International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research

Online ISSN: 2322-4827
Publications
Article
Vermiculture is the culture of earthworms. The goal is to continually increase the number of worms in order to obtain a sustainable harvest. The worms are either used to expand a vermicomposting operation or sold to customers who use them for the same or other purposes. Vermicomposting is the process by which worms are used to convert organic materials (usually wastes) into a humus-like material known as vermicompost. The goal is to process the material as quickly and efficiently as possible.
 
Steps followed for preparation of bitter gourd chips.
Steps followed for preparation of ginger candy.
Steps followed for preparation of tomato ketchup.
Steps followed for preparation of pineapple squash.
Article
Recently, the quality and safety of organic products is the topic of prime concern. While this demand increases since consumer considers organic products are healthier and harmless than conventional products. In the country like India, organic agricultural is not novel and are effectively performs in varied climates such as tribal mountains, mountainous areas and rain-fed zones of the country. According to the government of India, domestic market for organic product is growing but not as expected. As, previous studies shows that high prices of organic products create obstacles for consumers to adopt organic food. Therefore, this study aims to prepare cheaper organic products through devising horticulture products and conduct cost benefit analysis between organic and conventional products. Results demonstrate marginal price difference between organic and conventional products. This study will encourage both manufacturers and consumers to incline towards organic food.
 
Figure1. Location map of studied area at Berenjestanak lowland forest in Mazandaran province, north of Iran  
Site characteristic features and physiographic factors of study plots in the plantations and natural forest at Berenjestanak lowland forest in north of Iran
Article
Increasing urbanisation and industrialisation have led to a dramatic reduction in forest area, and now only culturally protected remnants of natural forests and some new plantations remain in most areas of the north of Iran. To investigate the status of the chemical and physical characteristics of soil under these remnant forests and assess the possible impacts of reforestation on soil properties in the plantation forests, soils at 0-10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm depths were sampled from four tree plantations 22 years of age and it covers 42ha, composed of Pinus brutia L., Populus nigra L., Acer velutinum Boiss and Fraaxinus excelsior L. species, which is located in the South of town of Ghaemshahr in Berenjestanak lowland forest in the North of Iran, where there was remnant natural forest, and soil pH Kcl and pH H2O , total nitrogen, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg and K) contents and saturation moisture were determined. Results showed that the amount of SOM of the first layer of the soil profiles in all forest types was greater than the other two layers. Furthermore, Soil pH was significantly lower in Pinus brutia L. plantation than the other forest types at 0-10 cm of soil depth. A positive value for ∆pH demonstrate the presence of negatively charged clay colloids and the cation exchange capacity is higher than the anion exchange capacity .Soil exchangeable K and Ca contents were significantly lower under plantation forests than under natural forest in all layers, whereas exchangeable Mg contents showed little difference between types of forests. Moreover, contents of all exchangeable cations except Mg showed a significant decrease with depth. The value of soil moisture in the topsoil was higher than in the subsoil in all the categories of the natural forests and the tree plantation studied. The comparison indicated that the tree plantation conducted in this region must be forwarded to mixed forest under tending operations instead of monoculture to enhance and improve soil physicochemical statues.
 
Article
In the present investigation is an attempt to assess the relative abundance of insects in different planting system of forest of study site in Anna University, Coimbatore zone during 2017-19. The main objective of the study was to identify the composition of insect's fauna at genus level in Miyawaki plantation and also to study the diversity and distribution of insects. Miyawaki method is the random and dense plantation of native species. Studies regarding diversity of insects available on miyawaki forest are very few. Totally182 species of insects which it belongs to 21 insect families in Miyawaki plantation were observed. Among all insect families Alydidae having more number of distribution percentage (20.88) followed by Membracidae (18.68), Nymphalidae (14.84) and Monophelbidae (7.69).In normal forest planting 109 insect species which it belongs 13 insect families was observed. Comparison of both system of forests different diversity indices viz., Simpson's diversity index (SDI), Shannon-Wiener Index (H'), Margalef Index (α) and Pielou's Evenness Index (E1) was calculated. In all the indices shows that diversity of insects were high in miyawaki forest plantation than the normal forest.
 
Fatty acids composition of seed oil obtaned from four Iranian commercial pomegranate varieties (%, w/w)
Article
The pomegranate seeds of four Iranian commercial varieties (Abanmahi (AB), Malas (MS), Pust Sefid (PS) and Shahvar (SH)) were evaluated in terms of some quality properties including protein, oil, dietary fiber, mineral contents and fatty acid composition. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of pomegranate seed oils (PSOs) were also determined. The oil antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. Results showed that PS had the highest oil (16.9%) and crude fiber (42.4%), and nutritional value (460.7Kcal/100g) among selected varieties. PS had the highest level of phosphorus (2766.3 mg/kg) and magnesium (2052.0mg/kg), while the highest calcium (675.3mg/kg) and potassium (3724.6mg/kg) were related to SH. The main fatty acid identified by gas chromatography was punicic acid ranged from 72.07% for SH to 73.31% for MS (p<0.05). The ratios of polyunsaturated/saturated and unsaturated/saturated fatty acids of PSOs were found to be between 9.174 and 9.450, and 10.325 and 10.861, respectively (p<0.05). PSOs obtained presented acid (3.78-8.36% punicic acid), peroxide (0.39-0.48meq O2/kg), iodine (216.9-220.3g I2/100g) and saponification (179.3-182.5mg KOH/g) values. Also, refractive index at 25°C, viscosity and density of PSOs varied from 1.461-1.527, 0.036-0.063Pa.s and 0.9202-0.9311g/cm3, respectively. The oil obtained from MS showed the lowest level of ortho-diphenols (ODC) and DPPH radical scavenging capability. The relationship between percentage of remaining DPPH and ODC of PSOs also illustrated high correlation among all varieties (R2 = 0.98, p<0.01).
 
