International Migration Review

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1747-7379
Print ISSN: 0197-9183
"This study addresses the following questions: Are Mexican immigrants closing the earnings gap with greater time in the United States, compared to U.S.-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites? What factors are most important in determining their earnings? How are earnings determinants different for women versus men, and those who came to the United States as children, versus those who came as adults and those born in the United States?... With greater time in the United States, male immigrants achieve average earnings comparable to U.S.-born Mexican Americans, but not to non-Hispanic whites, controlling for human capital variables. With greater time in the United States, female immigrants approach the number of hours of paid work of U.S.-born women, but not the earnings received per hour. Gains in earnings associated with age, time in the United States, and English proficiency differ by gender, reflecting structural differences in the labor market."
"International migration statistics in the nineteenth century are acknowledged to be deficient and biased, but there are few source-critical studies to determine the extent of underreporting and omissions. This article provides a critical analysis of the statistics of Dutch emigration to North America in the period 1835-1880, based on the method of nominal record-linkage of computer files derived from Netherlands emigration lists and U.S. ship passenger manifests. Published and unpublished official records in the Netherlands, U.S.A. and Canada are used to determine the extent of underreporting, the structural biases in the migration data and the 'true' annual Dutch immigration rate to the United States."
"The role of Chinese and Indian women as immigrants and workers in colonial Malaya is examined using data from censuses, immigration records, official reports and secondary sources. The article discusses the main types of work of female immigrants and their contribution to the economic development of colonial Malaya during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in an attempt to redress the neglect of female immigrants' economic role in Malaya's history. Comparisons between male and female immigrants' labor and between Chinese and Indian immigrants, are drawn to highlight the different conditions of migration and labor for the different groups of immigrants."
This study adds to a growing body of research on the contextual determinants of marriage choice and provides new information on ethnic intermarriage in the late 19(th) Century. Census microdata for 66 major cities in 1880 are used to estimate a multilevel model of assortative mating of Irish, German, and British immigrants. Results demonstrate that marital choices made by individuals are significantly affected by the local urban context where they live. In addition the very large disparity in endogamy between the British and other groups can mainly be attributed to the smaller size of the British population in these cities.
"This article analyzes Netherlands government statistics on overseas emigration, 1880-1920, which reveal that the process of industrialization caused a major social structural shift in the 1890s. A system of urban labor migration replaced the traditional rural folk movement and the primary destination shifted away from the United States to Dutch colonies in Asia and South America. The Netherlands belatedly 'caught up' with the rest of Western Europe in the shift from family to industrial overseas emigrants."
PIP The author analyzes differences in naturalization baetween "old" groups of migrants coming primarily from Northern and Western Europe and "new" migrants from Southern and Eastern Europe. The primary focus is on naturalization as a measure of assimilation into the United States. Reasons for differences between the two groups are discussed
In the late nineteenth century, the United States population included a large number of first and second generation immigrants from European countries, often with relatively high fertility levels. This article investigates the degree to which fertility behavior changed as a result of social structural characteristics of the environment such as urbanization and children's role, the diffusion of fertility values and information from the native population, and the role of cultural vaclues or resistance to change. On the whole, little evidence is found that adaptation was culturally unique, although groups maintained distinctive fertility levels over generations. Substantial evidence suggests that immigrant women modified their fertility behavior as a consequence of social structural factors and contact with the native U.S. population.
"This article demonstrates that foreign worker dependence in the [Persian] Gulf dates from the establishment of the oil industry in the early twentieth century. The composition of labor inflows [was] mainly determined by political and strategic, rather than commercial, concerns. Contrasting patterns of labor force composition evolved between those areas under British control, which imported labor from the Indian sub-continent, and the independent Saudi Arabia where labor was drawn from more diverse sources including the Italian settlers in Eritrea."
This article delineates the general trends and patterns of emigration policy as it evolved within the Fascist government during the 1920s, explaining that policy in the broader context of official theory.
