
The genus Australiseiulus Muma contains the most holotrichous members of the mite family Phytoseiidae, and is the only known endemic phytoseiid genus in Australia. The revised and redefined genus contains five species in 2 species-groups, differentiated by the position of podonotal setae z6 and the number of teeth on the movable cheliceral digit. The australicus-group contains A. australicus (Wornersley) and A. angophorae (Schicha); the goondi-group contains A. goondi, sp. nov., A. dewi, sp. nov. and A. poplar, sp. nov. Both species-groups are defined, all species are diagnosed, a key to adult females and detailed descriptions of the three new species and A. australicus are provided. In addition, immatures of A. australicus and A. goondi are described for the first time.
Almost half of the 4547 described bee flies (Bombyliidae: Diptera) in the world belong to the subfamily Anthracinae, with most of the world's diversity in three cosmopolitan tribes: Villini, Anthracini and Exoprosopini. Molecular data from 815 base pairs of 16S mitochondrial DNA and morphological characters from species-groups of these tribes in Australia were analysed cladistically. The results show that the relationships between the anthracine tribes reflect those found in a previous morphological analysis. The genera of the Anthracinae in Australia are monophyletic, except for Ligyra Newman, and are assigned to tribes. Although simultaneous analysis of the combined molecular and morphological data produced clades found in both separate analyses, the different data sources are significantly incongruent. We use phylogenetic measures to examine support for the relationships among the Australian Anthracinae inferred by the molecular and morphological data.
Despite the widespread and common use of DNA-sequence data to estimate phylogenies, support or contest classifications, and identify species using barcodes, they are not commonly used as the primary or sole source of data for describing species. This is possibly due to actual or perceived pressure from peers to include morphology as the primary source of data for species descriptions. We find no compelling evidence to exclude DNA-only descriptions, or to insist that morphology always be included in a species description. It is not the data type per se that is important, but the science behind the taxonomic conclusions. Using alternative kinds of data for descriptions should not cause problems for taxonomy if links are kept with type specimens.
Trichomyia lengleti, sp. nov., is described from the Lower Cenomanian amber of La Buzinie, Charente (southwest France) from a piece of fully opaque amber. The Upper Albian Trichomyia swinhoei Cockerell, 1917 is transferred from the Trichomyiinae to the Sycoracinae incertae sedis, stat. nov. Trichomyia lengleti, sp. nov. is the oldest representative of the subfamily Trichomyiinae, supporting at least a Cretaceous diversification for the Psychodidae. The discovery of this fossil fly and its study (thanks to propagation-phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray imaging) improves our knowledge of the biodiversity and the historical evolution of psychodoid flies. A checklist of fossil trichomyiine species is given.
Members of the flightless genus Apterotheca Gebien (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae) are mostly restricted to the high elevation rainforests of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area of north-eastern Australia. This region has been recognised as an 'epicentre of evolution for low vagility animals'. The genus Apterotheca is the most diverse low vagility insect taxon known in this region. Forty-four species are included here in a revision of the genus. Three of these species were previously included in Apterotheca (A. antaroides (Pascoe), A. besti (Blackburn) and A. punctipennis Carter), four were previously included in other genera (A. australis (Kulzer), comb. nov. and A. punctifrons (Gebien), comb. nov. in Apterophenus Gebien, A. costata (Buck), comb. nov. in Caxtonana Buck and A. pustulosa (Carter), comb. nov. in Austropeus Carter) and 37 are new. The monotypic genera Austropeus Carter, syn. nov. and Caxtonana Buck, syn. nov. are proposed as new synonyms of Apterotheca. A lectotype for A. punctipennis and A. besti are designated. A key to the species of Apterotheca and a phylogenetic analysis based on the morphological features of adults, as well as a discussion of character evolution, are also included. Data presented here represent the framework for future studies on the determinants of the patterns of diversity found in the Wet Tropics.
Almost half of the 4822 described beeflies in the world belong to the subfamily Anthracinae, with most of the diversity found in three cosmopolitan tribes: Villini, Anthracini, and Exoprosopini. The Australian Exoprosopini previously contained three genera, Ligyra Newman, Pseudopenthes Roberts and Exoprosopa Macquart. Pseudopenthes is an Australian endemic, with two species including Ps. hesperis, sp. nov. from Western Australia. Two new species of the exoprosopine Atrichochira Hesse, Atr. commoni, sp. nov. and Atr. paramonovi, sp. nov., are also described from Australia, extending the generic distribution from Africa. Cladistic analysis clarified the phylogenetic relationships between the recognised groups of the Exoprosopini and determined generic limits on a world scale. Inclusion of 18 Australian exoprosopines placed the Australian species in the context of the world fauna. The Exoprosopini contains six large groups. The basal group I contains species previously included in Exoprosopa to which the name Defilippia Lioy is applied. Group II contains Heteralonia Rondani, Atrichochira, Micomitra Bowden, Pseudopenthes, and Diatropomma Bowden. Colossoptera Hull is newly synonymised with Heteralonia. Group III is a paraphyletic assemblage of Pterobates Bezzi and Exoprosopa including the Australian Ex. sylvana ( Fabricius). Ligyra is paraphyletic, forming two well-separated clades. The African clade is described as Euligyra Lambkin, gen. nov., which, together with Litorhina Bezzi and Hyperalonia Rondani, form group IV. The Australian group V is true Ligyra. The remaining monophyletic lineage of exoprosopines, group VI, the Balaana-group of genera, shows evidence of an evolutionary radiation of beeflies in semi-arid Australia. Phylogenetic analysis of all 42 species of the Balaana-group of genera formed a basis for delimiting genera. Seven new genera are described by Lambkin & Yeates: Balaana, Kapua, Larrpana, Munjua, Muwarna, Palirika and Wurda. Four non-Australian species belong to Balaana. Thirty two new Australian species are described: Bal. abscondita, Bal. bicuspis, Bal. centrosa, Bal. gigantea, Bal. kingcascadensis, K. corusca, K. irwini, K. westralica, Lar. collessi, Lar. zwicki, Mun. erugata, Mun. lepidokingi, Mun. paralutea, Mun. trigona, Muw. vitreilinearis, Pa. anaxios, Pa. basilikos, Pa. blackdownensis, Pa. bouchardi, Pa. cyanea, Pa. danielsi, Pa. decora, Pa. viridula, Pa. whyalla, W. emu, W. impatientis, W. montebelloensis, W. norrisi, W. patrellia, W. skevingtoni, W. windorah, and W. wyperfeldensis. The following new combinations are proposed: from Colossoptera: Heteralonia latipennis (Brunetti); from Exoprosopa: Bal. grandis (Pallas), Bal. efflatounbeyi (Paramonov), Bal. latelimbata ( Bigot), Bal. obliquebifasciata ( Macquart), Bal. tamerlan (Portschinsky), Bal. onusta ( Walker), Def. busiris (Jaennicke), Def. efflatouni ( Bezzi), Def. eritreae (Greathead), Def. gentilis ( Bezzi), Def. luteicosta ( Bezzi), Def. minos (Meigen), Def. nigrifimbriata ( Hesse), Def. rubescens ( Bezzi), K. adelaidica ( Macquart), Lar. dimidiatipennis ( Bowden), Muw. stellifera ( Walker), and Pa. marginicollis ( Gray); from Ligyra: Eu. enderleini ( Paramonov), Eu. mars ( Bezzi), Eu. monacha (Klug), Eu. paris ( Bezzi), Eu. sisyphus ( Fabricius), and Eu. venus (Karsch).