Comparison of performance of students in six questions (three carbohydrate and three lipid metabolism related)
Article
Abstract Objectives: Innovative curriculum with case based learning (CBL) is proven to improve the academic performance of biochemistry in medical students. Thus it was of interest to see if students get motivated & understand the concepts of biochemistry better by CBL. Materials & Methods: First year MBBS students (n=210) were divided into 2 groups. Biochemistry was reinforced to Group 1(Roll numbers 1-100, control) by regular teaching, and group 2 (Roll numbers 101-210, test) was exposed to CBL. Assessment was done by six case based questions. Feedback was obtained on a five point Likert scale about perception on CBL. Results: Group 2 performed better in four questions than group 1 and showed similar performance in 1 question. 81.69 % agreed CBL motivated to learn Biochemistry, 79.07% agreed CBL helped understand the subject better, 79.07% stated CBL promoted meaningful learning, 75.15% agreed CBL helped in development of critical thinking, 88.23% said biochemistry is useful in diagnosis & care, 79.73% suggested CBL should be implemented to all topics of biochemistry, 78.42% voted interactive review sessions involving CBL would be more effective. Conclusion: Reinforcing biochemistry by CBL motivates, promotes meaningful learning and helps development of critical thinking. First year medical students were convinced that biochemistry is helpful in patient diagnosis & care following CBL. Keywords: Case based learning, Biochemistry, Integrated curriculum, Reinforcement, Motivation.
 
Representative physic nut study sites of the country selected for the study. 
Fatty acid profile of Ethiopian Jatropha oil compared with different Jatropha oils obtained from different countries.
Biodiesel Quality of Ethiopian Jatropha populations compared with European and American Standards. 
Article
For determining the fatty acid characteristics and biodiesel quality of Ethiopian Jatropha provenances, the study was conducted in five regions namely Southern Nation Nationalities Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), Amhara region, Tigria region, Oromia region and Benishangul Gumuz Regions, where physic nut is found abundantly. For each region, representative sampling sites were selected following thorough discussion with head of Mines and Energy at zonal level. During representative sample site selection, one knowledgeable and responsible expert was assigned from the zonal mines and energy office for making the site selection more perfect and easier and thereby to collect representative data from each region. Following this arrestment, a total of 23 Zones, 36 Weredas and 40 sampling sites were considered from five regions of the country for the study. It was observed that the identified constituents of the Jatropha oils are linoleic acid, stearic acid, palmetic acid and oleic acid. From the identified fatty acids, oleic acid was the major constituent followed by stearic acid. The constituents of the fatty acids ranged from 42.8-51.4% for oleic acid, 10.9-19.3% for stearic acid, 10.62-15.91% for palmetic acid and 21.73-25.43% for linoleic acid. The biodiesel quality characteristics of Ethiopian Jatropha seeds were found within the limits of American standard (D874) and European standard (EN 14214 standard). Hence, it can be concluded that the seeds of the existing Ethiopian Jatropha population can be used for the production and processing of environmentally friendly biodiesel.
 
Interaction effect of irrigation × salicylic acid on leaf area, chlorophyll content and fresh weight of root and leaf of coriander. 
of variance of the effects of irrigation, fertilizer and salicylic acid on growth and grain yield of coriander. 
effect of fertilization × salicylic acid on leaf area, chlorophyll content and fresh weight of root and leaf of coriander. 
Article
Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding CASRP΄s archiving and manuscript policies encouraged to visit: http://www.casrp.co.uk/journals Abstract Salicylic acid (SA) is a phyto-hormone that regulates physiological and biological processes in plants and can be used to improve plant growth under different environmental conditions, including water stress. Thus, a field experiment as split plot factorial based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications was conducted in 2014 to investigate the effects of fertilizer and salicylic acid on growth, chlorophyll content and grain yield of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) plants under drought stress. Treatments were three levels of water supply (irrigation after 60, 90 and 120 mm evaporation from class A pan) and four levels of fertilizer application (control, 100 kg ha-1 Urea, Nitrokara (biofertilizer) and 50% Urea + Nitrokara) and foliar spray of salicylic acid (0 and 1 mM). Results indicated that water deficit had a significant reduction effect on leaf area, chlorophyll content, fresh weight of root and leaf and grain yield. Salicylic acid and 50% Urea + Nitrokara resulted in a significant increase of all traits under stress and well watering conditions. Although highest amount of studied traits was observed in plants treated with SA or application of 50% Urea and Nitrokara under well watering, but the changes rate was higher under stress conditions. Therefore, salicylic acid and combination of urea and Nitrokara can be used to promote growth of coriander under different water availabilities, which ultimately can enhance field performance of this plant.
 
The introduction of heart either before M1 or in between M1 and M2 results in direct immortalization, thus representing the importance of telomeres in both stages of replicative senescence. 30 
Article
Cancer biomarker has increased tremendously providing great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients by enhancing the efficiency of detection and efficacy of treatment. Every cell type has a unique molecular signature, referred to as biomarkers, which are identifiable characteristics such as levels or activities of a numerous of genes, proteins or other molecular features. Biomarkers are therefore, an objective measure or assessment of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. In cancer Biomarker refers to a substance that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. Telomerase activity is readily detected in most cancer biopsies, but not in premalignant lesion or in normal tissue samples with a few exceptions that include germ cells and hemopoietic stem cells. Telomere activity may therefore be a useful biomarker for diagnosis of malignancies and a target for inactivation in chemotherapy and gene therapy. The present review provides a brief account on telomerase as a biomarker for diagnosis of cancer. Keywords: Biomarker, Cancer, Telomerase
 
Experimental Scheme
The phytotoxic effects of diesel fuel contaminated under study derno-podzoluivisolic soil on the growth of oat seedlings under different soil moisture conditions
Article
This article examines the phytotoxic effect of diesel fuel contamination on plants growing on contaminated soils under different conditions of soil moisture, and the impact of petroleum hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms in mitigating the toxic effects of diesel fuel contamination. After 12 weeks of experiment, results of the research showed a significant increase in the percentage of germinated oat seedlings of up to 100%; and the length of oat seedlings to 11 cm under favorable conditions of soil moisture content of 60%, which is optimal for soil microbial activities. Under deficient moisture conditions (30%) the percentage of germinated seedlings increased only up to 60%, and the length of oat seedlings to 7.7 cm.
 
Graphical representation of the efficacy of Pseudomin in the bioremediation of the diesel contaminated dernopodzoluivisols under two different conditions of soil moisture  
Article
This article examines the critical effect of soil moisture content on the rate of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation, and on the performance of the biopreparation Pseudomin in the clean-up of diesel fuel contaminated derno-podzoluvisolic soils. Results of the research showed that the optimal condition in enhancing the efficacy of Pseudomin was noted under conditions of around (60%) of maximum soil moisture capacity. The rate of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in the soil samples under this soil moisture condition was accelerated up to 5 times, in comparison with soil moisture conditions of around (30%) and conditions of complete saturation, which significantly slowed down the process of bioremediation in the soil samples.
 
