The rapid transformation of the grocery business in cities from small to larger units during the last decades has resulted in grocery store nets with fewer nodes. Cost reductions as well as cost increases associated with the structural change are present, with a poorly understood net effect. Earlier research indicates that retail trade is subject to an increasing-returns illusion when increasing consumer participation in performing the service reduces the amount of service actually performed by the firm. This is still to a large extent an unexplored issue of utmost policy relevance. In this paper a total cost model will be presented that focus on this research question. Its components, grocery prices in retailing and consumers transport cost functions are estimated from empirical data and derived from a specific spatial structure respectively. Our conclusion is that the increasing returns are not an illusion but due to external costs somewhat exaggerated. The costs associated with the transport and time use by consumers are more than well compensated by the scale economies related to larger stores. When the transport network is severely congested, however, we have a situation closer to the scenario with an increasing returns illusion. But we can clearly state that the structural change in grocery retailing is welfare enhancing when the capacity utilisation in the transportation system is balanced. From a policy perspective the results of this study clearly suggests that issues regarding local service should be an integral part of strategic urban transport planning. With infrastructure and transportation systems that enable easy and affordable access with cars in the city, a significant number of people will find it optimal to use large stores for grocery shopping. Restrictive policies at the more detailed level, currently applied in many countries, will clearly be ineffective since they are counteracted by forces released by more strategic choices.
This paper looks at the role and importance of regional airports in mountain areas. The question of accessibility is examined at different scales, from regional airports serving mountain areas to high-altitude aerodromes (altiports) and airstrips (altisurfaces) in mountain resorts. The ways in which air transport is integrated into intermodal transport systems serving tourist areas, most notably mountain resorts, are also investigated. Given the highly seasonal and specific nature of their use, many airports serving mountain areas are faced with problems of over-sizing or seasonal congestion. Issues such as the socio-economic and environmental integration of regional airports are also extremely important for mountain areas. Altiports and altisurfaces can contribute substantially to the tourism development of mountain regions by improving accessibility for visitors and through leisure aviation. Consequently, regional airports have a substantial impact on an area's image, whether they are viewed positively, as an aid to development, or negatively, as harmful to the environment. The present analysis was based on several case studies that highlight different aspects of regional air transport in mountain areas. The specificities of regional airport development in the Alps, and particularly in France, are illustrated by the story of Air Alpes. Attention is also focused on the links between the United Kingdom and Chambéry and Grenoble airports, which are dominated by low-cost airlines. Looking at the larger picture, examples of mountain-periphery and extra-mountain airports in France, Switzerland and Nepal are examined in order to investigate the formation of networks, the importance of regional airports and their contribution to regional development.
Application of genetic algorithms to the optimization of certain aspects of low enthalpy geothermal district heating schemes is presented. In particular, minimization of the cost due to pumping and amortization of the construction of the pipe network inside the geothermal field is investigated. After an outline of the optimization code, its performance is evaluated, through application examples to geothermal fields with uniform and non-uniform water temperature distribution. Moreover, a procedure to decide the number of the new wells, that should be drilled, is discussed. It has been concluded that use of the proposed technique may result in substantial cost reduction, thus promoting the direct use of geothermal energy.
Buildings account for around 30% of the developed countries greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Improving energy efficiency of buildings is one of the quickest and most cost-effective ways of reducing GHG emissions. This paper outlines the results of research carried out in Australia in 2009. The broad aims of the research are to identify policy directions to aid in the uptake of sustainability practices that will help improve building performance and reduce GHG emissions. Part of the research entailed surveying building practitioners involved in residential property development to find out their experiences with designing and constructing homes and what they perceive to be the drivers and barriers to the uptake of sustainable building practices. Respondents have seen an increase in demand for energy-efficient 'green' homes, due to an increase in awareness of climate change and also the reduced utility costs associated with these homes. The most common, client-preferred, and successful features incorporated into the design and retrofitting of homes were passive solar design, having gas connected, solar water heating and rainwater tanks. The high sunshine hours in Australia together with the availability of Government rebates and subsidies make these features financially viable. The average cost premium to build a 'green' home was identified as 14.2% compared to the cost of building a conventional home without energy-efficient features. The main barriers that prevent the incorporation of sustainable features into residential developments were identified as cost and lack of developer awareness. Despite this, two-thirds of the respondents felt that consumers would be willing to pay up to a 10% premium for an environmentally friendly home. Unfortunately, this falls below the 14.2% premium identified.
