International Marketing Review

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 0265-1335
Publications
Article
The objective of this study is to test whether gender stereotyping in printed advertising is more prevalent in masculine as opposed to feminine countries. We consider this to be important, as advertising is generally more influential than literature in spreading stereotypical ideas given its high accessibility. Moreover, the way in which sexes are portrayed in advertising affects peoples perceptions of gender roles in real life. Using content analysis, we collected empirical data on gender stereotyping of women depicted in 946 printed advertisements from two European countries widely differing in their level of masculinity, the UK and the Netherlands. The results indicate that a countrys masculinity index is hardly related to the use of gender stereotyping in printed advertising, potentially implying that other factors underlie the use of gender stereotyping.
 
Article
Explores the interval nature of semantic scale adjectives across three languages: English, Putonghua Chinese, and Japanese. Reports on a pilot study conducted among native speakers of each language using the techniques of magnitude scaling. Respondents rated an assortment of common adjectives by comparing the magnitude of the word to a given modulus. The results indicate that the traditional translation/back-translation technique may not provide response intervals that are comparable cross-culturally. Further, between languages the results indicate that the meaning attached to the adjectives by native speakers varies substantially. Discusses implications for market research, as well as future areas of research.
 
Article
Reports a pilot study of the relative importance of import decision variables as rated by Australian managers. A systematic sample of 104 Australian managers representing different companies participated in the study. Australian importers rated product quality as the most important variable when importing products from overseas followed by long-term suppliers' dependability, product style/feature, price, and timely delivery. Australian managers who import consumer products find the domestic import duties and tariffs to be more important than did those who import industrial products. Larger volume importers regard the product brand name reputation to be more important than did those who import smaller volumes.
 
Article
Purpose - The paper seeks to provide guidance for those who have data from multiple countries and are considering writing a comparative or cross-cultural/national research paper. Design/methodology/approach - The approach taken is an essay format. Findings - International comparative marketing research studies are often rejected from the International Marketing Review because authors develop theory for which they have inappropriate data. Research limitations/implications - Research models need to be commensurate with the data available. Models that claim to assess how nation-level variables of interest differentially drive beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors across countries, and yet only test the models using samples from two or three countries are not appropriate. Appropriate solutions for researchers seeking to undertake international comparative research are suggested. Originality/value - The paper provides researchers with insights into successful strategies for publishing international comparative research.
 
Article
This research study investigates the relationship between the degree of headquarters control and standardization of Corporate Visual Identity System (CVIS) among British companies and their subsidiaries in Malaysia. It examines chief executive involvement in the development of a standardized CVIS. The findings suggest that centralised control of CVIS decisions occurs with standardization of CVIS. Moreover, the findings indicate that the chief executive is the key internal driving force of globally standardized CVIS. Against expectations, locals matched the favourable disposition of headquarters towards global standardization.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to report research on the relationship among market, industry, and company factors and the level of global product standardization. Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on a survey of executive level managers in US‐based companies that market products both domestically and internationally. Findings – Significant relationships were found between specific market, industry, and company factors and global product standardization. Originality/value – The results of the research can be used both to understand and to manage global products in light of the market, industry, and company factors that influence their existence.
 
Article
Presents the results of a survey conducted among 194 retail salesmen of electronic equipment and 190 male consumers. According to salesmen, country of origin is a much less important attribute for shoppers of video-cassette recorders and themselves than brand reputation. For the purpose of comparison, both salesmen and consumers provided direct evaluative judgements of 13 countries on their design and assembly capabilities, of three VCR brands and of the quality and purchase value of nine VCR conjoint profiles varying systematically with respect to country of design, country of assembly, brand, price and warranty. Salesmen's direct importance weights were found to differ greatly from conjoint derived weights in that, in the latter case, country of origin cues had a significant and, with regard to quality perceptions, greater impact than the other attributes. Multiple regression models relating the direct perceptions of the countries of origin to brand evaluations indicate that the nesting of country perceptions in brand evaluation may partly explain this apparent inconsistency.
 