Light microscopy of ileal mucosa.
Article
Cancer can significantly have ruining effects on very high of human beings, social, and economic condition. Bladder cancer has been reported as one of the most common cancers and the incidence rates of this cancer is increasing across the world. Cystectomy is a surgery to remove the urinary bladder. In the present study a part of the ileum is used instead of bladder. This study deals with mucosa morphological changes induced in a patient with history of cystectomy surgery, an 8-year follow-up. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin in order to examine the changes in the thickness of the mucosa processed for light and electronic microscopy. During examining microscopic slides simple epithelial tissue with goblet cells were observed. Also, Lieberkuhn gland and loose connective tissue were seen. The existence of thick layers at cylindrical cells, it could be due to urinating. Finally, goblet cells maybe loss the property of mucosa secretion.
 
Article
Objective: The aim of this experiment was to determine chemical composition, protein quality of corn gluten meal (CGM) and its effect on growth performance of broiler chicks. Methods: Chemical composition and nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy of CGM was determined by standard and precision-fed cockerel assay methods. For evaluating of protein quality, 90 male broiler chicks in a completely randomized design was used and fed experimental diets from 8 to 17 days of age and in the growth assay, 1200-day-old broiler chickens in a completely randomized design were used for evaluating effects of four levels of CGM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics. Results: The average of TMEn and crude protein content of CGM sample were 4145 kcal/kg and 60.44 %, respectively. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) and Net protein ratio (NPR) values for CGM were 1.26 and 2.30, respectively. The growth assay result showed that the all level of CGM had positive effect on broiler performance (P<0.01), While, the best weight gain and FCR were obtained in the birds were fed 12% of CGM in different weeks of experimental period. Conclusions: Therefore, it is suggested that the CGM can be used in the ration for improvement broiler chicks’ performance.
 
Article
Objective: The protein quality of earthworm meal was evaluated and compared to that of soybean meal (SBM) in two experiments using broiler chicks. Methods: The protein quality of earthworm meal was evaluated and compared to that of soybean meal (SBM) in two experiments using broiler chicks. Results: The results of experiment 1 indicated that there were no significant differences between earthworm meal and soybean meal in PER or NPR, but the breast muscle weight was increased in broilers fed earthworm meal diets, significantly (p<0.05). The birds fed with earthworm meal diets had a higher crude protein digestibility (p<0.05). In experiment 2, feed efficiency ratio was decreased in broilers fed diets supplemented with earthworm meal (p<0.05). The results of carcass characteristics showed that dietary treatments had a significant effect on breast percentage (p<0.05). The crypt depth of jejunum was higher in birds fed with maximum inclusion rate of earthworm meal (p<0.05). In experiment 2, the blood biochemical parameters of broilers were not affected by treatments. In regards with these results, it is suggested that use of earthworm meal in broiler diets may be suitable.
 
Article
Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of citrus brown snail powder as a source of calcium on growth performance, tibia characteristics, immune response and blood metabolites in broiler chickens. Methods: One hundred and eighty 1-day old chicks were randomly distributed into four treatments, each of which had three replicates. Each replicate contains 15 chicks. The treatments were included four inclusion rates of citrus brown snail powder (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%) in diets. Results: The results showed that diets supplemented with 2% snail powder improved feed conversion ratio of broilers at 42 days of age (P <0.05). Relative weights of organs, except for liver and digestive tract, were not affected by dietary treatments. The dietary treatments had a significant effect on blood triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lymphocyte of broilers (P <0.05). The others blood metabolites such as calcium, phosphorous, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hemoglobin and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio were not influenced by dietary treatments. The results of this experiment showed that use of citrus brown snail powder in diets had no significant effect on the immune response (antibody titer) against Newcastle (NDV) and infectious bronchitis (IBV) disease viruses in broilers. Tibia calcium and phosphorous content was increased in broilers fed diets supplementation with citrus brown snail powder (P <0.05). It was concluded that the addition of citrus brown snail powder to diet can improved growth performance and tibia characteristics in broilers.
 
Article
A research was carried out so as to determine the effect of Iranian green tea (IGT) powder in diet on blood metabolites and carcass traits of broiler chickens. Therefore, considered four treatments consisting (basic diet + IGT 5g/kg feed, basic diet + IGT 10g/kg feed, basic diet + IGT 15g/kg feed and one control diet without additive), and three replicates (15 chicks per repeat). This study lasted 42 days. The data obtained were analyzed according to the complete randomized design model. The results this study was showed that effects of supplementation of diet with green tea were significant on cecum weight, TBARS, LDL and cholesterol of plasma (P<0.05). The highest LDL, HDL, TBARS and cholesterol were related to control groups, but, the highest and lowest cecum weight mean was related to 15g green tea and 10g green tea groups (P<0.05) respectively. However, the additives had no any significant effects on glucose, triglyceride (TG), HDL and other carcass traits (P>0.05). In conclusion, this experiment indicated that diets supplementation with Iranian green tea powder; have positive effects on carcass oxidation of broilers and it could be also helpful in decrease plasma LDL and cholesterol and reducing the cardiovascular diseases.
 
Water consumption of broilers in 35 days as affected by different levels of vermi meal subjected to total confinement and free range
Dressing percentage of broilers in 35 days as affected by different levels of vermi meal subjected to total confinement and free range.
Production, profitability and the return of investment of broilers in 35 days raised under two management systems and with vermi meal supplementation
Article
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the different levels of vermi (Eisenia fetida) meal on fermented ration in broiler chicken growth and profitability under two management systems. For this purpose, 120 day old broiler chickens (cobb vantress) were tested in a completely randomized design with four (4) dietary treatments: first, the commercial feeds (control), second, 2% vermi meal+local ingredients, third, 3% vermi meal+local ingredients and fourth, 5% vermi meal+local ingredients in three (3) replications where 15 broilers were randomly distributed in the pens. The result revealed that the total confinement system had higher body weight and weight gain with a slight difference of 35. 60 grams and 36.90 grams respectively as compared to that of free-range system that had lesser feed consumption with difference of 81.10 grams and high in net income and Return of Investment (ROI). In relation to feed ration, feed consumption increased when given higher percentage of vermi and it was significantly different from the commercial feeds. In three (3) different levels of vermi meal, though they didn't have significant difference to each other, the 2% level of vermi meal was comparable to commercial feeds and showed a difference in terms of body weight of 296.70 grams in TC; 326.00 grams in FR. In terms of weight gain 296.67 grams in TC and 370.97 grams in FR in both management systems. Consequently, 2% level vermi meal had an optimum result in final body weight, weight gain and high in feed conversion.
 