The complexity of natural resource management (NRM), which is socially an evolving 'discipline of disciplines', creates challenges for society. With the continual degradation of the natural resource base it can be hypothesised that the past and present approaches to NRM in Australia have failed. NRM is recognised in the 21st century as having assumed importance as a development strategy because of the claims that it can contribute towards sustainable livelihoods; thus NRM has two facets: the natural resource base and the institutional arrangements required to maintain this base. Australia is presently going through a transformation with the evolution of a regional NRM systems approach. This paper reports a hypothesised model of a sustainable regional NRM system for Australia.
The purpose of this research is to investigate brand association of Ciletuh – Palabuhanratu UNESCO Global Geopark towards the COVID-19 pandemic and sustainable tourism. This research employs a qualitative research method with a case study and descriptive statistics model. The data used in this study are primary and secondary ones in which the techniques of data collecting is by observation, purposive random sampling with Likert scale, as well as literature studies. The results of this study show that Ciletuh-Palabuhanratu Geopark is not only a strategic place for tourism activities in the COVID-19 pandemic since it has characteristics to comply health protocols but also able to meet the tourism recovery during the pandemic. The tourism activities provided by Ciletuh-Palabuhanratu Geopark sites meet the concept of quality adventure tourism and in line with sustainable tourism with concerns on balancing the environmental conservation, local economic empowerment, as well as local social and culture preservation. The brand association of Ciletuh-Palabuhanratu Geopark is shown by its tourism product scope and quality which are associated to sustainable tourism, moreover the use occasion is line with the COVID-19 pandemic situation. The attributes of UNESCO Global Geopark also create the values of tourism activities during and after COVID-19 pandemic which meet the points of sustainable tourism activities and recoveries.
From March 2020 to early June 2020, Kosovo introduced various travel restriction measures for foreign nationals, including entry bans, closure of land and air border crossings, two-week quarantine, and self-isolation. From March to May, the country was almost completely blocked, where the activities of the tourism industry were strictly prohibited while businesses encountered great difficulties to operate and provide services, the number of jobseekers in the country increased significantly, precisely because of the cessation of activities, because this sector is considered to be one of the sectors that contributes the most to employment in our country, despite the fact that some of these businesses are family businesses. A significant number of employees in these sectors in our country may lose their jobs, as a result of the situation created, and this will further deepen the tourism industry, mainly due to the decline in the volume of remittances and tourism diaspora in Kosovo. While restrictive measures may have had a positive impact on curbing the spread of the virus, and preventing the escalation of the health crisis, the effect and consequences of closing the economy for months is severe for the tourism industry.
The study aims to identify the role of local government and its transformation in response to the COVID-19. It also shows how local governments extended the scope of accountability and transparency to strengthen democracy. The study followed the social survey method and collected data online through Google Docs form. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics to generate expected results and test the hypothesis by the Spearman correlation coefficient. The study found local governments were positive during COVID-19 to provide services and offered more public engagement in policy formulation, thus more democratic. The health sector has shown the highest priority, with food and environmental services. Inefficient management capacity of leaders and apathy in public engagement hamper resource mobilization at the local level. During COVID-19, ICT intervention and innovation for digital transformation in local governance increased accountability and transparency through easy and effective participation of mass people to strengthen local democracy to respond effectively against COVID-19.
