In the State of Victoria, Australia the Kennett government implemented a radical public sector reforms matched perhaps only in Britain and New Zealand. Responding to fiscal crisis, the Government balanced the budget, attracted new investment and capital projects, and instilled new economic confidence. However, the revolution had its costs. This article examines the effects of managerial reform on accountability and democracy. The structures, systems and methodologies of the Government eliminated real deliberation over options, benefits and costs. The quality of public discourse between government and constitutents about the democratic process was stifled. An economic and fiscal perspective replaced a political and legal understanding of public bureaucracy. The article provides a case study of Victorian reforms, and a theoretical examination of the case, suggesting that public administration should be reconceptualized in more pluralistic and democratic terms.
Do administrative philosophies, however defined, lead or trail change in public sector organizations? How may we define administrative philosophy and is useful to distinguish between philosophy, doctrine and justification? To what extent does academic research and theory influence administrative practice? Do academics learn most of what they theorize about from practitioners? These and other questions are addressed in this first IPMN electronic symposium.
The New Public Management is a field of professional and policy discussion—conducted internationally—about public management policy, executive leadership, design of programmatic organizations, and government operations. Scholars specializing in public administration/political science have contributed to this discussion for a decade; however, their contribution has yet to be examined as a whole. The paper—a bibliographical essay, rather than a literature review—attempts to fill this gap. Studies published in the 1990–96 period are examined in detail, while subsequent works are briefly discussed. The paper aims to help scholars situated outside the original English-speaking precincts of the NPM discussion to benefit from and contribute to this maturing literature. This aim is pursued here in three main ways: first, by reviewing each study’s distinctive methodological and theoretical approach; second, by contrasting each item with a common benchmark; and, third, by including two studies about Latin America within the review. The bibliographical essay can be used for envisioning the public administration/political science contribution to the NPM discussion in its second decade, as well.
Participation and control are both necessary in a democracy. In the two main models of public management, control trumps participation. The traditional model, Managing for Process, relies on centralized authority over process and emphasizes rules and regulations. The newer model, Managing for Results, permits decentralized control over process but relies on centralized control of results. We propose a third model, Managing for Inclusion, which has the potential to balance participation and control. Our model permits decentralized control over both process and results and requires centralized control over the implementation of participation. The tools of empowerment, teamwork, and continuous improvement take on new meanings in this model. We show how management tools such as training and rewarding can implement participation and control the process of inclusion.
This chapter considers three paradoxes or apparent contradictions in contemporary public management reform–paradoxes of globalization or internationalization, malade imaginaire (or successful failure) paradoxes, and paradoxes of half-hearted managerialism. It suggests that these three paradoxes can be explained by a comparative historical institutionalism linked to a motive-and-opportunity analysis of what makes some public service systems more susceptible to reform than others. It further argues that such explanations can be usefully linked together by exploring public service reform from the perspective of ‘public service bargains’ or PSBs (that is, explicit or implicit bargains between public servants and other actors in the society). Accordingly, it seeks to account for the three paradoxes of public management reform by looking at the effect of different PSB starting-points on reform experience, and at the way politician calculations over institutional arrangements could account for PSB shifts in some circumstances but not others.
Information/transaction costs make it necessary to decentralize some decision rights in organizations and in the economy. Decentralization in turn requires organizations to solve the control problem that results when self-interested persons do not behave as perfect agents. Capitalist economies solve these control problems through the institution of alienable decision rights. But because organizations suppress the alienability of decision rights, they must devise substitute mechanisms that perform those functions. Three functions are critical: (1) allocating decision rights among agents in the organization, (2) measuring and evaluating performance, and (3) rewarding and punishing individuals for their performance. Responsibility budgeting and accounting systems are the most widespread mechanisms for performing these functions in business today.
In the author’s view, a price has been paid for the overly narrow theoretical framework used to design the state sector reforms in New Zealand. According to Gregory, the way ahead must be informed both by more eclectic theoretical input, and also by closer dialogue between theory and practice. He argues elsewhere that the state sector reforms in New Zealand, especially in their application to the public service, have been too ‘mechanistic’, and too blind to the important ‘organic’ dimensions of public organizations. They have focused too much on physical restructuring, attempting to reduce the complex, vital, and dynamic reality of governmental processes to essentially artificial dualities, such as ‘outputs’ and ‘outcomes’, ‘owner’ and ‘purchaser’, ‘funder’ and ‘provider’. They have tended to ignore the less quantifiable and more holistic elements that in New Zealand underpinned a strong culture of public service trusteeship. He concludes that it is difficult to be persuaded that reform has all been for the good.
