International Research Journal of Social Sciences

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Our study has two aims: to elaborate theoretical frameworks and introduce social mechanisms of spontaneous co-operation in repeated buyer-seller relationships and to formulate hypotheses which can be empirically tested. The basis of our chain of ideas is the simple two-person Prisoner’s Dilemma game. On the one hand, its repeated variation can be applicable for the distinction of the analytical types of trust (iteration trust, strategy trust) in co-operations. On the other hand, it provides a chance to reveal those dyadic sympathy-antipathy relations, which make us understand the evolution of trust. Then we introduce the analysis of the more complicated (more than two-person) buyer-seller relationship. Firstly, we outline the possible role of the structural balancing mechanisms in forming trust in three-person buyer-seller relationships. Secondly, we put forward hypotheses to explain complex buyer-seller networks. In our research project we try to theoretically combine some of the simple concepts of game theory with certain ideas of the social-structural balance theory. Finally, it is followed by a short summary.
 
Background India, with a population of over a billion people, is a country of varying social, cultural and geographic characteristics. There are real problems in meeting the health care needs of such a large population, particularly, the poor in rural areas. Managing their end of life issues would be a difficult task, especially in the case of chronic, debilitating illness like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The available data show that patients are still receiving inadequate end-oflife care.Palliative Care represents an important resource in the completion of good medical care which can help to take the best care of patients and their families. The availability of palliative care is very limited in much of the world. Aim The current study has been undertaken to know the End of Life Physical Problems of Patients in Chottanikkara Panchayt,Keralabefore and last one year of their death. Materials and Methods For the purpose of study,50 respondents were selected as samples by adopting convenience sampling method. Analysis was done via statistical software 17.0. using statistical tool ,viz. One Way ANOVA(Post Hoc Test Tukey HSD). * Asst. Professor**Associate Professor in Commerce Department of Commerce and Research Centre Institution,Rajagiri College of Social Science, Kalamassery ** M.Com, Ph.D St. Peter’s College,Kolenchery, Ernakulam, Dist., Kerala ISSN: 2249-2496Impact Factor: 7.081 140 International Journal of Research in Social Sciences http://www.ijmra.us, Email: editorijmie@gmail.com Resultse study revealed that 36% of the patients were suffering from the problems of old age and disability and34% of them were suffering from cancer. There was no significant difference in the physical problem, viz. bed sore, Agitation, Dehydration, Constipation, Cachexia, Loss of function, Dyspnea(except cancer patients and patients suffering from Problems of Old Age and Disability) suffered by the patients suffering from different types of diseases before one year to last 2 weeks of their death. There was no significant difference in the physical problem- Nausea suffered by the Cancer patients and patients with Spinal injuries and Dyspnea suffered by the cancer patients and patients suffering from Problems of Old Age and Disability and Vomiting suffered by the Cancer patients and patients with Chronic Liver Disease before one year to last two weeks of their death.There was a significant difference in the physical problem- Nausea‘ suffered by the cancer patients when compared to patients suffering from Problems of old age and Disability and Chronic Kidney Disease and Vomiting suffered by cancer patients and patients suffering from Problems of Old Age and Disability Chronic Kidney Disease, before one year to last 2 weeks of their death. Conclusion There was a significant difference in the physical problem- Nausea‘ suffered by the cancer patients when compared to patients suffering from Problems of old age and Disability and Chronic Kidney Disease and Vomiting suffered by cancer patients and patients suffering from Problems of Old Age and Disability Chronic Kidney Disease, before one year to last 2 weeks of their death. Key words: Palliative Care, Analysis of Variance, Chronic Kidney Disease, Dyspnea, Nausea.
 
This paper aimed to assess the effectiveness of training on professionals’ knowledge and skills and to provide suggestions that how can further improve the knowledge levels of respondents through effective training program in future. An 11th professional training on “Watershed Rehabilitation & Irrigation Technology Improvement” was organized by CAEWRI, NARC dated 12th to 14th May, 2015. The training was held at Fatehjang Field Station of NARC at district Punjab with the financial support of ICARDA and USDA. The main technologies discussed in training were drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, solar pumping irrigation and irrigation water scheduling. There were about thirty seven professionals become involved from different government and non-government organizations. Based on the pre and post-training findings, the participants’ interest and fondness in the training was exceptionally great. Further, the most positive thing of the training was the young professionals’ participation as 51 percent were belong to age group of (20-30) years. The mean observations of majority training respondents for instructors were positive as 28 percent were strongly agreed and 40 percent were simply agreed about the instructors’ teaching methods and presenting skills, their subject knowledge, answering to questions ability and keeping the respondent attention during training. Similarly the mean observations of training respondents for overall training were also good as 29 percent of respondents were strongly agreed and 47 percent were simply agreed regarding training relevancy, training facilities, subject information, supporting material, sufficient time for training and the overall quality of training workshop. It is evident from the results that majority of training respondents were rated the training course very positively. However, some respondents had showed neutral response and few were disagreed which indicates the possibility for improvement. Consequently, the post-training results had showed positive impact and an enormous change reported in respondents’ knowledge and awareness about the technologies. All training participants had showed much attention in training activities and assured that such training programs could generate positive awareness about th new inventions and will be much helpful in technologies dissemination in future. However, this short-term evaluation results indicate to us that this training course were of good quality and had relevant contents.
 