Governments around the world enforced many restrictions according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) and tried very hard to minimize spread of epidemic in their countries. One of these restrictions is on using of public spaces that led to create new challenges to think about how we design public spaces and the way of using the most dynamic nearby spaces around us such as streets. The main objectives of this research are to measure the impact of COVID-19 on behavior of local community in public street. And to what extend changed of social behavior in public streets to compensation the absence of public spaces, where they became a breathing space for locals in Amman, Jordan. Also to addresses these questions which are focused on how the local community deals physically with the COVID-19 situation? And what are the changes that are done in their behavior to entertain themselves during the COVID-19 pandemic? Researchers carried out an analysis by using a mixed used approach; qualitative and quantitative methods through executing a questionnaire and a field observation of the study area which is selected. In conclusion, the results of the study showed that activities of local residents have changed between in the lockdown of COVID-19 pandemic and beyond whereas there has been more demand on active lifestyles which is continue after COVID-19 pandemic as new behavior of local residents. although the physical quality of the street are not design to meet new behavior.
The research objectives were to analyze the socio-economic conditions of farmers while identifying the suitability level of the land and develop a mapping of high potential for medicinal plants (biopharmaca). The method used was purposive sampling carried out by conducting direct surveys, followed by sampling the soil at the research sites, and analyzing the socio-economic level of farmers in Tinombo District. The maps of slope class, soil, and land use were overlaid by using the ArcGIS 10.0 application. The observation revealed that in general, the socio-economic value of the farming community on the cultivation of medicinal plants was quite good. Farmers put a high level of interest, cultivation techniques, and land suitability, with an average of 2.22, 2.72, and 2.1, respectively. However, the level of knowledge on seedling and marketing parameters found low, with an average of 1.5 and 1.0, respectively. The analysis of soil samples seemed to determine the land suitability. The pH parameter H2O has a value ranging from 5.81 to 7.09, C-organic was 1.14 - 6.37%, total N-value was 0.28 to 0.49%, P- availability was 3.29 - 130.55 ppm, and cation exchange capacity was 0.08 - 1.46 cmol+/kg. In the parameters of the exchangeable bases of the land, including K about 0.07 - 1.46 cmol+/ kg, Ca about 0.13 - 8.88 cmol+/ kg, Mg about 0.18 - 8.66 cmol+/ kg, and Na about 0.10 - 0.18 cmol+/ kg. Then, the soil base saturation parameter valued of 1.34 - 56.63%. The characteristics of the cultivated land for medicinal plants, both chemical and physical, have been identified in order to create agricultural land with suitable characteristics of the cultivated plants.
COVID-19 pandemic, which is still lasting from the end of 2019 until the 1st quarter of 2022, has influenced and altered the tourism paradigms before and after pandemic. The changes are not only adapting health protocols to minimize the pandemic outbreaks but also the tourism reborn from mass tourism into sustainable tourism. This research is investigating the geotourism activities in Cibenda village and its potencies of sustainable tourism found in geosites of the village which are included as geoarea of Ciletuh – Palabuhanratu UNESCO Global Geopark. Qualitative descriptive method with a case study was used in this research. The data used are primary and secondary ones which were taken by observation, open interview with prominent people of Cibenda, and literature studies. This research’s results show that Cibenda village has potential tourism attractions with their geodiversity, biodiversity and cultural diversity providing something to see, something to do and something to learn. Furthermore, the geotourism activities in Cibenda are in accordance with the concept of quality adventure tourism and in line with sustainable tourism principles i.e. balancing the environmental conservation, local economic empowerment, as well as social and culture preservation which comply with the health protocols of COVID-19 and the necessities of tourism activities after pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic is regarded as a pivotal point in human history. The goal of architecture is to solve problems like the novel COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, new future methods to designing buildings and create environments emerged, with hospital design and infection control being prioritized as a key pillar of health care. Hospitals, like battlegrounds, require a future design that prioritizes speed and safety, not just during treatment but also during testing and follow-up care. The research aims to create an appealing, humane, and optimal therapeutic environment for dealing with the pandemic in order to raise the degree of safety that aids in the prevention of infection and illness spread. The research employs a deductive methodology, with the goal of discussing the evolution of the design of the future hospital environment through a set of design strategies based on social distancing policy, adaptability, flexibility, and engineering control of new preventive measures to deal with the current and potential future pandemics, while also considering humanistic aspects. The questionnaire was conducted to test the goals and strategies of this research through a group of specialists in order to reach the graphic results of the importance of these strategies in helping to design the hospital of the future, paving the way for future studies and research to develop building design and create environments of future hospitals.
