International Journal of Yoga & Allied Sciences

Publications
Bacterial mastitis is the most common variety of mastitis and is often caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Chronic mastitis is usually caused by tuberculosis, syphilis and Mondor′s disease. A 33-year-old female presented with lump in the right breast for the past two years with pain for the past 15 days and discharge for the past two to three days. There was no history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, bronchial asthma and tuberculosis. On examination, the lump measured approximately 9×5 cm in size with a discharging sinus just lateral to the areola. No regional lymphadenopathy was noticed. A clinical diagnosis of "Lump in the right breast with sinus probably due to tuberculosis was made. The lump was excised and per-operative sample grew Salmonella paratyphi A in culture. She responded to Ceftriaxone and unnecessary use of anti-tubercular drugs could be avoided. In chronic mastitis and breast abscess Salmonella species should be considered as one of the etiological agents.
 
Today humankind is on the threshold of an epoch changing transition. There will be a global sea-change and development in human consciousness. For the course, refine intellect along with imaginative mind will make the pledges. Thoughts are Siamese with intelligence and mind. Thoughts, capable of rising and dissolving are resolved into the form of according demaneour. Thoughts decrypted at casual level in the form of feeling and emotions accumulate as the encultrations. Inculcation and practice of good virtues ease present and accumulate the merits and salvations for future. Through his literature and Akhand Jyoti Magazine Pandit Shreeram Sharma Acharya drifted the hymns of Summombonum to this era. His deep meditation and thoughts are the highest and spiritual truths of his ceaseless life experiments. Due to his breadth and scope of spiritual insight and due to his understand dedication towards sagacity, Pandit Shree Ram Sharma Acharya compiled the impartial interpretation of science and spirituality for contemporary scientific world. Technologies of today, present era are the miraculous gift of human intelligence. It has become unfortunate for mankind being compassionless as the same technologies are looming as the anesthesia over intellect. Spirituality is the only infallible medium to refine the human cognition. It is thus, through the creativity and literacy messenger, Pandit Shree Ram Sharma Acharya presented his spiritual contemplation vis-à-vis logical positivism.
 
Quad Copter Module
The main crux of this paper is to identify the leakage of hazardous or toxic gases in the critical areas like terrain, typically underground, in which sewage is collected and allowed to decompose through bacterial activity before draining by means of factories. The integrated system has versatile gas detector and the compact automated drone which assists in carrying the gas detection system. The Automated drone facility is used to hover around the terrain where the gases are dense and based on the value recorded the drone sends the data to the ground station and starts up the alert. Carbon Monoxide, Smoke sensor are used for the case study. In addition the temperature of the surrounding environment is also measured using a temperature sensor and the whole set of values are updated. ZIGBEE technology is used for wireless communication between transmitter and receiver, which can cover a region of diameter around 1 to 3 kilometers. The system is built around digital Microcontroller system to control the drone and the gas indicators. The drone uses effective collision avoidance and this unmanned vehicle carries the gas detector module. Array algorithm is used to store more than 40 sensor values and able to retrieve and send the sensor values.
 
The main crux of this paper is to identify the leakage of hazardous or toxic gases in the critical areas like terrain, typically underground, in which sewage is collected and allowed to decompose through bacterial activity before draining by means of factories. The integrated system has versatile gas detector and the compact automated drone which assists in carrying the gas detection system. The Automated drone facility is used to hover around the terrain where the gases are dense and based on the value recorded the drone sends the data to the ground station and starts up the alert. Carbon Monoxide, Smoke sensor are used for the case study. In addition the temperature of the surrounding environment is also measured using a temperature sensor and the whole set of values are updated. ZIGBEE technology is used for wireless communication between transmitter and receiver, which can cover a region of diameter around 1 to 3 kilometers. The system is built around digital Microcontroller system to control the drone and the gas indicators. The drone uses effective collision avoidance and this unmanned vehicle carries the gas detector module. Array algorithm is used to store more than 40 sensor values and able to retrieve and send the sensor values.
 
The Overall goal of this study is to understand the role of Yoga into Inter-personal Relationship and to find the mechanism to develop it through Yogic practices. First part of the study is based on the science ofYoga and its background. Yoga-psychologyand its principles have been observed in this part of study. The study in the next part goes through the systematic review in the field of inter-personal relationship and personality developments. Number of studies has been done in this area, while going through the review, a tremendous surge of interest in the problem of inter-personal relationship has been seen. To observe the effect of Yogic practices and Yoga based lifestyle, a study has been conducted at Centre of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya for one semester (approximately six months). A group of 100 Post graduation students were selected through random sampling for a pre-post research study. Among them 90 student completed the study successfully. They were practicing Asana, Pranayama, Meditation, regularly and Shatkarma once in a week according to the prescribed syllabus of the University. At the same time they also followed the prescribed schedule of the University as their lifestyle and a vegetarian Diet (without onion-garlic). A standard questionnaire of social adjustment was applied to measure their social adjustment level among them. The finding of the study shows a significant change in their social adjustment level. It is always being subject to modification in the light of further observation. This is the nature of the method. But it can be concluded that yogic practices and yoga based lifestyle can change the behavior as well as the interpersonal relationship.
 
Graphical representation
result table
yogic intervention
The present study was designed ‘To study the effect of yoga Practices on Adjustment level of Blind student.’ Pre-test post-test single group design was used. Samples were collected through accidental sampling. The sample consists of 30 subjects in the range of 14 to 17 years and selected from Blind school in Raipur (Chhattisgarh). Practice time for Yoga intervention was 50 minutes and the duration was 90 days. Adjustment was measured by ‘Adjustment inventory for school student’. The obtained values of t-test for Adjustment are significant at 0.01 level of confidence. The result of this study shows that yogic practices are significantly effective to improve the level of Adjustment of blind student.
 