Article
Rambutan tree (Nepheliumlappaceum L.) is an important but a lesser known fruit tree in Ghana and has several nutritional and medicinal uses. Efforts to establish plantation of Rambutan in Ghana to ensure its sustainable use is challenged with unavailable planting materials because the seeds are recalcitrant in nature, loses viability easily when exposed to dryness. Seeds are therefore sown directly after extraction from fruit, even with this, most of the seeds do not germinate. A vegetative propagation technique by marcotting was devised to produce planting materials within 3 months. Four plant species of the same physiological age and spaced 4m apart were tested in complete random design fashion. Marcots were treated with four Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) concentrations (0 Mg/L, 2000 Mg/L, 4000 Mg/L and 6000 Mg/L). Data collected were analysed on number of calluses formed in marcots, survival, shoot and root formation and root length. Comparable but highest survival of marcots was recorded in the 2000 Mg/L of IBA (14.67 +0.33) representing 97.78%. Marcots with 2000 Mg/L IBA concentration recorded highest mean number of roots (8.67 +0.33) formed. Root length ranged from 33.60 +0.52 in the 6000 Mg/L to 19.77 +1.26 in the control (0 Mg/L). Marcots with no IBA recorded 9.00 +0.58 as mean number of callused marcots. It is concluded that vegetative propagation technique by marcotting can be a suitable technique for Rambutan planting materials.
 
Article
Objective: It has been shown that deferasirox can reduce blood and tissues lead content in animal models. In this study the effect of deferasirox alone or combined with glycine as an antioxidant was evaluated in chronic cadmium toxicosis in rat. Methods: Male wistar albino rats were exposed to 200 ppm cadmium in the drinking water for 3 weeks and treated thereafter with deferasirox (140 mg/kg), glycine (1000 mg/kg) and deferasirox (140 mg/kg) + glycine (1000 mg/kg) by oral gavages, twice daily for 7 days. The effect of these treatments on blood, liver, kidney, bone and testis cadmium values and parameters indicative of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity in blood) were investigated. Results: Deferasirox was found to be effective in reducing cadmium level in blood, liver and kidney and glycine reduced cadmium levels in bone. Individual administration of deferasirox or glycine mitigated the effects of cadmium on some indicative parameters of oxidative stress in blood. But the best results were obtained following co-administration of both drugs.
 
Article
CD4+(TH1, and TH2) cell groups in the point of view of chemokine receptor expression were considered in blood of stomach cancer patients. Materials and Methods: The percentage of blood CD4+ T cells expressing chemokine receptors (before and after gastrectomy) was determined by flow cytometry (Becton Dickinson, USA) using the following chemokine receptor antibodies: anti-CCR5, anti-CXCR3, anti-CCR3 and anti-CCR4. Results: The means of CD4+ CCR5+ expressing cells was 1.23% ± 0.90, 0.83% ± 0.34 and 1.34% ± 0.74 in control, pre- and post-operation groups, respectively. CD4+ CXCR3+ expressing cells were 19.09% ± 8.4, 16.95% ± 5.71 and 25.08% ± 9.31, respectively. Similar pattern was seen for CD4+ CCR3+ and CD4+ CCR4+ expressing cells. Pearson correlation analysis shows no relationship between CCR3 and CCR4 expressions on TCD4 cells (r = 0.211, P = 0.126). The complex expression TH1 (CD4+ CXCR3+ CCR5+) receptors determined 1.14% ± 0.54 for control group, 0.86% ± 0.49 for pre-T and 1.57% ± 0.67 for post-T group. Moreover, the TH2 (CD4+ CCR3+ CCR4+) expression was 1.60% ± 1.05 for control group, 1.57% ± 0.83 for pre-T and 1.27% ± 0.66 for post-treatment group. Pearson correlation analysis shows that only the CCR3 and CCR5 expression was statistically correlated (r = 0.321, P = 0.018). Conclusion: Due to low expression of CCR5 in TH1 and CCR3 in TH2 cells, it seems that utility of these is extremely limited for clinical evaluation, but not scientific purpose. Moreover, considering the CXCR3 for TH1 cells and CCR4 expression for TH2 cells, due to considerable expression, may be practical. Keywords: CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, chemokine receptor, CXCR3, gastric cancer
 
Qualitative study of RNA extracted from colorectal cancer tissue and its normal marginal tissue on Agarose gel 1%. The 28s rRNA is detected in front of the band of 1500bp and 18s rRNA versus the band of 750bp. Minimal smear shows the quality of extraction
Various sample dilutions curve Figure 3. FGF19 gene amplification
Standard Melting Temperature curve
Characteristics of primers used in the Real-time -PCR reaction
Article
ABSTRACT Introduction. Colorectal cancer is the second and third most common cancer in women and men respectively. Early diagnosis of illness will reduce pain and costs for patients. In this study, the expression of fgf19 gene in different individuals with colorectal cancer, and also the relationship between the expression of this gene and the degree and stage of cancercells, will be evaluated. Methods. A total of 60 samples were collected by a surgeon from cancerous tissue and healthy marginal tissue of patients with colorectal cancer. Extraction of RNA was accomplished by a Trizol solution. In the next step, cDNA molecule was synthesized using reverse transcriptase enzyme (RT), and gene-specific primers were designed and synthesized. Then the expression of FGF19 gene was evaluated by Real-time PCR technique. Finally, the data obtained from cancerous tissue and healthy marginal tissue were analyzedby spss software. Result. The expression of fgf19 in tumor tissue and healthy marginal tissue was measuredquantitatively, which increased by 56.7 percent. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that fgf19 as a molecular biomarker plays a significant role in the progression of cancer, and therefore can be considered as a factor in the screening, early detection, prognosis and predictor of the tumor
 
Qualitative study of RNA extracted from colorectal cancer tissue and its normal marginal tissue on Agarose gel 1%. The 28s rRNA is detected in front of the band of 1500bp and 18s rRNA versus the band of 750bp. Minimal smear shows the quality of extraction
Various sample dilutions curve Figure 3. FGF19 gene amplification
Standard Melting Temperature curve
Characteristics of primers used in the Real-time -PCR reaction
Article
Introduction Colorectal cancer is the second and third most common cancer in women and men respectively. Early diagnosis of illness will reduce pain and costs for patients. In this study, the expression of fgf19 gene in different individuals with colorectal cancer, and also the relationship between the expression of this gene and the degree and stage of cancer cells, will be evaluated. Methods A total of 60 samples were collected by a surgeon from cancerous tissue and healthy marginal tissue of patients with colorectal cancer. Extraction of RNA was accomplished by a Trizol solution. In the next step, cDNA molecule was synthesized using reverse transcriptase enzyme (RT), and gene-specific primers were designed and synthesized. Then the expression of FGF19 gene was evaluated by Real-time PCR technique. Finally, the data obtained from cancerous tissue and healthy marginal tissue were analyzed by spss software. Result The expression of fgf19 in tumor tissue and healthy marginal tissue was measured quantitatively, which increased by 56.7 percent. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that fgf19 as a molecular biomarker plays a significant role in the progression of cancer, and therefore can be considered as a factor in the screening, early detection, prognosis and predictor of the tumor.
 