Article
Examines the ethical problems within international purchasing and sales interactions. Bribery is identified as the major problem, though this is only true in North-South trade, and ignores evidence of unethical practices in the interactions between purchasing and sales generally. Business people in the North tend to adopt double standards when criticizing the acceptance of bribery in some cultures, while ignoring the unethical practices in their own cultures. An interaction approach avoids cultural relativism, by seeing gifts and entertaining as a necessary part of the development of personal relationships which characterize successful international business relationships. It seems that a majority of international business transactions take place without the intervention of unethical inducements. Furthermore, the development and introduction of codes of ethics as well as the work of organizations such as Transparency International all suggest the climate is changing to one more supportive of high ethical standards.
 
Article
Purpose - To construct a theoretical framework for understanding the impact of the digitalisation of transactions on the organisation of export intermediation. Design/methodology/approach - This is a conceptual/research paper with a number of illustrative examples - primarily from SMEs. Findings - In the paper, a range of internet-enabled forms of export intermediation are derived, offsetting the conventional trade-off between resource commitment and marketing control. Practical implications - The paper holds a number of relevant insights for export managers seeking to integrate the possibilities of the digital revolution in the organisation of their export marketing activities. These include reshuffling of export marketing tasks among the actors in the marketing channel and new forms of activity specialisation among actors. Originality/value - Using the theoretical framework of Alderson in combination with transaction cost theorizing. The paper provides a novel theoretical approach for understanding the evolution of marketing institutions in the export marketing field.
 
Article
Examines the cultural and structural changes in both California and Massachusetts over the last 40 years to explain those factors which caused these innovative hot spots to glow brightly and then cool. Examines innovative hot spots and their similarities and differences from the rest of the country as an explanation to understand better the innovation phenomena. Makes recommendations concerning other areas and preconditions to create or maintain innovative hot spots.
 
Article
U.S. trade has undergone considerable change since 1970. The decade of the 1970s witnessed the dollar go from strength to weakness and then start back to its current strong position. That decade also contained the energy crisis with its resulting consequences for the world economy. This paper presents the shifts which occurred in the nature of U.S. international trade between 1970 and 1981. It first considers the shifts in the countries to which this nation exports its products and the countries from which it obtains its imports. The paper then describes the changes which have occurred in the specific product categories which are exported and imported; which products have gained and lost the greatest share of U.S. exports and imports. The findings of the study imply that U.S. firms are becoming more internationalized in orientation and more diversified in the nature of their imports and exports.
 
Article
Brunner and Taoka did the first survey of American businesspeople's perceptions of marketing and negotiating in the People's Republic of China in 1975. Because of China's open door policy and her determination to modernise, there have been many changes in US-China business. Therefore, it is important to conduct an updated survey to furnish another reference point for American businesspeople who want to engage in China business. It was found that the most important observations made in the previous study were still true after ten years. However, there are several obvious changes. For example, PRC trade officials are no longer reluctant to reveal their positions or titles and there are problems of technical incompetence, language barriers, and foreign exchange shortage. There are clear management implications of these findings in mapping out appropriate contemporary marketing and negotiating strategies.
 
Article
The topic of internationally standardised branding has been widely debated in the marketing literature. However, no studies have empirically examined the actual extent of international brand penetration and standardisation. Based on a survey of US brand managers of consumer products, this study found that while some 66 per cent of the responding brands are used abroad and most are internationally standardised, approximately 80 per cent of sales still come from the US market. Overseas, US brands generate most of their sales in culturally similar markets, specifically Canada and the United Kingdom.
 