The characteristics of rural urban migrants arriving over the 1929-68 period in Bogota, Colombia were examined, focusing on male migrants and the effect of migrant selectivity over time on the educational and occupational levels of Bogota and the predominantly rural region where most migrants to Bogota originate. Data were obtained primarily from a stratified (by social class) random sample of 3579 men aged 15-64 living in Bogota in September 1968 who were interviewed briefly to determine their age, place of birth, age at arrival to Bogota (for migrants only), occupation, and marital status. A subsample of 871 married men, age 20-54 years, further stratified by migratory status (migrant and urban born) were interviewed in greater depth to determine selection features of their social and residential background and their migration and occupational history. These urban survey data were supplemented by a rural survey: a criterion sample (N = 256) of married men, age 20-54 years, in 11 rural villages in a region of heavy outmigration to Bogota. This rural sample included both nonmigrants and return migrants who had lived in a city for at least 1 year before returning to the rural area. Generally, the origin of the migrants was clear, since only 9% had lived in more than 1 rural place and only 12% had lived in an intermediate city before moving to Bogota. The migrants tended to come more from the small towns than from either the rural areas or the intermediate cities. Migrants clearly did not originate proportionately from the various occupational strata in the rural area. Relative to rural nonmigrants, migrants were less likely to be sons of landless farmers and more likely to be sons of store owners, government bureaucrats, and similar middle income groups in the rural towns. Return migrants relative to both migrants and rural nonmigrants were more likely to be sons of landowners, indicating that ties with the land may be a principal reason for returning. Mean years of schooling were highest for the fathers of return migrants (4.2 years), next highest for fathers of migrants who have remained in the metropolis (2.8), and lowest for the fathers of the rural nonmigrants (2.1). In accord with their social backgrounds, migrants themselves revealed higher levels of schooling than rural nonmigrants. At least part of the explanation for the relatively constant levels of schooling among rural urban migrants over the past 40 years is related to the fact that male migrants tended to come with at least some education and that the level of education among those who have attended school does not appear to have changed greatly in the rural area. There did not appear to have been any systematic changes in the difficulty of obtaining work over the 40-year period, and the mean skill level of work remained at about 1.9 on the 6 point scale. Thus it appears that the structure of work opportunities for incoming migrants did not change much.
The causes of the migration of both blacks and whites from the U.S. South between 1930 and 1940 are examined. The author challenges the hypothesis that the root cause of this migration was the mechanization of agriculture and suggests that the primary cause was the crisis in cotton farming that occurred during the depression of the 1930s. "Large farm owners secured aid from the federal government in the form of agricultural subsidy payments. In response to this program, they reduced their cotton acreage, bought tractors, and displaced their tenants. This transformation drastically reduced the need for tenant labor and brought about the large-scale migrations. Regression analyses of relevant data confirm this interpretation."
PIP Immigration patterns in the US in the last 50 years have defied the conventional wisdom that most international migrants are young, working-age males. Since 1930 more than 1/2 of all immgrants to the US have been women, and 2/3 have been women or children. Data show that the persistently large number of marriages of foreign-born or native-born US residents to alien women, coupled with increasing government regulation of immigration and a strong policy bias against the seperation of spouces and children, has resulted in the preponederance of women and children in immigration since 1930. The shift in the sex and age distribution of immgrants in the US in 1930 can also be attributed to the effectiveness of the 1924 quota laws in drastically reducing the enormous influx of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, when the remaing flow was dominated by wives and children. Traditional sex role behavior has played a significant role in determining both the level and patterns of immigration to the US--while large inflows of economically motivated males induced 2nd flows of women and children before 1930, the 1940s saw the flow of foreign-born wives and children of US servicemen in the wake of Korean and Vietnam wars. An analysis of the Immigration and Naturalization Service data tapes for the 3.6 million fiscal 1972-79 arriving immigrants shows that almost 1/4 are children under 15. Except in this age group, females outnumber males in all other age groups. While immigrants are predictably younger than the US born population regardless of sex, immigrant women are more likely to be married than men, and both are more likely to be married than their US born peers. Immigrant women are substantially less likely to report labor market experience than immigrant men. Unlike US workers, immigrants tend to cluster at the top or bottom of the occupational scale, regardless of sex. Immigrant women are also clustered in the sterotypical female dominated occupations.