International Science Community Association 2 water scarce country. It's now graded among the worst performers in Asian Nations 12. Restricted supply of water with rising water shortage is the primary and big dilemma of Pakistan. The culturable waste is by now 48.6% and the country population has climbed from 32.4 million in the year 1948 to 168 million in the year 2010. The predicted population of Pakistan for the year 2025 would be 221 million 13. In short, appropriate water management amplifies the water use proficiency and subsequently the grain produce. There are many efficient irrigation techniques that used in orchards and vegetables gardens like basin, flood, furrow, sprinkler and drip irrigation system. Irrigation through modern management practices is feasible for sustainable agriculture. There is need of more consideration on the improvement of irrigation efficiency and water application practice. To make efficient water handling, the plants need a specific amount of water and that should be applied appropriately with minimum losses. The current study was outlined to evaluate the training program through getting the professional feedback. The responses included both pre and post observations of the practical demonstrations at the project site and to contribute possible advices for the advancement and betterment of such positive events. Methodology The present training on water saving technologies was conducted by BARI and SAWCRI with collaboration of ICARDA and USDA. This event was held under the project titled "Watershed Rehabilitation and Irrigation Technology Improvements" in district Chakwal of Punjab-Pakistan. A total of twenty professionals participated and they all were treated as respondents for the current study. To achieve the objectives, pre and post-training questionnaires were designed and developed and distributed among the training professionals accordingly. The methodology and training course contents was assessed by ranking the level of convinced/not convinced of different statements from 1 to 4. These statements are rated on the following 4-point scale (Not Convinced=1, Somewhat Convinced =2, Convinced =3, Strongly Convinced =4). To examine the pre and post-training observations of respondents, a paired t-test was applied. Paired samples t-tests typically consist of a sample of matched pairs of similar units or two different samples from the same individual. The two competing hypotheses are null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis visualizes that true mean difference between the paired samples is zero and alternative hypothesis visualizes that true mean difference between the paired samples is not equal to zero. The mathematical symbol of the null and alternative hypothesis is outlined underneath: i. The null and alternative hypothesis is H 0 : d = 0, H 1 : d ≠ 0, where d = difference between means, H 0 = no difference, H 1 = difference. ii. α = 0.05, iii. The paired t test presumes that variations between pairs are normally distributed. The pairs are one person's pre-test and post-test scores and degrees of freedom used in this test is n-1, where "n" represents the number of pairs. Paired t-test: This test is used when the samples are dependent; that is, when there is only one sample that has been tested twice (repeated measures) or when there are two samples that have been matched or "paired" (before and after comparison-same groups). d = ∑ n di and s d = 1) (2 __ − − ∑ n d di Where: d = sample mean difference, s d = standard deviation of sample differences, n = sample size (number of sample differences), n-1 = degrees of freedom for the t test statistic. Results and discussion The socioeconomic characteristics of training respondents, pre and post-training findings about instructors' capability and their lectures effectiveness delivered in training, respondents' observations about overall training course and pre and post-knowledge status of the training respondents are outlined here. Socioeconomic status of the training respondents: The data regarding key features expressed that age, education and professional experience of respondents play a significant role in the selection of new technologies as well as improved their skills and attitude that helps them to learn and accept new ideas and take right decision at right time. The findings in Table-1 indicated that majority of respondents (55%) were from the age group of (41-50) years. Similarly, a significant number of respondents (45%) had bachelor level education; followed by master and intermediate level education respectively. While majority of training respondents (45%) had 11-15 years of professional experience while (55%) of training respondents were performing duties in office, 35% were engaged in field work through direct link with the farmers while only 10% were involved in both office and field work. Respondent's Observations about Instructors: Table-2 presented the respondents observations about the training instructors. The results showed that most of training respondents (80%) were strongly convinced and (20%) were merely convinced about the question that "Did the instructors conveyed the information visibly"; followed by query that "Did the instructors presenting their subjects effectively", 65% were strongly convinced, 30% were merely convinced and 5% were somewhat convinced, and the query that "Did the instructors
 
The 14th General Election (GE14) was the most exciting general election ever had by Malaysian's ever since its independence in 1957. The high participation of young voters or better known as the 'Kingmaker' which made up 41% of the total voters was the main reason for the topple of Barisan Nasional (BN) government that have administrated the nation for the last 60 years. Given the influence of awareness towards electoral issues and the political knowledge, this paper aims to understand the young voters' participation during election. Guided by Michael Foucault work on theory of power, this paper examined how voters rely on technology to educate themselves on the election issues that become a concern for them before exercising their power by determining and selecting their preferred government. The findings of the data were collected through focus group discussions, involving twelve (12) informants which consist of Malay, Chinese and Indian voters, aged between 21 to 39 years old. From the findings, issues relating to 1 Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB), Goods and Service Tax (GST), high cost of living, and National Higher Education Fund Corporation (PTPTN) had grabbed their attention. Their concerns towards these issues were caused by the economy impact that it has on their daily lives. Influenced by their heavy reliance on social media as a source of information which was easily accessible through smart phones further motivated them to cast their votes despite of their depth of knowledge on electoral processes. Nevertheless, both Government and the Election Commission have a vital role to play in drawing young voters' attention whilst engaging and educating them for the next General Election.
 
Phenotypic relationships of flesh yield with total weight; carapace width; carapace length and carapace height of mud crab (Scylla serrata, Forskål 1775) were estimated from a sample of 60 individuals having size range of 4.80-10.2 cm in carapace width and 42.72-196.71 g in total weight. Data were recorded and analyzed for total weight (Twt), flesh weight (Fwt), carapace length (CL), carapace width (CW) and carapace height (CH). The mean condition factor (K) of the samples was computed as 22.5 suggesting that the sample of mud crab were in good condition having normal shape. The average flesh yield or weight was calculated as 38.42 ± 10.52 respectively. There was no significant variation (p ≥ 0.05) in condition factor between male and female mud crab. Most of the true traits were strongly and positively correlated (r > 0.6) with one another. Both bivariate and multivariate regression analysis were done to estimate the regression coefficient between the traits and to find out the best fitted model. Bivariate linear regression coefficient of flesh yield on Twt; CW; CL and CH were 0.39; 7.88; 10.5 and 18 respectively. In case of multivariate regression analysis of Fwt, the best fitted model gave the equation as Fwt =-29.2 +9.93 CW-10.2 CL +13.8 CH.
 