Article
Purpose – Drawing on the resource-based view and network theory, this paper investigates the role of external networks (ENs) and absorptive capacity (AC) in export market location decision of emerging economy firms (EEFs) and the performance implication of this decision.Design/methodology/approach – This study employs structural equation modeling to test three hypotheses: (1) ENs influence an EEF manager’s propensity to enter culturally/psychically distant markets for exports. Distant markets are more likely to be chosen by managers of firms with abundant external networks; (2) AC moderates this network-market location relationship; (3) Superior performance results from the fit between managers’ propensity to enter a market and firms’ levels of ENs and AC.Findings – An analysis of 196 Chinese exporting firms supports the hypotheses. Research limitations – Though the theoretical discussion is general, the empirical context is specific to Chinese export manufacturers. Replicating the study is necessary in different contexts. Practical implications – The study identifies to managers the importance of external (i.e. ENs) and internal resources and capabilities (i.e. AC) and linkages between resources and capabilities, strategy and performance. Originality/value – The study is novel in conceptually addressing the role of ENs and AC in firms’ decision-making and performance and in testing hypotheses with robust methodology and data.
 
Article
Assesses the effect of an international business person's accent on Guatemalan subjects' perception of the business person's effectiveness, credibility, competence, friendliness, as well as the Guatemalan subject's intentions to buy. Graduate students at a Guatemalan university listened to tape recordings of three presenters speaking Guatemalan Spanish and three presenters speaking Spanish with a foreign accent. The findings suggest that, for the Guatemalan audience, a sales pitch in Guatemalan Spanish evoked more favourable judgements on all measured dimensions than the same sales pitch in foreign accented Spanish. Females, however, evaluated the Guatemalan Spanish presenters more positively and evaluated the foreign accented presenters more negatively than their male counterparts.
 
Article
Summary This paper presents the case for a geocentric approach to global strategy formation. It describes the geographic adjustments that are the embodiment of both attack and defence under global competition, and the geographic units that multinationals adopt as their primary organizational units to identify and carry out these adjustments. In addition to actions with local effects, global competitive performance demands actions from these primary units which will have payoffs accruing to other units. The geocentric approach to global strategy endeavours to identify and stimulate these cross-unit opportunities through collaboration among units and the centre. The consequent needs at unit level for information on the global competitive situation are examined, as well as some common impediments to geocentric collaboration imposed by the design of planning, accounting and reporting systems.
 
Article
Purpose – An important task following international acquisitions is to coordinate customer relationships; that is, to organise customer interfaces and possibly establish new relationships between customers and the acquirer/the acquired party. Yet, such coordination may prove to be problematic, not the least since customers react to acquisitions. The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss customer relationship coordination challenges following international acquisitions. Focus is placed on business-to-business customers in the country of the acquired party. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on three case studies representing overlapping customers, customers of an acquired party new to the acquirer, and customers new to the acquired party. Non-standardised, face-to-face interviews were the main data source, and were complemented with secondary data such as newspaper items and annual reports. Findings – Three main challenges are identified: internal competition and cannibalisation; customers not being interested in the new party; and the acquired party demonstrating its independence through customers. Practical implications – Managerially, any coordination of customer relationships needs to be weighted towards risks for customer losses. It is important to maintain ties to customers – sales and maintenance staff, the product/service, etc. – if customers are to continue with the firm. It is also important that sales and maintenance staff see the benefits of the acquisition. Originality/value – While international acquisitions are a frequent means to reach new markets and customers, the problems of coordinating customer relationships following them have not been previously researched. Theoretically, the paper contributes to research through categorising and contextually explaining customer relationship coordination challenges in international acquisitions.
 
Article
This paper explores the role of training in small, medium and large organisations, then goes onto examine the plethora of complications that arise when a company with a large number of products in a large number of countries addresses the problem of marketing training. At the one extreme such a company can opt for a centralised system of modular training, or at the other extreme it can decide to delegate the task to the management of decentralised units. A hybrid system is also explored whereby training is structured around a “cluster” of units or activities or regions. Few organisations have given sufficient thought to this question of training across national boundaries, with the result that training is often undertaken in a haphazard way.
 