Exercise or physical activity is essential for a healthy life. It is considered good for everybody of all age groups due to its beneficial effects. Similarly it applies for pregnancy too. In India pregnancy is generally considered to be a period where the mother is advised to be less active and rarely gets involved in any physical activity like exercises. Being physically active during pregnancy is beneficial and its effects are both short term and long term eventually leading to a healthy body and better life. It is important to care for the expecting mother during this special phase of life but making her sedentary and less physically active is not the solution. Pregnancy is not a disease. It is a special time in any woman’s life which should be enjoyed and cherished for life. Even women who are not physically active earlier could be encouraged to be physically active by positive behavioral intervention during this period. During this time even an expecting mother is more willing to adapt to a healthy lifestyle for the sake of her baby. Therefore it is of utmost importance to know ‘How’ and ‘Why’ to exercise during this phase of life. Exercises during this period need to be done with utmost caution. Most preferably under the guidance of an exercise expert specializing in this field so that any unwanted harm to the mother or the fetus could be avoided.
 
Exercise or physical activity is essential for a healthy life. It is considered good for everybody of all age groups due to its beneficial effects. Similarly it applies for pregnancy too. In India pregnancy is generally considered to be a period where the mother is advised to be less active and rarely gets involved in any physical activity like exercises. Being physically active during pregnancy is beneficial and its effects are both short term and long term eventually leading to a healthy body and better life. It is important to care for the expecting mother during this special phase of life but making her sedentary and less physically active is not the solution. Pregnancy is not a disease. It is a special time in any woman’s life which should be enjoyed and cherished for life. Even women who are not physically active earlier could be encouraged to be physically active by positive behavioral intervention during this period. During this time even an expecting mother is more willing to adapt to a healthy lifestyle for the sake of her baby. Therefore it is of utmost importance to know ‘How’ and ‘Why’ to exercise during this phase of life. Exercises during this period need to be done with utmost caution. Most preferably under the guidance of an exercise expert specializing in this field so that any unwanted harm to the mother or the fetus could be avoided.
 
Increasing aggressiveness in adolescents and youth throughout the world has become a global public health issueinvolving huge psychological, social and economic costs. High aggressiveness in children has been observed very often to develop into conduct disorders, antisocial activities, and juvenile delinquency. Therefore, it is important to identify children with tendencies of high aggressiveness at an early age and todevelop cost-effective preventive strategies, which can be implemented on a large-scale. Our previous pilot studies on primary school children in a model municipal school in New Delhi showed a significant reduction in aggressiveness after administration of a yoga-preksha-dhyan ((YPD) intervention module, specially developed for children (Jain et al., 2014). We have, therefore, undertaken further investigations on larger number of subjects from multiple schools to assess reproducibility and generalizability. The present study was conducted on 2080 elementary school students of IIIrd to Vth class (Age; 7-14 years, average 9.3+1.7yrs) from 5 South Delhi Municipal Corporation schools. 330 highly aggressive students (Boys: 181; Girls: 149) were identified on the basis of scores obtained using a validated and reliable Self-Report Questionnaire which also distinguishes proactive aggression (PA) from reactive aggression (RA). Themulti-modal YPD moduleconsisting of asanas, pranayama andpreksha-dhyan components, was administered to students with high Overall aggressiveness Scores (OA-Score) for 36 sessions (45 minutes/session, 3 days/week). Aggressiveness was assessed by the self-report questionnaire pre and post-YPD intervention. The results show that, after the intervention theOA-, PA-and RA-Scores of students reduced considerably. The average pre-YPD OA-Scores (44.26+6.5) decreasedto OA-Score (30.40+8.3) post-YPD, which is statistically highly significant (p-value = 0.001). The results are in agreement with our previous pilot study, confirming that YPD practicecould be a cost-effective preventive intervention against the development of conduct disorders, antisocial behaviors and violent crimes. Since it is relatively easy to implement, the introduction of YPD program on large scale in schools, could lead to a more peaceful society in future. Further research is therefore warranted.
 
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the main life threatening medical conditions usually seen in chronic alcoholics. Complete abstinence from alcohol and following proper nutritional guidelines is the cornerstone in the therapy. Conventional medicine is widely used for this condition mainly; however side effects of medications and challenges in cure are formidable. Liver transplantation has been shown to be effective for end stage ALD with Cirrhosis. In Conventional Medicine, abstinence from alcohol is the mainstay of treatment for this condition, but nutritional therapy, which emphasizes on reducing oxidative stress, may be beneficial. Also, certain dietary factors, fasting therapy, hydrotherapic treatments, massage therapy and yoga may enhance the liver function. Hence the importance of naturopathy and yoga has to be highlighted in the management of ALD. Here in this single case study, effectiveness of naturopathy and yogic intervention in treating ALD has been shown to be effective without any side effects.
 
Outcome variables at base line and after 7 days -Inter Group Difference 
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the main life threatening medical conditions usually seen in chronic alcoholics. Complete abstinence from alcohol and following proper nutritional guidelines is the cornerstone in the therapy. Conventional medicine is widely used for this condition mainly; however side effects of medications and challenges in cure are formidable. Liver transplantation has been shown to be effective for end stage ALD with Cirrhosis. In Conventional Medicine, abstinence from alcohol is the mainstay of treatment for this condition, but nutritional therapy, which emphasizes on reducing oxidative stress, may be beneficial. Also, certain dietary factors, fasting therapy, hydrotherapic treatments, massage therapy and yoga may enhance the liver function. Hence the importance of naturopathy and yoga has to be highlighted in the management of ALD. Here in this single case study, effectiveness of naturopathy and yogic intervention in treating ALD has been shown to be effective without any side effects. Keywords: alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, diagnosis, treatment, yoga and naturopathy, diet and nutrition.
 