The emerging and uncontrollable pandemic COVID the other in versatile ways. In spite of tremendous efforts of government to provide daily needs and necessary requirements of common man, instability has arisen amongst people of different professions. Present study demonstrates the effect of lock down on migrant labours of India. Various challenges faced by migrant labours, abnormality in lifestyles and role of community in contributing to unstable lifestyle of migrant labours during lock down period are discussed and analyzed. The drastic deterioration of socioeconomic and other factors in second phase of lock down in comparison to first lock down phase are also discussed. Measures taken by government of India to tackle migrant labours issues and its further consequences from future aspects are e
 
Ethnicity has remained a crucial issue in the subcontinent that is still a center of many political movements in some countries like Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. It is vivid in post partition political scenario of these countries that people have remained more worried about their ethnic identity than religious one. It is an ethnic identity which has been playing an important role in order to connect people without any difference of religion. Likewise, politics of ethnicity is so common phenomenon in South Asia. This paper is divided into two sections: The first section highlights the role of political parties like Awami League in Bengali Language Movement in united Pakistan (1948-56). In first section, it will be highlighted that how the ethnic identity especially identity based on language, played a vital role in organizing the people of East Pakistan for getting their rights from center (West Pakistan). The second section will deal with the ethnic problems in Chittagong Hill Tracts i.e. a district of Bangladesh, and this paper will look into matter that whether Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman, founding father of Bangladesh and his party Awami League (People’s League) took any measures to resolve ethnic issues of people of CHT after he came into power or state machinery of Bangladesh also adopted same tactics against Tribal people as such tactics were used in order to suppress Bengali identity politics in united Pakistan?
 
The main purpose of this study is to empirically analyze the long run relationship among some macroeconomic variables in Pakistan. The annual time series data of variables; gross domestic product, exchange rate and foreign direct investment has been taken for the period of 1981-2016. The Augment Dicky fuller test, Co-integration method and vector error correction model were applied. The existence of long-term casual links among studied variables have been confirmed in the result. Moreover, It has been also confirmed a positive association between foreign direct investment with gross domestic product and negative association of exchange rate with gross domestic product. We infer that foreign direct investment is an optimistic force towards economic growth in Pakistan.
 
The paper examined the tribulations and the effects of how the political class bastardized and corruptly mishandled the democratic politics of northern Nigeria which in effect criminalized the mindset of the youth since the inception of the Fourth Republic in May 1999. The pointers of these youths' criminalities are seen in activities such as Boko Haram, kidnapping, armed robbery, armed banditry, cattle-rustling, political thuggery and gangsterism among others. These are the current challenges confronting entire northern Nigeria because of the neglect, abandonment, and misgovernance, particularly of the rural areas. The objective of the paper sought to analyze the Original Research Article Umar and Bambale; ARJASS, 9(4): 1-9, 2019; Article no.ARJASS.50953 2 challenging effects of the northern youths' political misfortunes which caused the northern region to be in a serious security dilemma. Thus, the paper employed historical analysis using a secondary source of data to discuss and analysed how the Nigerian youths were relegated to mere evil political tools by the politicians over the years. It found out that the youth have been in a deplorable condition and had become ready-made instruments of the politicians to commit electoral crimes. Thus, they have become vulnerable to any antisocial conduct that can easily get them to quick and fast monetary advantages or religious extremism. The paper lastly suggests that the condition of these youth must be improved to deal with emerging social threats. This can be done by investing adequately in education, social services, infrastructural facilities and instantaneous provision of employment opportunities.
 
Abstract Facebook is one of the most famous and well known social media and utilized for election campaigning in different parts of the world. Recently, during the Presidential Election in 2015, a remarkable campaign was launched on Facebook, and it was a focal point in the history of social media campaign in Sri Lanka. This manuscript aims to analyze the influence of facebook election campaign on the Presidential Election of Sri Lanka in 2015; investigates the mechanisms/strategies used; the impact of this campaign on facebook users; the findings of qualitative and quantitative content analysis of facebook pages demonstrates the perceptions and behaviours’ of the two presidential candidates; and it is an exemplified sample containing 316 posts collected on the use of facebook during the period of election. Findings show that both candidates used an emotional and motivational appeal to create a social capital. Analysis shows that the comments given to the posts were influenced by the component of persuasion used on the posts. Users’ views mainly highlighted that facebook can be used as an influence channel for political campaigns and as a means to gain social prestige from voters.
 
Students Learning Outcomes Cycle [24]
A model for e-learning based on crowdsourcing and Internet of Things [10]
The recent innovative technologies have dramatically changed the future of humanity. There are many pros & cons of this excessive impact of technology on our lives. The main goal behind the advancement of these technologies was to increase our day to day efficiency. At a larger scale, it aimed on more productivity from the industrial zones, alleviation of poverty and improve life index of people. This era of smart society, which is a result of investing huge amount of resources on IT Infrastructure of Smart Cities to automate life of its citizens with a quest for perfection has raised the bars for competence level required in all walks of life. The students of Smart Societies of the future will be seeking state of the art knowledge platforms and teaching aids that would be interactive and effective for attaining knowledge. On the other hand, the teachers of this smart era would have to enhance their knowledge, teaching skills and expertise as per the demands and needs of these students. The educationists would have to educate these students to deal and compete with machines (e.g. in Industry 4.0 where robots will be replacing workers at different levels of industry and eventually will totally replace human workforce). This is essentially a paradigm shift that requires non trivial forms of teaching and learning methods for preparing the students to meet the needs of increasingly complex digitally driven AI based Smart Societies. We discuss these challenges of the Smart Societies and their possible solutions by positively introducing these new technologies in pedagogy, curriculum design, ICT skills, fast learning, technology oriented and outcome based educational environment, where student will not feel any change while moving from classroom to the industry.
 
