Published by Walter de Gruyter GmbH
Online ISSN: 2451-3113
Print ISSN: 1843-6722
Based on the data in the Table 1
This article analyses the restructuring and evolution of the most important elements of naval infrastructure which laid the base of The Economy of the Romanian Naval Transports, during the transition period: 1990 – 2000. Also, this article attempts to determine the total value of assets on the main components of the system infrastructure, following the next issues: • Ways of Communication on the Water; • River and Sea Ports; • Naval Industry; • National Merchant Fleet-river, maritime and oceanic fishing fleet. We mention that this article is the latest in a series of four articles that analyses, in a unitary conception, the formation and evolution of the main elements of the Naval Transportation System of the last century, at the level of four reference periods: the pre-war period (1900-1914); the interwar period (1919-1939); socialist period (1950-1990) and transition period (1990-2000).
In the dynamic time in which we live, job and life satisfaction have emerged as major issues in the field of organizational behavior. Considering that the goal of every organization is to prosper and maintain its competitiveness, employers are forced to pay attention to employees’ job performance, which is positively related to the quality of their working life. This could be attributed to the fact that employees who attain high levels of job and life satisfaction tend to be highly motivated and work more efficiently. Consequently, starting from a secondary analysis based on data provided by the European Working Condition Survey, the present paper aims at drawing a picture of the way employed population in Romania relates to different quality components of work life.
The history of humanity got from the Persians the first imperial organization, the first process of integration of the conquered ones, the first postal service, the most effective means of communication at the dawn of Antiquity, and also the best organized militarized services. The most special of the Indo-European Antiquity troops was the Royal Guard, founded by Darius I, one of the great kings of humanity, a political titan, and equally an extraordinary general through his institutional creations of force. The Royal Guard of Darius I, known in history as the 10,000 immortals, is the subject of our study, as it is one of the most complex special militarized structures in human history of all time, inspiring the military structures of all the Indo-Europeans, whether the Hoplite revolution, the organization of the Macedonian phalanx or the Roman Praetorian Guard and more than that. The 10,000 immortals combined not only the heroic character (while multiplying it), which appeared for the first time with the Greeks of the Homeric period, but also strict discipline, in the Spartan sense, contemporary with this troop, the organization and the well-developed logistics, which would inspire the Roman army, the military brotherhoods characteristic of all the Indo-Europeans, but this totally special troop, in particular, imposed the model of the educated (even intellectual) military man, a soldier of the supreme god of the Good, faithful first of all to the Good and to his king, a military man who used all the weapons of the time. This special troop was a true institution that also provided information to the Persian king, information being one of the most effective weapons. Moreover, the Persians through this Royal Guard used for the first time psychological impact as a weapon, this being the first case of effective manipulation by the number that was kept constant, but also by name. Only the gods were immortal, and the very large number of soldiers who made up this special troop is impressive even today. The armament of this extraordinary troop comprised all the weapons of the time, the bow above all, which the Aryans considered the favourite weapon of Indra, the most warlike god of the Indo-European gods.
Material characteristics
The breakthrough in static structural, buckling and modal computer-simulated results can be used for new military purpose applications. The development of hardware resources leads to better simulation in mechanical analysis. Based on the Ansys software, the values presented for the pylon result from a complex analysis. The present paper aims at defining the working parameters for a specific load of 100 tf, as well as presenting the actual software capabilities for military applications. The information provided is valuable for the emerging technologies and the military techniques, being based on the ANSYS simulation.
120-mm multiple use short-range training mortar ammunition Under a project approved by the Ministry of Defence was developed on the basis of the existing high explosive ammunition a new 120-mm multiple use short-range training
Smoke cartridge
In this paper is presented the shell components of Bulgarian 120-mm multiple use short-range training mortar ammunition. These components are constructed and added to the shell of a 120-mm high explosive mortar round. Thus, with minimal financial resources, the 120-mm multiple use shell were designed and constructed so as to be trained recruits in firing the mortar. Strength calculation of the new shell parts of the 120-mm short-range ammunition has been completed. The largest axial stresses that have arisen in the smoke cartridge during a shot have been calculated in order to prevent the self-ignition of the charge.
The disposition of the border regiments in Transylvania in 1817 [2]
The political-military context of the time required finding an urgent solution to stop the mass emigration over the mountains, which decreased the productive and contributing population. Thus, the massive emigration of the Romanian population had to be stopped, the contact too close between the two sides of the Carpathians had to be broken and this permanent popular osmosis was deemed necessary to be established, the borders had to be better secured and under the relation of the economic exchanges, of the smuggling, of the customs regime, of the mercantilism practiced by the regime, it was absolutely necessary to prevent the penetration of the plagues from the East, which became endemic, decimating the population; this led to the establishment of border regiments. In elaborating this study I used the qualitative method in order to interpret the historical events of the time, an important role in the research undertaken having direct observations made in the field to inventory strategically and militarily favorable geographical areas for the location of the Second Border Regiment, but also in order to evaluate the existing tourist resources, to capitalize on them by the inhabitants of the area and to have an impact on potential tourists. Following the study, I was able to see the beneficial role that the border regiment had on the belonging communes, as well as the positive impact on the community by implementing a much more advanced stage of development.