Abstract: Introduction: According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, mental illness is characterized by alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with distress and impaired function.[1] It could refer to one or more mental disorders at a time. Mental illness is a global public health concern. According to the World Health Organization, one out of four (25%) persons is affected with some kind of mental illness.[2] The prevalence of mental disorders is higher in developed countries, but the global burden of untreated mental disease is higher in developing nations.[2,3] Eighty percent (80%) of the population suffering with mental illness lives in low-and middle-income (LAMI) countries.[2,4,5] The presence of mental illness does not affects only the individual and his personal, social, educational and occupational life, but it also makes his entire family to suffer from negative consequences.[6,7] Aim: The purpose of this study is “To assess the efficacy of group consciousness on alpha E.E.G. brain waves ”. Method: For this study we had selected randomly 50 Sanskrit students with age ranging between 18 to 26 years of age. Practicing 51 minute/ day yogic intervention particularly and only those students were considered who were willing to participate in such type of practices. The students are male and almost equal in the term of education, mental status, socio economic status and types of work. Then at the initiation of practice 0th day pre data was collected by team on mental activity by Neurosky mind wave mobile apparatus and at the end of session on 45th day of intervention post data was taken. Result: According to obtained data we found that there was statistically significant difference at 0.01 levels between pre and post conditions in the level of alpha E.E.G. of the adults. This reveals the effectiveness of group yoga practices/ group consciousness in enhancement of mental activity and the state of meditation in special reference of adults. Conclusion: finally we can firmly state that group consciousness can play a efficient role in the enhancement of positive mental activity and state of meditation as well in the adults. Keywords: Alpha E.E.G., Mental activity, Group consciousness
 
In the most ancient Indian texts, in the Rigveda, one of the hymns famously known as ‘nasadiyasuktham’ says when there was neither existence nor nonexistence what existed? In profound depths what existed at the beginning from which everything else has emerged. Answers to these questions were found, in the most ancient times. In the Vedas and Upanishads, these answers are found. But the questions are asked again and again and answers are restated. It is the wisdom of the ancient philosophers but now stated in the language of modern scientists. As far as the macrocosm (the universe) concerns the ancients are contributed a lot, now our understanding is much deeper with modern physics and cosmology. As far as the microcosm (mind & consciousness) concerns Vedanta and other Indian systems of Philosophy have very valid and deep insights. This is much more than modern understanding given by consciousness studies. Modern science has an edge over ancient wisdom in describing the universe with the help of physics, chemistry and describes the body with the help of biology and physiology. But closer and closer it comes to ourselves; the ancient wisdom is better than modern science. A grand synthesis and profound understanding of Indian Ancient philosophy on macrocosm & microcosm, root cause of human suffering, ancient wisdom to remove suffering, “Law of Karma” and its implications are presented in detail in this article.
 
Introduction: Young people take up yoga for flexibility, stress relief, overall health and physical fitness. Health professionals consider yoga for skeletal symptoms, followed by psychological and physical ailments. Exposure to yoga will not only help medicos to become better practitioners of yoga, but also influence them to refer their future patients to yoga as a therapeutic modality. Methodology: This observational study done at NRI Medical College, Guntur involved 260 medical students. There were 150 students from 7th semester (53 males and 95 females) and 110 from the 3rd semester (42 males and 68 females). A pretested questionnaire was administered to all the participants on knowledge attitude and practices related to yoga. The data collected was entered in MS Excel and presented in tables and graphs. Significant results were subjected to tests of significance like Chi square test at 5% level of significance. Results: Only 9.5% of the men and 22.4% of the women students were currently practicing Yoga (p 0.008). Reasons for not taking up yoga were mainly lack of interest (32.7%), laziness (24.2%) and poor time management (21.6%). Majority agreed that yoga could cure lifestyle diseases like obesity, hypertension, diabetes and mental illnesses like depression and sleep disorders in addition to orthopedic (9.6%) and respiratory problems (13.8%). 75% wanted yoga to be included in the curriculum. 12.5% agreed that patients may be referred to yoga as a treatment modality. Discussion: Only a small number of students are practicing yoga though many felt it was necessary. The reasons for not taking up yoga show poor student motivation. While students agree that yoga can cure and that it should be included in the curriculum, they were hesitant to refer patients to yoga. Conclusion: Students have a positive outlook towards yoga but need motivation. A favorable atmosphere must be created for the regular practice of yoga. Experiencing its goodness will prepare medical students to encourage future patients to also avail the benefits of Yoga.
 
Sahaja generally means spontaneous. It also refers to something which is present since birth. Yoga means 'union' (with the all Pervading power). Sahaja yoga meditation helps us to achieve that union with all its Pervading spiritual power. Sahaja yoga was started by Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi in 1970. Shri Mataji developed a unique technique to awaken the subtle spiritual energy (kundalini) which lies dormant at the level of sacrum bone situated at the base of our spine. The gentle awakening of this kundalini, which is also known as self-realization is the beginning of inner journey of self-discovery resulting in peaceful meditation leading to joyful life.
 
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disorder affecting about 300 million people worldwide. As a holistic therapy yoga has the potential to relieve both the physical and psychological suffering of people with asthma, and its popularity has expanded globally. A number of clinical trials have been carried out to evaluate the Effects of yoga practice, with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of yoga in people with asthma.
 
Hypothyroidism in association with obesity, the most common endocrine disorders among females in urban areas. The objective is to find out the effect of yoga intervention on hypothyroidism linked with obesity among working women leading sedentary lifestyles in urban areas. Further to assess the recovery through yoga practice in addition to diet follow up treated as safe, very low cost, natural therapy. Total 150 obese women had a history of hypothyroidism within the age group 30-50 years located in eastern parts of West Bengal.
 
In the last century, Yoga has developed in various directions and dimensions under the guidance of many eminent masters. These masters have codified their own Bani (styles) of Yoga that are often at variance with one another but all of them still maintain the traditional lineage to Yoga Vidya or the Science of Yoga. The term "unity in diversity" is apt for these developments ad though on the surface the different traditions or Banis may appear to be even contradictory, they all ultimately lead to the same goal of spiritual union though in diverse paths. Major developments in recent times have been the extensive research done in the field of Yoga as well as the transformation of Yoga education from the Gurukula and Ashram settings to the college and university oriented Yoga. This essay is a humble attempt to summarize the various developments that have taken place in the last century with reference to the Indian geographical context.
 