The lockdown period due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent adoption of homeworking had effects also on the energy sector, by shifting electrical consumption from tertiary to residential sector. This article analyzes the electric load curves in the office and at home for a group of employees, estimating the change of the Self-Consumption (SC) and the Self-Sufficiency (SS) when PV plants are installed, during the two months of the lockdown period (2020) with respect to the previous year. This investigation can help to explore the impact of homeworking, which is now usually adopted by many employees. For this purpose, the impact of different PV sizes on SC and SS rates, and the improvements due to the adoption of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS), are analyzed. Sizing the PV production equal to the annual consumption and the BESS capacity equal to the difference between the average PV production and the average consumption, the annual SC (=SS in this case) increases from 35% to 68% in households and from 50% to 71% in the office building. The lockdown restrictions increase and decrease these rates of about 5-7 points in households and office building respectively.
To realize the sustainable development of the corn industry, the key lies in improving the total factor productivity (TFP) of corn under the constraint of carbon emissions. Based on the panel data of 19 main corn producing areas in China, this paper creates a corn TFP measurement model, applies the model to measure the corn TFPs in each main producing area from 2008 to 2018, and analyzes the features and causes of the variation in corn TFP in China with constraint of carbon emissions. The results show that: After 2015, the corn TFP in China was on the rise with constraint of carbon emissions, and the corn production was moving towards low-carbon mode, but exhibited huge regional difference; The policies on corn structure adjustment in the Sickle Band areas have effectively promoted the low-carbon production of corn in these areas, and improved the corn TFP; The growth of corn TFP in China is mainly bottlenecked by the slow technical progress. Finally, several policy suggestions were put forward to promote the low-carbon production and TFP of corn and other crops.
Charitable giving appears to be one of the most critical approaches to mitigating the impact of the global crisis such as coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the poor and vulnerable people in Malaysia. Therefore, this study investigates the influences of religiosity, subjective norms, and attitude on donation intention among Malaysian Muslims during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown in Malaysia. This study obtained a primary dataset consisting of 328 responses among Muslims throughout 14 states and the Federal Territories of Malaysia. Partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) were employed to analyze the primary data. Consequently, the results have found that religiosity and attitude are significant factors that directly predict monetary donation intention. Furthermore, attitude acted as a mediator in the relationship between religiosity and subjective norms on Malaysian Muslims’ donation intention. Ultimately, this study proposed relevant policies to identify specific factors that affect the donation intention as a practical response for vulnerable groups impacted by COVID-19 in Malaysia.
This paper explores the challenges, opportunities and progress made with managing air quality since the United Kingdom parliament passed the Clean Air Act, 1956. It seeks to identify the factors contributing to successful management of air quality and the factors that have acted, or continue to do so, as barriers to progress. The public health catastrophe of the 1952 London Smog created the political momentum for the 1956 Act to be passed. The nature of the contemporary air pollution challenge is reviewed in terms of the public health burden, the economic cost and the governmental response. The contemporary response is considered inadequate for the scale and intensity of the problem.
Iran boasts 87,000 ha of historical places in more than 242 cities by virtue of its historical background and its geographical situation (predominantly cold and dry climate). Hence, the most critical issue the country is confronted with at present is the reconstruction of the historical buildings and places of the cities. The purpose of this study is to review the reconstruction project of Mashhad city center, Iran's second largest metropolis, as an instance of urban redevelopment projects carried out in Iran since 1979. The present study was conducted in the city center of Mashhad by dividing it into two distinct parts: direct intervention area (under supervision of governmental authorities) and indirect intervention area (under supervision of the private sector and sub-governmental authorities). The results obtained from questionnaires show that in the direct intervention area residents are faced with a great deal of problems (forced relocation, unemployment, low incomes, cultural- social alienation, eviction and so forth). In the indirect intervention area, they came up against financial problems, issuance of construction permits, etc. Finally, the city center reconstruction project has undergone a change from a large-scale redevelopment and non-participatory plan to a stockholder sharing and marketoriented commercial one. These transitional plans reveal a non-participatory approach to the city center reconstruction. For instance, property owners in the area have been ignored during this process. If this trend continues, the chances of implementing the plan in the long run would be limited.