At the beginning of the 21st Century, local government faces the major challenge of restructuring and managing a new interface with its social, economic, and political environment. The devolution of public tasks to society requires a redefinition of the role of local government. The shift from producing to guaranteeing the remaining services requires at least the adoption of best practices from private-sector strategic marketing, production, and purchasing management. The restructuring of local government for customer satisfaction and decentralized decision-making requires careful attention to the demands of democratic political control, as well as to legitimate public interests that may not be included in the customer-satisfaction model. Thus, public management of local government cannot be content with internal modernization, but must redefine its relationships with its environment.
Although New Political Economy ideas have sometimes accompanied New Public Management ideas in programs of bureaucratic reform (especially outside the United States), the two schools of thought have remained separate. I argue that the problems of bureaucracy are largely political problems. Therefore, bureaucratic reform must be viewed in tandem with political reform. New Public Management can learn from New Political Economy's emphasis on the incentives of self-interested politicians, and New Political Economy can learn from New Public Management's normative approach and focus on citizens. I use an “exit and voice” framework to discuss and evaluate alternative approaches to reform.
This article argues for a new approach to educate and train public managers. Several functional requirements regarding knowledge, skills and attitudes are discussed. The status and trends of public management education and training in several countries are reviewed. Situation and recent developments of public management education in Germany are subject of an exemplary case study. Elements of an effective curriculum with an international perspective and steps towards a common understanding of public management education are suggested.
The 567-page 9=11 Commission Report traces the actions of the Al Qaeda terrorists that led up to the 9=11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and describes in detail the counter-terrorism activities of the organizations and offices in the American security community, focusing on the missed opportunities to prevent the attack. A careful analysis of the report permits us to identify the organizational, managerial, and cognitive preconditions of successful prevention. The analysis also shows that hard-to-control factors in the policy environment severely restrict the choice of prevention strategies. The pre-9=11 counter-terrorism measures of the U.S. were ill adapted to the special character of the threat posed by a transnational terrorist network.
The 9/11 attacks demanded a response from the US government, but designing and executing that response was not easily done. The United States is an advanced market society in which power is highly dispersed. Federal policymakers were confronted with challenges which we now regard as typical of the network form of governance. Their ability to act decisively was constrained by public law; by the political influence and superior knowledge of private industry; and by widespread skepticism about the legitimacy of federal authority. While many commentators worried about the excessive concentration of power in the federal executive branch after 9/11, it might be more accurate to say that the post-9/11 period was typified by a prolonged, and often unsuccessful, effort to induce cooperation and coordination by a range of public and private actors.
The study of the length of ministerial tenure has received some attention by scholars of public management in Western countries. Responding to the lack of empirical research on ministerial duration in non-Western countries, this article empirically examines the determinants of ministerial duration based on the Korean Ministerial Database from 1980 to 2008. The empirical findings are as follows. First, being a female minister decreases the probability of stepping down by 1.78 times compared to a male minister. Second, political democratization after 1987 drastically increases the probability of ministerial stepping down by 3.46 times. Third, confirmation hearings after 2005 decrease the probability of ministerial stepping down by 0.53 times. Based on these empirical findings of the analysis, we can identify distinctive characteristics of ministerial duration in Korea. We argue that as the Korean political system shifts from military or authoritarian rule to democratic rule after 1987, a single five-year presidential term may set a political environment for frequent changes of ministers to allocate political spoils.
This article explains public management policy change in the Mexican federal public administration during the 1980s and 1990s. It aims at explaining the sources and limits of change in public management policy in Mexico and, at the theoretical level, to provide insights about what accounts for change in public management policies. It contrasts two policy cycles - moral renovation and administrative modernization - that took place under the presidencies of Miguel de la Madrid (1982-1988) and Ernesto Zedillo (1994-2000).