Our work aims to present the first debates on the topic of building pipelines for the transport of Romanian oil products. The debut consisted in the report that Anghel Saligny made in 1899. The pipeline system he proposed should have started in the centre of the oil region, i.e. from Băicoi, followed the trail railway Ploieşti, Buzău, Făurei, Feteşti, Cernavodă and reached the sea port of Constanţa. In 1907, engineer L. C. Erbiceanu joined the enterprise. The law was passed by the parliament in 1912. Works began the following year but they were interrupted because of the outburst of the First World War. After a partial use during the war, oil pipelines were completed in 1919.
The present study aims to be a resynthesis of some of the most important pieces of memoir and travel literature of the 18th century, used as historical source that is essential for the understanding an epoch. Located in a geographical and historical meeting area of the political and economic interests of the European and extra-European empires, Walachia, Moldavia and Transylvania aroused the complex interests of the Great Powers, including, of course, the British Empire. The validity of this fact is supported by the remaining diplomatic reports that can be found in the diplomatic archives, by memoirs (today of an undeniable historical value), and by other memorialistic writings of numerous travelers, including those coming from the Anglo-Saxon space. The information of the utmost importance provided by these writings (the diplomatic reports also being included here) reconstruct not only historical and ethnographic realities, but also anthropological and economic history ones.
The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to a reconfiguration of the social paradigm and has brought about a challenge in terms of social distancing during this critical period. Dynamic and interconnected social networks are prone to the spread of the virus both individually and at the macro-social level. The spread of the disease is controlled by allowing sensitive people to temporarily reduce their social contacts, as an attitude taken due to the presence of the virus in the local neighborhood. The social distancing promoted by governments and public health bodies comes as a method to control the pandemic, in the absence of antiviral drugs or a vaccine. Therefore, the control and management of this network during the pandemic is essential. The paper aims to present and analyze the changes that this measure produces in all sectors of society, globally. Also, it emphasizes the role of the government in implementing the measure and the need for cooperation of the population.
In recent years, the problems facing the national health system have always been brought to the forefront of public life. Poor quality of medical services, lack of staff or hospital infrastructure were most often linked to the underfunding of the medical system, but also to the inefficient use of allocated financial resources. The economic results, quantified also in the financial resources that feed the public budgets, are the mirror of the possibilities that the public authorities have in the financing of the public sectors and, implicitly, of the health system. As the current COVID-19 crisis affects most economic and social areas, numerous questions arise about the size of possible losses, future developments and possible ways of recovery.
Terrorism in the EU The number of people killed in terrorist attacks in 2020 marked an increase compared to 2019, but is low compared to previous years. The EUROPOL report from 2021 on terrorism in the EU notes a total of 57 attempts at terrorist attacks in 2020, including failed, failed and failed attempts.
Number of carried out, unsuccessful and thwarted Islamist attacks in the EU (2017-2020)
This report provides a detailed overview of trends in the development of radicalization and terrorism worldwide as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The short-lived changes in the way of life during and after the pandemic give rise to the possibility of new models of terrorism and radicalization in the coming years. Also this report aims to trace how COVID-19 has influenced and changed modern terrorism. On the other hand, the established structural organization of terrorist groups requires from us an in-depth analysis of the direction of their progressive development. Terrorists are increasingly trying to adapt to society in one form or another. Attempts are being made to penetrate them into the social activities of modern society. It was the pandemic that opened up many opportunities for a more concentrated psychological impact on “poorer” societies but the more problematic is that the long-term economic damage caused by the pandemic could reduce the resources available to fight terrorism and radicalization for several years. In the other hand the governments that have seen their coffers run out and their gross national product shrink will face difficult choices about where to spend their reduced revenues, and despite their genuine counter-terrorism commitment, may be forced to feed their populations and revitalize their economies at the expense of defence spending, including funding to fight terrorism and radicalization.
The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the conservation and capitalization of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage and limited the population’s participation in culture. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the pandemic on the degree of capitalization of the elements of tangible and intangible cultural heritage within the capital city of Romania. The results of this study reflect the efforts of the representatives of cultural institutions to respond to the challenge of keeping in touch with different categories of audience. At the same time, solutions adapted to restrictions on social distancing have been identified, in order to facilitate the capitalization of the elements of cultural heritage by organizing temporary exhibitions and cultural events in the open air or online. It is also noticeable the organization of cultural events through the collaboration of public institutions in order to facilitate the access of the public to culture and increase the degree of capitalization of the cultural heritage.