Cancer is one of the ten leading causes of mortality in India. The incidence of detection of new cases of cancer is estimated to be more than seven lacks per year. There are so many side effect and toxicities of its. People are increasingly using complementary and alternative therapies and medicines for cancer care. The use of yoga as a complimentary and alternative therapy is very beneficial for cancer patient. Most of the studies and pubmed datas reported that yoga improved the Physical and Psychological symptoms, Quality of life, Immunity of cancer patients. Yoga decreases the side effects of cancer medicines like as anxiety, stress, insomnia etc. This review article presents the published clinical research on the prevalence of yoga’s use in cancer patients, so that oncologists, researchers and the patients are aware of the evidence supporting the use of this relatively safe modality in cancer care.
 
Performance on DST at pre-and post-tests. Bars represent standard error.
Performance on SST at pre-and post-tests. Bars represent standard error.
The positive influence of mediation on working memory is reported in empirical researches. The differentiation is not underlined for meditators ranging from novice to advanced and for specific type of meditation. The present study examines the effect of Surat-Shabd-Yoga meditation (which is practiced sequentially in three stages) on visuo-spatial and verbal working memory for novice, intermediate an advanced meditators. The participants were studied for (i) spatial span task which required subjects to temporarily hold and manipulate spatial and movement information displayed on screen and (ii) digit span task which required visual inputs to be recoded so that they can enter the short term verbal store. The automated tasks were administered on participants before and after meditation. The results indicate that all three strata and controls performed same at the baseline level. After the practice of meditation for a period of 20 weeks, the experimental group demonstrated an increase in performance on visuo-spatial and verbal working memory with variation in gain in the three groups. The increase in verbal working memory was significant at all three stages of meditation. The gain in visuo-spatial working memory was significant at third stage of meditation No significant difference in performance of controls was found. The results are discussed in the light of association of different components of working memory with different stages of meditation
 
Background and Objectives: Regular physical activity has multiple benefits. However, modern children often lead less active lives, resulting in obesity. In order to improve their physical fitness yoga is used since it improves flexibility, muscle strength, posture and increases joint space in a natural and indigenous way. Many literatures have found yoga to be effective qualitatively but this study recorded the qualitative and quantitative aspects of yoga using Kinanthropometry. Methodology: Study Design: Non-Randomized clinical trial Study Period: Two months-Non-yoga group 30 children-Yoga group Selection criteria: • Age group: 10-11 • Children free from illness and not under yogic practice The selected Kinanthropometric parameters were measured on both groups before study initiation. Study group children performed lower limb specific yoga asanas under the guidance of yoga practitioner daily. Measurements were taken at the end of every week during the project period on both groups. These results were statistically analysed. Results: Yogic intervention qualitatively and quantitatively showed significant decrease in BMI and skin fold thickness and increase in flexibility. Flexibility parameters were not significant, skin fold and BMI increased in non-yoga group. Findings of many studies are in accordance with this study findings are mentioned in discussion. Conclusion: From this study, there is positive impact on children after yogic intervention qualitatively and quantitatively in just 2 months and if continued for longer time one could achieve physical fitness with yogic exercises.
 
Clusters Formed in UWSN using RFD
Initial Deployment of Sensor Nodes
The unprecedented growth of the computing science has also its own pros and cons. Though the automated devices can perform and organise themselves, we need a coordinator to monitor the changes in the process that drive them. The device which predicts or identifies the changes in the usual behaviour is called a sensor node. The network formed deploying such nodes is called a sensor network, mostly wireless. We consider a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) laid under water in the ocean for monitoring the wave currents and various calamatic changes. In this paper we propose a clustering technique based on the heuristics approach River Formation Dynamics (RFD) to arrange a cluster like model among the wireless sensor nodes under water. The clustering helps in alleviating the performance of the sensor nodes by forming a strong unity among themselves. The work claims to increase the stability of the nodes, reduce the energy exhaustion ratio and the overall communication overhead. The experimental results of the work is presented and compared with the existing methods which shows that clustering using RFD performs better than other techniques.
 
Most common positive life skills questions in all the students (both yoga practice and not)
Lowest ascribed life skills questions -Overall students (both yoga practice and not)
Introduction: While young people in today's world need a skill set to pursue a meaningful career, they also need a set of psychosocial skills to do well in society. Life skills are psychosocial competencies which allow people to recognize and process emotions and handle everyday issues. The key life skills identified by the WHO are decision-making, creative thinking, critical thinking, communication, interpersonal skills, self-awareness, empathy, resilience and coping with emotions and stress. The OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) has suggested three "transformative competencies"; Creating new value, Reconciling tensions and dilemmas, and Taking responsibility. Yoga not only enhances physical stamina and flexibility but also emotional stability, intellectual and creative talents. This study looks at the attainment of life skills and transformative competencies in medical students practicing yoga regularly. Objectives: To identify the core life skills required to help medical students cope with their societal needs and obligations. To document changes in thought processes brought about by the regular practice of yoga Methods: This study was taken up in the NRI Medical College of Guntur district in the months of October and November 2019 involving 81 female medical students from 6 th to 9 th Semesters. A pretested life skills based questionnaire was administered individually after taking an informed consent. Data was entered in MS Excel and presented as percentages in tables. Important findings were subjected to test of significance like Chi square test at 5% Level of Significance. Results: 45.7% of the study subjects were regularly practicing yoga. Overall, interpersonal relationship (84.0%), effective communication (74.1%) and empathy (74.1%) were skills that all the girls acknowledged as having. Agreement in skills like critical thinking (59.3%), creative thinking (70.4%), decision making (67.9%), problem solving (61.7%) and coping with emotions (65.4%) were however lower. Discussion: While many students could not affirm having many core life skills, students practicing yoga regularly, had a more positive outlook. Classifying core life skills arbitrarily under the above three transformative competencies, it is seen that the domain of "creating new value" comprising creative thinking, critical thinking and problem solving are areas which need more inputs in young people. Conclusion: Practicing yoga consistently instills important life skills. Technical and other institutions need to include yoga practice in the curriculum in order to equip students for transformational competencies which will help them to cope with the future.
 