Rohingya refugees are one of the top displaced communities in the world. Refugee crises have been a global concern in recent times, involving inclusive research. This bibliometric analysis aims to produce an overview of Rohingya refugees and help researchers build intuitions on them. To this end, the author implements a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer and Biblioshiny software for cluster analysis and three-factor analysis using publications from Scopus and Web of Science. The author uses180 WoS and 202 Scopus documents to analyse the data based on inclusion criteria. The study results indicate sharp increasing trends of publications and citations in recent times after the major influx in 2017. Bangladesh, the USA, and Australia made the highest number of publications and collaborations on Rohingya refugee research. Besides, the study results visually demonstrate the sub-areas linking with the Rohingya refugees concerning the scientific journals, leading areas, major influencing countries, authors, sources, institutions, and exciting research directions. The study also identifies the research collaborations between countries and authors. Finally, based on keywords and three-field analyses, it is concluded that Rohingya, refugees, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Rohingya refugees, mental health, and forced migration have captivated extensive attention by the researchers on Rohingya refugees in the last three years.
This paper analyzes whether fiscal rules impact improved budget performance and fiscal discipline in the ten EU nations with the largest average fiscal deficit from 1995 to 2020. Fiscal performance will be reflected through the fiscal deficit adjusted for cyclical economic periods. The independent variables are real long-term interest rates, fiscal rules, public debt (expressed as a percentage of GDP), government effectiveness, and government spending (expressed as a percentage of GDP). The methodology used consists of empirical panel data through the OLS econometric model. With this model we have analyzed the responsiveness of the fiscal deficit, which have applied fiscal rules, by incorporating in the model other factors as well. The empirical results shows that fiscal rules, public debt, government effectiveness, and government spending statistically significantly impact the fiscal deficit. At the same time, the real long-term interest rate did not reach the level of statistical significance based on the model results.
Water is the most important and most debated natural resource in the Pacific Northwest. Researchers, educators and policy makers give a lot of attention to water resources in the region; however, the knowledge of actual water resource priorities of the public is lacking. Consequently, the purpose of this research study was to document how urban, suburban and rural residents living in the Pacific Northwest prioritize water resource issues over the last 20 years. A survey instrument was developed to ask the public about 10 common water uses in the region. This survey was statistically designed using the Dillman methodology and delivered to the public using a mail-based survey process in 1998, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2012, 2015 and 2017. Water uses in this study were the importance of water for: irrigated agriculture, aquatic habitat, commerce, drinking water, household landscapes, industry, power generation, recreation, snowpack and wetlands. Each water use could be categorized by survey respondents as very important, important, somewhat important, not important or no opinion. In 2017, drinking water, snowpack, wetlands, recreation, aquatic habitat, industry, commerce, power generation, household landscapes and irrigated agriculture were considered an important or very important use of water by over 95, 80, 79, 77, 76, 74, 64, 63, 52 and 47% of the public, respectively. Over time snowpack, recreation, wetlands and aquatic habitat protection have become more important to the public. Conversely, the importance of water for irrigated agriculture, power generation and commerce have become less important to the public. However, at least 45% of all respondents considered all ten questioned water uses important. Survey respondents were placed into three groups (urban, suburban or rural) based on the population of their home county. Rural residents considered the use of water for agriculture more important than both suburban (84 vs. 46%) and urban (84 vs. 35%) residents. Conversely, urban residents were more likely to consider the preservation of wetlands as very important, compared to suburban and rural residents. The demographic factors of gender, education and age also impacted how the public viewed the importance of different water-related issues. Females were more likely than males to consider most water uses important. Respondents with more formal education were more likely to consider snowpack and aquatic habitat important than those with less formal education. Younger respondents were more likely than older residents to consider wetlands and aquatic habitat important. The information from this study will be used to assist policy makers in their decision-making processes about water resource issues.