Young people aged between 20 and 34 outside the labour market and the education system Source: Eurostat, 2020
Impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak on the labour market indicators in Romania from October 2019 to October 2020. Labour market indices in Romania, including the impact of the COVID-19pandemic in 2019-2020. Source: Statista, 2021
The COVID-19 crisis has revealed the vulnerability of people, societies and economies and has forced a rethinking of the economic and social activities of an organization. The crisis requires strong responses based on solidarity, cooperation and responsibility. Socio-economic organizations (associations, cooperatives, alliances, and social enterprises) whose business models are based on these principles can help reshape economies and societies after the crisis.
2020 will be defined as crucial for the human race, as well as the year that marked the new era in human history and international development. In times of epidemic or pandemic, people tend to be afraid of being infected with the virus, resulting in feelings of stress, fear and depression Global health problems connected with COVID-19 have also highlighted the importance of combating disinformation that can cause high level of panic and social unrest. Fake news and COVID-19 have been going hand-in-hand since the very beginning. The WHO director-general has referred to it as “coronavirus infodemic” which is breeding fright and panic by laying out unchecked rumors or ‘sensational’ news.
The COVID pandemic has accelerated its influence over the whole world. This corresponds to increasing policy and trade uncertainty. The uncertainty on future trade relationships impacts investors’ behavior, their risk appetite, and the decline in global growth. In this paper, we aim to provide evidence on the relationship between global uncertainty and economic activity in the EU during the COVID pandemic. The applied methodology is a VAR model and a moving correlation. We discuss COVID 19 as a supply-demand shock that leads to a reduction of the productive capacity of the Bulgarian economy. The uncertainty of this pandemic causes shrinks of the demand in the private sector and an increase in the households’ savings and reduction in their expenditures.
In contemporary and interconnected society, public health risks can expand rapidly, at a great distance from the starting point. Information flows on the same principle, influencing the perception and automatically the actions of the population. The attention of the authorities is directed towards the communication field in order to ensure the access of the population to authorized sources of information and its persuasion in the adoption of prevention measures against Covid virus infection. Infodemic 19-Covid runs daily in parallel with the worst public health crisis of this century. Unregulated platforms have become digital megaphones that infect viral health through misinformation and manipulation, threatening the accuracy of online content. Internationally, the fight against this phenomenon has been implemented by the authorities. Effective communication is the key to possible control and resolution. The appearance of the disruptive, unexpected factor also brings challenges in terms of communication attitude to achieve the proposed objectives. Chaotics communication is the proposal of research as an emergency communication alternative.
The activities of banking institutions regarding crediting are undoubtedly among the most significant sources of free capital for the functioning of the market economy of the EU Member States. Therefore, crediting represents one of the most common forms of business financing and the accomplishment of future investment intentions. This mechanism of the credit portfolio serves an extremely wide range of activities related to the specifics of the respective business. Of course, loans are not only used by legal entities engaged in business activities, but they are also engaged to a large extent in the participation of the individuals in the turnover. The provided Moratorium over the payment of loans in the EU is a particularly important act that seeks to bring stability and predictability to the banking system and the public, both for legal entities engaged in business activities, as well as for individuals who, as a result of the imposed measures to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic, cannot carry on with their usual activities. The purpose of the present article is to analyse the effect of the moratorium upon the payment of loans and its significance for ensuring the national security in the Republic of Bulgaria in the context of overcoming the negative effects of the pandemic on the EU and the Bulgarian economy.
Region of East Asia Source: World Regional Geography: People, Places and Globalization [1]
The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in China and the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused at first some kind of shift in attitudes towards East Asia. However, in the longer term, wider effects apply into international relations around the world. COVID-19 pandemic determined various activities implemented by government all over the world, which aims at fist were to protect health and life of its inhabitant, but later turned out to wider strategy of each country. COVID-19 pandemic expects negative consequences, which undoubtedly are dominant, in some cases turned out to be very stimulating to development. The article aims to present the changes that have taken place in the context of the international position of East Asian countries over the last two years, caused by the pandemic.
Our paper aims to highlight the way Ion I. C. Brătianu was presented outside national borders in a fundamental moment of our national history, namely the integration of Romania into the operations of World War I in 1916. At that landmark moment, Ion I. C. Brătianu was Prime Minister of the country and was perceived abroad as the most powerful personality in the Romanian decisionmaking space, on whom the very decision to enter the war was hanging on. Foreign observers considered that Brătianu would not integrate with the war other than besides the military camp and in the moment that would definitely ensure their final victory. In order to sketch his image at international level we mainly used the information provided by the French press of the time (especially newspaper “Le Figaro”).