The biogeographic and phylogenetic relationships of six of the eight Australian genera of freshwater shrimp from the family Atyidae were investigated using mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase I sequences. Previous studies on two of the epigean genera (Caridina, Paratya) indicate that Australian species have strong links to congenerics from outside, with Australian members of Paratya being monophyletic and Caridina polyphyletic. The present study found that the endemic Australian epigean genus Australatya forms a strong clade with Pacific 'Atya-like' genera (Atyoida, Atyopsis), and that the endemic Australian epigean genus Caridinides falls within a clade containing Caridina species from the Australian 'indistincta' group. The two hypogean genera included in this study (Parisia, Pycnisia) form a strong clade in all analyses, implying an Australian subterranean speciation. The possibility of a relationship between Parisia/Pycnisia and an Australian Caridina species may have implications for the monophyly of the highly disjunct genus Parisia (Australia, Madagascar, Philippines). Parisia may descend from local Caridina species and represent convergent morphologies. Yes Yes
Nanexila Winterton & Irwin, gen. nov. is describedand figured from Australia. This genus of typically small, slender flies isdivided into three species-groups following cladistic analysis. The previouslyunplaced N. manni (Hardy) comb. nov. is redescribed inthe Nanexilamanni species-group, along with four newspecies: N. armeniacum,N. carminata, N. furcata andN. nana. Nanexila ruficornis (Macquart) comb. nov. isredescribed in the Nanexila palassa species-group, alongwith ten new species: N. argentiquadris,N. cylomelasma, N. danielsi,N. ligula, N. lignyos,N. livea, N. palassa,N. spilotis, N. variabilis, andN. vittata. Four new species are described in theNanexila atricostalis species-group:N. atricostalis, N. aureilineata,N. intermedia, and N. paradoxa.The twenty Nanexila species and five outgroup specieswere compared across 167 states in 71 characters. A cladistic analysis wasconducted and the phylogenetic relationships of Nanexiladiscussed. Nanexila is endemic to Australia, with alargely southern distribution. Only N. argentiquadrisand N. cylomelasma are known from northern Australia.Adult Nanexila have been collected between August andApril, with the peak period of activity for most species during October andNovember. The duration of adult activity is related to latitude, with northernspecies active for longer periods than southern species.
Twenty new Australian species of the scarabaeine genus Onthophagus Latreille are described: O. arkoola, O. beelarong, O. bindaree, O. binyana, O. bundara, O. cooloola, O. dinjerra, O. godarra, O. gurburra, O. kakadu, O. mije, O. mongana, O. pinaroo, O. trawalla, O. weringerong, O. williamsi, O. worooa, O. yackatoon, O. yaran, O. yourula.
Notes and scanning electron micrographs are given to assist in the separation of each from previously described Australian species. Distribution maps are provided for each species
This study examines the level and pattern of endemism among 274 flightless rainforest insects found in the Wet Tropics region of Australia. Endemism is measured at two nested scales: (1) those confined to the Wet Tropics, termed 'regional endemics'; and (2) the subset of those species confined to a single subregion of the Wet Tropics, termed 'subregional endemics'. Fifty per cent of the regional endemic flightless insects are also subregional endemics compared with 15% of the known regional endemic vertebrates. The four subregions with the most endemic flightless insect species are the uplands of Mt Finnigan, Carbine, Bellenden-Ker/Bartle Frere and Atherton. Multiple regression suggests that the combination of rainforest area and shape explain the most variance (R-2 = 0.603) in the numbers of species of regional endemic insects. However, subregional endemism is not closely correlated with the size or shape of the subregions in which they occur, or a combination of these factors. Candidate refugial and recolonised subregions are identified, and are consistent with data from palaeoclimatic models and refugia identified using other taxa. We group upland subregions into larger areas of endemism using parsimony analysis of endemism. These groupings are consistent with our understanding of the history of the Wet Tropics rainforests.
The 12 genera of Pilipalpinae are classified on the basis of characters of larvae and adults. Three new genera and six new species are described. Phylogenetic analysis of 30 structural characters of larvae and adults yielded the incompletely resolved relationships among genera of Pilipalpinae. The historical geographical relationships inferred from the reconstructed phylogeny were compared with geological evidence. The ancestral stock of Pilipalpinae was widespread on Gondwanaland, and differentiated through its fragmentation. Remnant relict genera persisted on Madagascar, New Zealand, South America (Magellanica), and Australia Brooks Parsimony Analysis was conducted on the data, which agreed generally with accepted geological evidence and is considered support for the hypothesised phylogeny. The area relationships of other Southern Hemisphere groups were compared with Pilipalpinae. Distribution maps are included. -from Author
We propose a new genus of the Gyliauchenidae Fukui, 1929 ( Digenea), Ptychogyliauchen, gen. nov., for four new species that infect Indo-West Pacific siganid fishes. Ptychogyliauchen, gen. nov. is a morphologically distinctive genus, diagnosed principally by the presence of a highly convoluted oesophagus, which generally exceeds the total body length of the worm, and by the unusual folded structure of the ejaculatory duct. Ptychogyliauchen thetidis, sp. nov. is designated as the type species, and is described from the intestine of Siganus punctatus (Siganidae) from Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Ptychogyliauchen himinglaeva, sp. nov. is described from the intestine of Siganus corallinus ( Siganidae) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Ptychogyliauchen leucothea, sp. nov. is described from the intestine of S. argenteus, and further recorded from S. fuscescens, off Ningaloo, Western Australia, Australia. Ptychogyliauchen thistilbardi, sp. nov. is described from the intestine of S. doliatus from Noumea, New Caledonia, and is also found in S. argenteus, S. canaliculatus, S. corallinus and S. spinus from Noumea, New Caledonia, and Moorea, Tahiti, French Pacific. Ptychogyliauchen thistilbardi, sp. nov. also occurs in the intestine of Chaetodon citrinellus (Chaetodontidae) from Moorea. A key to species is provided. All species have been described following morphological examination using light microscopy, and specimens of P. thetidis, sp. nov., P. leucothea, sp. nov. and P. thistilbardi, sp. nov. have been characterised using molecular methods. Sequences were obtained for a combination of nuclear ribosomal (28S (D1-D3) and ITS2) and mitochondrial (ND1) genes. A phylogenetic analysis of sequenced specimens of Ptychogyliauchen, gen. nov. was conducted using species of Petalocotyle Ozaki, 1934 for outgroup comparison. This analysis, based on alignments of the ITS2 and 28S (D1-D3) rDNA genes, supports monophyly of the geographically widespread P. thistilbardi, sp. nov., which is known from both siganid and chaetodontid hosts. We discuss the taxonomy of the genus and the host associations of each species and the group.