The research-practice gap has emerged as an acute problem in management scholars' internal professional debates. Evidence-based management (EBM) has been proposed as a remedy, and it is gaining adherents. This article offers a critical examination of the EBM proposal and its justification. The proposal is found to be poorly conceived and justified. Therefore, a search for a different response to the same concerns is in order. The direction of search is to understand how existing scholarly practices offer advice to actors in managerial roles. While advice-giving scholarly practices are diverse and disconnected, a commonality is that they define design issues and offer value- and knowledge-based argumentation schemes for resolving them. An alternative to EBM can be envisioned: to strengthen the management field's network of design-oriented approaches to advice-giving. By employing the unorthodox style of a dialogue, this article shows how common ground about EBM and its alternatives can be established among management scholars who identify with conflicting intellectual traditions.
In recent decades, a series of regulatory agencies has been created at the European Union (EU) level. The existing literature on EU agencies focuses either on autonomy as a reason for the creation of such agencies or on the autonomy that they are granted by design. As a result, we do not know much about how EU agencies' actual autonomy comes about. This article therefore probes into the early development of two specific agencies. On the basis of document analysis and interviews with agency staff members, national experts, EU officials, external stakeholders, and clients, it explores why, in practice, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) seems to have developed a higher level of autonomy than the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), even though on paper EMA appears to be as autonomous as, or if anything, less autonomous than EFSA. The article demonstrates the importance of investigating the managerial strategies of EU regulatory agencies to understand the actual practice of their autonomy and points to legitimacy as a key condition affecting the early development of such agencies.
The use of private funding and management is enjoying an increasing trend in airports. The literature has not paid enough attention to the mixed management models in this industry, although many European airports take the form of mixed public-private companies, where ownership is shared between public and private sectors. We examine the determinants of the degree of private participation in the European airport sector. Drawing on a sample of the 100 largest European airports, we estimate a multivariate equation in order to determine the role of airport characteristics, fiscal variables, and political factors on the extent of private involvement. Our results confirm the alignment between public and private interests in partially privatized airports. Fiscal constraints and market attractiveness promote private participation. Integrated governance models and the share of network carriers prevent the presence of private ownership, while the degree of private participation appears to be pragmatic rather than ideological.
This study investigated the relationship between the self/partner cooperation reputation, the starting condition of a cooperation, payoff structure, and the willingness to cooperate of alliance partners in the contest of real business settings. An experimental study was conducted with 816 private-sector professionals and a comparison group of 169 public-sector managers. It was hypothesized that cooperation reputation would reduce the impact of payoff structure. Results indicated that perceived reputation of the alliance partner had a significant impact on participants' willingness to cooperate. These results challenge the perceived importance of payoff structure and further support Parkhe's (1993a) suggestions that perceived reputation is an important aspect of alliances, seldom included in empirical studies. It was also demonstrated that, for both public and private sectors, maintaining a good cooperation image as well as maintaining effective relations throughout the alliance were associated with participant willingness to cooperate. Implications for both sectors are discussed.
Hood and Jackson's (1991) distinction between administrative argument and administrative philosophy has been largely overlooked in writings on NPM. This seemingly subtle distinction flows from the more obvious one between “practical argument” and “social scientific explanation.” These terms refer to different scholarly practices. Practical reasoning is a highly-developed form of scholarship in law, public policy, and political theory. Explanation is a highly-developed scholarly activity in political science and related disciplines. The fact that practical argument and explanation are, in principle, complementary scholarly activities in practically-oriented fields such as public management is not a reason to overlook the distinction between them. If scholars writing on NPM made more of this distinction, it might prove easier for their readers to see precisely how social science explanations and practical arguments are interrelated. Discussion of how well claims have been supported would then be facilitated. Also, it would be easier for writers to decide how to engage the NPM literature. Not only would the issues be clearer, but it would also be easier to discuss the merits of alternative approaches to tackling them. If more weight is given to the distinction between practical argumentation and social scientific research by scholars of NPM, an urgent question is: how should the scholarly practice of practical argumentation be characterized?