Previous studies have reported the effects of instrumental music on different psycho-physiological parameters. The present study aimed to assess the effect of instrumental music on emotional competency in healthy adults. There were 12 participants ages ranged between 18 and 22 years and the group mean ages were 19.58 ± 1.31 years. All the participants were studying in a university located in the north India. The participants were assessed using a reliable and valid Emotional Competency Scale. After assessments, the participants listened instrumental music {fusion of Indian and western music i.e. Tabla, Violin, Santoor, Flute and Drum}, 15 minutes daily for twenty days. Assessments were made before and after 20 days of the intervention. Data were analyzed using t-test. This was a one group pretest – posttest designed study. After 20 days, the group showed a significant increase in the level of emotional competency (p<0.01). So, it can be concluded that regular listening of instrumental music can significantly improve the level of emotional competency in the normal adults.
 
Outcome variables at base line and after 7 days -Inter Group Difference 
Background and aim: Calorie restrictionhas been shown to be beneficial oncardiovascular risk factors,glucose regulatory function, weight reduction and reduction in oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to find the role of Naturopathic based fasting therapy on Liver enzymes, Fasting blood glucose, weight and perceived stress among healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Healthy subjects were screened and recruited from the students of SDM College of Naturopathy and Yogic Sciences, Ujire. Subjects were randomized into either of two groups, fasting therapy group (n=30) and control/routine diet group (n=30) after taking written informed consent. Subjects aged between 18 and 23 years, fasting naïve for at least past 6 months were included in the study. Fasting therapy group underwent fasting therapy for 7 days with minimal activities and control group had no change in their dietary pattern and other activities for the same duration. All the subjects in fasting therapy and control group were assessed by the Naturopathy and Yoga Physician at the baseline and after 7 days with Body weight, Liver enzymes, Fasting blood glucose, weight and perceived stress. Results: There was a significant reduction in weight, Chlorine and SGPT,with fasting therapy group observing a higher reduction than the routine dietary pattern group. In contrast to this, alkaline phosphatase levels rose after fasting therapy than the routine dietary pattern. Conclusion: The findings support that naturopathic based fasting therapy is useful for enhancing liver function and reducing weight among healthy individuals. Key words: naturopathy, fasting therapy, liver enzymes, electrolytes
 
Contemporary researches done in the area of ‘Yogic intervention and their effect over various parameters of Psychological health’ provoked the researcher to attempt an individual project to judge the effect of Yoga on the people working in corporate sector at the level of Distress. To observe the effect of Yoga on Distress level of the corporate people a Pre-Post research design study has been conducted at the Yoga Arogya Polyclinic of Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, India. For this study a group of 50 persons of range 30 – 40 years from the SIDKUL, Industrial area of Haridwar Districts were selected through purposive sampling as subject. They practiced a set of Asana and Pranayama regularly for sixty days. The present study shows a significant change on the Distress level of the corporate persons as the result of Yoga practice. The results observations are: t=11.25, p < 0.0025. At the end it can be concluded that Yoga practice having a positive impact over the Distress level of the corporate persons. Key words: Distress, Asana and Pranayama
 
intervention schedule for research
Difference between Pre and Post conditions
Result table
Surya Namaskara Asana
Background: According to the American Heart Association, an estimated 112,000 people die every year from conditions related to being overweight or obese. Even losing a moderate amount of weight when someone is obese 5 to 10 percent can significantly reduce the risk for chronic disease. With the background that a number of studies being conducted to observe the effect of complementary therapies to reduce body weight, the present study aimed to find the impact of kunjal kriya Practices on body weight of the normal Human subjects. Methods: Forty five subject were taken as experimental group from urban area of Haridwar region. The subjects were a heterogeneous group having Obesity and joints problem but otherwise healthy and were voluntarily wanted to join Yoga session for general physical mental wellbeing. In this pre-post research study a package of kunjal kriya were introduced to them. The volunteers practiced for 30 days except Sunday. Results: The impact of the practice of Hatha Yogic techniques showed a significant reduction on their body weight. Conclusion: The study reveals that the practice of kunjal kriya can helps the people suffering from obesity and obese. So finally it can be concluded that the practice of kunjal kriya can helps to manage obesity in corporate world.
 
Researchers have shown a great interest in empirical studies, review and meta-analysis publications on yoga from the last few years. This paper aims to review and simplify some of the common research designs that can be implemented in yoga as a practice, yoga for physical fitness and health function. Most of the studies involve yoga and its effects on fitness, health and psychiatric and medical conditions. These include frustration, intelligence, stress, obesity, fitness components like strength, flexibility, blood pressure, low back pain, asthma, diabetes, balance so on and so forth. It is important to understand that whether such studies have followed a proper yoga protocol, are they experimental or quasi-experimental designs or not. Whether there was control groups involved or not etc. As on date it is found that more randomized controlled studies are needed in which yoga is compared to active exercise groups. Physical and mental health benefits of yoga apart, it makes it ethically questionable to assign participants to inactive control groups. Shorter sessions need to be investigated for cost-effectiveness and for daily self practice or practice under controlled conditions by a qualified yoga instructor. It is important to understand that paper pencil tests that are implemented may not be much reliable and understandable when they are used with rural population and children below 13 years of age. It is also pertinent to conduct productivity audit of studies so that the cost involved in studies can be justified and to decide upon the course of action with regard to research designs that are model best practices that can be replicated by future researchers in yoga.
 
The present study examined the physiological effect of Yogic intervention (Surya Namaskar, Paschimottanasana, Dhanurasana, Ardha matsyendrasana, Shavasana, Kapalbhati and Nadi Shodhan Pranayama) in Diabetes mellitus patients. Fifty patients suffering with mild and moderate Diabetes were selected from semi - urban areas by accidental sampling for a experimental-control group research study. The subjects in experimental group were exposed to Yogic package daily for half an hour for 40 days. Glucometer was used as the measure, and data collection was done individually in group and best attempts were made to avoid external distractions. The results of the study show that Yogic intervention was found to reduce (positively lower towards normal) the fasting serum glucose level and post-prandial serum glucose level in patients of Diabetes mellitus in the practice group.
 
