Investigations were conducted to establish the magnitude and pattern of differential expression of proteins due to generational selection of third instar An. gambiae s.s. larvae by cadmium, copper and lead heavy metals, three possible common urban pollutants.A susceptible strain of An. gambiae s.s. third instar larvae was separately placed under selection pressure with cadmium, copper and lead at LC(30) and controls through five generations. First, third and fifth generation selection survivors were screened for differentially expressed proteins relative to non-exposed control by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distribution patterns of the spots were analysed by Chi Square or Fishers exact test and variations in expressions between and within generation by ANOVA. Most differentially expressed spots were acidic and of low molecular weight among all metals and generations. Type of heavy metals and generation were main indicators of variations in differential expressions. Variation between generations was most significant among cadmium-selected populations of which most number of spots were induced in the fifth generation. Most spots were induced in the copper-selected population in the third generation. The induced protein spots may be products from respective genes that respond to heavy metals and counter their toxicity, thus building An. gambiae s.s. tolerance to these pollutants. The differential pattern and magnitude of expressed spots has potential application as molecular markers for assessment of anopheline adaptation status to heavy metals, and provide insight into the extent of environmental pollution.
The insecticidal and repellent properties of Lantana camara and Tephrosia vogelii were evaluated against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in stored maize grain. Five treatment rates (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% w/w) of each powdered plant material, an untreated control and a synthetic insecticide (Actellic Super™ 2% dust) were used to investigate treatment efficacy on mortality of the adult insect (five to eight days old), F1 progeny emergence and repellency against S. zeamais adults. After 21 days, L. camara and T. vogelii caused 82.7-90.0% and 85.0-93.7% insect mortality, respectively. The mean lethal exposure times (LT 50) to achieve 50% mortality varied from five to six days (7.5-10.0% w/w) to seven to eight days (2.5-5.0% w/w) for both plants. Probit regression analysis showed a significant relationship between plant powder concentration and insect mortality. The plant powders and synthetic insecticide reduced adult F 1 insects by more than 75% compared to the untreated control. Tephrosia vogelii was most repellent to S. zeamais at 7.5-10.0% (w/w), repelling 87.5% of the insects, followed by T. vogelii at 2.5% w/w and L. camnra at 10% w/w which repelled 65.0 and 62.5% of insects respectively. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of smallscale farmer usage of these plants for stored product protection.
The literature published during 1970–1981 on tsetse ecology is reviewed. The geographical distribution of some species was affected during the drought of early 1970s. New maps of tsetse distribution in Africa and a few national maps have been published. The habitats of several species have been described in detail, particularly atypical habitats in peridomestic situations. Pupal ecology has not held the attention of ecologists so much; however, pupal duration and mortality have been assessed for a few species. Due to the importance of selective application of insecticides, resting sites and resting behaviour have been described in detail. Activity patterns have been correlated with climatic factors and also with sampling methods. Several works on host-seeking behaviour, flight performance and energy metabolism have been described. Host preferences of certain species have been found to be somewhat different from those previously recorded; and new host species have been discovered. Studies on fat and haematin content showed that these metabolites are useful indices of nutritional status to interpret feeding behaviour in relation to population sampling. A tsetse contact sex-pheromone has been discovered and synthetised; and attempts have been made to use it in the field. Studies on sound production by both sexes under various conditions of light and physiological state are in progress. Comparative studies on sampling techniques have received particular attention; several trap devices have been designed and tested to evaluate the reliability of samples. The determination of the age structure of populations has become more relevant to studies on population dynamics. Attempts have been made to calculate the growth rate of populations. Density-dependent factors started being taken into consideration in the assessment of populations. Several methods have been tried out to estimate population size. New pathogens, parasites and predators have been recorded.