The group of carol singers from Copăcel, 1935-1936 and young men from Galați, 1936
The village choirs in Iași and Dejani, 1936
In 1910 ASTRA, the Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and Culture initiated a campaign to photograph the traditional clothing of Făgăraș Land. A comparison between the outcome from the campaign that started in 1910 (owned by the Făgăraș LandMuseum“Valer Literat”) and the photographs taken in the 1930s in the communities of Făgăraș villages (kept in the same museum) shows modifications to the traditional clothing in the period following the Great Union. Causes for the changes include the economic evolution of the area, gradual reduction in hemp cultivation and the diversification of textiles on offer in fairs, a gradual rise in awareness of fashion in the female population, and last but not least, ASTRA’s influence. It encouraged, through its women’s organisations, the spread and adoption of the Sălişte costume, as an expression of national unity. The comparison between the two sets of photographs highlights a tendency to simplify the outfit, namely to remove the heavy and uncomfortable items and to partially replace fabrics woven at home with industrial fabrics. From a chromatic point of view, this tendency to simplify the garment is accompanied by a narrowing of the colour register..
Our paper aims to present how Ion I. C. Brătianu was perceived outside national borders in a very important moment of the Romanian national history, namely the international recognition of the Great Union, within the Peace Conference at Paris-Versailles in 1919 -1920. Ion I. C. Brătianu was at that moment Prime Minister and the leader of the Romanian delegation at Versailles. Foreign countries perceived him as a very powerful personality, capable to influence other states with similar interests in Central and South Eastern Europe. Brătianu stoutly and patriotically defended the Romanian interests. Therefore, although his position was correct, it came into conflict with the interests of the great powers. Brătianu would not give up his principles and decided to leave the Peace Conference. French media was objective in their accounts and proved favourable to the Romanian position.
A meeting was held on 14th January 1944 to discuss the possibilities which might exist for increased collaboration between S.O.E. and N.K.V.D. in the Balkans. The following agenda was submitted: A review of S.O.E. aims in each area and an outline of their resources with the object of examining the possibilities of a concerted Balkans plan for all countries concerned. The coordination of all these plans into one directive. The possibility of discussing such a plan with the N.K.V.D. in an endeavor to enlist their cooperation and assistance in a common plan for S.O.E., O.S.S. and N.K.V.D. Our article follows the evolution of these plans during January-August 1944.
The main S.O.E aim seems to have been the utilization of political circles in an endeavour to overthrow the government and get Romania out of the war or at least to bring about the removal of its array from the Russians front, and to deny the national resources to Germany. The USSR has been constant in its disinclination to play with Maniu or associates itself with British planes until they are convinced that some concrete contribution at their war aim would results. They would however be ready to discuss unconditional surrender with the emissary of the Romanian government, capable of putting it into effect. The evolution of these SOE plans will be presented in this article.
Between 1941-1944, S.O.E. (Special Operation Executive)activity in Romania depended heavily on the collaboration with Maniu and P.N.T (National Peasant Party - Partidul National Țărănesc). In order to improve its activity, S.O.E. has taken steps to create a reliable communication channel between S.O.E. residents in Istanbul and Bucharest. The connections between the residence in Istanbul and the S.O.E. network in Romania were made through the connections of Switzerland and Turkey or through the transmitters sent to Istanbul, Ankara and Cairo, or through radio and radio transmissions launched by the parachute. Our study aims to find the connection between the S.O.E. activity in Romania, the Soviet Iasi-Chisinau offensive and the coup d’etat on August 23, 1944.
During September-November 1968 there was a crisis situation in the Romanian-Soviet relations, generated by the criticism that the Romanian government formulated for the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia on August 23, 1968. This crisis came to the attention of decision-makers in the United Kingdom and Allied bodies within NATO. Both the British Cabinet and the representatives of the North Atlantic Alliance member countries held several meetings in which the issue of Romania and Yugoslavia was discussed in the context of Soviet threats. The Secretary of State of the Foreign Office visited Romania and discussed with Nicolae Ceauşescu, Ion Gheorghe Maurer and Corneliu Mănescu. This article aims to present debates within the NATO and the UK bodies on the political crisis in the Romanian-Soviet relations from the autumn of 1968 and the position adopted by them against a possible Soviet invasion in Romania and Yugoslavia.
Fundamental to the correct application of the rules of international humanitarian law are the understanding and implementation of the principle of distinction between combatants and civilians (and other protected persons). This principle has evolved over time, from strict rules of differentiation (wearing a uniform or a fixed distinctive sign; carrying the arms openly), to a minimalistic reformulation of the conditions for recognition of combatant status and the right to be a prisoner of war, by the provisions of art. 44 of the Additional Protocol I of 1977 (carrying his arms openly when the combatant is preparing or participating in military actions and is in sight of the opponent, even if he does not wear distinctive signs). These provisions are very important for the correct definition of the notions of combatant, non-combatant and civilian and for the proper identification of cases of perfidy which represent war crimes. The biggest problem in the application of these norms, for the Romanian armed forces, is the legal translation and interpretation of international treaties when the Romanian legislator adopts them. We find such a situation in the case of Article 37/1/c of the Additional Protocol I of Geneva of 1977 regarding the prohibition of perfidy in connection with the use of the notions of civilian and non-combatant.