Number of flowers pollinated, number of pod set and the percentage of pod set in crosses involving cultivated and wild* cowpea varieties. 
Mean number of flowers per plant and percentage (%) of flowers that produced mature pods per plant among parents and F1s in crosses involving cultivated and wild* cowpea varieties. 
Studies on crossability between cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) varieties and their wild relative (var. pubescens TVNu110-3A) Crosses were made between five cultivated cowpea varieties (Dandunga, IT89KD-288, IT93K-452-1, IT97K-499-38 and IT81D-994) and their wild relative, var. pubescens (TVNu 110-3A) to investigate their cross-compatibility as well as reproductive potential of the respective F 1 hybrid plants. The wild relative, which was used as pollen parent, crossed well with the cultivated cowpea varieties with pod set ranging from 54 – 63.9%. F 1 hybrid plants grew vigorously and produced viable seeds. The result showed high level of cross-compatibility between the cultivated cowpea varieties and the wild relative. Seeds of the F 1 hybrid plants, which were advanced to F 2 , indicated sufficient reproductive potential of the hybrids.
 
In the post reform period, India has witnessed a drastic change in food consumption pattern. There has been a fall in cereal intake particularly in coarse cereals whereas consumption of other food items (vegetables, fruits, oil and milk products) has not increased significantly especially in the diet of rural population. This change in food consumption has led to a drop in average per capita calorie and protein intakes which are one of the widely used indicators of nutrition. Besides, India’s performance on child anthropometric measures such as height for age, weight for height and weight for age is even worse than the sub Saharan countries of Africa. Thus, poor nutrition level in India remains an issue of wide public concern and debate. Most of the studies deal with nutrition at macro level and there are dearth of them which examine regional pattern of food and nutrient intake. This study which is based on National Sample Survey (NSS) 66th Consumer Expenditure Schedule (2009-10) attempts to exhibit food consumption and nutrition (in terms of energy, protein, carbohydrates, minerals, fat, vitamin C, iron and calcium) distribution across 85 NSS regions. Findings of the study show that Indian diet is monotonous based on cereals and milk products which are major source of all nutrients. Regions with higher intake of cereals and milk appear to consume most of the nutrients. It is also evidenced that there are large regional gaps found between northern, southern and north-eastern NSS regions on nutrition parameters in rural India. However, findings of the study need to be correlated with other similar studies as consumption of nutrients not only determines nutrition security.
 
The term “Barrier Free” indicates an environment where all users irrespective of their disabilities access the resources which they need. The students with disabilities have to face multiple challenges in the wake of unique barrier whether architectural, attitudinal or institutional which may include lack of understanding and co-operation from administration, faculty, staff and other students, inaccessibility of buildings, facilities and support barriers. The present study is conducted with an objective to identify the differences in infrastructural facilities and student’s level of satisfaction among government and non- government institutions. The study was conducted among eight universities offering higher education existing in Lucknow city to explore the infrastructural facilities for the differently abled students. From among, one university which is specially constructed for differently abled students was excluded from the study, so that exact differences among Government and non-Government institutions can be analyzed. To measure the level of satisfaction among students with regard to facilities for differently abled students, 30 students (15 Boys and 15 Girls) from each university were selected. A self-developed inventory to identify differences in infrastructural facilities was developed. Results revealed that nongovernment institutions were providing more facilities for differently abled students in comparison to government institutions. It was found that 74.28% the students belonging to Government institutions had low level of satisfaction comparised to 55.71% of students belonging to non-Government institutions. Results may be used to explain suitable and barrier free environment in academic institutions for the convenience of differently abled students.
 
The study area is part of the Jefarah Plain located in the north western part of Libya. It is one of the most important agricultural areas in Libya. This is because of the properties and quality of its soil and the location of experienced people in agriculture. A considerable growth of population due to agricultural and industrial activities in the area causing high water demand which depend mainly on the groundwater resources. The water resource mostly from Abu Shaybah Aquifer in the study area, this aquifer is very important in the area and it is still under exploitation by wells supply water for agriculture and domestic, its depth varies from 300 to 700m with a thickness of 35 to 300 m. The production wells penetrating this aquifer are pumped with a ranging rate of 30 to 130 m 3 /h. Depth to water level varies from 10 to 145m depending on the topography of the area.
 
Sample collection points and their location
bacteria counts from soil samples
The extent of human impact on sensitive ecosystem is now so profound that there is currently much discussion about Anthropocene. Massive tourists' influxes to a relatively small area often have a huge impact. The direct local impacts of tourism on soil microbes and ecosystem at destinations are strongly affected by concentration in time and space. The diversity and abundance of soil microorganism can be influenced by tourism activities. Hence, this is a good means of evaluating the extent and the quality of the environment of tourists' destinations. This study used soil bacteria count at different activity areas in Awba dam to assess impacts of human activities. Anthropogenic activities in the dam were determined through direct observation. Two replicates of soil samples were randomly collected from construction site, residential area and farm land. Samples were taken to analytical laboratory for bacterial count using Serial Dilution Techniques to determine the count and the types of bacteria. Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas sp were the most prevalent bacteria occurring in all the samples (100%) and then Micrococcus sp (60%). The highest total bacteria count was obtained in the samples collected in the forested areas (7.3 ×10 6) followed by disturbed forest (6.1 ×10 6) and in samples collected in the residential areas (5.5 ×10 6). The bacteria count of each area differs depending on the kind and level of activities carried out in those areas. Construction sites have the highest level of disturbance but the least number of bacteria while forested areas have the lowest level of disturbance and the highest number of bacteria. The assessment of microbial biodiversity has the potential to provide useful insight into the health and functioning of a good environment. The analysis carried out on the soil samples collected revealed a variation in abundance of bacteria composition in accordance with the level of activity carried out on the land.
 