Des études ont été réalisées en Côte d'Ivoire de 1986 à 1990 afin d'estimer les densités de population des foreurs de l'épi de maïs et de déterminer les pertes de récoltes occasionnées par ces ravageurs. La relation entre les densités des populations de foreurs et les pertes de récolte a été étudiée au moyen d'analyses de régression, dans lesquelles deux modèles de régression ont été développés. L'un des modèles a établi un rapport entre la perte de rendement par épi par rapport à la densité du ravageur et l'autre a établi un rapport entre le nombre de grains endommagés par rapport à la densité du ravageur. #Mussidia nigrivenella$ Ragonot (#Lepidoptera$ : #Pyralidae$) fut le ravageur dominant dans la plupart des localités. Sa densité de population était particulièrement forte dans la forêt semi-décidue et diminuait à mesure que l'on se dirigeait vers l'ouest ou le nord du pays. Les modèles ont expliqué 85,6% (perte de rendement par épi contre densité du ravageur) et 72,5% (nombre de grains endommagés contre densité du ravageur) de la variation observée. De plus, les modèles ont montré que la perte de poids en grain due aux foreurs d'épi était bien moindre que celle occasionnée par des foreurs de tige, mais aussi que le nombre de grains attaqués augmentait rapidement avec la densité d'insectes. (Résumé d'auteur)
Laboratory trials were conducted in Uganda at the Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute to determine attraction, eclosion success and larval survivorship of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) on crop residues of different ages. In the first experiment, studies focused on different types and ages of residues of one susceptible highland banana clone ‘Nabusa’ (genome group AAA-EA). Corms attracted 65% of the test weevils, pseudostems 30%, while 5% were non-respondents. Oviposition levels and the number of eggs per female were higher on young than old corms. Eclosion rates of < 1-day-old eggs inserted into corm pieces of residues (cultivar ‘Kisansa’, genome group AAA-EA) declined from 66% in residues collected < 2 days after harvest (DAH) to 58% in residues collected >30 DAH. To assess immature survival, < 1-day-old 1st instar larvae were put on banana corms of suckers and crop residues of the cultivar Kisansa in single rearing chambers. The number of surviving individuals was recorded at 3-day intervals until adults emerged. Survivorship was 12% on sword suckers, 10% on maiden suckers and 7% on flowered plants; and 12% on residues collected < 2 DAH and 5% on residues collected >30 DAH. Larval duration and mean days taken for adult emergence increased with plant and crop residue age. Females emerging from the different plant and residues treatments were similar in weight. The data suggest that all aged residues are suitable hosts for C. sordidus, suggesting that sanitation practices should be implemented soon after harvest.
Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an exotic stemborer of cereal crops in Africa which invaded the continent from Asia earlier this century. In addition to Ch. partellus, several indigenous stemborers are found in Africa. In 1991, Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a gregarious endoparasitoid of stemborers in Asia, was introduced into Kenya for biological control of Ch. partellus. Laboratory studies revealed that the parasitoid could successfully parasitise not only the target stemborer, but also two native stemborers that occur sympatrically with Ch. partellus in some locations. Interbreeding studies demonstrated the Co. flavipes would mate with a native congener, Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron), but no female offspring resulted from these matings. Investigations on competition between the two Cotesia spp. indicated that when Ch. partellus was the host, Co. flavipes appeared to be a superior parasitoid. Releases of Co. flavipes were made in 1993 in Kenya. Recoveries in 1994,1995 and 1996 demonstrated that the parasitoid was firmly established in two regions of Kenya and in northern Tanzania. Preliminary observations suggest that the parasitoid is causing greater mortality to stemborers in southwestern Kenya than in the coastal area.
Data on insects as food in sub-Saharan Africa were collected by reviewing the literature and conducting interviews in a number of African countries. A list of about 250 edible insect species from Africa was compiled. Of these, 78 percent are Lepidoptera (30%), Orthoptera (29%) and Coleoptera (19%), and 22 percent Isoptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Heteroptera, Diptera and Odonota. Insects are rich in protein, vitamins and minerals, and a good source of iron and B-vitamins. Examples of insects being toxic are given, but often traditional methods are used to remove the poison. Whether or not insects are eaten depends not only on taste and nutritional value, but also on customs, ethnic preferences or prohibitions. The harvesting of insects is often done by women. The way of collecting depends on insects' behaviour. For example, inactivity at low temperatures enables easy catching of locusts and grasshoppers in the morning. Night flyers (termites, some grasshoppers) can be lured into traps by light and some insects like palm weevils can be attracted to artificially created breeding sites. Some species (crickets, cicadas) can be located by the sound they make. A number of tools are used to facilitate capturing such as glue, sticks, nets and baskets. Because most insects are only seasonally available, preservation by drying is often practised. Some examples of how to prepare them as food are given from important insect groups.To manage insects in the interest of food security more attention should be given to environmentally sustainable harvesting methods. They should be made better available throughout the year by developing improved conservation methods or by farming this minilivestock. Considering the economic, nutritional and ecological advantages of this traditional food source, its promotion deserves more attention both from national governments and assistance programmes.