In the rifled barrels of each type of armament, the material wear of the rifled bore is closely related to the number of fires shot, this being expressed by the variation of the inner diameter of the barrel in the sections where the measurements were made and evidenced by the decreases in the initial velocity, (ΔVo) relative to the number of fires shot (N). As the number of fires shot increases, the initial velocity of the fired projectiles decreases. In the present paper, the regression equation of the initial velocity of the 76 mm, 1982 model cannon was determined and it was emphasized that the differences between the initial velocity determined by the regression calculation (Voir) and the experimentally determined initial velocity (Voi) are very small. Therefore, it can be appreciated that the law of regression of the determined initial velocity reproduces faithfully the real situation of the decrease in the initial velocity when firing with this type of cannon
The violent events of December 1989 in Romania, which led to the removal of the Communist regime from power are still shrouded in mystery today. The social disorder and the political chaos of those days overlapped with the violent use of the armed forces that used all kinds of weapons. During the armed confrontations, many casualties (military and civilian) and destruction of goods, including cultural ones, took place. In the years following these events a series of theories, hypotheses, controversies, and trials have emerged, but no one has clearly defined the legal nature of this social-political crisis. The purpose of this scientific approach is not to analyze the events and crimes committed in December 1989, but to determine whether and to what extent the international humanitarian law can be applied to these events.
In the present study we propose to offer a series of doctrinal solutions regarding the legal analysis of the patrimonial right to use the work of the authors, under Law no. 8/1996. The importance of the approach lies in the in-depth understanding of the institution, the logical and legal motivations of the Romanian legislator’s options and the doctrinal and jurisprudential solutions in the field. Concerning the importance of legal protection of the author’s patrimonial rights, we will mention here only the argument accepted by the opinionated that social development and well-being are inextricably linked to the legal protection of intellectual creation. We assume that the individual would not be encouraged to create in the absence of legitimate protection of the creation of his intellect
Neuro-linguistic programming (international acronym: NLP) contains a series of principles designed to identify and analyze patterns/models resulting from the analysis of personal development theories and models, one of the NLP goals being to combine their different abilities. Therefore, it is more about an awareness of theories and models, which the individual can follow to get performance in what he does. The principle of reasoning is no exception to this rule. The most well-known theory of motivation is the one proposed by S. Freud (a neuropsychiatrist) through his “pleasure principle“, generically called “motivation direction” in NLP, considered in his time the main motivation mechanism. at the same time, it is very important to separate the concept of NLP, in terms of motivation, from the motivational theories and models that postulate that motivation is essentially of a mechanical nature and is programmed through a series of repetitions and external stimuli. Multiple studies meant to support motivational theories and models have failed to take into consideration the numerous phenomena that are independent of external stimuli. Motivational theories are based on the premise that the individual is animated by intrapsychic potentials which managers and leaders must identify and find a concrete way to emphasize them.
Main online social media platforms known by the respondents 
The usage of online social networks (OSN) in the last decade has changed the manner in which the individuals and especially the young people / students communicate with each other. The aim of our research paper, which is a part of a larger study, is to identify the manner in which the online social networks influence the communication process of the students from Sibiu and Alba Counties of Romania. The present marketing research is a quantitative one, based on a questionnaire that provides a clear insight on what are the main OSN used by the students and it shows how or if the students use the OSN to express their feelings and emotions. The research also shows the influence in the communication process between students and teachers, it points out the main reasons for using such a communication tool and activities undertaken by the students on their preferred OSN.
Fusion of associations and foundations is an institution scarcely ruled by the Romanian legislation, compelling the most of cases the practice to fall back on to legal dispositions regarding the commercial companies, mainly due to the lack of legislation or a clear practice that does not allow ambiguity. In fact, the only regulations regarding these institutions are provided by the art. 33 – 34 index 1 from OG 26/2000 and art. 234 – 239 from the Civil Code, settlements that do not answer to the dynamics of the non-governmental organizations, that weight more and more in the Romanian society. Thereby, it is difficult for us to answer how to transfer the assets and liabilities (on the fusion and split up date or thereafter), at the possibility as that an association fuses with a foundation or that a foundation splits up in many associations, even that by clearance the patrimony of an association may be transferred to a foundation or that of a foundation to an non-profit association. Therefore we consider that a practical approach is compulsory for this subject with regard the completion of legislative lacks in this field, by reporting to juridical norms and the principles of the civil law as well in order to identify the optimal solutions in these cases.