Article
Objective: Today, addressing the issue of sustainability especially in agriculture has received more attention. Sustainability in the systems of Canola cultivation depends on many factors like ecological, social and economic dimensions and understanding these factors can result in formulation of policies and strategies for sustainable agricultural development. Methods: 8961 Canola farmers of Qazvin Province composed the statistical society of this research out of which 322 persons were chosen as sample using Cochran formula and they have been studied using a stratified sampling technique. The research collection tool was a questionnaire validity of which was approved by professors and experts in rural development and reliability of which was approved by preliminary study and calculation of Cronbach’s alpha. Total sustainability indicator was calculated according to the three separate dimensions after leveling the indicators scale with the method of dividing by the average through analysis of main factors. Results: The findings suggest that in terms of sustainability of the whole system of Canola cultivation, 50.90 % of the farmers act in unstable and relatively unstable manner. From economic aspect, 44.10 % of the farmers act in unstable and relatively unstable manner. 25.8% of the farmers act in stable manner in terms of ecological aspect. Results of regression analysis showed that 32% of the changes in the ecological sustainability are explained by variables of technical knowledge, knowledge of sustainability, job satisfaction, benefit from promotional programs and mechanization
 
Article
Objective: To evaluate the effect of chemical stimuli on germination and seedling growth of Caper (Capparis Spinosa) under drought stress. Methods: Factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment were performed. First factor of priming include three levels of acetylsalicylic acid (300, 200 and 100 mg/L), gibberellic acid levels (500, 250 and 125 ppm), ascorbic acid levels (300, 200 and 100 mg/L) and distilled water as a control and the second factor was drought stress levels (0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa). Results: The results showed that priming increases germination rate, germination percent, root length, seedling length, shoot length and seed vigor index under drought stress. Among of levels used in priming, acetylsalicylic acid 200 mg/L has greatest effect on the germination of plants under drought stress. According to the survey results, priming with salicylic acid compared with other acids have more effect on germination characteristics of Caper under drought stress. Conclusions: Thus, using of this method can be useful for improving seed germination characteristics of plants in arid and semi-arid regions.
 
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to the study of investigating the relationship between social capital and intellectual capital with staff productivity in Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Methods: A descriptive, quantitative, co relational design was used. The population comprises all the staffs of the above organization , the number of them added up to 4367 individuals in 2017. The sample includes 5;3 subjects based upon Krejcie & Morgan Table (1970) which appointed in proportionate stratified random sampling. A data collection instrument is included demographic questionnaire, questionnaire of social capital, intellectual capital and staff productivity .Data analysis included descriptive statistics, pearson’s r and spearman’s correlations, regression analysis, ANOVA analyses and SPSS software (package of Spss / pc + + ver21). Results: The results of this study show the there is a significant relationship between social capital and intellectual capital with staff productivity. According the results, there is a significant relationship between organizational capital and cognitive capital with staff productivity.
 
Effect of SwCNTs on the activity of POD during seed germination. The activity of POD of the controls were decreased with the increase of the osmotic potentials. The activity of POD of SwCNTs-treated seeds were decreased too but it were evidently higher than that of the controls under the osmotic potentials of -0.3, -0.6 MPa
Germinability and germination percentage of seeds treated with SwCNTs and control at water stress of PEG
Root length, shoot length and fresh weight of seeds treated with SwCNTs and control at water stress of PEG
Article
Drought cause yield loss of soybean production is the major reason to yield losing of soybean. To improve the germination and growth of soybean seeds under drought stress. We studied the effect of the single walled carbon nanotubes (SwCNTs) material in seed germination and the physiological changes occurred under drought condition, performed SwCNTs treatments in soybean (Zhonghuang 35) seeds at PEG drought stress, evaluated the germination, root and shoot length, fresh weight, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the contents of maleic dialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA) and H2O2. The results showed that under osmotic potentials of 0,-0.3,-0.6 with PEG 6000, the germination percentage of SwCNTs-treated seeds was higher than the control treatment (SwCNTs-untreated seeds). The fresh weight of SwCNTs-treated seeds were evidently higher than that of the controls under the osmotic potentials of 0,-0.3,-0.6 MPa. The root and shoot length were also longer than control in SwCNTs-treated seeds at 0,-0.3,-0.6 MPa (P<0.05, P<0.01) and-0.6 MPa (P<0.01) respectively. Moreover, the MDA and H2O2 contents were lower but ASA content and activities of SOD, CAT, POD were higher in SwCNTs-treated seeds than control treatment under osmotic potentials of-0.3,-0.6 MPa. The results suggest that SwCNTs-treated soybean seeds showed improvement in tolerance to drought stress and the combined increases in SOD, CAT and POD activities in seeds may play an important role in the improvement of antioxidant capacity under drought stress.
 
Article
this paper, the chemical Functionalization of Carboxylate multi-walled carbon nanotubes by methyl (triphenyl phosphoranylidene) acetate have been investigated. Phosphorus Ylides are important compound in organic chemistry. At first, methyl (triphenyl phosphoranylidene) acetate, synthesized from salt metod in two steps: the formation of the phosphonium salt and the deprotonation of the latter to form the ylide. MWNT-Slide is obtained through MWNT-cocl with methyl (triphenyl phosphoranylidene) acetate, which is confirmed by FT-IR, SEM and elemental analysis. The functionalized MWNTs were dispersed very well in solvent of dimethylformamide (DMF), and the high stability of dispersed suspension could be maintained for more than 1 week without MWNT precipitation. These Functionalization have been chosen due to P=C and C=O active sites in MWNT-ylide for future application.
 