The authors wish to add the following author, who was inadvertently omitted, to The GIGA Community of Scientists (COS) on p. 7 in Appendix 1. Iliana B. Baums (The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA).
The taxonomic status of the species Clibanarius sclopetarius (Herbst, 1796) and Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802), which have sympatric biogeographical distributions restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, is based only on differences in the colour pattern of the walking legs of adults. Their morphological similarity led to the suggestion that they be synonymised. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we included species of Clibanarius Dana, 1892 in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene and the COI barcode region. In addition, we combined the molecular results with morphological observations obtained from several samples of these two species. The genetic divergences of the 16S rDNA and COI sequences between C. sclopetarius and C. vittatus ranged from 4.5 to 5.9% and 9.4 to 11.9%, which did not justify their synonymisation. Differences in the telson morphology, chela ornamentation, and coloration of the eyestalks and antennal peduncle provided support for the separation of the two species. Another interesting result was a considerable genetic difference found between populations of C. vittatus from Brazil and the Gulf of Mexico, which may indicate the existence of two homonymous species.
The cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) related to tribe Cicadini exhibit some of the most remarkable phenotypes in the family, with many genera possessing striking colour patterns and unusual morphological features. This largely Asian group of 13 tribes has proven challenging for cicada taxonomists, in part because of likely convergent evolution or losses of these phenotypes. We present the first focused molecular phylogeny of this clade, including ~60 described genera. The genetic dataset contains 839 ingroup-informative sites (out of 2575) from mitochondrial cytochromec oxidase subunitI, nuclear elongation factor-1α, and nuclear acetyltransferase. We use Bayesian and maximum likelihood trees to test recent changes in tribe- and subtribe-level classification, and we reconstruct ancestral character states for potentially convergent traits influencing tribe descriptions. We use fossil and molecular clock calibrations to estimate the temporal and geographic context of the radiation. The tribes Gaeanini, Leptopsaltriini, Platypleurini, Psithyristriini, and Tosenini appear polyphyletic and in need of revision, in part because of convergent evolution of opaque wings and multiple convergent gains or losses of abdominal tubercles. Kalabita Moulton, 1923 is transferred from Platypleurini to Leptopsaltriini. Vittagaeana gen. nov. is established for Vittagaeana paviei comb. nov. and Vittagaeana dives comb. nov., formerly in Tosena. Sinosenini syn. nov. is synonymised with Dundubiina. Ayuthiini trib. nov. is established with two new subtribes for Ayuthia Distant, 1919 and Distantalna Boulard, 2009, formerly in Tosenini. For the earliest split in the tree, one common ancestor appears to have been Indian + Asian in geographic distribution and the other Asian. We estimate that the radiation began in the middle Cenozoic Era, possibly as recently as the early Miocene. The recent and steady pattern of diversification suggests that refinement of tribe diagnoses will prove challenging. http://zoobank.org:urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5A6C16F4-5269-453B-BA5C-B29C3394683A
An integrative approach to investigate the species-level diversity in Oxynoe (Mollusca, Heterobranchia, Sacoglossa) revealed the existence of 11 distinct taxa. Oxynoe viridis (Pease, 1861) and Oxynoe antillarum Mörch, 1863 are redescribed Oxynoe natalensis E. A. Smith, 1903 and Oxynoe azuropunctata Jensen, 1980 are regarded as valid. Species originally described from empty shells are regarded as nomina dubia. Seven new species are described, four from the tropical Indo-West Pacific: Oxynoe kylei, sp. Nov., Oxynoe neridae, sp. Nov., Oxynoe jordani, sp. Nov. and Oxynoe jacksoni, sp. Nov. and two from the tropical Atlantic: Oxynoe struthioe, sp. Nov. and Oxynoe ilani, sp. Nov. The name Oxynoe panamensis Pilsbry & Olsson, 1943 has been applied to eastern Pacific specimens, but was introduced based on material collected from the Caribbean therefore, the new name Oxynoe aliciae, sp. Nov. is introduced for eastern Pacific specimens. Species are delineated using molecular and morphological traits, as well as algal host and reproductive biology. Results from morphological comparisons are concordant with molecular and integrative species delimitation analyses, providing robust evidence for species hypotheses. As Oxynoe is one of the few groups specialised to feed on the green algal genus Caulerpa, which includes highly invasive species, clarifying the taxonomy of Oxynoe may inform efforts to predict community response to disruptive algal invasions.
Three species of the genus Asterina are known to inhabit the Mediterranean Sea and the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean: Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777), A. pancerii (Gasco, 1870) and A. phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979. Differentiation of these species has primarily been based only on subtle characters (some highly debatable), such as colour or size. Therefore, this study aimed to review the morphological data characterising members of the genus, to incorporate new characters that may clarify morphological analyses and to couple morphological data with molecular evidence of differentiation based on the analysis of partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 18S rDNA (18S) genes and two anonymous nuclear loci (AgX2 and AgX5). The different lineages and cryptic species identified from the molecular analysis were then morphologically characterised, which was challenging given the limited number of diagnostic characters. Two of the five monophyletic lineages obtained molecularly (COI divergence >4%), further supported by differences in morphological characters and reproductive behaviour, are proposed as new species: Asterina martinbarriosi, sp. nov. from the Canary Islands, Spain (eastern central Atlantic Ocean) and Asterina vicentae, sp. nov. from Tarragona, north-eastern Spain (western Mediterranean Sea).
Poecilogony is the intraspecific variation in developmental mode, with larvae of different types produced by the same individual, population or species. It is very rare among marine invertebrates, and in gastropods has long been described only in a few opisthobranchs. The physiological and regulatory mechanisms underlying larval evolutionary transitions, such as loss of planktotrophy that occurred repeatedly in many caenogastropod lineages, are still largely unknown. We have studied the inter- v. intraspecific variation in larval development in the north-east Atlantic neogastropod genus Raphitoma Bellardi, 1847, starting with an iterative taxonomy approach: 17 morphology-based Preliminary Species Hypotheses were tested against a COI molecular-distance-based method (ABGD), and the retained species hypotheses were eventually inspected for reciprocal monophyly on a multilocus dataset. We subsequently performed an ancestral state reconstruction on an ultrametric tree of the 10 Final Species Hypotheses, time-calibrated by fossils, revealing that the interspecific changes were planktotrophy > lecithotrophy, and all have occurred in the Pleistocene, after 2.5 million years ago. This is suggestive of a major role played by Pleistocene Mediterranean oceanographic conditions – enhanced oligotrophy, unpredictable availability of water column resources – likely to favour loss of planktotrophy. Within this group of species, which has diversified after the Miocene, we identified one pair of sibling species differing in their larval development, Raphitoma cordieri (Payraudeau, 1826) and R. horrida (Monterosato, 1884). However, we also identified two Final Species Hypotheses, each comprising individuals with both larval developmental types. Our working hypothesis is that they correspond to one or two poecilogonous species. If confirmed by other nuclear markers, this would be the first documentation of poecilogony in the Neogastropoda, and the second in the whole Caenogastropoda. Although sibling species with different developmental strategies may offer good models to study some evolutionary aspects, poecilogonous taxa are optimally suited for identifying regulatory and developmental mechanisms underlying evolutionary transitions.