Article
Factors influential in directing Turkish manufacturers to exporting are discussed. The research shows that the majority of these companies started exports due to unexpected orders and entered this field as a result of domestic economic factors. For most of these companies, the domestic market preserves its significance. Therefore, a different marketing strategy is not implemented for exports. However, as size and export volume increase, a change in attitudes is observed, supporting the findings of previous empirical studies that involvement in export marketing is a sequential and gradual process.
 
Article
This paper examines the nature and extent of organisational adaptation of international marketing involvement. The domestic and international marketing strategies of firms are compared. The results demonstrate significant differences between the domestic and international marketing operations of firms, including the product market strategies and the commitment of human resources.
 
Conceptual model: antecedent and performance effects of governance strategy adaptation 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the marketing “processes” of governing multiple export relationships under the theoretical framework of governance value analysis (GVA). Specifically, this work examines the internal exchange attributes of transaction-specific investments and psychic distance on the adaptation/standardization of relational behavior and detailed contracting and how process adaptation/standardization influences new product outcomes and jointly created value in the focal export relationship. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was conducted of 151 US manufacturers regarding their relationship with their primary foreign buyers. Data were analyzed with partial least squares estimation. Findings – The results indicate that high levels of transaction-specific investments lead to the adaptation of relational behaviors whereas high levels of psychic distance lead to less adaptation of detailed contracting. The adaptation of relational behaviors and detailed contracting reflect differential direct effects on export performance. Furthermore, the results indicate that there is a significant positive interaction effect between the adaptation of relational behavior and detailed contracting on jointly created value in the focal export relationship. Practical implications – The findings of the study reveal that adaptation of the marketing process related to relationship governance strategies can play an important role in the export marketing process, but managers must proceed with caution in balancing relational behavior and detailed contract adaptation. The results also point to the importance of understanding the underlying source of uncertainty and adapting appropriate aspects of governance for enhancing jointly created value in the export relationship. Originality/value – The value of this research lies in its goal to highlight the issue of marketing process adaptation across multiple export relationships. Less attention has been paid to the marketing “processes” of governing multiple export relationships in the international marketing strategy literature relative to “program” standardization/adaptation. This is one of the first empirical studies on marketing process adaptation of governance employing the theoretical framework of GVA.
 
Article
This article has no abstract
 
Article
More competitive now than a few years ago, the Saudi Arabian market has changed considerably into one marked by more vigorous advertising. Advertising content and regulation in this influential, conservative Middle East country is discussed. The commentary emphasises that since religion has such a pervasive and abiding influence, it is imperative that advertising should be compatible with religious standards. In addition, advertising should be sensitive to other cultural norms and responsive to changing governmental priorities.
 
Article
More than 2,000 Korean and US television commercials were analysed to determine how soon, how long and how many times the brand, company name and product are presented. These variables represent important decisions that must be made by those who create television commercials. Significant differences between US and Korean television advertising were found. Cultural differences are identified that: (1) suggest reasons for differences in television advertising between countries and (2) provide guidance for international advertising managers who supervise creative personnel doing advertising in Korea and the US.
 
Article
A printed advertisement was shown to dyads of mother-child subjects of Chinese, Malay and Caucasian origins. The analysis showed that after seeing the advertisement the groups differ on several dimensions such as awareness and understanding of the advertisement, reasons for liking the advertisement, and mother-child interactions on product request.
 
Article
Content analyses of US and Japanese magazine advertisements featuring products and services in a home setting reveal several significant differences over time and support hypotheses based on comparative cultural values and economic conditions. As expected, recent Japanese advertising has increasingly emphasised status to a much greater degree than recent US advertising, and recent US advertising has continued to emphasise personal efficacy to a much greater degree than does Japanese advertising. Both cultures are found to use materialistic themes in their advertisements.
 