This study analyzes survey data on public-private partnerships (PPPs) of the German Armed Forces. The analyzed PPPs are unique in that the German Federal Ministry of Defence, a government institution, has a dual role as a main shareholder and a major customer. Drawing on these data, the present article analyzes how a government institution influences a PPP's set of objectives and shows that the conflict of interest with respect to monetary objectives between the government institution and the PPP as a whole is low in such partnerships. Furthermore, the article examines the opportunistic behavior of PPPs in contractual renegotiations where the government institution acts as a customer. The results show that, although such behavior indeed occurs, it does not concern monetary issues, since the government institution can control the monetary objectives of PPPs in which it is a main shareholder. Third, this study also analyzes and identifies certain exogenous factors that may influence the level of opportunistic behavior exhibited by the examined PPPs, providing evidence on the causes and effects of such behavior and indicating how it can be limited by the government institution.
In this article, we focus on the difficulties in evaluating the performance of so-called services of general interest. These services generally include such services as water and electricity supply, telephony, postal services, and public transport, where providers are subjected to certain universal service obligations. Because of the tensions between European internal market requirements and these universal service obligations, there exists considerable debate on the criteria to be used to evaluate the performance of these services. In addition, the status of these public services as 'public' or 'essential' services is disputed. Rankings of the performance of these services will always reflect a certain dominant definition of performance. Ranking schemes as a result both reflect and create performance.
As the public sector workforce becomes more ethnically diverse and as government agencies make attempts to "manage" that diversity, the importance of understanding how diversity affects workplace interactions and work-related outcomes increases. Little public sector research has examined the impact of diversity on performance outcomes. This paper seeks to fill this gap by studying the effects of the ethnic diversity of managers and street level bureaucrats on work-related outcomes. We use basic in-group/out-group theories from psychology to form hypotheses relating diversity to performance. The results of diversity research using social identification and categorization theory and similarity/attraction theory led us to form the hypothesis that greater levels of ethnic diversity among public managers and street-level bureaucrats will lead to lower organizational performance, when the task requires significant coordination and collaboration. Diversity research that uses the information and decision-making theory, while scant, led us to form a second hypothesis that greater levels of ethnic diversity among public managers and street-level bureaucrats will lead to higher organizational performance, when the task does not require significant coordination and collaboration. Our results were mixed. We found support for the first hypothesis with respect to street-level bureaucrats but not for managers. The results did not support our second hypothesis - we actually found an opposite relationship for street-level bureaucrats from what we expected. Overall, the results support previous research that suggests that increased levels of ethnic diversity can lead to process-oriented difficulties in the workplace and negatively affect work-related outcomes.
Canadian and Australian federal government budgets have returned to surplus. Over the past two decades both countries have undertaken financial management and budgetary reforms in an effort to control expenditure growth and public debt. They exchanged ideas, borrowed techniques, and shared reform experiences. Yet during the mid-1980s and early 1990s they displayed markedly different levels of success in expenditure control. This article explains why relatively similar instruments of expenditure control and financial management produced different outcomes in Australia and Canada. The analysis suggests that budgetary techniques will have marginal impact unless they are congruent with broader policy management systems and administrative cultures. The comparative analysis provides important lessons for budget reformers in all jurisdictions.
Municipalities across the United States are in various stages of wireless broadband implementation. Policymakers establish wireless broadband networks for a number of reasons, including promoting economic development, supporting internal operations, and providing affordable access to citizens. While some governments provide wireless broadband access as a public service, others partner with private firms. This article exploits the variation in approaches and examines the structural factors that give rise to public-private partnerships. The results show that partnerships for wireless broadband are more likely among municipalities with political-administrative autonomy and greater economic viability. For municipalities seeking to address inequities in broadband access, these results can have profound implications, as partnerships are often the most viable deployment option. In addition to examining determinants of wireless broadband partnerships, this study aids in understanding which municipalities are more likely to benefit from partnership approaches as this form of alternative service delivery increases.
Collaborative governance forums involving many diverse stakeholders sometimes use caucuses to facilitate deliberation of the complex issues they face. However, given the paucity of research on this topic, a better theoretical understanding of the conditions under which a caucus structure is likely to be effective is warranted. For this study, we developed a computational model of decision making in collaborative forums to explore how a caucus structure can be designed and managed to enable egalitarian, consensus-based decision processes. The simulation results indicated that constraints on caucus autonomy through the use of a coordinating structure can enhance the acceptability of the forum's decision, the effect of which is contingent on problem complexity and the number of caucuses. A greater balance of power within caucuses enhanced the ability of the forums to reach agreement on acceptable solutions. We offer propositions based on a discussion of the implications of the simulation results.