"This article examines the trend in ethnic stratification from 1940 to 1950, a decade that has been viewed as a critical turning point in race and ethnic relations in the United States.... It begins with a brief overview of ethnic diversity in the United States and a descriptive account of ethnic differentiation and inequality. Then it tests--in a preliminary fashion--several hypotheses about the role of socioeconomic and geographical forces in shaping ethnic occupational inequality across this significant interval of American history. Based upon an analysis of the newly released Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) files of the 1940 and 1950 Population Censuses, the study concludes that racial minorities and Hispanics experienced a qualitatively different occupational attainment process than did men in the white majority and white ethnic populations." This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 445).
"Designed in 1919-20 by the British mediator Lord Curzon as an armistice proposal between the then warring powers Poland and Soviet Russia, the Curzon Line served to identify the maximum territorial reach of Soviet political influence in Europe....[The author discusses] a program of resettlement which would target communities on both sides of the new border, a policy eventually affecting some 1.4 million individuals...." The implementation and impact of this population exchange are described.
"This article's thesis is that Europe is undergoing an international but intracontinental migration such as it has not seen since the beginning of the Cold War. The authors cite several reasons for the recent outburst of migration: ethnic relocation, the search for refuge and asylum, and the need for work. They also present a country-by-country description of sending and receiving nations. The push and pull factors causing such massive migration cannot only be contained by the present methods of having each government erect legislative and other barriers--such as armed border guards--against newcomers."
"New Zealand's immigration policies and trends since 1945 are compared with those of Canada and Australia. For most of this period, Australia has pursued the more expansive immigration policy while Canada and New Zealand have tended to link immigration intakes to fluctuations in labor demand. All three countries initially discriminated against non-European immigrants but gradually moved towards nondiscriminatory policies based on similar selection criteria and means of assessment. New Zealand has traditionally been more cautious than both Canada and Australia in terms of how many immigrants it accepted and from what sources, but it has recently followed the other two in raising immigration targets encouraging migration from nontraditional sources, particularly Asian countries. Historical, global and national factors are drawn upon to explain the degree of convergence between these three societies."
Standard theory on British immigration to Australia has assumed that British immigrants are an extension of the Anglo-Saxon core culture since Australian society has the same language and ancestral origins, the political institutions are similar and the societies have similar sports and folkways. This analysis tests this proposition through an examination of the extent to which British mobility, urbanization, residential segregation and housing patterns resemble those of the Australian born and to what extent the British have become a third culture between the Australian born and other foreign born.
PIP This article provides a general overview of international migration trends and types during the postwar period. Its thesis is that international migration consists of a set of spatial networks which share many of the processes that create them, but that the networks are characterized by factors which vary geographically and distinguish 1 from another. Fuller analysis of these requires a systems approach to provide a framework within which to study the processes that produce flow patterns. It concludes that our ability to forecast future world patterns of international migration must be based on an assessment of the likely behavior of the component macro-regional systems we can recognize.
The author examines the social, economic, and political context surrounding a contract labor system implemented in Papua New Guinea that was begun in the 1950s. "In its 25 years of operation the Highland Labour Scheme provided the mechanism whereby some 100,000 men migrated temporarily from their highland homes to work in the coastal districts of Papua New Guinea. This was a circular migration within their own country, for labor purposes only. The men did not take their families with them, and there was no element of redistribution of population from a highly populated area as there has been in migration schemes in the adjoining areas of Southeast Asia...."
"This article tests the assumption that recent cohorts of migrants from Puerto Rico to the United States are a more select portion of the population, i.e., more educated and professional, than earlier cohorts. In this analysis, the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of three cohorts of Puerto Rican migrants over the last 30 years are compared utilizing data from the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses."
"This article provides direct evidence about educational attainments of new arrivals in Canada over the period 1956 to 1994.... Immigrant data are also compared with the educational attainment of the Canadian-born population in corresponding periods.... Results show that, in the total immigrant inflows of any subperiod since 1956, the percentages of those with high school education or less have been declining and have been lower than those for the Canadian-born population, while the percentages of those with university degrees have been rising and have been higher than those for the Canadian-born population."