The click-beetle family Elateridae is an abundant and ecologically important component of the saproxylic fauna, and many species are used as key indicators of old-growth forests, a rare and endangered habitat in Europe. Among Elateridae, the tribe Ampedini includes several species with unclear taxonomic status. Here we examined the species status and the relationships between 26 of the 29 Ampedini species recorded in Switzerland using both mitochondrial (CO1) and nuclear (ITS2) markers, and compared our results with the CO1 data publicly available for Europe. Our tree-based species-delimitation analysis was largely congruent with traditional, morphology-based species, with the ITS2 and the combined (CO1+ITS2) datasets corresponding more precisely to morphology than the CO1 dataset. As expected, species with unclear or debated taxonomic status generally corresponded to closely related DNA-based species pairs. Our results support the taxonomic status of some of these ambiguous species, while others require further investigations, including a more exhaustive sampling and new morphological examinations. The Ampedini species tree provided here, which is the first attempt of a DNA-based Ampedini phylogeny, did not support the genera Brachygonus and Ampedus as monophyletic, but further investigations are necessary to confirm this result.
The Indo-Pacific genus Metopograpsus belongs to the family Grapsidae and comprises six species of intertidal crabs inhabiting sheltered rocky shores and mangrove forests. All species are opportunistic feeders and four of them are associated with roots and trunks of mangroves. So far, no comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study has been conducted on this genus, despite the fact that some species are not easily separable from a morphological point of view. We performed a phylogenetic and phylogeographic investigation based on sequences corresponding to both ribosomal mitochondrial DNA genes from 44 samples of Metopograpsus spp., covering the distribution ranges of each species. Our main aims were to validate species identification across their respective distribution ranges and depict the phylogeographic patterns within each species. Our phylogenetic inference reconstructions confirmed monophyly of the six species. We also recorded a high intraspecific genetic variation and strong phylogeographic structure within M. thukuhar and M. quadridentatus. This indicates the occurrence of distinct evolutionarily significant units within these two taxa, possibly corresponding to undescribed species. Further nuclear DNA-based phylogeographic analyses, as well as morphological investigations, will be necessary to assign a taxonomic value to the recorded evolutionarily significant units.
Phylogenetic relationships of two morphologically similar scolopendrid genera, Rhysida Wood, 1862, and Alluropus Silvestri, 1912, were investigated based on broad-scale taxonomic sampling from SE Asia, India and Australia. Morphological revision and molecular phylogenetics using three loci validate seven Rhysida species in SE Asia and Australia: R. lithobioides (Newport, 1845), R. longipes (Newport, 1845), R. immarginata (Porat, 1876), R. nuda (Newport, 1845), R. carinulata (Haase, 1887), R. singaporiensis Verhoeff, 1937 and R. polyacantha Koch, 1985. The nominal SE Asian species R. leviventer Attems, 1953 and R. marginata Attems, 1953 are placed in junior subjective synonymy with R. lithobioides and Alluropus calcaratus (Pocock, 1891), respectively. The monotypic genus Alluropus is redescribed, molecular phylogeny recovering it nesting together with Indo-Australian Rhysida. Taxonomic revision reassigned R. calcarata Pocock, 1891 to Alluropus based on its morphological and molecular similarity to the type, A. demangei Silvestri, 1912, the differences between putative species being sexual variation. Two morphologically distinct allopatric populations of A. calcaratus, comb. nov. (= A. demangei, syn. nov.) were found in the Indochina subregion. Phylogenetic relationships in Otostigminae remain unsettled because clades within several genera lack significant support, although Rhysida consistently falls into two clades that are not each other's closest relative.
The characterisation of intraspecific genetic diversity in representatives of the South American crayfish genus Parastacus Huxley, 1879 is here carried out for the first time by comparing populations of Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) as currently defined. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers indicate the existence of multiple lineages, of which only one can be considered as P. brasiliensis sensu stricto. In addition, there are seven other lineages, one of which is the subspecies Parastacus brasiliensis promatensis Fontoura & Conter, 2008, which is here elevated to species level. We thereby increase to 14 the number of recognised species within Parastacus in South America. Genetic distances among P. brasiliensis sensu stricto and the lineages ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ increase with geographical distances, suggesting isolation by distance as an important driver of diversification, and eventually speciation, in these burrowing crayfishes. Parastacus brasiliensis occurs mainly in the Guaíba Lake basin and studied populations show limited connectivity and gene flow, probably due to habitat fragmentation. On the basis of genetic and distribution data, the conservation status of P. brasiliensis sensu stricto is confirmed as Near Threatened (NT). These findings lead us to encourage the establishment of preservation areas for isolated populations. The importance of preserving the newly recognised distinct gene pools in order to maintain overall genetic diversity is emphasised.
A classic dilemma in taxonomy is distinguishing intraspecific from interspecific variation. In order to better comprehend the process of divergence and speciation, we examine morphological, genetic, developmental and behavioural variation among related fiddler crab populations from eastern North America, the Caribbean and South America. We chose geographically remote populations that appear related to Minuca rapax (Smith, 1870). First, using females from across the range of the species, we use geometric morphometric techniques to identify regional differences in carapace shape. Second, in the northern portion of the range, the Caribbean into the Gulf of Mexico, we report variation in the relationship between corporal size and cheliped length in males. Third, we examine the major components of the courtship waves produced by males from several locations in the western Gulf of Mexico. Fourth, we compare the structure of the gastric mill between different populations in the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and the Atlantic Ocean. And, fifth, we use mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I as genetic markers to define the phylogeographic relationship among specimens from more than 20 populations. From these studies, we find discrete, distinct populations across the original range of the species. In particular, populations in the northern Gulf of Mexico appear to represent a lineage that has resulted from limited gene flow and sustained selection pressures. On the basis of the observed degree of divergence, it is apparent that some separated populations in M. rapax should be recognised as evolutionary significant units. The geographic range of these populations is consistent with the historical range for Minuca virens (Salmon & Atsaides, 1968), a putative species that otherwise cannot be consistently distinguished from M. rapax based on discrete external morphological characters. This study provides evidence for M. virens as an emergent but possibly not completely isolated subclade of the M. rapax species complex.