Photomicrographs of viable control untreated mesenchymal stem cells (a-c) and cells treated with either NeoMTA Plus (d-f) or ProRoot-MTA (g-i) and incubated for 1, 3 and 7 days respectively. Magnification X20
MSCs viability after using the investigated root repair materials (Means ± standard deviation)
SEM photographs of control MSCs (a) and cells treated with either NeoMTA Plus (b) and ProRootMTA (c) showed no marked difference at day one. At the third and seventh days, compared with the control untreated MSCs (d and g), the cells treated with NeoMTA Plus (e and h) or ProRoot-MTA (f and i) showed differentiation into osteoblast-like cells with an active process.
The Alkaline phosphatase staining of control MSCs at day 1 (a) appeared nearly similar to that treated with NeoMTA Plus (b) and ProRoot-MTA (c). At day 3 and 7, the control untreated MSCs (d and g) showed lighter staining density than that treated with NeoMTA Plus (e and h) and ProRoot-MTA (f and i) ; respectively.
Gene expression of bone and osteogenesis genes (including BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin and osteocalcin) induced by NeoMTA Plus and ProRoot-MTA compared with control untreated MSCs.
Aim: To evaluate the osteogenic activity of NeoMTA Plus using rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Materials & Methods: Pre-seeded rat MSCs were cocultured with either NeoMTA Plus or ProRoot-MTA and incubated for 1, 3 and 7 days (6 well for each) .The cell growth, viability and proliferation were evaluated with light and scanning electron microscope. The specimens were also subjected to quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction for osteogenic gene expression. Results: After the treatment with either material, cell viability gradually increased by time, and the cells showed signs of differentiation into osteoblasts. ProRoot-MTA exhibited a significant higher mean value than NeoMTA plus after 7 days. At the third and seventh days, the cells treated with both materials exhibited deep alkaline phosphatase staining more than control untreated cells. Upregulation of osteogenic gene expression including bone morphogenetic-2, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin and osteocalcin was observed with both materials. Conclusion: Both NeoMTA Plus and ProRoot-MTA had osteogenic activity when used as pulp and endodontic repair material.
 
Day by day the changing lifestyle & dietary habits are generating a lots of diseases called as life style diseases. These are non communicable diseases. Statistics shows that these non communicable diseases are major factor responsible for death in recent decades. Now prior need to survive human life is indirectly focused on modification of life style. Yoga science is basically a health science. Modification of life style by imparting the Yoga definitely prevents the life style disorders. Yoga's primary emphasis is upon general well-being. Although yoga has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of conditions, it is not considered a therapy for specific illnesses. Yoga employs a broad holistic approach that focuses on educating people a new lifestyle, way of thinking, and way of being in the world. Critical analysis of different factors responsible for generating the different diseases are managed by practicing Ashtangyog with its eight limbs Yam, Niyam, Asan, Pranayam, Pratyahar, Dhyan, Dharna & Samadhi. Many of the healing effects of yoga are clinically verified. One of the most important benefits of yoga is that it is very useful in relieving stress, fatigue and improves vitality which is the basic need of preventing life style disorders.
 
Description of a Typical Yoga Session 
Change in life orientation /attitude, self-perceptions, and yoga over time
Context/Background: Interventions that include cognitive behavioral therapies, relaxation training, and social skills training have become accepted within prisons and jails. However, there is a need for further study to provide evidence that yoga is also an effective psychosocial rehabilitation intervention. Aims: The study purpose was to analyze whether yoga had any effects on incarcerated individuals' perceived stress levels, and self-efficacy in handling stressful and emotionally charged events. Methods and Material: A non-experimental pre-post design was applied, using six questionnaires to assess participant changes, after a three-month period of twice-weekly yoga. Results: Results suggested that yoga was an effective intervention strategy to increase optimism and perceived self-efficacy, and to decrease perceived stress and pessimism within the jail environment. Conclusions: Incarcerated individuals appear to benefit in meaningful ways from yoga intervention, as part of a therapeutic community. While recognizing that we were unable to control all potential variables that may have affected outcomes, one of the important attributes of this work is a demonstration of what is feasible within real-life jail settings to document the effectiveness of yoga participation, as well suggestions for future studies.
 
Yoga is an art of excellent living. The principles of Yoga help the practitioners to achieve higher aims of life. It is a lifestyle which regulates ones Thought – pattern, Character, and Behavior and it reflects into our attitude, personality and Designs. It is a total science of strengthening and improving the physical, mental, and spiritual state of being. The present study aims to focus on the aspect of Yoga which leads the aspirants excel in every aspect of life;whether it is related to the physical aspect, intellectual aspect or spiritual aspect. How and why the practice of Yoga makes changes in the lifestyle, in the behavior and transforms the individual in a positive direction. The first part of the study provides the basic information of Yogaand the other parts of the study discusses the Human Excellence. Post part of the study is the discussion about how the practice of Yoga excels our physical, mental and spiritual aspects of the practitioners. The overall study ends with the conclusion that practice of Yoga has an important role in human life as the individual practicing Yoga can achieve the excellence. Key words: Yoga, Perfection and Excellence
 
The dramatic worldwide increase in obesity has been called a global epidemic by the World Health Organization. Obesity occurs in all population groups in children and adults (men and women); Indigenous and non-Indigenous people; and people from all socio-economic backgrounds - but Indigenous peoples and people from low socio-economic backgrounds are most susceptible. Studies done in India and abroad radiate that Obesity is the root cause of several common lifestyle disorders. Women in working field having multiple chalange with their physical and mental health. Working in the office keeps the body in rest because of more mental activities and very less physical work they became more prone to gain the weight. The present study aims to observe the impact of Yogic intervention on the working women. To observe the effect of intervention a six week control group study was conducted on 100 participants (50 in experimental and 50 in control group). The study shows a significant difference in both the group after the intervention. Therefore it can be concluded that there is an impact of Yogic intervention on general body weight of women working in the offices.
 