"This article uses 1960 [U.S.] census data to describe patterns of spouse selection among the native-born children of European immigrants. The analysis builds on previous studies of ethnic intermarriage, but is new in that it focuses specifically on the second generation. In addition, it considers intermarriage as a multidimensional phenomenon and evaluates how the relative importance of national and educational boundaries in marriage choice has changed. Comparisons of synthetic marriage cohorts suggest that second generation European Americans marry increasingly into the native stock, they marry increasingly out of their national origin group, and the national boundaries that separate them have become weaker over time. At the same time, it is found that educational homogamy has increased across cohorts." This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
"This article compares racial and ethnic patterns in interstate and interregional migration in the years 1960 to 1980.... This research looks at geographical assimilation--the extent to which patterns of migration and regional distribution of minority groups resemble those of whites. Attention is directed to United States-born Asian Americans, blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans and whites, and attempts to answer the following questions: 1) To what extent do the patterns of interstate migration of these groups resemble one another? 2) To what extent do the regional distributions and patterns of net regional migration of these groups resemble one another?" This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 495).
"This article studies immigrant-native differentials in the ability of secondary earners (family earners other than the family head) to lift families out of poverty. Using both descriptive and multivariate techniques to analyze the 1960, 1970 and 1980 U.S. Census Public Use Samples, it compares immigrant and native families among four key race groups: white, black, Hispanic and Asian. It is shown that the ameliorative impact of secondary earners is greater for immigrant than native families; that this generalization holds for whites, blacks and Hispanics but not Asians; and that the immigrant advantage in ameliorative effects vis-a-vis natives declined noticeably over the 1960-1980 period for all but Asian families. The implications of these results for the overall trend in poverty among immigrants is discussed."
The end of the Cold War has been marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This article is focused on Turkey and Turkish emigration abroad. It examines integration of second generation immigrants in Western Europe and various forces fostering Islamic identity. It then compares political discourse on immigration in France and Germany. It concludes that the resurgence of ethnic identity as the basis for effective political action in widely divergent societies is a key feature of the post-Cold War period. Immigrants have been actively involved in this general process as witnessed by the role of immigrants in recent conflict in Yugoslavia and Turkey.
This paper explores the relationship between migration and fertility on the basis of data from a survey in the nine largest cities of Morocco in 1966. The findings suggest that this relationship depends on both the origin and historical context of migration streams. Women who migrated from villages before 1956, date of the independence of Morocco, had the highest fertility of any group. Post-1956 migrants, from urban or rural origin, had the lowest fertility of any group. Controlling for the effects of age at marriage and various socioeconomic factors reduced the fertility differentials but did not change their pattern. It is hypothesized that social mobility may explain the lower fertility of recent migrants.
The nature and extent of outgroup marriage among Mexican Americans in California during the 1962-1974 period is analyzed here through marriage records coded to indicate the Spanish surname status of the bride and groom. A high level of outmarriage was found, on the order of one-third to two-fifths of those marrying. Differentials in outmarriage proportions by age and sex were examined and tended to be relatively small. More substantial differentials were found with regard to marriage order, where higher order marriages of Spanish surnamed persons were more likely than first marriages to involve a non-Spanish surnamed partner. The largest differentials were generational, with Spanish surnamed persons not born in Mexico much more likely to outmarry than were those born in Mexico.
"This article examines the importance of place of birth [for] the internal migration and spatial redistribution patterns of the foreign-born population in the United States during the 1965-70 and the 1975-80 periods, relying principally on the Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) files for our input data. The diverse nationalities are aggregated into eight different regions of origin: Mexico, Puerto Rico, Rest of South and Central America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Oceania, Canada and the Rest of the World. First, the regional distribution of these eight groups at the 1970 and 1980 censuses are examined. Next, the spatial redistribution of the foreign-born population and its changes over time are studied...." This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
In analyzing Filipino migration to the United States since 1965, the authors identify two distinct chains of immigrants. One derives from the Filipinos who entered the country prior to 1965; the other comes from the flow of highly trained professionals who immigrated during the late 1960s and early 1970s. "To establish the historical basis for the two patterns of immigration that unfolded in the post-1965 period, the article begins with a brief examination of Filipino immigration to the United States. An analysis of the modes of entry used in both chains follows this overview. The study concludes with a discussion of the degree of convergence in these two chains and the consequences of each for contemporary Filipino-American community development." Data are from published U.S. census material and from Immigration and Naturalization Service reports and tapes dating from 1972 to 1985.