Article
Purpose – The objective of this paper is to uncover the underlying dimensions of, and examine the similarities and differences in, personal uses of advertising, perceived socio-economic effects of advertising, and consumer beliefs and attitudes toward advertising in Bulgaria and Romania. Moreover, it aims to identify the relative importance of the predictors of attitudes toward advertising in the two countries. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws upon findings of previous research and theoretical developments by Bauer and Greyser, Sandage and Leckenby, and Pollay and Mittal. The study uses a stratified random sample of 947 face-to-face interviews with adult respondents from major urban areas in Bulgaria (507) and Romania (440). Variables are measured on multi-item scales as a typical application of the reflective indicator model. Findings – Results show that there are significant differences between Romanian and Bulgarian respondents in terms of their attitudes toward advertising. Romanians are more positive about advertising as an institution than the instruments of advertising. Romanians seem to accept the role of advertising in a free market economy, but have less confidence in advertising claims and techniques. Bulgarian respondents seem more sceptical toward advertising in general and are less enthusiastic about embracing the role of advertising as an institution. Moreover, Bulgarians are highly negative towards the instruments advertising uses to convey its messages to consumers. Research limitations/implications – The research findings reflect the views of urban dwellers and may not be generalisable to the wider population of the two countries. Interviewer bias was reduced by eliminating verbal or non-verbal cues to the respondents, and by the use of stratified random sampling. Practical implications – The paper suggests that the regulatory role of codes of advertising practice and industry regulating bodies should be enhanced, and their ability to protect consumers enforced. Marketing campaigns should be more inclusive to involve diverse social groups and reflect generally-accepted social norms. Originality/value – This study reveals that, while general attitudes toward advertising may be similar, attitudes toward the institution and instruments of advertising may differ even in countries with geographic proximity and low cultural distance.
 
Article
Print and television advertisements for American products appearing in the USA, Germany and Japan are content analysed to explore factors influencing the usage of standardised versus specialised approaches in multinational advertising. Three factors are examined: market distance, product type, and advertising medium employed. The results of this pilot study suggest that messages transferred between Western markets (such as the USA and West Germany) are more likely to be standardised than those transferred between Western and Eastern markets (such as the USA and Japan). Product type is not found to play an influential role in the degree of standardisation employed. However, standardisation is found to be significantly more common in television than in print.
 
The relationship between cultural orientation and behavioral intentions towards services: Alternative determinants and measures  
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine alternative approaches to measuring service evaluation across cultures. This paper aims to assess: differences between cognitive and affective measures and their ability to predict behavioral intentions and the impact of service features on these measures. Design/methodology/approach – A self-completion survey of African (East/West), Chinese, and English higher education students includes service quality, satisfaction, affect (emotions/feelings), and behavioral intentions scales relating to retail banking. Findings – For all groups, overall quality, satisfaction, and positive affect predict behavioral intentions. Negative affect is significant for English consumers. Differences across cultures are identified in the determinants of service evaluation, for example, assurance and responsiveness, but these are antecedents of affect and not of overall service quality or satisfaction. Research limitations/implications – The sample is drawn from cultural groups (based on Hofstede's individualism continuum) of higher education students in the UK. The implications for generalizability of findings to wider populations and the need to recognize the considerable diversity within the cultural sample groupings is emphasized. Practical implications – Service providers should include measures of affect in surveys which aim to assess the role of service features in overall evaluation and behavioral intentions towards the service. This will provide valuable data for managerial decision making and resource allocation. Cultural comparisons derived from cognitive-based Western measures may fail to identify elements of service quality which impact on behavioral intentions. Originality/value – No other studies have directly compared a range of alternative service-related measures as predictors of behavioral intentions across cultures, or included African consumers who are rarely represented in service evaluation studies.
 
Article
The Economic Community of West African States (EOWAS) is a major attempt by 16 lesser developed countries (LDCs) to gain economic advantages through regional co-operation and to improve their international leverage on several factors with multinational companies, foreign governments, an inter-governmental organizations. This group of mostly young nations has survived uniquely difficult circumstances and is now relaunching its efforts at economic reform, trade liberalization, and political dialogue. Although there are problems, the regional economy it covers offers significant opportunities for international marketers.
 