Statistical analysis of each microcosm obtained by PAST software. 
Biodiversity indexes in each microcosm. These data calculated in PAST software after analysis of data matrix. 
Article
Changes in the microbial community in response to catastrophic oil spills in marine and fresh water environments have been well documented. Molecular methods provide tools for analyzing the entire bacterial community, covering also those bacteria that have not been cultured in the laboratory. In this study, four different microcosms were set up containing sediments collected from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. One from each location was experimentally contaminated with crude oil and the other left for control. PCR-DGGE analyses were used for understanding the effect of crude oil on marine microbial community in the sediments. The results of this research show that after oil pollution biodiversity decrease in contaminated ecosystems in compare to uncontaminated ecosystems as H index was 3.56 in uncontaminated sediments but it was decrease to 2.7 after contamination. Also different ecosystems have resembled in microbial community after contamination. These results confirmed that crude oil induce major shifts in the composition and biodiversity of marine microbial community in the sediments.
 
Age classes of Vimba vimba from south-west Caspian Sea 
Length-weight relationship of Vimba vimba in Kiyashahr region-Caspian Sea  
Length-weight relationship of Vimba vimba in Anzali region-Caspian Sea
Article
Length weight relationships of Vimba vimba persa were studied. For this purpose 174 fish samples were collected by gill nets, beach seine and purse seine from March through June 2008 at two Guilan fisheries catch stations of Guilan located in Anzali-Kiyashahr regions. Samples were immediately transferred to the laboratory of fish biology at University of Guilan for further analyses. Length, weight and other external features of all samples were measured. Total Length and weight ranged from 140 to 220 mm and 24.7 to 97.6 gr respectively. Significant difference was observed among mean weight of fish in Anzali 48.01±9.33mm and Kiyashahr regions 51.25±19.9mm (p<0.05). Comparison of condition factor (CF) in fish Samples showed higher condition factor in fish from Kiyashahr region (p<0.05). Our results showed that growth pattern of Vimba vimba in Guilan with regard to their weight and length relationships is allometric (non-homogeneous) and negative which considering fishing pressure, pollution and deterioration of its stocks could be of special concern.
 
Article
Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding CASRP΄s archiving and manuscript policies encouraged to visit: http://www.casrp.co.uk/journals Abstract Vernonia galamensis Cass is a huge potential industrial crop with very high content of vernolic acid in the seed oil. The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of inter-and intra-row spacing on the yield and yield related traits of Vernonia galamensis Cas.The experiment was conducted for two years during 2014-2015 on experimental field of Wondo Genet Agricultural research center, Southern Ethiopia. The factorial combinations of five intra-rows (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70cm) and three inter-row plant spacing (60, 80, 100cm) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield and yield related traits including plant height (cm), number of branch/plant, number of pods /plant, Seed yield kg/ha, oil yield kg/ha, Oleoresin % and 1000 seed weight (gm) were recorded .The combined analysis of the two years trial showed that the interaction effect of Inter and Intra row spacing treatments significantly influenced all parameters measured except thousand seed weight and oil content. Inter and Intra row spacing interaction effect was highly significant (P<0.0001) on number of branches per plant, seed yield and oil yield. The maximum seed yield of 2491.3 kg/ha, Oil yield 932.2kg/ha were obtained from a spacing combination of 60cm intra-row and 60cm inter-rows. Therefore, the inter and intra row spacing combination of 60 x 60cm is a recommendable optimum spacing for Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) production to attain maximum yield under the conditions of Wondo genet and similar locations.
 
importance of Zn mechanism 
Article
A host of nutrients are needed by cattle to support functions associated with life, and to grow, reproduce, and nourish their offspring (i.e., produce milk). A vast amount of resources have been expended to quantify the amounts of specific nutrients needed to perform these function so that economically efficient diets can be formulated. Feeding diets that provide adequate, but not excessive, amounts of nutrients helps improve profitability of dairy operations while reducing the environmental impact of dairy farms. The trace minerals zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are components of a wide variety of enzymes and proteins that support metabolism, growth, production, and reproduction. Trace mineral supplements are added to dairy cattle rations to prevent mineral deficiencies, and supplementation has traditionally been provided in the form of inorganic salts.
 
Article
Laboratory studies were conducted to study the effect of different culture, media, pH and temperature levels on mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri. The fungus grew the best on Czapek dox agar and PDA media among six culture media were tested. The most suitable pH level for growth of fungus was 6.0 and 6.5 with 24.7 conidia/µl. Growth of F. oxysporum was maximum at 30 0 C (24.7 conidia/µl.) after seven days of inoculation, which was reduced drastically below 15 0 C and above 35 0 C.
 
Figure1. enzyme activity (U/ml) of different strains of Trichoderma in TFM supernatant after 72 h incubation at 180 rpm and 28˚C28˚C. 
Figure2. SDS-PAGE analysis of proteins present in the acetone precipitated TFM supernatants of the T. longibrachiatum (lane 1), T. reesei (lane 2), T. harzianum (lane 3), T. viride (lane 4), control negative (lane 5), T. koningii (lane 6), T. virens (lane 7)M is referred to standard protein marker. 
Article
Six strain of Trichoderma (T. viride, T. harzianum, T. reesei, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii, T. virens) were isolated and used for extracellular enzyme production. Species of Trichoderma are collected from the surrounding soil of suger beet root fields in East Iran, and held in vitro cultured PDA. TCM and TFM are used for the growth of spores and induceing the production of Cellulase. Finally the enzyme is measured at 50ºC for 60 minutes by DNS method and the samples are absorbed by spectrophotometry at wavelength 540 nm. By product of Pistachio was used to enzyme production and extracellular protein production and endo-glucanase, exoglucanase, β-glucosidase and FPase activity was investigated. T. harzianum produces high levels of endo-glucanase, exoglucanase and total cellulase, which can be further improved by controlled culture conditions. This strain can be a good candidate for obtaining cellulases from lignocellulosic by products of pistachio hull.
 
USG showing gestation sac in cervical region in case no 2 
Increased peritrophoblastic blood flow around conceptus seen in the second case 
Article
Cervical ectopic presents as diagnostic dilemma because of its resemblance to abortion process. We present couple of cases of Cervical ectopic and discuss the management for this diagnostic dilemma.
 