The study is devoted mainly to the logical-legal analysis of the provisions of art. 2 of Law no. 272/2004 on the promotion and protection of children’s rights, as well as art. 263 of the Civil Code, which establish the main normative solutions regarding the “priority promotion of the principle of the best interests of the child”. Although the phrase “the best interests of the child” is used in the construction of many rules of Law no. 272/2004, the Civil Code and other normative acts, the legislator refrained from establishing its significance, leaving this approach to the doctrine. The proposed study is intended to be a contribution to achieving this goal. We were also concerned with the identification of normative inaccuracies and the substantiation of pertinent proposals of lege ferenda for the improvement of the regulations regarding the principle of promoting with priority the principle of the best interest of the child.
Recently, Law no. 57/2016 was adopted amending and supplementing Law No. 273/2004 regarding the adoption procedure and other legal acts. Contrary to Law no. 273/2004, Law no. 57/2016 has modified and supplemented what numerous aspects are concerned, not only the “adoption procedure”, but also its “main conditions” and its “effects”. Even if it seems a minor issue, we are still witnessing a case of non-compliance with the legislative technique for drafting laws. Basically, what Law no. 273/2004 is concerned, the “subject of regulation” has become incompatible with its “name”, contrary to the regulations of art. 41 para. (1) of Law 24/2000 on legal techniques for drafting laws. Law no. 273/2004 has also been modified and massively completed, resulting a really long legal document, incomprehensible by those whom it concerns, difficult of being discussed and moreover difficult of being implemented by the authorities. To these aspects there are other contextual ones to be added, determined by the doubtful “logical legal fundament” of the amendments and additions as well as the modest concerns for correlations between the legal dispositions of Law no. 273/2004 and other legal provisions. Finally, numerous changes and additions to Law no. 273/2004 are of “obvious banality” questioning their practical “necessity and utility”.
This article is dedicated to the legal framework of the conditions for the acquisition of the right to compensation due to unemployment under the Social Security Code of the Republic of Bulgaria. Unemployment is one of the main problems of labour, making it the current object of study not only in the legal, but also in the economic theory and practice. In relation to the intended subject, Regulation (EC) № 883/2004 has also been scrutinized, as it presents rules for coordination of the national social security systems of the EU Member States.
Significant differences of body mass, body mass index and waist circumference
The increase of prevalence of overweight and obesity progressed worldwide and is associated with lifetime diseases. Operational readiness of armed forces is depending on anthropometric data and physical fitness of soldiers. The aim of the study was the investigation of temporal and regional trends of BMI and waist circumference of Austrian conscripts.Data came from the Ministry of Defence of Austria. Mean of body mass (BM, kg), body mass index (BMI, kg/m ² ,) and waist circumference (WC, cm) across age, urbanity and regions were analysed, effect size was checked by Cohen’s d and f eta. Significance was selected at p values <0.05.Mean of BM, BMI and WC showed significant differences, effect sizes were trivial. A significant high correlation was ascertained by BM (r = 0.78 – 0.82) and BMI (r = 0.77 – 0.81) to WC in all age cohorts. Regional differences were detected in BM, BMI and WC. The results show a significant increase of BM, BMI and WC in the years 2007 to 2010 and a stabilisation during the rest of investigation period. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young men has reached a worrying level for public health in Austrian society.
The evolution of the defense budget of the European and North American states, during the years 2010-2020 Source: authors' own processing based on information provided on the NATO website:
Evolution of the share of defense expenditures in the GDP of European and American states (period 2010-2020) Source: authors' own processing based on information provided on the NATO website:
Descriptive statistics of the variable, "share of defense spending in GDP" in 2010-2020 Sursa: authors' own processing
This paper proposes a longitudinal study on the analysis of defense spending of NATO member states in the years 2010-2020. It also aims to identify the emergence of a possible “free-rider” behavior among alliance members. This behavior occurs when some members may be tempted to allocate a low level of defense spending. Defense spending is an important component of each state’s budget, which ensures a vital function of states, namely the national defense function. When the defense is carried out in military-type alliances, and the number of members is large, there is an increased possibility of observing a “free-rider” type behavior between the members of the alliances. To observe this behavior, we tried to identify the best evaluation indicator, which according to the literature could be “the share of defense spending in GDP.” The paper is divided into five parts as follows: the first point considers the introductory part of the paper and the setting of objectives; the second chapter describes the study database, as well as the research methodology and methods used in the study to obtain the results; in the third chapter is analyzed the literature with impact on the studied subject; in the fourth chapter the case study is carried out; and in the last chapter mentioned the conclusions of the study.
Figure nr1-The classification of public revenue accrding to the budget classification. Source: Own proccessing based on budget classification.
Figure nr2-The classification of public expenditures according to the functional and economical classification. Source: Own proccessing based on budget classification.