Grades of students with respect to fathers' employment Fathers' Employment
Grades of students with respect to help in study
Grades of students with respect to play time
shows overall trend that
The study was aimed at finding out the demographic determinants of high academic achievements of 12 th grade students. All the12 th grade students enrolled in public & private colleges and higher secondary schools affiliated with Board of intermediate and secondary education Sargodha were the population. A sample of 900 students was drawn conveniently from the two selected districts. Out of these 900, high achiever students securing 65% or more marks in HSSC part-1 exams were identified. A questionnaire for students was used for data collection. Descriptive statistical analysis revealed that Majority of the high achiever students were male, 1 st or fifth in family order, were from educated and separate (nuclear) families, their fathers were government employees and has matric (SSC) qualification but mothers were either uneducated or had basic education. Their fathers' income ranges from 10,000 to 30000 per month. They either do not spend time on play or play only cricket for only one or two hours. They do not take tuition and do not watch TV.
 
Comparison of Self-Concept of Adolescents Across Academic Performance 
Present study was undertaken to assess and compare the academic performance and self-concept of adolescents studying at Government Inter Colleges of Uttarakhand. District Udham Singh Nagar and District Pithoragarh were purposively selected as representative of most advanced and underdeveloped districts of Uttarakhand. Sample for the study was drawn from 21 Government schools located in developed areas of District Udham Singh Nagar and remote areas of District Pithoragarh. The criteria used for determining developed and remote areas was the availability of health care, education, communication facilities and connectivity to big cities. Sample of the study comprised of 319 randomly selected adolescents of IX standard. Self-designed socio-demographic questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics and self-concept of respondents was assessed through overall self-concept of students who got I division was also significantly higher than others. Comparison of self-concept of adolescents of different academic performance categories across their place of residence showed that adolescents of developed areas who got I Division marks had significantly high physical and overall self-concept than adolescents of remote areas who got I Division marks. No significant differences were found in the self-concept of adolescents who got II or III Division or who got failed.
 
The purpose of the article is to explore a method based on the receptive understanding of languages, which is an integral part of the multilingual approach. In foreign scientific literature this method is described as "mutual understanding between related languages" or "intercomprehension". Using the analysis of foreign scientific literature with the involvement of some Russian sources, the study describes various current educational projects based on this method as well as analyzes individual technologies for accelerated foreign language learning. The author of the study concludes that a very short time frame of achieving results can be considered the main advantage of this method. The method of intercoprehension allows not only to derive maximum benefit from the close relationship of languages, but also from such transversal aspects as discursive and textual typology as well as from other pragmalinguistic and extralinguistic elements, which makes it a dynamic and effective means of learning languages and cultures within the contemporary framework of multicultural education. Keywords: intercomprehension, Italian language, communication skills, multilingual approach, receptive skills, accelerated learning.
 
Proposed conceptual model.
The current study aims to explore the technology adoption and its users' perceptional approach in a public sector of Pakistan via applying the behavioral and technological antecedents. The proposed model in this study contains the constructs as perceived ease of use (PEOU), Trust in technology (TIT), social influence (SI), information quality (IQ) and employees' behavior intention to use e-government (BI) and the concerned determinants are presumed to envisage the intentional level of public officials to use wireless technology in a Pakistan point of view. The current study follows the theoretical approach which includes the TAM and UTAUT model in order to find out the degree of the intention of employees' to apply the innovative technology in the working atmosphere. The proposed model has been tested by an empirical means that contains the 341 samplings for data analysis of the public sector employees of (NADRA) to carry out and fill the survey questionnaires (items). The SPSS version 24 was applied to meet the final results of the concerned study and the hypotheses were tested by using the regressions and correlations. In the present study, questionnaires were distributed up to 500 among the employees of the lower and middle-rank employees at Sukkur, Larkana and Hyderabad region and the response rate remained 68.2%. The results finding in the study sought to determine that PEOU, TIT and IQ factors show the positive significant association with the behavioral intention of employees to adopt the innovative technology in the public sector. This study also includes the limitation, future recommendation, practical implications and significance in a Pakistan perceptive.
 
Ethics, business decision making, and how we educate future leaders has become the subject of much discourse particularly since the 2007-2009 near collapse of the world's financial markets. This study identified the need for ethics education in graduate and post graduate education and was approached from the perspective of current and former students. This phenomenological study, grounded in institutional theory, addressed how an ethical interpretive framework becomes institutionalized. The research question explored the need for ethics education and elements of ethical decision making in business that can be standardized and taught to graduate and post-graduate students. Data were collected by surveying 40 current and former graduate and post-graduate business students located throughout the United States and Canada. The data from the surveys were analyzed using qualitative data analyzing software and were coded to identify themes. Three themes emerged: (a) ethics as part of business education; (b) approaches to ethical decision making; and (c) balancing the needs of business with stakeholder interest. Factors that participants considered important when making ethical business decisions included: analyzing the situation, identifying the principles related to the situation, identifying the relevant resources to assist with the decision making, considering the need for further information or clarification, identifying the options, choosing the best option, taking action, and evaluating the decision. Based on these findings, offering a structured approach that considers the factors of ethical decision making would have far reaching and ongoing benefits for business and academia.
 
For years since independence, several rural communities in Tanzania have continued to experience unabated pressure on access to safe and clean water. Consequently households in areas prone to water shortages have evolved devising different measures in revamping accessibility to water resource. However, the pattern of water accessibility in such areas is shaped by different factors. This paper narrates finding from a study conducted at Mwanza region in one of the area (Buswelu ward) proclaimed for persistent water shortages. The study investigated the socio-economic characteristics of community members, study area characteristics, water provision infrastructures and stakeholders initiatives in relation to water provision. A total of 84 head of households were involved comprising 33 males and 51 females. Both interview and observation methods were employed whereby questionnaires and focus group discussions were administered. Findings indicate that, both socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of household members emerged to shape differences in consumption pattern and accessibility to safe and clean water within households and wider in a community. While the burden of water scarcity is felt differently among households at different time intervals of the year, women and their daughters bare more burdens as compared to their men/boys counterparts because of the embedded socio-cultural set-up. However, persistence of water shortage in the area is exacerbated by prolonged drought concurrently with mismanagement of water sources and infrastructures. Finally recommendation is given to Local Authorities, Government and other Stakeholders to consider differences in households’ socio-economic and demographic characteristics as pre-factor for water development intervention in an area.
 