As local government undergoes internal modernization, it faces the challenge of strategic management. This challenge includes the need to coordinate the newly decentralized elements of government; the need for organizational development and cultural change, so that values and behavior within the organization keep pace with structural developments; and the need to manage uncertainty, as local governments face an increasingly competitive and rapidly changing environment. Empirical studies show that strategic management capabilities have not developed evenly across a broad international sample of reform cities. However, the successful program in Christchurch, New Zealand, offers suggestions for other cities.
A good deal of research has demonstrated how public service motivation (PSM) facilitates desirable organizational attitudes and behaviors such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work effort. Other research has demonstrated that PSM predicts higher levels of social capital and altruistic behavior in society. Between these two strands of PSM research, there is a gap in knowledge about whether PSM matters to citizenship behavior internal to the organization. This article tests the direct and indirect relationship between individual levels of PSM and interpersonal citizenship behavior using a structural equation model. We also account for the effect of organizational environment by incorporating a measure of co-worker support. We find that PSM has a direct and positive effect on interpersonal citizenship behavior in public organizations, even when accounting for the significant role of co-worker support.
The purpose of this paper is to test the direct effect of the structure of the civil service on public perceptions of corruption. Numerous studies suggest a relationship between the design of civil service systems and corruption, but few studies actually test this theoretical link. We hypothesize that corruption levels depend on the presence or absence of particular civil service policies, including job duties, tenure and security provisions, discipline policy, and rules on rewards and bargaining rights; we also assess the impact of wages on corruption levels. We test these hypotheses using World Bank data from a collection of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Central and Eastern European countries. Using a variety of univariate and multivariate tests, we find no statistically-significant relationships between civil service structure and corruption; however, we find occasional evidence that corruption levels are lower in countries with higher total government wage bills. While our conclusions are largely exploratory, we argue that there is no strong and significant evidence that the variations in civil service systems we observe in our data are causing public perceptions of corruption.
Local governments in Latin America tend to have limited capacity to collect taxes. Still, they exhibit substantial variation in their tax collection performance. Existing theory explains tax collection performance as a function of political, socio-economic, and cultural factors. Yet across Latin America, tax collection performance varies greatly between localities that are similar along these dimensions. We suggest that organizational capacity, represented by top management’s human capital, explains variation in local tax collection performance. We test this theoretical idea against panel data on most Colombian local governments, where elected mayors are the top managers determining the local tax collection strategy. We examine two indicators of tax collection performance: (i) the per-capita amount of property tax collected; and (ii) property tax collected as a percentage of total property valuation. Controlling for important confounders, the length of the mayor’s prior public sector work experience is positively associated with the per-capita amount of property tax collected but not the percentage of total property valuation collected in property tax. Our results suggest that Colombian mayors gain relevant skills over their career. Our study has implications for other developing countries with a similar property tax collection system.
Public administration scholars utilize transaction cost theory to explain the contracting dichotomy between make or buy. However, recent theoretical developments point to a mixed position, “make and buy,” as a strategic management choice. We draw insights from the private sector management literature on what it terms “concurrent sourcing” to build a theory for public sector mixed contracting, but argue that public managers face a broader range of contracting agents (both private for-profit and public intergovernmental) than private sector managers. The choice of contract agent makes local government contracting important in elaborating a theory of concurrent sourcing. Our empirical findings show that local government managers use concurrent sourcing as a strategy to mitigate potential contracting risks. We find mixed contracting is more common with for-profit agents and total contracting out is more common in contracts to other governments. When contracting with for-profit partners, mixed delivery helps reduce risk, promote market complementarities, and ensure attention to citizen interests.