Article
The firm and chief executive officer correlates of aggressive export behaviour were examined in a random sample of 45 Brazilian wood-furniture manufacturers. Because of the importance of earning foreign exchange to make payments on international loans, the Brazilian government has made major efforts to stimulate firms to export. This study examines whether the characteristics of aggressive exporters under such stimulation are different from those found in other environments. The results indicate that governmental intervention does not materially affect the characteristics of aggressive exporters and that the aggressive-passive dichotomous model is, with a few exceptions, valid under export stimulation programmes in Brazil. However, it was not possible to affirm that aggressiveness was correlated with firm export performance.
 
Article
Coffee is the developing world's largest export after oil, and coffee revenues are vital to many nations. However, growth prospects for consumption of this critically important commodity are not encouraging on a global basis and are discouraging in the US where volume is on a long-term decline. The Promotion Fund of the International Coffee Agreement attempts to encourage consumption. The fund is financially supported by coffee producing countries that have signed the International Coffee Agreement. In light of objectives to assist developing nations and help these nations to help themselves, it is important to understand the operations of the Fund. The Promotion Fund of the International Coffee Agreement may serve as a skeletal model for the development of similar agreements for other products significant to the developing world.
 
Article
The United States has entered into a tripartite Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico with a planned 1 January 1994 debut. What are the possibilities of a North American Common Market being formed? What are the potential threats that could undermine NAFTA? What are the necessary prerequisites for this to occur? What would it look like? Examines these issues, attempts to provide answers to the questions and provides recommendations for marketers.
 
Article
The United Kingdom differs from most of its partners in the European Community in that its farmers generally prefer non co-operative channels of distribution for their produce. The proportion of farm produce distributed through co-operatives is considerably smaller than is generally the case in Europe. This paper is concerned with the contribution of co-operative organisational structure and behaviour to the variations in co-operative market shares found in European agriculture. It is argued that there is a clear relationship between organisational factors and the market position of the co-operative sector in each country and that this has implications for the encouragement of co-operative organisation which is an aim of UK public policy.
 
International retail divestment domain
Ahold's sales growth (1995-2001)
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to explore the nature of divestment within the context of retailer internationalisation. Design/methodology/approach – It focuses on the activities of the Dutch food multinational retailer Royal Ahold (Ahold). Drawing on 37 in-depth interviews with investment banks and executives, this paper provides a number of insights into Ahold's international retail divestment activities within the context of a broadly successful international investment strategy. Findings – It offers some new insights into the multidimensional nature of international retail divestment construct in terms of the operational as well as more subtle and less visible non-operational international retail divestments. It is concluded from this study that, rather than portraying strategic and opportunistic approaches as binary opposites, a retail firm may have varying degrees of approaches to international retail divestment, and these may not necessarily be isomorphic across different countries. Research limitations/implications – The paper explores international retail divestment from a rather broad perspective, although it is hoped that these parameters can be used to raise a new set of more detailed priorities for future research on international retail divestment. Practical implications – This paper raises a number of interesting issues such as whether retailers initially take divestment seriously and the degree to which this is actually possible during market entry. Originality/value – As called for in the literature, this study examines divestment in the broadest possible fashion, thus addressing a major gap in our understanding of the whole internationalisation process.
 
Article
Marketing and corporate risk-taking are always included as elements of industrial competitiveness and yet discussions of industrial policy are strangely silent on these important determinants of firm performance. The inability of Japanese industrial policy to develop these skills has been an important factor in determining the competitive position of the Japanese commercial airplane manufacturing industry. In this industry where domestic demand was not guaranteed, and where the Japanese competitors were not prepared to assume the risk-taking position common to successful foreign competitors, Japanese industrial policy was unable to match its earlier success in basic industries.
 