"This article suggests that the special case of [international migration in] southern African countries (Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe), in which the majority of permanent movers have historically been whites of European origin, requires that greater attention should be given to the politico-structural context of voluntary international migrations [as compared to economic motivation]. Statistical data on international migrations to and from Zimbabwe during the past quarter of a century are used to demonstrate that the temporal magnitude and spatial patterns of population movements are best explained by reference to the changing political, rather than economic, conditions within the country."
"The following study of Angolan refugees in Zambia examines the decision-making dynamics of refugee movements, documents a case of extensive self-settlement, describes the background to the refugee movement, and briefly compares the welfare of self-settling refugees and those who are in government schemes."
PIP Since World War II, the industrial shifts from agriculture to services have transformed the nature of employment opportunities in the US and generally resulted in occupational upgrading. This reorganization of occupations, which continued into the 1970s, has reduced the proportion of workers employed in the least skilled manual jobs. The most important result of this trend is that immigrant women--in fact women and men-- experienced both an improvement and deterioration in their occupational position. While the national pattern involved a decrease in relative employment of native workers as laborers and farm laborers, immigrant women increased their share of these jobs. Immigrant men moved into 4 occupational categories largely being abandoned by native-born workers--jobs as operatives, service workers, laborers and farm laborers. The shift of immigrant women into laborer jobs was made possible through changes in the organization of work within industries, rather than a change in the availability of the types of employers needing them. The well-advertised promise of employment in new growth industries, such as electronics, and the expansion of jobs requiring greater skills, is not uniformly available to all groups of women. Thus, jobs requiring few skills and offering few opportunities for advancement are usually filled by migrant ethnic workers, particularly women, who also lack leverage for demanding and securing higher status positions. The combination of the relative increase in the proportion of immigrant men and women in the least skilled manual jobs left behind by native-born workers, and the apparent concentration of specific national origin groups in these jobs, renders this important segment of the labor market clearly identifiable on political and ethnic ground. It also contributes to the understanding of the on-going debate as to whether immigrant workers displace or complement native work force.
The author applies the revised UN definition of what constitutes an emigrant to migration data on moves between Canada and the United States over the period 1970-1985. "The effect of changing to the UN definition is dramatic, and differences between old and new estimates are not systematic.... If these findings stand up when all migrants are included, using the UN definition, then the much larger flows suggest that the effects on the composition and characteristics of the nonmigrant population of Canada warrant investigation."
PIP 42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes.
"This study examines the impact of minimum wage setting on labor migration. A multiple time series framework is applied to monthly data for Puerto Rico from 1970-1987. The results show that net emigration from Puerto Rico to the United States fell in response to significant changes in the manner in which minimum wage policy was conducted, particularly after 1974. The extent of commuter type labor migration between Puerto Rico and the United States is influenced by minimum wage policy, with potentially important consequences for human capital investment and long-term standards of living."
PIP This article discusses the high rates of out-migration from Jamaica in the late 1970s. The principal receiving countries of Jamaican migrants since World War II have been in the UK, the US, and Canada. Average yearly out-migration from Jamaica between 1964 and 1984 stands at 20,736. Since the 1950s 1) the actual number of migrants from Jamaica to the UK has decreased considerably with the introduction of prohibitive legislation in 1962, 2) the "slack" has been taken by the US and Canada, and 3) migration to the US dipped slightly in the early to mid 1970s, yet increases during those years of Jamaicans migrating to Canada adequately compensated for any loss of an outlet to the US. The "brain drain" forms a chronic feature of the Jamaican economy--a permanent sapping process of much needed labor--not simply an occasional event capable of being explained primarily by the political position of a particular politician. The increases in the migration rates of professional, technical, administrative, and managerial workers, and skilled craftsmen in 1977 and 1978 did not herald a new event; high rates of migration for these categories of workers have existed for several years. The volume and the composition of the actual Jamaican migrant population are decided in the main by legislation in other parts of the world. Although Jamaica's population problem has been eased over the years by as much as 50% of the country's natural increase being removed by migration, many of those who left were of the type whose skills might have contributed to the national economy--and in ways that might have created employment for others. The economic pull of loss of skilled labor is a permanent feature; legislative pull is the key.