Some brachyuran crab species of the Western Pacific appear to be widespread throughout the region and distributed across a large geographic area, without obvious phylogeographic structuring. In the present study, we describe a new species of Parasesarma that appears to be restricted to Western Pacific islands (so far Guam, Palau, Vanuatu, Fiji, Wallis and New Caledonia). Comparisons of partial sequences of the COX1 gene show that individuals of this species, though from relatively isolated and widely separated islands, are monophyletic and, surprisingly, genetically uniform. These results give credence to the hypothesis that these oceanic islands serve as ‘stepping stones’ for the current-mediated dispersal and genetic homogenisation of coastal–littoral marine species. Morphologically, the new species differs most significantly from similar congeners in the tuberculation pattern of the chelar dactyli, whereas genetically it is markedly divergent from other morphologically similar species of Parasesarma, with a minimum COX1 p-distance of 6.9%. With such evidence, the new species is here formally described as Parasesarma daviei sp. nov. It is the fifth species of Parasesarma reported from oceanic islands of the Western Pacific. Compared to other congeners, P. daviei sp. nov. shows a close relationship with a clade including P. calypso. Therefore, P. calypso (De Man, 1895), and three of its former subspecies or varieties were subjected to a closer examination and are here rediagnosed and illustrated. In consequence, we suggest full species status for P. kuekenthali (De Man, 1902), P. lanchesteri (Tweedie, 1936), and P. ellenae (Pretzmann, 1968).
The genus Holopodostreptus Carl, 1913 is a poorly known monotypic genus endemic to Ecuador. It differs from most other Pseudonannolenidae by a set of characteristics of the gnathochilarium and gonopods. Herein, we provide descriptive notes of males of H. braueri Carl, 1913 based on recently collected material. Females of the species are described for the first time, and images of the vulvae are provided. In addition, we attempt for the first time to place Holopodostreptus in a phylogenetic context. With a total of 14 taxa and 41 morphological characters, and under implied weighting (k = 6), a single most-parsimonious tree is recovered (total fit = 35.86). The genus is recovered as sister-group of Physiostreptus Silvestri, 1903. The clade Holopodostreptus + Physiostreptus is supported by one synapomorphy (absence of setae on the prefemoral process of leg-pair 1 in males) and one homoplastic transformation (narrow telopodite). Based on the phylogenetic results, notes on the subfamilies Pseudonannoleninae, Cambalomminae and Physiostreptinae and a key for all pseudonannolenid genera are provided.
Telestula humilis (Thomson, 1927) is a rare deep-sea stoloniferan octocoral distributed in the eastern Atlantic. Here we compared seven putative colonies of this species collected off Spain with the lectotype from the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco and found them to be identical morphologically. Phylogenetic analyses on both full mitogenomes and a concatenated alignment containing two mtDNA genes (mtMutS and Cox1) and nuclear 28S rRNA gene recovered Telestula humilis sister to Incrustatus and Inconstantia rather than to other species of Telestula. This therefore supports its taxonomic reassignment to Pseudotelestula gen. nov. as Pseudotelestula humilis comb. nov. The taxonomic reassignment is also supported by subtle differences observed between the morphology of the colony and the sclerome of Pseudotelestula humilis comb. nov. and the two sister genera. The occurrence of an intrusion tissue with sclerites in the basal part of the gastric cavity of the adult polyps is shared among Telestula and Pseudotelestula gen. nov. However, Pseudotelestula gen. nov. has sclerites arranged in a collaret and points below the tentacles, the sclerites of the calyx wall and the stolon are plump warty spindles, and the intrusion tissue has long sticks and spindles with cone-like spines.
The Australian endemic lycaenid Pseudalmenus H.H. Druce, 1902 occupies a unique phylogenetic position within the Theclinae–Polyommatinae assemblage. Although the genus exhibits complex geographic variation, it has long been considered to be monotypic. However, evidence from adult phenotype (colour pattern), immature stages (final instar larva) and ecology (ant specificity) (total of 10 unique character states) as well as limited genetic data (mitochondrial COI) suggest that there are two species, namely, P. chlorinda (Blanchard, 1848) from Tasmania and the mainland of south-eastern Australia and P. barringtonensis Waterhouse, 1928 stat. rev., which is allopatric and narrowly restricted to montane areas in northern New South Wales. Examination of the ‘holotype’ male of P. barringtonensis in the Australian Museum showed that it is a fake, although the data label is genuine; the specimen is actually P. chlorinda chloris Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914 that has been modified with red paint to resemble P. barringtonensis. The true holotype is currently missing, but a specimen in the Australian Museum (registration No. K199026) that is part of the Colin W. Wyatt Theft Collection with a fictitious label is almost certainly the true holotype of P. barringtonensis. We discuss the history of this most unusual and bizarre circumstance and conclude that Wyatt stole the holotype sometime in 1946 before he returned to England (~72 years ago) and fabricated the fake holotype as a replacement specimen. Such a fraudulent and unprecedented act surely ranks as Australia’s greatest taxonomic fraud.
Multigene molecular revision of a series of specimens of the rare spongobiotic palaemonid shrimp genus, Onycocaridella Bruce, 1981, collected predominantly from Papua New Guinea, has doubled the known species diversity to six. Of the previously known species, O. monodoa (Fujino & Miyake, 1969) and O. stenolepis (Holthuis, 1952) were analysed in the present study, whereas sequenceable specimens of the type species, O. prima Bruce, 1981, were not available. The present molecular analysis (combined COI, 16S, H3 markers) recovered six separate genetic lineages, indicating the presence of four undescribed species. Three of the latter are described in the present study. Remarkably higher known species diversity of Onycocaridella is thus recorded from a single geographic region – Papua New Guinea. The increased diversity reported here was discovered by application of complementary collecting techniques (hand picking, stone brushing, dead-coral sorting, suction sampling). One of the present new species is also reported from Australia, and O. monodoa is newly recorded from New Caledonia. A revised diagnosis of the genus and a key to identification of all known species of Onycocaridella are provided.
Amphipod crustaceans comprise a significant and enigmatic component of Australian groundwater ecosystems, particularly in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Many amphipod species in the Pilbara, including species in the genus Nedsia Barnard & Williams, 1995, are considered short range endemics, poorly or contentiously defined by taxonomic treatments based on morphology alone and have uncertain distributions as a consequence of this taxonomy. A modern systematic revision of Nedsia is presented here, utilising both molecular and morphological analyses alongside distributional data to delineate species. We describe 13 new species of Nedsia, confirm three existing species and synonymise eight previously described species. Nedsia species are confirmed to be functionally morphologically cryptic, with COI divergences at the 5–20% level. We present comparatively reduced taxonomic descriptions for these cryptic amphipod species in an effort to provide an accelerated pathway for future taxonomic work. The research provides the basis for future environmental impact assessments involving Nedsia species and ongoing monitoring of the groundwater communities these form part of in the resource-rich Pilbara region.