This article analyzes the results of public management reform in Italy, focusing on its managerial significance in the field of cultural heritage. The primary aim is to overcome the general lack of studies analyzing the impact of managerial reforms in governments with a Rechtsstaat tradition and to understand if, besides the political and institutional context characterized by a highly legalistic system, there are other important factors that might affect results of reforms. Through an in-depth analysis of the reform of the Italian ministry and a comparison with the French museum sector, the paper demonstrates that the way in which the process of change is managed significantly affects the results of reform. Specifically, the author affirms that, in order to obtain good reform results, a greater active involvement of senior bureaucrats in the process of designing reforms is necessary.
This article presents reflections on the transposition of the private-sector concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) to the public sector. We search for answers to the following questions: At what levels of the public sector is the concept of TQM operative? How must the concept of TQM be interpreted for its transposition to the public sector? What are the connections between the conventional quality-assurance control principles of public management and TQM? TQM intends to exercise influence on organizational action. Action by the state and, in this specific case, by public management requires legitimization. For this reason, the notion of legitimization must be analyzed more closely, and the operative levels of TQM must be placed in their respective contexts. Legitimization may be considered to have three layers: basic legitimization is a product of the social contract and refers to the state and its structures in general terms; institutional legitimization relates to public management as an institution, and to its outward manifestations; and individual legitimization is the product of specific contacts between management and its customers. It is on this individual level that most changes are sought by New Public Management.
This article addresses an enduring public management question: “Is organizational functioning a product of politics, management, or both?” It speaks to this issue by analyzing the decisional dynamics of the world's most inclusive, and prominent international organization: the United Nations. To assess the ability of international organizations to develop and implement international public policy, this study draws upon an extensive literature in organization theory to develop four models of multilateral decision making: •⊎ A Cognitive Ambiguity Model;•⊎ A Bounded Pragmatism Model;•⊎ An Organizational Expansion Model; and•⊎ A Political Interests Model.In considering the obstacles to effective policy, this study asks whether policy is porduced by intellectual confusion, routine-based decision making, bureaucratic ego, or base political motives. This project closes by arguing for broad approaches to the politics/management continuum, and an integration of the four models. Only by weaving and practitioners distinct strands of organization theory, can scholars and practitioners fully appreciate the intellectual and political dynamics of publicly managed organizations, and thus, the aids and onstacles to their functioning.
This symposium presents research from different contexts to improve our collective understanding of a variety of aspects of mixed forms of service delivery, be they mixed contracting at the level of the market (which is more common in the U.S.), or mixed management and ownership at the level of the firm (which is more common in Europe). The articles included in this special symposium examine the factors that give rise to mixed forms of service delivery (e.g., economic and fiscal stress, regulatory flexibility, geography, management) and how these factors impact their design and operation. Articles also explore the performance of mixed forms of service delivery relative to more conventional arrangements like contracted or direct service delivery. The articles contribute to a better theoretical and conceptual understanding of mixed/hybrid forms of services delivery.
There are several models for delivering public services such as health care or education, most of which can be summarised under the headings of trust, mistrust, voice, and choice. Each contains assumptions concerning the motivation of the professionals and others who provide the service concerned: that is, the extent to which they are “knaves,” motivated primarily by self-interest, or “knights,” motivated by altruism and the desire to provide a public service. This article highlights the assumptions concerning motivation implicit in each of the delivery models, illustrating the points made by reference to the author's experience as a senior policy adviser to British Prime Minister Tony Blair and to some evidence on the performance of public services under the different models.
This article examines the use of performance information by public managers. It begins with a systematic review of the literature which concludes that we know relatively little about the individual characteristics of managers who report a frequent use of these data. Studies that have focused on people-related explanations have mostly tested socio-demographic variables but have only found inconclusive evidence. This article suggests theorizing more complex individual explanations. Drawing from other fields' middle-range theories, the article speculates about the effects of thus far disregarded manager-related factors. An empirical test based on survey data from German cities reveals the following preliminary findings: performance information use is explained by a high level of data ownership, creative cognitive learning preferences, the absence of cynicism, and a distinct public service motivation. Identity and emotional intelligence were found to be insignificant along with the managers' socio-demographic characteristics.