This article provides a synthetic and easily understandable image of important financial characteristics of the Romanian public system to any person interested in the issue. It draws in general lines the etymology, legal and economic relevance of the budget, as well as the budget system structure and its development under the laws of public finances. It also presents the formation and use of budgetary flows, budgetary principles, consolidated general budget, economic and functional classification and surplus or deficit of budget. The current paper draws on the most known analysis indicators used in the literature. As a group, these analysis indicators convey the level (volume or size), the structure (the destination groups, subgroups, categories) and dynamics (the evolution in time) of budget and can be applied to both income and expenditure budgets. The paper’s objectives are to monitorize the evolution of the consolidated general budget and to analyse the employment deficit in the permissible limits (3%) in the reference period of the study (2012-2016)
The study presents the emergence and evolution of the Public Relations accounts and products associated with social media platforms, at the official level in the Romanian army. We present the main regulations, the planning and execution structures, the significant moments in the development of the platforms, the successes and errors of the implementation team, the main results obtained by the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the products between the year 2012, the year of implementation. and the present time
Holding a meeting or demonstration is a constitutional right (Art. 43 of the Constitution). The order is defined in the Law on gatherings, meetings and manifestations, and every municipal council shall issue an ordinance regulating the details for conducting such events in their country. However, the ongoing protests and counter-protests in Bulgaria have caused debates regarding the mass gatherings out in the open under the Bulgarian Law on gatherings, meetings and manifestations. Entered into force on 2.02.1990, the law does not seem a sufficient answer to the people's expectations for responsiveness to current conditions and dynamic public relations. The present article aims to indicate new practices in the forms of political participation in Bulgaria in 2013.
The article reviews issues related to the use of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in the anti-terrorist operation (ATO) in eastern Ukraine (2014-2018), which became a form of repel and deterrence of Russian aggression, began in Crimea in February 2014 and subsequently continued in eastern regions of Ukraine. According to the nature and consequences of hostilities, the Russian-Ukrainian armed conflict is divided into initial and two main periods, within which a number of stages are defined, distinguished qualitatively in the nature and content of hostilities. The article shows how this affected the change of forms of the Armed Forces of Ukraine employment in the anti-terrorist operation. During the initial (Crimean) period, units and subdivisions of the Ukrainian army were not actually used to repel hybrid aggression of the Russian Federation, but later, when the Russian leadership began using a similar scenario of aggression in the eastern regions of Ukraine, the state responded with the armed fight. The authors believe that despite the swiftness of the first period, its events were characterized by frequent changes in the use of the Armed Forces of Ukraine - from patrolling and guarding important facilities to offensive, raid and search operations. The second period, according to the authors, was characterized by the conduct of the Ukrainian army’s defensive actions with the active use of maneuvers in various dangerous areas.
Value of the absorbed funds until April 3, 2020 [5]
The value of the submitted projects, selected and contracted until 01.03.2019 [6]
Evolution of funds planned, approved and absorbed by NRDP period 2015-2019 [7]
Figure no. 2 is built on the basis of data reported by the Ministry of European Funds until April 3, 2020. The data shown in the figure refer to the actual amounts absorbed up to that date, which is why the indicators are still relatively small. It can be mentioned that the value of the funds contracted are many. According to the figure, up to the analyzed date, most money spent in proportion to the financing is part of the Technical Assistance Operational Program.
The article contains an analysis on a topic that is and will always be important for the simple reason that any topic, change, opportunity or financial restriction with direct or indirect repercussions on the population of a nation will be in the interest of the citizen. And I refer to the citizen in the general way, because the European funds, one of the many good consequences of the great economic union of which we are a part, namely the European Union, aims to increase in each area whose contribution to the gross domestic product can become significant. Private or state environment, company or simply citizen, anyone can become the beneficiary of a project funded by European funds. The proof of this fact is the analysis of the absorption of funds on each operational program. Developing or covering deficiencies in areas of strategic importance, such as infrastructure, can lead to the raising of other areas in the chain and ultimately to the increase of the standard of living and economic growth.
The purpose of this article is to present the Hungarian security policy over the last two years, focused on the migrant crisis. This policy is explained on the basis of the National Security Strategy. According to the Strategy, the migration is treated as a natural and at the same time complex phenomenon, bringing economic and demographic advantages and, at the same time, carrying public and national security risks. It is concluded that resolving the crisis is one of the most important priorities of the Hungarian security policy. The paper highlights the differences between the Hungarian security policy and the official policy of the EU. Like the other members of the Visegrád Group, Budapest is against the quota system for the allocation of migrants. The position of Hungary is that the discussion of the migrant problem both in the Group and at EU level should be based on the concept of effective solidarity. The country supports European integration of the Western Balkans. The study is based on documents, mainly of the Visegrád Group, and materials from the media.