Article
As chamomile production affected by production techniques this activity was conducted to identify the effect of seed storage duration and seedling raising methods on its seedling establishment. The experiment was conducted during 2015 at rain feed condition at wondo genet agricultural research center, south Ethiopia using randomized complete block design in three replications. Zero months, three month, six month, nine month and twelve month stored seeds were combined with direct sowing, seed bed raised and pot raised seedlings resulting in a total of fifteen treatments. Growth parameters data were collected and tested statistically. Direct sowing and pot raised methods resulted in lowest and highest value in all parameters respectively. One year old and fresh seeds resulted in higher and lower mean value respectively for plant height, flower yield per plant and flower yield per hectare. However, even though seedling raising method resulted in very highly significant results in plant height and in number of flower per plant, in all seed storage durations treatments there was none significance results for all testing parameters. Besides, the interaction of seed storage duration and seedling raising method treatments were resulted in none significant result for all testing parameters.
 
Article
Performance of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) was evaluated on twelve transplanting dates that were arranged at 30 days interval; during 2013-2014 on experimental field of Wondo Genet agricultural research center; using RCBD design with three replications. Transplanting time exerted a very highly significant (p<0.0001) influence on plant height, flower yield and essential oil yield; essential oil content was significantly (P<0.05) influenced by transplanting time. The performance of chamomile and the amount of rainfall received on the first month of transplanting showed significant (<0.05) positive relationship with regression coefficient of (0.16). The amount of heat units received during the entire growth periods didn’t showed significant relationship with the performance of chamomile. The highest and lowest flower yield was obtained from July and December transplanted chamomile respectively. Fresh flower yield varied from 0.8 t/ha to 3.84 t/ha; and the essential oil yield varied from 1.19 kg/ha to 5.56 kg/ha due to the influence of transplanting time. Transplanting chamomile during dry hot season resulted in up to 79 percent flower yield reduction as compared to wet and cool season transplanted chamomile. Chamomile showed high sensitivity to the absence of rainfall associated with higher heat units during the first month of establishments on the field. According to the results transplanting chamomile during moist and cool months is highly recommended in order to obtain maximum flower and oil yield.
 
Article
Objective: The Rifampicin resistance and susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are caused by mutations in the 81-base pair region of the rpoB gene encoding the bsubunit of RNA polymerase. Methods: Isoniazid resistance of M. tuberculosis is related to mutations in inha , oxyR and ahpC genes which 30 to 90 percent of Isoniazid resistance is occurred in 3015 codons of katg gene. The rpoB and katG sequences of 30 isolates were analyzed to identify the mutations and compare the mutations with their related susceptibilities. Results: In this research, we investigated the location and type of rpoB and katG mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which had been achieved from Pasteur Institute of Tehran. PCR Amplification and DNA sequencing methods were performed. In this assay, from 507 to 537 codons and 315 codons of rpoB and katG genes were sequenced and also mutations were analyzed, respectively.
 
Phylogenetic tree constructed by the neighbor-joining method, based on almost complete 16S rRNA gene. Sequence, showing the position of strain Streptomyces P.B.373 and the nearest related taxa. Numbers at nodes indicate percentages of 1000 bootstrap resamplings. Bar 0.0005 substitutions per nucleotide position.  
Characteristics of virulence factor metalloprotease from some human pathogenic bacteria.
Tricine SDS gel electrophoresis for molecular weight determination of the proteolytic enzyme. (Lane1: culture supernatant, lane 2: ammonium sulfate precipitation, lane 3: gel filtration chromatography, lane 4: ion-exchange chromatography)  
Article
Actinomycetes are an uncommon agent of human infections and its pathogenic factors are not known. The present study reports a rare case isolation of an actinomycete from a woman pleural fluid; the strain was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. This strain was tested to produce an extracellular protease that hydrolysis gelatin, casein and hemoglobin on agar mediums. The purification of the enzyme was carried by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatographies. The activity of protease was studied at different pH values and temperatures and in the presence of metallic ions and inhibitors. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined by 12% Tricine SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The strain was identified as Streptomyces cinereoruber ssp. cinereoruber . Extracellular proteolytic enzyme was purified at 19.67 fold and a 3.0% recovery. The enzyme was characterized as having optimal activities at pH 11.0 and 50°C, it keeps more than 50% of activity at pH between 4.0 to 12.0 and it is thermostable at 30 and 40°C. Enzymatic activity is enhanced in the presence of metal ions and inhibited by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline. The molecular weight was 53 kDa. This study reports the first case isolation of Streptomyces cinereoruber ssp. cinereoruber from pleural fluid, the extracellular zinc-metalloprotease was proposed as candidate virulence factor.
 
Path analysis of yield and yield components over environments 
Article
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important crops worldwide that is a subject of many plant breeding programs in many countries. In addition, climates are changing all over the world and drought becomes one of the most serious problems versus yield of crops. In order to screen drought tolerant genotype in Chickpea, twenty genotypes were tested under rainfed and irrigated conditions in the experimental field of College of Agriculture, Razi university, Kermanshah, Iran during 2008- 2011 growing seasons. Descriptive diagrams of hundred seed weight (HSW), number of pod per plant (NPPL), number of seed per pod (NSPO) and grain yield (GY) exhibited high GE interaction and variability between the investigated characters indicating possible selection of drought tolerant and stable entries. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences (P<0.01) between the genotypes and environments exhibiting genotypic diversity and variability between genotypes and environments. GE interaction was highly significant for HSW and NPPL but non-significant for GY and NSPO. Based on mean comparisons of GY, HSW, NPPL and NSPO, 2, 7, 8 and 3 classes of genotypes were found, respectively. The results extracted from path analysis over environments showed the contributions of NSPO (=0.82), HSW (=0.54) and NPPL (=0.12) on adaptability of grain yield, therefore the most contribution was attributed to number of seed per pod in the phenotypic stability of grain yield.
 