Integration has emerged as having an increasingly significant role in public policy discourse and practice in many jurisdictions across the globe. In providing a different framework for establishing relationships between service providers and citizens and government, horizontal integration arrangements offer the prospect of delivering new ways of working and providing solutions to seemingly insolvable social problems. Ways of achieving horizontal integration have been variously described by linkage terms such as cooperation, coordination, and collaboration. These terms have been typically used interchangeably to describe the coming together of individuals to work in concerted effort to achieve common goals. We argue that each of these terms, expressed as the "3Cs," are different and consequently achieve different objectives. This paper explores the use of the "3Cs" and examines the differences highlighted by practitioners in the human services arena to extend the understanding of constructs relating to integration mechanisms. It is contended that in focusing on the experiences of integration and unpacking the use and expectations of the related "3Cs", public administrators and practitioners will gain an enhanced understanding of each of the processes of integration as a coherent framework. As a consequence, there will be improved ability to match appropriate integration mechanisms with contexts and strategies.
At the end of the century, we are in a position to look back over a decade of restructuring local governments. Our evaluation of the reform movement underway throughout the world indicates a “dialectic of modernization”: considerable progress in some areas, stagnation or erosion in others, and challenges that demand attention. Based on comparative case studies of local governments, this article identifies and discusses several major trends-positive and negative-observed in the experience of reform governments in various countries. It also identifies conditions for lasting success of local government reform. Two companion articles set out the central challenges that now face local governments: making the transition to strategic management, and redefining the interfaces between local administration and its political, social, and economic environment.
This paper examines institutional arrangements that would allow public sector organizations to learn more effectively. According to management strategists and organizational theorists any organization that can learn is inherently equipped to develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The NPM could help build learning organizations that operate more efficiently and effectively and that also better serve citizens and the public interest.
Representative bureaucracy theory assumes that representative organizations are better able to represent the needs of particular citizens and groups of service users and that they may perform especially well on their core tasks. In particular, recent work suggests that street-level bureaucrats are more likely to become active representatives than upper-level bureaucrats for whom a critical mass of representation is required to influence policy outcomes. The positive contribution of street-level bureaucrats may also be enhanced where they are accorded greater discretion or are better able to draw upon their connections with clients. In this study, we test these hypotheses by exploring the relationship between gender and minority ethnic representation and the performance of fire authorities in England. Our study reveals that more representative fire authorities tend to be more effective organizations. We find little evidence of a critical mass effect at upper levels, but street-level representation does affect organizational performance. Performance impacts are greater in policy areas with more discretion and opportunity for co-production.
This article examines the factors influencing network formation among social service nonprofit organizations (NPOs) in Hong Kong and aims to illustrate the value of comparative studies of network formation. We argue that two distinct funding regimes, namely a statist-corporatist regime and a liberal regime, are present in Hong Kong. Based on the characteristics of these funding regimes, we examine five factors affecting the size of networks: organizational size, joint-action experience, resource dependency, program needs, and environmental uncertainty. Our study shows that social service NPOs that were formed in two different historical time periods display markedly different operational behavior in networking. While the joint-action experience and program needs of an organization demonstrate a consistent influence on the network formation of NPOs, the effects of organizational size and resource dependency on network size are moderated by environmental uncertainty. We contend that, due to historical and political contexts that are unique to this region, hybridity may be a characteristic of state–nonprofit relations in Greater China. Such unique contexts give rise to patterns of network formation and collaborative governance that may have important implications for state–nonprofit relations and civil society development.
Public service motivation (PSM) has been shown to be positively related to job satisfaction in the public sector, but there are two gaps in the literature. First, not only PSM but also pro-social motivation directed towards helping specific others (called user orientation) may affect job satisfaction. Second, the relationship between job satisfaction and these two types of pro-social motivation, PSM and user orientation, may also be found in the private sector. This study tests whether job satisfaction is associated with PSM and user orientation, and whether these associations differ between public and private employees. Using data from a survey of Danish employees (n = 2,811), we generally find positive relationships between the two types of pro-social motivation and job satisfaction, but the strength of the associations vary between occupations. The PSM–job satisfaction association does not differ significantly between the private and public sector, while the user orientation–job satisfaction association is strongest for private employees. This suggests that to understand the relationships between pro-social motivation, employment sector, and job satisfaction, future studies could fruitfully consider incorporating other types of pro-social motivation such as user orientation.