1: Closest Facility from PHC's to Village Centroid 
2 provides the cumulative percentage of villages and its population located
The spatial pattern of health care facilities is concerned with the arrangement of the facilities across a geographical space. This could be in response to series of locational factors such as: easy access to facility from other nearby settlement, availability of approachable roads, mode of transport or impediment like water bodies, forests, rugged terrain and others. Health care decisions are strongly influenced by the type and quality of services available in the local area and the distance, time, cost, and ease of traveling to reach those services. This paper demonstrates a method for estimating the geographical accessibility to PHC's. Network analysis in GIS, is used to determine the travel distance and travel time to closest healthcare via road network. This analysis is applied to approximately 430 villages in Chamarajanagara district allowing geographical access to be linked to local populations. The population is not distributed uniform across villages, the village centroids were considered as a demand points, and the PHC facilities were considered as supply points. The study concludes that Chamarajanagara and Gundlupete taluks are having good number of health centers to serve the local people, while as Yelanduru and Kollegala taluks are serving more people with relatively less number of health centers.
 
Teachers' and Students' Views Concerning Availability of Teaching and Learning Resources in Schools. 
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the teaching and learning resources/materials used in financial accounting lessons in senior high schools in the Sunyani Municipality of Ghana. Thirty one (31) teachers and three hundred and fifty (350) students from the ten (10) senior high schools in the municipality were selected for the study. It was a descriptive study where questionnaire and observation guide were used to collect the data. The study revealed that financial accounting teachers and students acknowledged the importance of teaching and learning resources/materials in the teaching and learning of financial accounting but could not use these resources to support their teaching and learning. The study also recommended that Ghana Education Service should organize in-service training for teachers on how to improvise teaching and learning resources/materials to support their teaching.
 
Today the representation of women in politics has been increased considerably but due to their low participation in Indian politics, their issues and problems are generally unseen and unnoticed. Promoting women's participation in politics is one of the core areas of women empowerment. Active participation of women in the mainstream of political activities, political processes, decision-making and policy formulation has a strong bearing on the governance structure, nation-building and development of a country. The presence of women in the decision-making levels not only enhances their social, political and economic status, but also strengthens democratic institutions and even perhaps change the nature of the democratic process. Hence to promote gender equality in urban local governance, study investigated the challenges faced by women councilors in decision making, factors that facilitate and restrain their participation in political field, and their achievements during their tenure. Respondents were thirty women councilors in Urban Local Government of three Municipalities of Sivagangai district in Tamil Nadu, India. Purposive sampling technique has been used for the selection of sample. Structured interview schedule and case studies have been adopted for the collection of data. Study shows that women have gained only certain extent of authority and confidence. Hence research study recommended implementation of Gender park to resolve gender inequity in all developmental process and suggested strategies for the effective participation of women in urban local governance.
 
Proportion of Underweight Children (% Children aged below 5 years who were underweight)  
Neonatal, Infant and Under-five Mortality Rates, 2005-06  
Access to Antenatal Care (% Mothers who had at least 3 antenatal care visits)  
India is committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set by the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000. MDGs ably summarize crucial global development concerns, encompassing multiple dimensions of economic and social poverty. As a result, they have been incorporated smoothly into the five-year planning framework of the country. Specifically with regard to health, the Eleventh Five Year Plan is optimistic about achieving the MDG targets for infant and maternal mortality rate (IMR and MMR) by the end of the plan period. The plan also acknowledges the need for action on many fronts to achieve this, including improved access to health centres, institutional deliveries, nutritional supplementation, and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, attainment of these goals within the given time frame is possible only through targeted focus on vulnerable groups that significantly account for the country’s burden of poverty and deprivation, and lag far behind in the country’s march towards development.
 
Procrastination is complex behavioral conditions which occur across the societal milieu. It is defined as lack of self regulating performance and putting off task that can be controlled by the individual. From the three elements of procrastination identified, the most common academic procrastination is anxiety related and low conscientiousness. The present undertaken was conducted to determine the level of procrastination among pre-service teachers across correlate. The results of the study revealed that the level of procrastination among the student respondent regardless of the age, gender, course program matriculated in, the year level, and the school graduated from high school was moderate. Although, the study established a positive correlation between the level of procrastination and the gender (p≤.05), it failed to establish significant difference and relationship between the level of procrastination and the other correlates.
 
The mountains of Bouchebka, in the central-west of Tunisia, form a natural and identity wealth of the region; it is about a joint natural landscape between Tunisia and Algeria. Given, the geographical position, the climatic constraints and the difficulties of the access; the intervention of the territories developers will be thus essential. In this regard, our study arises; it is to seek the possibility of inserting the territories in the development of public policies from a socioeconomic study of the environment, which aims to set up a project called eco-green, this project is the establishment of an ecological leisure park. Using a contingent valuation method which is essentially based on inquiries and the socioeconomic and factor analysis, it was possible to reveal the results of these evaluations seem very encouraging, in fact, 90% of respondents are willing to pay a well-defined as an active contribution of local actors consent, this contribution varies according to age, sex, income and education level of the respondents. These results reflect the conscience of civil society of the need for action and response to better manage such a space under the pretext of ensuring its sustainability.
 
Women still lagging behind to establish and run the enterprises on their own in a country like India. They need support from public, private, NGO and other agencies. The women have to be empowered to take up entrepreneurial activities to register their path of progress and prosperity in the country. The present study focuses on analysing the motivating factors for taking up of entrepreneurial activities by the rural women. The highlighted that majority of the women entrepreneurs had medium level of entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial decision independence, high level of economic independence, medium level of need for power, low level of need for affiliation and high level of need for achievement. Keywords: Women entrepreneurs, need for independence, need for power, need for affiliation and need for achievement.
 