A phylogenetic analysis of 62 species (32 genera) of the Palaearctic millipede family Julidae, including the aberrant alpine genus Pteridoiulus Verhoeff, 1913, was made based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA (16S) gene and the nuclear 28S rRNA (28S) gene, respectively. The two datasets (16S rDNA and 28S rDNA) were analysed in combination but treated as different partitions using direct optimisation as implemented in POY. The 16S rDNA and the 28S rDNA sequences vary from 410 to 449bp and from 467 to 525bp in length, respectively. All searches were performed under six different gap opening costs, an extension gap cost of 1, and a substitution cost of 2. Based on previous investigations the optimal gap opening cost was set to 4, and the robustness of different gap opening costs ranging from 1 to 6 investigated. Additionally, the two data partitions were aligned individually using MAFTT and run in TNT both with gaps treated as a fifth state, and as missing, and finally the alignments were used as input in a maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The order Julida and the family Julidae were recovered as monophyletic under all weight sets in POY, as well as in the TNT and ML analyses. Likewise, in all analyses Pteridoiulus was found to be sister to another monotypic alpine genus, Heteroiulus Verhoeff, 1897. The Pteridoiulus+Heteroiulus clade is robust to parameter changes but lacks morphological support. The distribution pattern of the clade, Pteridoiulus in the eastern Alps (mainly Austria), Heteroiulus in the southern Alps (Italy) seems unique, since similar patterns all involve very similar, closely related species pairs.
Acaciacapsus, gen. nov. is described as a new plant bug genus, with eight new included species: A. amadeus, sp. nov.; A. appha, sp. nov.; A. aureolus, sp. nov.; A. bournda, sp. nov.; A. emeraldensis, sp. nov.; A. lolworthensis, sp. nov.; A. millstreamensis, sp. nov.; and A. woodwardi, sp. nov. Differential diagnoses and descriptions are given for all species, including salient characters, and the male and female genitalia. An identification key is provided to species. Male genitalia are illustrated, and a habitus photograph is provided for each species. Female genitalia are illustrated for two species. The genus is putatively an Acacia specialist, and has cryptozoic yellowish colouration. The species are primarily found in arid and semi-arid regions of non-monsoonal regions of Australia. The collection events are digitised and their distributions mapped. Aphylogeny of species is given. Modifications are given to male genitalic homologies and are discussed in reference to other Australian orthotylines.
Two new species, Mexicope westralia and
Ianthopsis vanhoeffeni, are described from south-western
and south-eastern Australia respectively. One species of
Mexicope was known previously from the Gulf of Mexico
and the Caribbean. New morphological evidence shows that
Mexicope, hitherto considered as family
incertae sedis, should be transferred to the
Acanthaspidiidae. New diagnoses are presented for the family Acanthaspidiidae
as well as the genera Mexicope and
Ianthopsis. The distribution of species in the
Acanthaspidiidae is summarised. The vertical distribution patterns of the
three genera in the family (Acanthaspidia,
Ianthopsis, Mexicope) are shown to
be very different. It is suggested that the family originated in cold water of
the southern hemisphere at lower shelf to upper bathyal depth
(Ianthopsis) with subsequent evolution and radiation of
Acanthaspidia in the deep sea and
Mexicope in shallow warmer to tropical waters.
A recent major revision of the elasmobranchs of Australia, which expanded the described fauna from 190 to 307 species, has serious implications for our understanding of the host associations of parasites of Australian elasmobranchs. Most importantly, it questions the identities of the host records for many parasite species. This study focuses on cestodes of the tetraphyllidean genus Acanthobothrium parasitising Rhynchobatus, a batoid genus, the Australian elements of which have recently been revised. Four new cestode species are described from Rhynchobatus laevis (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) from the Northern Territory, Australia. These species differ from their ~160 congeners in several morphological respects. They differ conspicuously from their four Australian congeners also hosted by a Rhynchobatus species, all four of which (i.e. Acanthobothrium bartonae Campbell & Beveridge, 2002, Acanthobothrium gibsoni Campbell & Beveridge, 2002, Acanthobothrium lasti Campbell & Beveridge, 2002 and Acanthobothrium rhynchobatidis Subhapradha, 1955) were reported from Rhynchobatus djiddensis (Forsskål, 1775), a batoid species no longer considered to occur in Australian waters. This suggests that one or both of the other Australian members of Rhynchobatus (i.e. R. australiae Whitley, 1939 and R. palpebratus Compagno & Last, 2008) are likely candidates as hosts for one or more of the latter four species. With respect to the relationships among congeners parasitising the same host species, phylogenetic analyses of sequence data of the D1–D3 region of 28S rDNA for three of the four new cestode species support previous work suggesting that congeners parasitising the same host species are not each other’s closest relatives. This study also serves to emphasise the importance of careful scrutiny of host identities, particularly in systems such as this, in which host taxonomy is under active revision.
The onchobothriid tetraphyllidean cestode genus
Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1849, parasitic in the
spiral intestine of elasmobranch fishes, was investigated in the Australian
region. Thirty-three species are recognised, including 27 that are new.
Diagnoses compare the morphological taxonomic characters of all congeners. New
species are: Acanthobothrium adlardi;