Article
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published [following peer-review] in International Marketing Review, published by and copyright Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. It is reasonable to assume that a sense of timelessness and placelessness is particularly likely to be experienced by travelers in transit, involved in international travel between distant places with different time zones. Therefore an examination of the environment in airport departure lounges might be expected to offer an insight into the post-modern environment in which time and place are beginning to lose meaning. Retailers have a significant role to play in the creation and shaping of such environments. The research described in this article was conducted in pursuit of the following aim: to investigate airport departure lounges as environments in which timelessness and placelessness might be exhibited. This environment is analysed in terms of: servicescape and ambience; the range of retail outlets and their product ranges; marketing messages and communication; and, the customer experience. A level of sameness is uncovered, but there are also national and cultural dimensions which invade the experience. This creates a softened, but not entirely absent sense of place and time.
 
Article
This article tests a number of channel behaviour hypotheses in a unique structural arrangement – the joint venture. The results indicate that goal disparity is a significant predictor of conflict and that perceived conflict is related to member satisfaction, manifest conflict, and desire for change. Managerial and theoretical implications are discussed.
 
Article
Describes an effort to explore the relationship between objective measures of product quality and country of origin. Consumers Union ratings of automobile maintenance performance are used as objective quality measures. Effects were examined when considering three different functions: location of headquarters, origin of parts and place of assembly. Price-quality relationships were estimated and compared. Finally, a subjective measure of automobiles (owner satisfaction) was compared with the objective measure, across all cases and by country of origin. Results revealed objective quality comparisons differed. Both the price-objective quality relationships and differences in objective versus subjective quality ratings varied between foreign and US vehicles. Examining the objective quality – country of origin relationship via different country of origin measures offers marketers insight in understanding the basis for apparent preferences found in some perceptual studies.
 
Article
Although instability characterises export channels, little research has examined the interfirm evaluations that are related to a manufacturer's continued use of export middlemen. In this research, a manufacturer's evaluations of its international intermediary are divided into performance, dependence, and importance dimensions. Theoretical and empirical literatures are used to frame hypotheses linking each evaluative dimension to an aspect of the manufacturer's channel design strategy. The results show that manufacturers' evaluations of their middlemen are systematically related to the economic and organisational strategies used by manufacturers. The discussion draws important implications for managing the indirect export channel.
 
Article
Traditional North American supplier-manufacturer behaviour functions on a channel control model with a competitive bid posture dominating the relationship. The arrival of Japanese manufacturing subsidiaries in North America and Europe, however, is forcing suppliers to reconsider previous decision rides in dealing with manufacturers within a more cooperative mode because of the unique Japanese processes. The focus here is on comparing organisational buyer behaviour in North America and Japan. As North American firms become suppliers to the Japanese, knowledge of this behaviour becomes increasingly important. Implications are presented for understanding Japanese influences in the organisational buying process through utilising a generalised model from the marketing literature. In addition, a framework for examining the participation and coping behaviour of North American firms is presented.
 
Article
The instability of the relationships which Export Management Companies have with their Manufacturer-Suppliers is, perhaps, the most pressing problem which the EMCs have in their long-term development as viable export marketing channel entities. Three different variables were empirically tested as possibly affecting the stability of EMC/M-S relationships: (1) the “operating arrangement” which the EMC has with the M-S; (2) whether or not the EMC “takes title” to products which it markets abroad; and (3) the size of a given M-S's export sales generated by the EMC. All three variables were shown to affect the stability of the EMC/M-S dyadic relationship.
 
Article
Twenty-eight importers from the five “dragons” in Asia (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong) were interviewed about their problems in doing business with American manufacturers, and their suggestions for increasing future imports from the United States. Findings are presented in a marketing framework: product, price, distribution, promotion, regulations and interactions. Overall, American firms were perceived to apply the selling concept, to use short-term planning, and to provide little support to their Asian agents. By contrast, Japanese and European firms used the marketing concept, did long-range planning, and provided substantially more promotional assistance.
 