Effect of different patterns of intercropping with times of weed control on lateral stem of Dragon's head. a 1 : pure stand of chickpea, a 2 : pure stand of Dragon's head, a 3 : a 4 , a 5 and a 6 , additive Intercropping of optimal density of Chickpea + 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of optimum  
Effect of different patterns of intercropping with times of weed control on number of capsule per plant of Dragon's head. a 1 : pure stand of chickpea, a 2 : pure stand of Dragon's head, a 3 : a 4 , a 5 and a 6 , additive Intercropping of optimal density of Chickpea + 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of optimum density of Dragon's head. b 1: complete control, b 2 : no weeds control, b 3 : control after 2-4 weeks after emergence and b 4 : control after 5-7 weeks after emergence.  
Effect of different patterns of intercropping with times of weed control on capsule per lateral stem of Dragon's head. a 1 : pure stand of chickpea, a 2 : pure stand of Dragon's head, a 3 : a 4 , a 5 and a 6 , additive Intercropping of optimal density of Chickpea + 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of  
Effect of different patterns of intercropping with times of weed control on grain yield of Dragon's head. a 1 : pure stand of chickpea, a 2 : pure stand of Dragon's head, a 3 : a 4 , a 5 and a 6 , additive Intercropping of optimal density of Chickpea + 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of optimum density of Dragon's head. b 1: complete control, b 2 : no weeds control, b 3 : control after 2-4 weeks after emergence and b 4 : control after 5-7 weeks after emergence.  
Article
An experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012 to study the effect of intercropping of chickpea and Dragon's head on yield, yield components and morphological traits of Dragon's head as affected by four weed management time. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with three replications. Intercropping patterns included; a 1 , a 2 , a 3 , a 4 , a 5 and a 6: respectively, pure stand of chickpea, pure stand of Dragon's head, additive intercropping of optimal density of chickpea + 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of optimum density of Dragon's head. Four times of weeds control levels were; b 1 , b 2 , b 3 and b 4 : complete control, no weeds control, control after 2-4 weeks after emergence, control after 5-7 weeks after emergence. Results showed that sole Dragon's head produced the highest grain and biological yield. Among the intercropping systems, sole Dragon's head recorded the highest mean number of lateral stem, number of capsule per main and lateral stem and plant height. Significant differences were observed in yield and yield components of Dragon's head with increasing of weed population. Considering the experimental findings, sole cropping and complete weed control recommended for Dragon's head grain yield.
 
Article
Objective: Drought stress is most important factor which reduce root and shoot growth in crops. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of drought stress and Zn fertilizer on root traits of four cultivars of chickpea. Methods: Experiment was laid out in a split plot-factorial using randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought stress treatment stand in main plots in three levels consist of no drought stress (complete irrigation), moderate drought stress (irrigation at planting and early flowering) and severe drought stress (no irrigation). 2 Zn levels (using hand sprayer 1 L and control) and four chickpea cultivars Azad, Bivanij, Hashem and ILC482 stand in sub plots. Results: Result showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on al parameters. Effect of Zn fertilizer was significant only on Number of nodule and primary root length, but not significant on other parameters. Effect of cultivar treatments was significant only on Number of nodule and primary root length, but not significant on other parameters. Maximum number of nodule and root length was obtained in non stress condition and in Bivanij cultivar. With increase in drought stress number of nodules in plants and root length were decreased.
 
Article
Effects of induced mutation via gamma irradiated with 250 Gy dose (in Nuclear Agriculture Research School- Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute) on Trichoderma harzianum conidia on chitinase activity by STS molecular marker have been evaluated in this study. Among 20 irradiated mutants which selected via improved antagonistic capability against Rhizoctonia solani, PCR amplified chitinase mutated genes with their nested primers produced different sizes of amplified regions between 500- 700 bp, which showed polymorphism in compare with control (non-irradiated) isolate. Dual culture test showed that, more than 93% of mutated isolates have statistically more antagonistic capability against R.solani than its parental isolate, maybe resulted of enhancement in fungal cell wall degrading enzymes production. STS analysis data proved that in considerable mutants, induced mutation placed in chitinase gene. According to these results, bio-control capability of T. harzianum could be improved through gamma radiation.
 
Article
Effects of induced mutation via gamma irradiated with 250 Gy dose (in Nuclear Agriculture Research School- Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute) on Trichoderma harzianum conidia on chitinase activity by STS molecular marker have been evaluated in this study. Among 20 irradiated mutants which selected via improved antagonistic capability against Rhizoctonia solani, PCR amplified chitinase mutated genes with their nested primers produced different sizes of amplified regions between 500- 700 bp, which showed polymorphism in compare with control (non-irradiated) isolate. Dual culture test showed that, more than 93% of mutated isolates have statistically more antagonistic capability against R.solani than its parental isolate, maybe resulted of enhancement in fungal cell wall degrading enzymes production. STS analysis data proved that in considerable mutants, induced mutation placed in chitinase gene. According to these results, bio-control capability of T. harzianum could be improved through gamma radiation.
 
Characteristics information of 101 patients with cholecysitis 
Comparison of cholecystitis's complications between sex 
Article
Cholecystitis presents as acute or chronic. Severity of cholecystitis depends on several factors. Aim of this study was to evaluate severity of laparoscopic cholecystectomy findings based on gender type. In a retrospective and epidemiological study, a total of 101 patients who were underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were selected from 2001 to 2006 in university affiliated hospitals of Ahwaz, Iran. Among 101 patients were assessed in our study, 41(40.6%) were men and 60(59.4%) were women. Evaluating of patients according to sex revealed that proportion of empyema, gallbladder stones, gangrene, switch to open cholecystectomy, and acute cholecystitis were different statistically and were higher in men than women. But chronic cholecystitis was significantly lower in men than women. As our findings demonstrated, we suggest that men with cholecystitis need rapid surgical intervention to prevent and reduce complications of disease.
 
Article
Pyrethrum is a perennial daisy grown commercially for the insecticide that is extracted from its flowers. In order to evaluate germination and seedling growth of pyrethrum under different temperature and drought stress treatments, the one year experiment was conducted in seed technology laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture of Islamic Azad University of Isfahan branch in 2018. During this experiment, polyethylene glycol (PEG) at 6 levels (0,-0.2,-0.4,-0.6,-0.8,-1.0 MP) and two temperature treatments (10 o C and 15 o C) were used. Two separate factorial trials, on the basis of absolute randomized design with three replications were used. Drought stress impact on germination percentage, mean time germination, shoot and root length, abnormal germination, germination uniformity, plumule dry and fresh weight, root dry and fresh weight and seed stamina index was significant (P≤0.01). The influence of temperature on germination percentage, mean time germination, shoot and root length, plumule dry weight, plumule fresh weight, root dry weight and root fresh weight was significant (P≤0.05).The rate of germination, germination percentage, as well as seedling growth and establishment were significantly lowered with the rise of stress levels using PEG. Control treatment and 15 o C had obtained the highest germination percentage, mean time germination, shoot and root length, germination uniformity, plumule dry and fresh weight, root dry and fresh weight, and seed stamina index. Taking all traits into account, a clear understanding of the germination responses of seeds is useful in screening for tolerance of species to extreme temperatures.
 
Top-cited authors
Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun
  • Kyungpook National University
Jalal Bayati Zadeh
  • Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
Ashkan Nabavi-Pelesaraei
Sajjad Shaker-Kouhi
  • University of Tabriz
Nasrollah Moradi-Kor
  • Institute for Intelligent Research