A. angelae; A. arlenae;
A. bartonae; A. blairi;
A. brayi; A. cannoni;
A. chisholmae; A. clarkeae;
A. cribbi; A. edmondsi;
A. gasseri; A. gibsoni;
A. gloveri; A. jonesi;
A. lasti; A. laurenbrownae;
A. martini; A. mooreae;
A. ocallaghani; A. odonoghuei;
A. pichelinae; A. robertsoni;
A. rohdei; A. stevensi;
A. thomasae; and A. walkeri.
Additional morphological data are provided for
A. australe Robinson, 1965,
A. pearsoni Williams, 1962,
A. heterodonti Drummond, 1937 and
A. urolophi Schmidt, 1973, reported previously from
Australia. Acanthobothrium rhynchobatidis Subhapradha,
1955 and A. semnovesiculum Verma, 1928 are reported from
Australia for the first time and are redescribed. Additional morphological
details are provided for A. ijimae Yoshida, 1917 and
A. grandiceps Yamaguti, 1952.
Acanthobothrium wedli Robinson, 1959 is redescribed from
the type host from New Zealand waters and considered a sister species of
A. blairi from Tasmania. Seven new host genera for
Acanthobothrium are reported:
Hypnos Duméril, 1852 (Hypnidae);
Pristiophorus MÜller & Henle, 1837
(Pristiophoridae); Sutorectus Whitley, 1939
(Orectolobidae); Aptychotrema Norman, 1926 and
Trygonorrhina MÜller & Henle, 1838
(Rhinobatidae); Parascyllium Gill, 1862
(Parascylliidae); and Aetomylaeus Garman, 1908
(Myliobatididae). Species of Acanthobothrium are
reported from the families Hypnidae, Pristiophoridae and Parascylliidae for
the first time. New host species for Acanthobothrium
are: Pristiophorus cirratus (Latham, 1794);
Parascyllium ferrugineum McCulloch, 1911;
Sutorectus tentaculatus (Peters, 1865);
Aptychotrema vincentiana (Haacke, 1885);
Trygonorrhina fasciata MÜller & Henle, 1841;
Raja whitleyi Iredale, 1938;
Raja cerva Whitley, 1939;
Hypnos monopterygium (Shaw & Nodder, 1795);
Dasyatis annotata Last, 1987;
Urolophus cruciatus (Lacépède, 1804);
Urolophus expansus McCulloch, 1916;
Urolophus lobatus McKay, 1966;
Urolophus paucimaculatus Dixon, 1969;
Gymnura australis (Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886);
Aetomylaeus nicofii (Schneider, 1801); and
Myliobatis australis Macleay, 1881 (Myliobatididae). New
host records for Australia include the above 16 elasmobranch species and the
following three host species also known to harbour
Acanthobothrium in other geographic localities:
Rhynchobatis djiddensis (Forsskål, 1775)
(Rhynchobatidae); Himantura uarnak (Forsskål,
1775); and Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål, 1775)
(Dasyatidae). Four additional records for hosts previously reported for
Acanthobothrium from Australian waters are
Squalus megalops (Macleay, 1881) (Squalidae),
Heterodontus portusjacksoni (Meyer, 1793)
(Heterodontidae), Orectolobus maculatus (Bonnaterre,
1788) (Orectolobidae) and
Trygonoptera ‘testacea’ MÜller &
Henle, 1841 (Urolophidae). An emended diagnosis of the genus, key to
Australian species, host-parasite checklist, phylogenetic analysis of the
Australian species and an updated world list of all species of
Acanthobothrium are provided.
The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef ecosystem on the planet and supports a diverse community of marine fishes, as well as the organisms that parasitise them. Although the digenetic trematodes that parasitise fishes of the Great Barrier Reef have been studied for over a century, the species richness and diversity of many trematode lineages is yet to be explored. Trigonocephalotrema, gen. Nov. is proposed to accommodate three new species, Trigonocephalotrema euclidi, sp. Nov., T. hipparchi, sp. Nov. and T. sohcahtoa, sp. Nov., parasitic in fishes of Naso Lacepède and Zebrasoma Swainson (Acanthuridae) in the tropical Pacific. Species of Trigonocephalotrema are characterised with morphological and molecular data (18S rRNA, ITS2 and 28S rRNA). Species of Trigonocephalotrema are morphologically distinguished from all other haplosplanchnid lineages by having terminal, triangular, plate-like oral suckers. With the inclusion of the new molecular data, Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the Haplosplanchnidae Poche, 1926 recovered identical tree topologies and demonstrated Trigonocephalotrema as a well-supported monophyletic group. Although species of Trigonocephalotrema are differentiated from all other haplosplanchnid lineages on the basis of morphology, species within the genus are morphologically cryptic thus, accurate species identification will require inclusion of host and molecular data. Species of Trigonocephalotrema cannot be assigned to a recognised subfamily within the Haplosplanchnidae using either morphological or molecular data and would require the erection of a new subfamily to accommodate them. However, we find little value in the use of subfamilies within the Haplosplanchnidae, given that there are so few taxa in the family, and herein propose that their use be avoided.
Systematists have frequently interpreted lateral compression of the idiosoma
in post-larval instars of water mites as a synapomorphy indicating common
ancestry. This paper re-examines the evidence to support this assumption and
concludes that lateral flattening has occurred independently several times
during water mite evolution, and especially often in various basal clades of
the superfamily Hygrobatoidea. Reassessment of the phylogenetic relationships
of the genera attributed to these clades results in improved understanding of
the early evolution and biogeography of hygrobatoid water mites and
necessitates redefinition of several clades and significant revision of the
family classification. The South African genus
Karlvietsia K.O. Viets, 1962 is transferred from the
subfamily Frontipodopsinae of the family Aturidae to the Hygrobatidae. The
Australian genera Tasmanaxona Cook, 1986,
Wheenyella Cook, 1986 and
Wheenyoides Harvey, 1990 are also removed from
Frontipodopsinae and placed with the genus Wettina
Piersig, 1892, here removed from the family Pionidae, in the family
Wettinidae Cook, stat. nov. Based on apparent
relationship with members of Wettinidae, the South African genus
Stormaxonella K.O. Viets, 1962 is transferred from the
Aturidae and provisionally placed in the Wettinidae. The clade including the
predominately Holarctic genus Lethaxona K.H. Viets, 1932
and the Western Hemisphere genus LethaxonellaCook, 1963
is recognised as the probable sister group of Wettinidae, and these genera are
consequently removed from the Aturidae and placed in Lethaxonidae, fam. nov.
The genus Frontipodopsis Walter is reassigned from
Aturidae to the now monobasic family Frontipodopsidae K.H. Viets, stat. nov.
Finally, five new species are described, including
sudafricanus, sp. nov.,
Wettina occidentalis, sp. nov.,
Karlvietsia simplex, sp. nov.,
gereckei, sp. nov. and Hygrobates
nov., and both Karlvietsia brevipalpis K.O. Viets and
K. angustipalpis K.O. Viets are redescribed.
The public database GenBank is an increasingly important source of sequence data for diagnostic and phylogenetic research; however, not all deposited sequences are necessarily correctly ascribed to a source species. We considered the example of the mite family Phytoseiidae to determine how the corresponding sequences could be accurately exploited. Phytoseiidae mites are well known worldwide for their ability to control certain mite and insect pests. The number of molecular approaches, especially for diagnostic purposes, has increased over the past decade, leading to an increase in the number of sequences registered in the GenBank database. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the validity of the DNA sequences presently assigned to Phytoseiidae species in this database. Three hundred and fifty-one sequences, corresponding to the four most frequently registered DNA fragments (ITS, COI, Cytb and 12S rRNA), were considered. DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing were performed for the fragments 12S rRNA and ITS for Amblyseius andersoni, A. swirskii, Iphiseius degenerans, Euseius ovalis, E. stipulatus, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Typhlodromus pyri, as some identifications were questionable. Numerous problems were evident based on genetic distance analyses of these sequences. First, nomenclatural problems were encountered, preventing the correct identification of the taxa sequenced in one case. Suspected misidentifications were frequent, stressing the importance of voucher specimen availability. For the 12S rRNA fragment, sequences assigned to three Phytoseiidae species were those of their prey (Astigmata), underlining the care that must be taken when manipulating the DNA of such predators (sterile conditions and specific PCR primers). Finally, sequences of two regions of the COI mtDNA were encountered, leading to alignment problems between sequences of a same gene and same species. These results are discussed in relation to responsibilities of authors in terms of taxon identification and the great utility of open access DNA sequence databases, such as GenBank, for improving taxonomic identifications and advancing scientific research.