The noctuids Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis and the pyraloids Chilo partellus, Chilo orichalcociliellus and Eldana saccharina are the most important stemborers of maize in East Africa. A wide range of egg, larval and pupal parasitoids of stemborers have been identified, but information on predators, nematodes and microbial pathogens is less extensive. The most abundant and widespread parasitoids in the East African region are the egg parasitoids Telenomus spp. and Trichogramma spp., the larval parasitoids Cotesia sesamiae and Sturmiopsis parasitica and the pupal parasitoids Pediobius furvus and Dentichasmias busseolae. Predators, such as ants, spiders and earwigs can cause high mortality of eggs and young larvae in some areas. Nematodes and microbial pathogens have been reported to infect all life stages, but their impact is low under natural conditions. The abundance of natural enemies can vary considerably between locations and seasons. In general, indigenous natural enemies are not able to keep stemborer populations below economic injury levels. This paper summarises what is currently known of the natural enemies of cereal stemborers in East Africa.
Stemborers in Africa are attacked by a complex of about 120 species of hymenopteran parasitoids, including about 15 species which are either facultative or obligatory hyperparasitoids. Several dipteran parasitoids also attack stemborers. An overview of hymenopteran stemborer parasitoids is here presented by superfamily and family, giving numbers of genera and species involved, their biologies (where known) and distributions.
Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the role of larval habitat-derived microorganisms in the production of semiochemicals for oviposition site selection by Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto mosquitoes. Dual-choice bioassays with gravid females were conducted in standard mosquito cages. Field-collected or laboratory-reared mosquitoes, individually or in groups, were offered a choice between unmodified (water or soil from a natural breeding site) or modified substrates (filtered water, autoclaved soil or sterile media to which bacterial suspensions had been added). Egg counts were used to assess oviposition preferences. Mosquitoes preferred to oviposit on unmodified substrates from natural larval habitats containing live microorganisms rather than on sterilized ones. Variable responses were observed when sterile substrates were inoculated with bacteria isolated from water and soil from natural habitats. We conclude that microbial populations in breeding sites produce volatiles that serve as semiochemicals for gravid An. gambiae. These signals, in conjunction with other (non-olfactory) chemical and physical cues, may be used by the female to assess the suitability of potential larval habitats in order to maximize the fitness of her offspring.
The palaeotropical, gregarious, endoparasitic braconids Cotesia sesamiae, Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia chilonis were recently imported into Benin as candidates for biological control of stem and cob borers of maize. Host acceptability and host suitability of six gramineous borers occurring in western Africa, namely the noctuids Sesamia calamistis, Sesamia poephaga, Busseola fusca and the pyralids Coniesta ignefusalis, Eldana saccharina andMussidia nigrivenella, to these candidate parasitoids was evaluated in order to gain insight into the physiological suitability of the natural and factitious hosts. All hosts were accepted by all Cotesia spp., except M. nigrivenella which was not attacked by Co. chilonis. Parasitoid progeny development was successful in S. calamistis, S. poephaga and Con. ignefusalis. Sesamia calamistis was the most suitable host for Cotesia spp. development, in terms of duration of developmental time, brood size and mortality of parasitoid progeny.
Au début du siècle, l'extension de la trypanosomiase humaine vers l'Afrique centrale à partir des foyers du Congo a été liée à la croissance des échanges et aux déplacements de populations entre les Etats le long de nouveaux axes de communication.La répartition de la maladie dans cette partie de l'Afrique depuis une dizaine d'années pose de nouveau le problème de sa propagation. Sans avoir l'importance qu'ils ont eu au début du siècle dans le développement de la maladie, les déplacements de population ont encore à l'ordre du jour, en particulier le long de certains axes privilégiés (grands fleuves en particulier) ou au niveau même de foyers parfois à cheval sur des frontières inter-Etats.Des populations migrantes (pêcheurs du Nigeria, du Ghana) ou déplacées (réfugiés) jouent également un rôle dans l'extension de la maladie.A l'intérieur même de certains foyers, les populations rurales mobiles maintiennent l'endémie sur des superficies importantes.Dans la colonisation de nouvelles terres, ou le développement de complexes agro-industriels nécessitant une main d'oeuvre importante, le risque trypanosomiase ne doit pas être négligé.
Laboratory experiments using a glass tube arena were conducted to determine the effects of aggressive behaviour of the stemborer, Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on oviposition success and mortality of the parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). On contacting unparasitised hosts, female parasitoids rapidly oviposited and then retreated from the experimental arena. Hosts exhibited no aggressive behaviour prior to oviposition. However, soon after being attacked, host larvae became more aggressive, spitting at and biting the parasitoids. When Co. flavipes females were introduced toward the head of the stemborer, the parasitoids stung the host near the head and were frequently bitten and killed by the hosts. Parasitoids that were introduced to the host from the posterior end of the abdomen, stung the abdomen and were often able to escape from the host without being bitten. Regardless of whether parasitoids were introduced near the head or the abdomen, they were more often killed by older hosts than younger hosts. Parasitised hosts were more aggressive than unparasitised hosts one hour after the initial parasitisation, but not after 24 hours. Larval saliva of Chilo partellus was found to reduce survival of adult female parasitoids. The aggressive behaviour of Ch. partellus was not effective as a self-defense against Co. flavipes, but is likely to be an important mortality factor of Co. flavipes in nature.