Article
Reports a survey of 352 Canadian exporters regarding their use of intermediaries in exporting endeavours. Contrasts results with results obtained from other studies involving 394 American exporters. Tests hypotheses regarding the effect of product type, export sales volume and national exporting infrastructure differences on the various export services performed. Prior studies of American intermediaries showed a near inverse relationship between the perceived importance of specific export services and the intermediaries' level of performance of these services. Canadian exporters, however, feel that their intermediaries are meeting their exporting needs much more effectively.
 
Article
Debt-equity swaps are currently very popular instruments to reduce debt obligations by developing countries. American trading companies can now be formed with equity participation of US banks and can be exempt from routine anti-trust legislation as a result of recent legislation. This article suggests that debt-equity swaps can prove to be a powerful tool for enhancing the formation of new American trading companies and, in the case of existing ones, add to their ability to establish a presence in foreign markets.
 
Article
Cultural factors have tremendous impact on cross-national communication, and it is in the area of cross-cultural communications that most blunders in international marketing occur. Using Hofstede's four discussions of culture, this article provides a generalisable framework to assess the effectiveness of cross-cultural communication. The application of the proposed framework has been demonstrated in the context of promoting international tourism.
 
Article
Effective international marketing requires collection of large amounts of data from diverse sources and sensitive use of such information in marketing strategy. While marketing information systems help managers incorporate some kinds of data into their planning, content analysis offers a different set of insights into cultural concepts, themes and trends not usually captured by traditional data systems. Content analysis has evolved as a research technique since the 1920s, largely in social science applications. Today, aided by new analytical techniques and optical scanners, which can read huge volumes of material inexpensively; and state-of-the-art computer software, which can handle languages such as Chinese, Japanese, and Arabic, content analysis has great promise for international marketing applications.
 
Article
Purpose – There has been growing interest in studying the internationalisation of small and medium-sized high-technology firms. This literature tends to equate “internationalisation” with the “internationalisation of sales”. Yet sales are not the only international activity of high-tech firms. High-tech firms need resources and not just markets. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of this resource dimension of the international behaviour of high-tech firms. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical basis for the study lies in a multiple case study of six high-tech small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The authors selected two firms from each of three high-tech industries: biotechnology (specifically drug development), renewable energy and ICT. The key decision makers in each firms were then interviewed in depth. Findings – The authors show that for the case firms in the study, internationalisation can take the form of searching, prospecting or “scavenging” for resources. “Resource-seeking” behaviour occurs because the SMEs do not own, control or have access to sufficient resources to bring their technology to market on their own. The pattern of internationalisation that results from resource scavenging is different to that of traditional “market-seeking” internationalisation. Originality/value – This paper provides evidence of how the resource-acquisition behaviour of high-tech SMEs can be an important element of their internationalisation. Yet existing literature has focused almost exclusively on the market-seeking internationalisation of these firms.
 
Article
Delays in product rollout can pose significant problems for international companies seeking to introduce new products across many countries. Although past research has identified several key drivers of international product rollout delays, our understanding of the interrelationships among external environmental, internal organizational, new product project and product-specific factors remains limited. In spite of the critical importance of new products in sustaining firms’ competitiveness in both domestic and international markets, research into the antecedents of product rollout timeliness have, to date, been under-explored. Here, poses a conceptual model that captures the antecedents of international new product rollout timeliness. The model explains the external and internal environmental drivers, the potential relationships among these, and impacts on rollout time efficiencies. Draws attention to the need for more research into what is considered a highly complex and challenging business activity – the management of new product development and launch in international markets.
 
Top-cited authors
Jan Johanson
  • Uppsala University
Jan-Erik Vahlne
  • University of Gothenburg
Naresh Malhotra
  • Georgia Institute of Technology
Shaoming Zou
  • University of Missouri
Christian M. Ringle
  • Technische Universität Hamburg