The present study aims to elaborate the need and importance of yoga for holistic transformation of human being. Yoga works on one's mind, body and soul. Therefore, it is known as the universal art. If our mind, body and spirit are healthy, happy and harmonious, we can bring health and harmony to the society, nation and the globe. Yoga is universal in appeal and applicable to the world humanity irrespective of caste, creed, religion or nation. Today on global level we are witnessing several problems like terrorism, religious fanaticism, racial hatred, global warming etc. It is yoga which can give permanent solution to these global problems. There is the need of the moral, ethical and cultural refinement of the individual personality on a worldwide scale by spreading and practicing the ancient philosophy of yoga. The ancient philosophy of Yoga stated that one who practiced the limbs of Yoga patiently can bring a holistic change in their life and the society as well.
 
Hemoglobin is an essential component of blood, made up of protein that is carried by red blood cells in our body. It picks up oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to the peripheral tissues to maintain the viability of cells. Deficiency of hemoglobin may result as the silent killer in our body. A person suffering with anemia is a symptom of less hemoglobin in his body. Usually we observe the house wives with this problem at a mass level. Practice of Yoga is to be said a useful practice to improve hemoglobin in our body. This study was conducted to assess the effect of Yoga on blood hemoglobin. Fifty females serving their family as house wives voluntarily came out as subject for this study. Further they divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was introduced with Yoga practice for fifty days. Data was analyzed by t-test. The training of Yoga revealed that there is a significant improvement in blood hemoglobin in experimental group in comparison to control. Keywords: Asana, Pranayama, blood hemoglobin.
 
Holism has emerged as a major concern among scholars of different streams of knowledge to resolve key concerns related to human nature in a cohesive manner and to prop-up inter-disciplinarity among different streams of knowledge. However, there is lack of approaches which can provide understanding of issues and concerns of current society in a holistic manner. Against this backdrop, the present paper examines attributes of holism in the objective, process, and overall theoretical model as espoused in most famous treatise of Yoga-Yoga Sutra by famous Indian seer Rishi Patanjali.
 
Hypertension is an important and a common risqué factor for considerable morbidity and mortality not only in the industrialized world nut also in the developing countries. Thus, the problem of hypertension can be truly considered as pandemic. The present study aims at finding out the effect of yoga practice on hypertensive patients. Elevated blood pressure causes the heart to work harder than normal. This means both the heart and the arteries are more prone to injury. High blood pressure increases the risk of heart attacks, paralysis, and kidney failure, damage to the eyes, heart failure and atherosclerosis. The study conducted at Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar. Thirty patients suffering with mild hypertension were taken for the study and further devided into experimental and control group. Practice time was 45 minutes and the duration was 45 days.The result shows a significant change as yoga positively decreases the blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) in the practice group.
 
Immunity is the most relevant word to be discussed today. Now in the age of Corona pandemic when everyone knows that only a better immune system can protect you from this virus. However, it is quite relevant to discuss all its aspects including its importance and the techniques to boost it as well. Stress may be the largest factor in determining our immunity and illness. When we become stressed, our immune system becomes less able to protect us. The stress hormone, corticosteroid, decreases, even suppresses the immune system by lowering the number of lymphocytes (white blood cells needed to fight off disease) in our system. Studies conducted across the globe proves that Yogic relaxations techniques plays a vital role in increase the immunity. Yoga-nidra is probably best-known technique to induce complete physical mental and emotional relaxation. On the basis of such studies it can be concluded that Yoga-nidra having an important role in improving the immunity of the practitioners. Key-words: Yoga-nidra, Immunity, stress and Sleep.
 
Yoga Sutras compiled around 200 B.C. by Patanjali give the discipline of Yoga for a series of internal voluntary pariṇāmas or transformations towards 'Chitta Vritti Nirodha' or cessation of mental modifications. Pariṇāma (transformation) is the soul, the sum and substance of the sutras. The article explains both the internally disciplined and controlled pariṇāmas and the external uncontrolled Pariṇāmas. 11 sūtras which explicitly mention the word-pariṇāma were studied for an insight on their meaning and importance. An in-depth understanding of Pariṇāmas affecting bhutas and indriyas and the personal experience of internal Pariṇāmas affecting chitta is liberating. It shows the way to face the dukha, the vicissitudes, turmoil of the manifested world with viveka, internal courage, conviction and above all happiness.
 
Labor pain during pregnancy is totally different feeling for the pregnant women, whether they are pregnant for the first time or second or third. It is a time of increased vulnerability for the musculoskeletal system and urogenital dysfunction. This study investigates the impact of yogic package on labor pain. In this study, involved 40 primigravida, belonged to urban area of Chhattisgarh and purposively selected, then subjects randomly divided in two groups, control group and experimental group. The control group did not take any package. They were instructed to just walk in the morning for 10 minutes. To assess their general health, the researcher has communicating time to time to the subjects. Then the experimental group was divided into Subgroups so that all subjects can be accessed. Each group had taken the yogic practices for 6 days in a week. The intervention time was 45 minutes for yogic package, included asana, pranayama, om chanting and yoga nidra. Results findings that labor pain significantly decrease in experimental group than control group at .01 level of confidence. That means yogic package which consists of asana, pranayama, om chanting and yoga nidra are effective for reduce duration of labor pain of the subjects So it can be concluded that It will promote in different ways to create and spread awareness for yogic practices to the human society to achieve the desired goal i.e. Less labour pain. Yoga is safe during pregnancy and reduces the duration of labor pain through integrated yoga.
 
Working women in India are faced with lot more challenges than their counterparts in the other parts of the world. In India men do not share on most of the household chores, it is women who have to cook, clean the house, do the dishes, wash clothes, get their children ready for school etc. Men just took care of few chores that are to be dealt outside the house. So the major burden of running the family is on the shoulders of women. It was alright for women to handle all the chores as long as they were homemakers. Now with their increasing need for getting some income for the family, they have to work all the more harder. They have to take up a 9 to 5 job plus handle all the household chores that they handled as a homemaker. Men’s role has not changed much. Hence they are struggling with the occupational stress very commonly. Present study aimed to observe the effect of Yogic intervention at the Occupational Stress level among working women. The study conducted over 100 working women at Sidkul Industrial area of Haridwar. In this control group design study they were further divided in to two groups (50 experimental and 50 controls). A set of Asana Pranayama and Meditation technique was provided to the experimental group for 45 days and the level of occupational stress was administered through a standard questionnaire. The data was analyzed through appropriate statistical method. A significant change was found on the occupational stress level of experimental group, hence it can be concluded that practice of Yoga helps in managing the stress of working women.
 