Agricultural treatments mainly against cotton and rice pests put a considerable insecticide pressure on larvae and sometimes adults of several vector species. Resistances to compounds which had never been used for public health, but were currently employed in agriculture were observed among vectors. It was also noticed that resistance level in some vector species was linked to the quantity of the compound used in the same area against crop pests.Resistance in Anopheles gambiae in Africa, in An. albimanus in Central America, in An. culicifacies and An. aconitus in South East Asia, in An. sacharovi in Turkey, in Culex tritaeniorhynchus in the Far East as well as the DDT resistance in Simulium damnosum in West Africa, seem to be associated with the agricultural practices.On the other hand, resistance did not develop in species which, due to their ecology, were not in contact with agricultural insecticide even in areas where DDT was applied for more than 20 years in house spraying. This is the case of An. dirus and An. minimus in Thailand and An. darlingi South America.However several important factors like Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, have developed resistance for which agricultural treatments cannot be held responsible. It would be worth saying that the rise in malaria in certain countries, such as India, is only due to the increase of insecticide in agriculture after the “green revolution”.
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important foreign exchange earner for Ghana. However, production is constrained by a high incidence of pests and diseases. Based on farmers' needs, this study focused on the control of capsids, mainly Sahlbergella singularis Haglund and Distantiella theobroma (Distant) (both Hemiptera: Miridae). Annual crop loss caused by capsids is estimated at 25¿30%. To control capsids, formal research recommends application of synthetic insecticides four times between August and December. However, farmers hardly adopt this recommendation, which they consider unsuitable for their conditions and context. Three alternative control methods were tested with farmers: mass trapping, using sex pheromones; applying crude aqueous neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) seed extract (ANSE) and using the predatory ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as a biological control agent. Contrary to most previous reports, studies on temporal distribution of cocoa capsids indicated that the population peaked in March. ANSE was effective against capsids and other cocoa insect pests and did not affect the predatory ant. When O. longinoda occurred in high numbers, capsid incidence was low. Shade did not influence ant or capsid abundance significantly. ANSE caused 100% mortality of capsids in cage and 79¿88% in field experiments. The sex pheromone was as effective as ANSE or ants in suppressing capsids. All the three methods were effective and compatible; hence, they can be used in an integrated pest management strategy for cocoa, including organic production in Ghana.
A tsetse survey was conducted around the Lambwe Valley in South West Kenya in order to establish the extent of Glossina pallidipes distribution outside the Valley. Between October 1988 and March 1989 flies were found far outside the Lambwe Valley. A proportion of these flies was infected with three species of trypanosomes. The capture of teneral flies suggested that breeding was occurring and that viable populations of G. pallidipes therefore exist away from the core breeding areas in the valley.
The composition and preparation of an artificial diet for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei is described. Ten generations were obtained without any significant change in fecundity. Development at 25°C on this diet was similar to previously reported work using coffee berries. One female reared on this diet lived for 380 days. This diet will permit investigations into the genetics of insecticide resistance, potential biopesticides and other research, requiring a convenient laboratory rearing system.
Surveys were conducted in two different ecological zones (semi-arid and arid) of Kenya to monitor egg, larval and pupal populations of the sorghum shootfly, Atherigona seccata, on a wild host, Sorghum arundinaceum. Populations were found to be usually higher on wild sorghum than on local varieties of Sorghum bicolor, the cultivated host. During dry periods, shootfly eggs and larvae were still found on wild sorghum, especially in moist areas such as beds of temporary streams or river banks. Population levels seem to be related primarily with the availability of susceptible stems, which in itself is determined by rainfall, soil conditions, density of other vegetation and by the phenology and the distribution of the host plant, Sorghum arundinaceum, being a pioneer species which colonizes recently disturbed areas and is subsequently replaced by other grass species. Since no evidence of the existence of an aestivation diapause has been found, it is reasonable to assume that Sorghum arundinaceum is a major reservoir for A. seccata, especially during the dry season.
Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a braconid larval parasitoid that has been used in the biological control of tropical stemborers in gramineous plants. The current research status on the behavioural ecology of this parasitoid is reviewed. The stimuli involved in the location of the host-microhabitat and the behaviour on infested plants and inside stemborer tunnels are discussed. Several aspects of the host foraging behaviour on C. flavipes are discussed in relation to the ecology of the parasitoid, such as the role of learning in foraging and clutch size allocation decisions. Variation in behaviour can be an obstacle in the effective use of natural enemies in biological control. Behavioural variation may exist because individuals differ genetically in their propensity to find or accept different hosts. Individuals may also differ because they have experienced different environments (i.e. learning). The second part of this paper focuses on the intraspecific variability in G flavipes behaviour and discusses to what extent the reported plant and host specificity in C. flavipes has a genetic basis or is due to phenotypic plasticity through learning.
Temperature-time and temperatureC, respectively. The sorghum shootfly showed optimal development and survival at 30C for the egg, larva and pupa, respectively. Host plant condition affected larval development and survival; pupal weight was higher and larval mortality lower in insects reared on fertilized and normally watered seedlings than on unfertilized and water stressed seedlings.
Field and laboratory observations revealed that the placement of eggs of the sorghum shootfly, Atherigona soccata, among sorghum stems tended to be random or slightly aggregated rather than regular, which suggests that the site of oviposition by a female is little or not determined by the presence of other eggs already laid. The possible effects of this type of distribution on the mortality of the first-instar larvae are briefly discussed.
La ligne de contact entre #G. p. palpalis$ et #G. f. quanzensis$ passe à proximité de Brazzaville, au sud et sud-ouest de la capitale congolaise. Des observations faites de 1948 à 1961 ont permis de mettre en évidence une avancée de #G. p. palpalis$ vers Brazzaville le long des vallées du Djoué et au Congo. Des séries de captures réalisées récemment ont confirmées cette avancée spectaculaire de #G. p. palpalis$ au détriment de #G. f. quanzensis$. En effet, cette dernière espèce n'est plus capturée sur une zone de 20 km où elle cohabitait avec #G. p. palpalis$. Il existe donc un phénomène d'exclusion compétitive entre ces deux espèces étroitement apparentées. Il est suggéré que les copulations hétérospécifiques associées à des pressions démographiques inégales pour chacune des deux espèces, jouent un rôle décisif dans ce phénomène d'exclusion. (Résumé d'auteur)
A new character discovered on the superior claspers of male Glossina lonipalpis Wied. is described. This is a ciliated fold in the inner angle of the distal part of the claspers. It is absent in G. pallidipes Aust. The authors believe that this character will facilitate the study of the systematics of these species; and they propose to modify the key for the identification of Glossina.
Wild Glossina austeni and G. pallidipes appear in many different populations. All conspecific flies possess similar surface hydrocarbons that include species-specific contact sex pheromones. Recently, evidence for a contact sex stimulant was found in the surface hydrocarbons extracted from female G. austeni. The bioactive hydrocarbon fraction contained alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons that were separated and analysed by GC/GC-MS. The structure and relative abundances of alkanes and alkenes from several populations of laboratory and wild collected specimens appeared to be similar.Similarly, the alkanes of conspecific female G. pallidipes from several locations were analysed to determine differences and similarities with older, published work on the sex pheromone of the species. The components were analysed by GC-MS and were very similar across populations. If major components were compared, only minor variation was observed between females from Zimbabwe (wild), Amsterdam, ICIPE/Kenya, Kenya, Tanzania (wild), Uganda/Bristol and Arba Minch/Ethiopia. The absolute meaning of these differences is not known, since the activity of synthetic sex pheromones was shown conclusively against Wageningen and ICIPE males in 1984–1986 tests, although they were less active against Zimbabwe males.
Infochemicals play an important role in the biology of many insect species. An understanding of their role in plant-herbivore-carnivore interactions can be used in the development of tools for the enhancement of environmentally benign alternatives to synthetic pesticides. This review discusses how chemical information mediates ecological interactions between organisms and the role of infochemicals in integrated pest management. Infochemicals can be used in pest monitoring and in pest control, through mating disruption, mass trapping and to aggregate herbivores at delivery sites for biological control agents. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential of using pheromones and kairomones in the management of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a pest in plantations of East African highland banana and plantain in most banana-growing regions of the world. Cosmopolites sordidus produces an aggregation pheromone that attracts both males and females. This pheromone has been identified and synthesised and is being recommended as an effective agent in the trapping and control of the weevil. The synergism between banana plant extracts (kairomones) and the synthetic pheromone in attracting C. sordidus should be better exploited. Future research areas that can provide information for the development of an infochemical-based trapping system for the management of C. sordidus are discussed.