In this article the activities, ideological and strategic characters of militant Sunni groups in Southeast Iran will be investigated. It will be argued that their ability to survive and their capacity for popularity and action, to a large extent, is associated with strong sense of alienation among the Sunnis in the area, as well as their ethnic and religious networks which exist across borders. These factors have strengthened their positions in the wake of turbulent conditions in adjacent countries, particularly in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The militant groups in the area are not homogeneous and vary from quietists and ethnic-religious nationalists to sectarian and global-oriented Jihadists. Nearly all these militants in the marginal corner of Southeast Iran have adopted a strong anti-Shia approach, which was influenced politically and ideologically by radical Deobandis as well as Wahabbis and Salafists. Their strategies have shifted overtime but mostly focused on near enemy. With serious threats imposed by ISIS along western borders, the Shia regime in Iran has become more aware of the dimension of problems in Southeast Iran, particularly the area of Sistan and Baluchistan
 
Evidence of benefits of sexuality education among students
The aim of this study is to assess the crucial role of sexuality education in addressing adolescents' reproductive health needs within the backdrops of immense challenges in Nigerian environment. Young people have been well documented as a special need group in the area of reproductive health. Adolescent sexuality and reproductive health are important contemporary concerns especially for reproductive health problems such as early marriage, unintended/unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality and sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. A large number of adolescents in Nigeria decide to be more sexually active without access to preventive measure, such as condoms or family planning devices and thus face undesired consequences, including unwanted pregnancies, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), including the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the social consequences of both. In fact, adolescents have a higher prevalence of most reproductive health problems because of lack of information and poor access to service. However, one of the 2004 Nigerian National Population Policy objectives is increasing the integration of adolescents and young people into development efforts and effectively addressing their reproductive health and related needs. The study, which relies mainly on secondary data, examines the crucial role and benefits of sexuality education against the backdrops of the challenges including reaching the youths with sexuality and reproductive information and service, or motivating them to change behavior in the light of new information and awareness, more institutional support and creating the social and economic climate, which will make the desired changes possible and sustainable. The author contends that it is a violation of ones fundamental human rights and freedom guaranteed by numerous international, regional and national policies as well as legal instruments when attempts are made to control rather than educate people to freely express their sexuality positively and in good health. Thus, there is need for all stakeholders to acknowledge the reality of adolescent sexuality and teach them how to be healthy sexual beings without endangering themselves and others.
 
This paper investigates the impact of globalization on economic development in a developing country from 1982 to 2016using vector auto-regression method. The objective of the study is to investigate the impact of human capital development on globalization in a developing nation. Through this research, we explore some variables proxy for globalization and likely to impact on economic growth. The vector auto-regression shows the coefficient, standard errors and t-statistics of each of the variables, making it clear for us to predict the direction of each variable in the model. The results revealed that economic indicators such as human capital development and government policy are most robust predictors that aids globalization on economic development in a developing nation. With the present economic position in West Africa, globalization being critical for an economy development, led the study to examine the relationship between some macroeconomics variables that can influence globalization and economic development in a developing economic.
 
The nature of job of police is very complex to work. It requires fullest dedication and commitment on employing people. While working they face several hardship from both in job as well with family life. Though there might be many problems they face on day to day life, but there can be numerous adjustment problems they faced, that to the married women. They need to take care the profession and family. In this connection, an attempt has been made to study the adjustment problems of married women police personnel and their association with socio-economic variables. The data were collected using Ramamurthy Adjusment Inventory. It consists of five dimensions namely, health, home, emotional, self and social adjustment problems. The study was descriptive in nature. The data was collected from all the married women police personnel available during the time of data collection in Tiruchirappalli District. The scoring was classified as low and high using median score. The findings show that almost in all dimensions and overall adjustment problems, the respondents have high level of adjustment problems. It may be due to the dual role performed by the individuals. There is a need for counseling and recreational centre exclusively for women police personnel.
 
This paper focuses on the issues encountered by a student when he moves to a new environment for higher studies. The purpose of this research paper is to show the effects of various parameters on a student’s life after he/she shifts to a new environment. For this, we carried out a primary research in which we formed a questionnaire and the response of the students was taken in 2 consecutive months. The responses were analysed and change in patterns of the various factors were studied. From the analysis, we concluded that majority of the factors showed a positive change while a few of them showed negative changes. Adding to this, majority of the students adjusted well within one month of moving to the new surroundings.
 
Research Framework 
3: Test of Normality among Personality Traits and Entrepreneurial Intentions Variables
4: Correlation Results of the Different Constructs of Personality Traits and
The study aims to identify the personality traits of the business administration students and how these traits affect their entrepreneurial intentions. Specifically, the undertaking tries to examine the (1) significant relationships between the respondents’ personality traits and their entrepreneurial intentions; (2) significant difference between the respondents’ sex and their personality traits; and (3) significant difference between the respondents’ sex and their entrepreneurial intentions. The respondents were randomly selected in the five higher education institutions in Pampanga, Philippines. Using correlational-descriptive research, the undertaking revealed that the respondents’ openness to experience, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and neuroticism have significant relationship to entrepreneurial intentions. On one hand, respondents’ extraversion reflects no significant relationship to entrepreneurial intentions. Overall, there is statistically significant relationship between respondents’ personality traits and their entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, there is statistically significant difference between the respondents’ sex and openness to experience, conscientiousness, and extraversion. Contrary, no significant difference was observed between the respondents’ sex and agreeableness and neuroticism. In totality, there is a statistical significant difference between the respondents’ sex and their entrepreneurial intentions.
 