The reason for building a website is primarily to reach target audiences worldwide (or local audiences, as appropriate) and, secondly, to represent a company or organization in the online environment. And if we take the second case, namely online representation is necessary to make sure that website is always updated and that has an improved web design. Trends in web design can have multiple roles: to make a website more attractive and more functional and to increase its traffic and subsequent conversions. Given the evolution of technology, most websites have to suffer some changes so frequent visitors to enjoy right experiences regardless of how they access, so for companies that take seriously the importance of their online website, respecting future trends in the online space is the only way to start a new project. This article brings up some trends in web design, considering this issue of great interest in the online environment. Although it is quite difficult to predict which trends will later develop into the necessity, we must keep pace in this digital world where everything seems to change so fast.
The adoption of The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) by the UN General Assembly in July 2017 is a real success for the international community in the fight against armaments and the danger of an apocalyptic war. Despite the scepticism of many, the treaty entered into force in January 2021, with its 50th ratification. Although this story seems to have come to a happy end, it is only now that the turmoil begins. No nuclear-weapon state has supported the adoption of the treaty and they refuse to recognize its legal power. The implementation of this treaty will be the hardest test for the UN. Nuclear states are the strongest and most decision-making, especially within the Security Council. In this context, the question arises whether the UN will succeed in finding an effective way to persuade nuclear states to give up these weapons or whether we will witness an international “putsch” of nuclear states.
According to the NATO 2030 report the Alliance will have to adapt to a more complex strategic environment over the next decade. In this study, we address the major strategic priorities of the report, and its recommendations for the Alliance’s partnerships. NATO’s partnership initiatives (Partnership for Peace, Mediterranean Dialogue, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative, Partners Across the Globe) are key tools for building cooperative security and cooperation with partners. It provides a good opportunity to review the Alliance’s ability of continuous innovation and its adaptation to a changing world.
Small arms and Light weapons distribution, military (upper blue scheme) and civilian (lower green scheme) circumstances
Simplified version of firearms categories classification [3]
Extended version of firearms categories classification
One would outright tell the differences between a rifle and a machine gun. But what if the things get so much complicated so that only a minuscule detail becomes the key into telling if that piece of ordnance pertains to a specific category of arms, more precisely if it fits into a distinguished subcategory of armament. At the moment, there are indefinitely many ways of structuring firearms into certain categories, but the methods are vague and imprecise when it comes to types that are strongly related or similar. Thus, combining history records and the official texts of various institutions ensue a more complex and plausible method of firearms classification and terminology registering alike.
Communication is a fundamental skill for the existence and survival of societies. In the learning of a foreign language, classroom practice should focus with priority on developing communicative skills. Oracy, a term coined by Andrew Wilkinson in 1965, is defined as the ability to express oneself efficiently, effectively, and fluently. Having strong oracy skills involves the capacity to structure one’s thoughts in a way that is comprehensible to others, and accurate control of both vocabulary and grammar, in order to transmit a clear message. In the same way that literacy is essential for reading and writing, oracy is necessary for becoming a good speaker and listener. This paper will define oracy as a language teaching strategy, establish an oracy framework, and detail on oracy subskills. The practical part takes a pedagogical approach to the concept of oracy and underlines its importance in the teaching of a foreign language by integrating oracy skills and sub-skills in an applied discussion exemplified by concrete classroom practice.
In the last years the focus of the military specialists changed from the asymmetrical threats to the hybrid threats, seen as one of the main challenge for the security in the 21st century. The increased attention paid to hybrid threats is due to the events that took place in Ukraine, Syria and other confrontation areas and which highlighted the vulnerability of the modern societies and modern armies toward this type of actions. The use of hybrid type tactics can ensure the achievement of the main objectives of an international actor, with a low effort, usually without using the force, and can deny to the target/victim the possibility to take any defensive actions. The hybrid warfare can represent the war of the 21st century, a new type of direct or indirect confrontation, with effects on short and medium term, impossible to be anticipated.
Human trafficking represents an extremely serious social phenomenon, which brings serious prejudices to the fundamental rights of men. Human trafficking (infringement that is regulated and incriminated by the current Penal Code in the Special Part, Title I – Infringements against the person, Chapter VII – The trafficking and the exploitation of the vulnerable persons, article 210) represents one of the modern forms of slavery, together with work exploitation and the traffic of organs. Due to the abolishing of slavery and the incrimination of its practices, this form of human denigration has continued to exist against all forms of rebutment. This situation may be explained through the theories mentioned. Still, one of the reasons for which slavery has resisted until nowadays is because it has changed its form, adapting to the new social and political requirements. As a result, the three forms of modern slavery have appeared, among which human trafficking.
Top-cited authors
Alina Balagiu
  • Mircea cel Batran Naval Academy
Maria Liana Lacatus
  • Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies
Camelia Stăiculescu
  • Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies
Cornel Hatiegan
  • Babeş-Bolyai University
Valentin Vasilev
  • Higher School of Security and Economics, Plovdiv