The Australian fauna of the mite genus Macrocheles Latreille is revised. The fauna is shown to comprise 49 species, 26 of which are here described as new:M. agilis, sp. nov., M. angustus,sp. nov., M. borealis, sp. nov.,M. denhamensis, sp. nov., M. eta,sp. nov., M. forceps, sp. nov.,M. fungicolus, sp. nov., M. gamma,sp. nov., M. guttatus, sp. nov.,M. halli, sp. nov., M. holmi, sp.nov., M. howdenorum, sp. nov.,M. lama, sp. nov., M. lambda, sp.nov., M. omicron, sp. nov.,M. peckorum, sp., nov.,M. rimbija, sp., nov.,M. siderolophus, sp. nov.,M. spatei, sp., nov.,M. spiculatus, sp. nov.,M. tesselatus, sp. nov.,M. undoolya, sp., nov.,M. upsilon, sp. nov., M. waitei,sp. nov., M. wallacei, sp. nov. andM. zeta, sp. nov. A further 23 previously describedspecies are now known from Australia: M. aestivusHalliday, M. boudreauxi Krantz,M. faveolus Halliday,M. feehaniHalliday, M. glaber(MÜller), M. kappaHalliday,M. kraepelini (Berlese),M. krantzi Evans & Hyatt,M. mammifer Berlese, M. merdarius(Berlese), M. muscaedomesticae (Scopoli),M. mykytowyczi Womersley,M. novaezelandiae Emberson,M. paralius Halliday,M. penicilliger (Berlese),M. peniculatusBerlese,M. peregrinus Krantz,M. perglaber Filipponi & Pegazzano,M. robustulus (Berlese),M. similis Krantz & Filipponi,M. subbadius(Berlese),M. tenuirostris Krantz & Filipponi,M. virgo Halliday.Macrocheles hyatti Krantz & Filipponi has beenrecorded from Australia in error, and occurs only in New Zealand.Macrocheles scutatus (Berlese) is known from Australiaonly from a quarantine interception.Macrocheles lyallpurensis nom. nov. is proposed as areplacement name for M. krantzi Anwarullah & Irshadfrom Pakistan (preoccupied by M. krantzi Evans & Hyatt). A key is provided for the identification of all Australian species.
Hesionidae Grube, 1850 currently comprises over 175 species in 28 genera, placed in several subfamilies. Discoveries in recent years have largely been of deep-sea taxa. Here we describe a further four new hesionid species, mainly from methane 'cold' seeps at around 1000-1800 m depths off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and new record of another species. Several of these taxa also occur at methane seeps in the Guaymas Basis (Mexico) and off the USA west coast (California and Oregon). The phylogenetic relationships within Hesionidae are reassessed via maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of DNA sequences from nuclear (18S rRNA and 28SrRNA) and mitochondrial (16SrRNA and Cytochrome c oxidase I) loci for the new samples. On the basis of these results, we refer one of the new species to Gyptis Marion & Bobretzky in Marion, 1874, one to Neogyptis Pleijel, Rouse, Sundkvist & Nygren, 2012, and two to Sirsoe Pleijel, 1998. The new species Gyptis robertscrippsi n. sp., Neogyptis jeffruoccoi n. sp., Sirsoe dalailamai n. sp. and Sirsoe munki n. sp. We refer to a collection of individuals from seeps ranging from Oregon to Costa Rica as Amphiduropsis cf. axialensis (Blake & Hilbig, 1990), even though this species was described from hydrothermal vents off Oregon. Neogyptis jeffruoccoi n. sp. was generally found living inside the solemyid clam Acharax johnsoni (Dall, 1891). The position of Hesiolyra bergi Blake, 1985 is resolved on the basis of newly-collected specimens from near the type locality and, as a result, Hesiolyrinae Pleijel, 1998 is synonymized with Gyptini Pleijel, 1998 (and Gyptinae Pleijel, 1998). http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9C0E88EE-34F8-4F25-9EC8-91797618AC86
A large proportion of psyllid species in the genera Glycaspis and Acizzia (Psyllidae) are specific to one host-plant species in the genera Eucalyptus and Acacia respectively. If short-range endemism is defined on the basis of host-plant specificity, then a large number of Australian psyllid species are short-range endemics. However, this is complicated by factors including the area of distribution of host-plant species, use of different host species by individual psyllid species in different locations, and possible use of several host-plant species within a locality. It is suggested that short-range endemism is an important factor in the diversification of psyllids on eucalypts and wattles.
The original material of the Tasmanian grasshopper described as Calliptamus baiulus by Erichson in 1842 has been rediscovered. A new genus Schayera, related to the mainland Australian genera Azelota and Perunga, is erected to accommodate it. The species has apparently never been collected again and the male is unknown. The genus and species are described and figured.
The genus Praxibulus is recharacterised. Twenty species are recognised, of which the following are new: lewisi, triquetrus, whitei, eurobodallae, hunteranus, laticrista, lophicus, queenslandicus, pallens, stali, tectatus, and uncinatus. All species are fully described, or redescribed. They are difficult to separate on external characters, especially in the female, but are for the most part well characterised on genitalia. Keys to males and females are provided. Phenetic relationships and possible phylogeny are discussed. Distributions are plotted and interpreted; there is extensive sympatry and no evidence of hybridisation. Homologies of certain genitalic features are examined in the light of published views, and some new terms proposed. Karyotypes are reported for four species; these are identical in their gross morphology, with 2n male = 23 telocentrics. The occurrence of rare intersexes is reported for four species; it is concluded that these represent males whose development has been deflected towards a female morphology as a consequence of parasitisation of the nymphs by fly larvae, probably Nemestrinidae.
Two endemic Tasmanian genera of catantopine Acrididae, Truganinia and Tasmanalpina, are newly described, and two others, Russalpia Sjöstedt and Tasmaniacris Sjöstedt, redescribed. All but Russalpia (two species) are monotypic, and all are micropterous except Truganinia (mesopterous). The genera are closely related to some of the endemic New Zealand Acrididae, especially in the male genitalia, which must have suffered little modification over the past 50 million years. The species are described and figured, and their distributions plotted and interpreted in relation to historical geographic and climatic changes.
Three genera previously cited under code numbers in the catantopine subtribe Coryphistina are here formally described as Spectrophistes, Camelophistes, and Charpentierella. All three are at present monotypic, the first two based on new species, the third on a species transferred from Coryphistes de Charpentier.
A classification of the Australian Acridoidea referable to the subfamily Catantopinae was undertaken within the framework proposed in Part I of this series. Five tribes are recognised: three very small, endemic, new ones; the non-endemic Cyrtacanthacridini, with very limited Australian representation; and the non-endemic Catantopini, with 22 subtribes, comprising 95% of the genera of Australian Catantopinae.