ABSTRACT This study aims to find out opinions of public administrators concerning the performance management system, to identify their current problems and to propose solutions. In this study, focus group interview, which is a qualitative method for collecting data, was employed. The opinions of 6 directors, who work in different public institutions in Manisa, were consulted. It was considered that they do have detailed information about legislation and operations at their institutions. The focus group interview lasted 93 minutes. Institution directors were asked 16 questions concerning performance management. The directors applying the performance system found current applications useful despite their shortcomings whereas others criticized their institutions as they have not yet adopted performance management.
 
School going adolescents undergo multiple challenges in their personal, family and academic life. The paper examines the difficulties faced by school going adolescents in Kollam district, Kerala. A cross sectional study was conducted through free listing method using Anthropac software. Sixty school going adolescents were randomly selected from classes VIII to XII from one government and one private school. The paper focuses on personal difficulties, difficulties at home and at school faced by adolescent students. The result depicts that forgetfulness (21.7%) and headache (18.3%), parents' pressure & parents have no time for them, adjustment problems& groupism are the major difficulties from the perspective of school going adolescents whereas more than a tenth of them reported that they have no difficulties. The study concludes that there is a need to provide systematic intervention model for the better development of school going adolescents.
 
Summary of ANOVA of Hostility by Family Environment and Birth Order (2 x 3) 
This study was undertaken to find out the influence of demographic variables and family environment on hostility of adolescents. The study was carried out among college students of the age group of 17-20. Family Environment Scale and Multiphasic Hostility Inventory were administered to the participants. The collected data were statistically analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and ANOVA. The analysis revealed that there is significant positive correlation among the dimensions of hostility. The results also revealed that there exists significant negative correlation between family environment and hostility. The ANOVA results of demographic variable revealed that birth order, education level and locality have significant influence on the components of hostility. But the religion was found to have significant influence on hostility component acting out and guilt. Family environment and selected demographic were found to be significantly influencing the hostility of adolescents. The study concluded that demographic variables with family environment play a crucial role in the hostility of adolescents.
 
Up till this time the adoption of agroforestry countries and among upland farmers in the Philippines particularly in Calbayog Pan (CPHPL), Calbayog City, Samar. Unlike many studies in agroforestry adopt technologies and socioeconomic analysis, this study was conducted to analyse the factors of adoption of agroforestry as a sustainable land use practice among upland farmers in exchange for an incentive economic modelling. A total of 294 upland farmers were randomly chosen as respondents to participate in the survey using a contingent valuation method with WTA approach. As a result, 77.21% of the farmers were willing to accept the i in the said program to shift from their current land use practice to agroforestry. farm income, age, and bid amount appears to be significant factor in WTA. Thus, policy makers need to be sure that farmers are compensated very well for their service provided to downstream communities. Further, we conducted cost benefit analysis to determine the economic cost of participating in the program using four base case scenario to model economic trade-offs among upland farmers. Since farming is the bread and butter of this upland communities policy makers need to consider the economic and socio Often, incentive programs from government are less farming activity. As such, determining the amount to be given is very important because this would add to the success of the program. While it is true that poverty in general and farmer’s inco use change, market incentives (e.g. compensation to shift to sustainable land use practice) would enable payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme to be successful. Unlike other agroforestry studies, (e.g. shifting cultivation) should be considered in policy making for incentivizing farmers because aside from income, traditionally and culturally, in Philippines and other developing countries shifting cultivation has such, shifting cultivators needs to have alternative sustainable land use technology (e.g. agroforestry) with proper financing mechanism to properly implement and sustain the program.
 
Technology and Input Use Changes over Last 10 years in the Sample Regions
The present paper attempts to examine changes in technology, input use and farm practices adopted by the sample farm households in cotton and soya bean crop cultivation in a drought – prone region. The study is confined to the Marathwada region of Maharashtra State. Marathwada is one of the backward regions of Maharashtra state and is a drought – prone area. The study is based on primary data. For collection of primary data, the entire Marathwada region was divided into three regions, viz. Resource – Rich Region (RR), Developing Region (DR), and Drought – Prone Region (DPR). A region having assured canal irrigation facilities, deep black soil and assured rainfall was defined as the resource – rich region. A region that comes at the tail end of canal irrigation and having well irrigation was defined as developing region, and a region with no irrigation, low rainfall and poor quality soils was defined as the core drought- prone region. Three-stage stratified random sampling technique was used to collect the primary data. At the first-stage, six talukas (two from each region) were selected. In the second-stage, 12 villages (two from each taluka) were selected. About 5 percent farm households were selected from each village. In all, 530 farm households belonging to different size groups of holdings were interviewed through a pretested questionnaire during the year 2010. Data processing was done using the SPSS software The study indicated that farm households were shifted from traditional to modern varieties of seeds (64.9 percent in case of cotton and 78.3 percent for soya bean) for realizing higher yields. The proportion of farm households using higher quantities of chemical fertilizers and pesticides for higher yield and crop saving respectively had increased over the period. A drastic decline in the proportion of farm households using organic manure was observed. Around two-third farmers had used irrigation water for cotton cultivation and nearly one-half of the total farm households found to have used irrigation water for soya bean cultivation. 87 to 89 percent of the total farm households had used modern farm equipments for time saving in cultivation for these crops. The proportion of farm households shifted to formal source of finance increased from one-fourth to one-half as it was cost effective. Agriculture Department of Maharashtra state was found to have played almost no role in providing seeds and extension services to farmers. 25 to 27 per cent farm households were supplied with spurious fertilizers and 21 to 25 per cent farm households had faced the problem of fake pesticides in case of cotton and soya bean crops. The study suggests strengthening public extension service and ensuring the supply of quality inputs to the farmers in order to rationalize technology and input use and adoption of farm practices by the farmers.
 
Top-cited authors
Inderjit Singh
  • National Defence University of Malaysia
Chidanand Dhavaleshwar
  • Rani Channamma University Belgavi
Kondal Kappa
  • Osmania University
Olabanji Ewetan
  • Covenant University Ota Ogun State, Nigeria
Vishakha Goyal
  • Galgotias University