PIP This article summarizes the 3 main types of interrelated activities which the Conference of European Statisticians has worked on to improve the measurement and international comparability of international migration flows. The work has encompassed collaborating with the UN Statistical Commission on the preparation and implementation of the revised international recommendations on statistics of international migration, organizing a regular exchange of data on immigration and emigration flows among the UN Economic Commission for Europe countries and selected countries in other regions, and conducting bilateral studies on international migration within the framework of the Conference's program of work in this field of statistics. The bulk of the work which has been carried out to date by the conference has been conducted rather anonymously and even unobtrusively by the staff of national statistical offices in Economic Commission for Europe countries; they have achieved a modest but important amount of progress during the past 15 years. There is reason to expect that further progress will be made over the next decade, particularly if national statistical offices in the region continue to undertake bilateral studies and endeavor to improve their migration statistics. However, more substantial progress could be achieved if additional countries and organizations established projects aimed at achieving these ends (author's modified).
"The educational, occupational, industrial and income characteristics of immigrants in Canada, 1971-1986, are considered in the context of postindustrial structural changes in the economic and social system, including declining primary and secondary sectors. Seven alternative theoretical models are reviewed. A composite model of 'segmented structural change' is found to correspond more closely than alternative theoretical perspectives to the empirical evidence. Specifically, immigrants are found at all levels of the system, but there is differential incorporation by gender, ethnicity and period of immigration. Recent immigrants from Third World countries tend to be disadvantaged."
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"This presentation describes the development of migration to and from Western Europe and seeks to determine to what extent such immigration and return migration movements are influenced by governmental action and regulation." It is observed that the basic factors determining immigration and return migration flows are the characteristics of the migrants themselves, policies of the receiving countries, and economic conditions in the sending and receiving countries. Data comparing alien populations and migration trends in selected European countries are provided
PIP The authors present a brief statistical summary of recent data on intra-European migration, identify the major problems created by the present situation, and define some main lines of approach concerning the future of European labor migration
"This article reviews the main trends in the literature and research on international labor migration in the Middle East over the period 1974-84. This literature, which is characterized as descriptive and judgemental, falls into three broad categories: first, international and national overviews of migration trends, remittance flows and their macro-economic impact; second, descriptions of government policies designed to organize and regulate labor migration; third, at the community and household scale, comparative studies of migrant and non-migrant behavior in labor-sending countries."
"The focus of this article is on an examination of the influence of birthplace on the internal migration and spatial redistribution patterns of the foreign-born and native-born populations in the United States during the 1975-80 and 1985-90 periods. The analyses presented here consider the following principal questions: (1) What are the internal migration patterns of the foreign-born population in the United States, and how do they differ from those of the native-born population? (2) How do the relocation choices of various birthplace-specific foreign-born and native-born subpopulations differ from each other? (3) Are the internal migration patterns generating an increased or a decreased geographical concentration of such birthplace-specific subgroups?"