Contemporary researches done in the area of ‘Yogic intervention and their effect over various parameters of Psychological health’ provoked the researcher to attempt an individual project to judge the effect of Yoga on normal people at the level of General Well Being. To observe the effect of Yoga on General Well Being level of the normal people a Control - group research design study has been conducted at the Yoga Arogya Polyclinic of Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, India. For this study a group of 80 persons of range 30 – 40 years from the semi urban area of Haridwar and Dehradun Districts were selected through purposive quota sampling as subject in practice group and 30 were in control group. They practiced a set of Asana and Pranayama regularly for sixty days. The present study shows a significant change on the General Well Being level of the normal persons as the result of yoga practice. The results are significant at 0.01 level of confidence. At the end it can be concluded that Yoga practice having a positive impact over the General Well Being level of the normal persons.
 
The psychological changes associated with yoga practice, allow yoga to be used in therapy and rehabilitation. In the present overview only the psychological aspects of rehabilitation have discussed. Applications have been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder as an add-on therapy, particularly towards evening when the effects of medication reduce. Another recent application is in promotion of healthy aging. Healthy older persons who practiced yoga had improved sleep, better gait and balance, and less chance of depression, compared to those who did not practice yoga. In mentally challenged persons yoga showed better motor coordination , general mental ability, social adjustment and improved central neural processing ability. Another application of yoga which has been studied is post-traumatic stress disorder for survivors of natural disasters, with studies cited about benefits observed in survivors of a tsunami and a flood. Apart from this, yoga therapy resulted in improved perceived quality of life in physical and psychological domains as well as improved postural stability in patients with schizophrenia. The evidence showed that yoga plays an important role to overcome drug addiction at both pre and post clinical stages and it helps individuals to decrease drug dependency and other associated problems. More recent studies have made it apparent that there is no evidence that yoga is beneficial for persons who are HIV positive or those with AIDS. Hence it is apparent that there are several diverse applications of yoga in rehabilitation. Considerable research is still required to verify claims made and understand mechanisms underlying benefits seen.
 
A person cannot stop his activity at any time even for a moment, because the entire humanity has been forced by the Nature to perform action, as it is mentioned in Bhagwadgita as well. Therefore it is obvious that there will be some right action or sometimes it may gone wrong. Karma is the expression of the rule of perfect justice within us. It is the law of the cosmos reflected in the microcosm. There is nothing arbitrary or punitive about it. It is universal law and inevitable fact. All the phenomena of Nature are governed by one important law, the universal law of causation, which is also known by the name ‘the Law of Karma’. The law of causation is a universal law that keeps up the inner harmony and the logical order of the universe. Man’s deeds are subject to this law. The present study aims to study the approach of Psycho-Spiritual nature of Tapa or penance as adopted by us in the form of Prayaschitta. The ancient texts suggest that there was significant debate and disagreement between Dharma scholars on what is the appropriate and sufficient penance or punishment for a given crime. For example, some texts suggest suicide as penance, or capital punishment for the crime of incest or rape, but other texts consider this as disproportionate punishment. Keywords: Tapa, Prayaschitta, Dharma and Karma.
 
The whole idea of Psycho-Spirituality as we see it, is to transcend what's wiped out a psychological approach, to transcend what seems to be psychological. The psychological aspect of it's just something to affect clearing away the clutter to urge to the purpose where we will reach the spiritual truth, and realize that it's already happened, it's already there. It seems that we expect about what appears to be a psychological issue, it seems that we do techniques that revolve around it, but really, it's about connecting first at a deeper level, keeping that in mind while we are browsing the opposite aspects of it. That's the spiritual aspect that permeates the entire process. regardless of what it's like that we do in form, we are still always returning to the joining with the Spirit, truth Self, joining with the reality of what we are. Whereas psychology deals with duality and helps make duality better and more tolerable, with Psycho-Spirituality we focus of the pure truth of Oneness after we are handling the thought of the illusion of separateness. At the level, truth Self level, there's nothing to try to do but to simply accept Oneness. But in form, we apply these psychospiritual techniques to facilitate the furtherance of the acceptance of the spiritual aspect. Acceptance is simpler once we dig through the debris (Negativity) of the mind that obscures the validity of the essence of our being. Just merely stating the reality does help the people sometimes, but sometimes, taking a lively stance and energy towards digging through the lies of the illusion can help facilitate the acceptance of Oneness. The focus of this approach is basically Oneness, but the psychological aspect is put in commission of realizing the oneness of what we are, and since it's put in commission of it with the energy the force and therefore the will of Oneness behind it, it's not like regular psychology, it's not even close. We're performing from the opposite side of it, we aren't standing on the side of duality, working back and hoping to urge to Oneness. We stand on the side of Oneness, undoing the thought and therefore the effects of duality, approaching it from the other side, due to the very nature of how we do it. Psychology attempts to try to do something; what we do is not any attempt, it's coming from an area of truth that's not speculative. There's no argument: Oneness is Oneness. that's where we are coming from, and that we are helping the mind, the aspects of our mind that appear as if people, to understand that there are not any people, to figure through the imaginary problems. rather than being totally fixated inside the matter, we do what Einstein talked about, we are getting to a special level to unravel the imaginary problem. It's beautiful and stylish in its idea and its approach, and it doesn't require anybody to believe the methodology of it, it just works because it cannot not work, because it's what it's. Eventually, the mind is pulled out of the illusion, and that we proceed from there.
 
Top-cited authors
Kamakhya Kumar
  • Uttarakhand Sanskrit University, Haridwar, India
Swapan Banerjee
  • Seacom Skills University
Sumana M N
  • JSS Medical College, Mysore
Viney Jain
  • Jain Vishva Bharati Institute
Khushbu Jain
  • Government of India