In 1975 the Italian Government organized the National Conference on Emigration. Two major objectives of the Conference were: 1) to indicate the Italian socio-political forces new awareness of emigration and the consequent drain of manpower on the peninsula; and 2) the preparation of more adequate policies for an effective solution to this century-old phenomenon. Prior to the Conference a series of essays documents and reports were published as background information (Conferenza Nazionale dellEmigrazione 1974). The uneven quality and the heterogeneous compilation of these five documentation volumes render them primarily useful in conveying the endemic character of Italian migration with the resurgence of political interest in the field. In fact the impact of emigration on development and economic policies labor movement statements the juridical problems of migrant workers and the proposed ways for political participation of migrants in countries of destination constitute the relevant topics of this anthological series. The proceedings of the Conference (Conferenza Nazionale dellEmigrazione 1975) were also published in five volumes. They include the basic reports prepared for a discussion of the structural causes of emigration the employment policy of the country its organizations for the protection of migrants and the participation of migrants in the governmental institutions dealing with emigration. They also report the substance of the debates the major issues that emerged and the opinions of the press. (excerpt)
PIP This study concerns itself with the relationship between nativity, language affiliation, and interurban mobility in Canada during the period 1976-1981. 3 hypotheses are evaluated: 1) the urban/ethnic affinity thesis predicts that international immigrants share strong preferences for settling in and relocating toward large urban centers where established ethnic communities exist; 2) the sociocultural explanation of mobility posits that variations in the propensity to relocate are a function of nativity and language; and 3) the heterogeneity explanation predicts that interurban mobility flows ultimately serve to increase rather than decrease linguistic heterogeneity in large urban areas. Using data from the 1981 census of Canada, a series of cross-tabular and logistic regression analyses provide support for all 3 hypotheses. Theoretical and policy oriented implications are discussed in the context of ethnic community survival in urban Canada.
"Some controversy has surrounded the extent to which employment in maquiladoras (assembly plants located along the Mexican border) has stimulated undocumented immigration to the United States. This study uses monthly data of maquiladora employment and INS [Immigration and Naturalization Service] apprehensions in a 'push-pull' migration framework to study the association between these two variables during the April 1978 to January 1982 period. The findings suggest that there is a significantly negative relationship between the one month lag of maquiladora employment and INS apprehensions. Employment growth in the maquiladora sector tends to be followed by a reduction of apprehensions one month later. The study also finds that male and female apprehensions appear to respond to relatively similar economic factors."
"This study attempts to explain similarities and differences in the mortality experience of three population groups: Puerto Ricans on the island commonwealth, Puerto Rican born persons in New York City and Puerto Rican born persons in the rest of mainland United States. Mortality is much higher among Puerto Ricans in New York City than among those residing elsewhere. Much of the difference is due to excess mortality caused by cirrhosis of the liver and homicide. Puerto Rican born persons living on the mainland but outside New York City generally have low mortality, even when compared with U.S. whites."
"This study examines the impact of the economic activities of Japan in the United States on the socioeconomic attainments of foreign-born Japanese male workers in 1979 and 1989. It demonstrates that working in wholesale trade, finance and manufacturing industries, three major sectors of Japanese investment in America, provided foreign-born male Japanese workers with the highest likelihood of assuming managerial positions. Moreover, the managerial occupation in turn provided the Japanese workers with the highest earnings returns. This pattern is consistent over time and by length of residence. The results suggest the importance of Japan's economic globalization since the 1970s in explaining the socioeconomic attainment patterns of foreign-born Japanese workers in the United States."
"This article presents estimates of the number of undocumented aliens included in the April 1983 Current Population Survey (CPS) derived by subtracting an estimate of the legally resident foreign born population from the survey estimate of all foreign born residents.... Also presented are similar estimates for the November 1979 CPS.... Estimates are presented by period of entry for Mexico and other groups of countries. Comparison of the April 1983 estimate with the census-based estimate and the November 1979 survey-based estimate provide an indication of growth in the undocumented alien population for 1980-83."
"People from the Caribbean represent one of the largest immigrant groups in New York City. This study focuses on the reproductive health of first generation Caribbean immigrants. Birth and death certificate data were used to generate descriptive profiles of risk-factor prevalence and reproductive outcomes to Caribbean and comparison populations." Data on single live births for 1980-1984 take into consideration ethnic differences, age, place of birth, parity, mother's education, method of payment for health care, prenatal care, and birth weight.
Top-cited authors
Nina Glick Schiller
  • The University of Manchester
Peggy Levitt
  • Wellesley College
Hein de Haas
  • University of Amsterdam
Richard Alba
  • CUNY Graduate Center
Alejandro Portes
  • University of Miami School of Law