This study examines the macroeconomic variables affecting trade union rate membership in OECD nations from 2001 to 2020. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has 38 of the most industrialized countries globally, which counts more than 80% of the global GDP; analyzing the macroeconomic movements of these countries means that we most likely know the variance of the global macroeconomic changes. We target the effect of employability, expenditure on education, unemployment, inflation, FDI, economic growth, wages, and salaries on trade union participation of employers. To conduct this research, we used data from World Bank, ILO, and OECD for 38 countries during the period 2001-2020, conducting a panel data Fixed Effect non-linear regression model with robust effect considering the non-normality and the possibility of heteroscedasticity of some of the variables. The results show that employers in the industry, the productivity in the service sector, and wages will increase the enrolment in a trade union, but on the other side, an increase of FDI and unemployment rates will decrease the association of employers to be in a trade union.
In México, since the beginning of the 21st century, the government has established a scheme of environmental policies in socially poor and environmentally rich areas like the Lacandon Jungle. The policies concern Protected Natural Areas (PNAs), Payments for Ecosystem Services (PESs) and sustainable activities such as ecotourism. In order to understand the socio-territorial impact, a comparative analysis was made of three communities with different governmental initiatives, using ethnographic methods - life stories, in-depth interviews and participant observations - and cartography methods with remote sensing analysis of spot images. The results show that, when the level of cash transfers is high, the subsidies cause the beneficiaries to be more dependent on the government for their livelihoods; the restricted areas have led to changes in the landscape, causing high rates of deforestation in small areas and finally, well-being is also directly correlated with social capital. However, at the same time, there is a high level of social polarization.
The purpose of this paper is to document drinking water issues and concerns of the urban public in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Urban residents of the Pacific Northwest region of the USA consider drinking water their most important water resource issue. A survey instrument was developed to measure urban satisfaction with drinking water supplies. Data were collected using mail-based surveys conducted at five-year intervals in 2002, 2007 and 2012. Each survey contained 11 questions about drinking water and was mailed to 2,200 randomly chosen residents of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Return rates in excess of 50% were received for each survey ensuring that the results are statistically valid. On a regional basis 60.7, 64.1 and 68.8% of Pacific Northwest residents relied on public water supply systems for their drinking water in 2002, 2007 and 2012, respectively. This number increased to between 79% (2002) and 86% (2012) when only urban residents were considered. Over 86% of urban residents felt that water they obtained from the tap in their home was safe to drink. However, over 26% of survey respondents reported that they often used bottled water. Very little of this bottled water is consumed in the home and instead used more as a convenience rather than for health-related issues. Bottled water use significantly declined between 2007 and 2012. Almost one in four urban residents had a secondary water filter in their home. The use of in-home filters has increased significantly since 2002. Approximately 15% of survey respondents identified minerals (hard water) as a concern in their drinking water. However, other potential contaminants including pathogens, nitrates, pesticides and heavy metals were identified as problems by less than 5% urban residents. Overall, the urban public is satisfied that their home drinking water is safe; however, in the last 10 years there has been a trend toward more skepticism and additional in-home treatment of drinking water.
This paper evaluates the first local government-led neighborhood regeneration project in central Istanbul with reference to its neighborhood impact and its wider implications for the future of regeneration in the city. From a perspective rooted in historical and international comparative planning studies, the research methodology is elaborated through an analysis of the evolution of a generic model of contemporary sustainable urban regeneration that provides the analytical framework for the evaluation. A review of the emergence of regeneration in Istanbul since the early 2000s establishes the context and rationale for the Sulukule case study. The paper then presents an analysis of events which led to the total demolition of the historic Sulukule neighborhood and the destruction of its Roma community. These events flowed from the authoritarian implementation of the Sulukule Renewal Area Plan, despite the efforts of civil society organizations to secure the development and implementation of a community-based alternative plan. The neighborhood level evaluation explains why the redevelopment of Sulukule should be understood as planned gentrification. Evaluation on a wider front is necessary because Sulukule has become the cause celebre in a vigorous debate about the purpose, scope, and outcomes of regeneration, which centers on the question 'whose Historic Peninsula?'. Many argue that regeneration should be stopped, as it inevitably means planned gentrification. But others, including the authors, draw on international experience to argue for the development of an Istanbul/Turkish version of sustainable, conservation-led, and community-based neighborhood regeneration. More widely still, the Sulukule experience has fuelled growing opposition to regeneration per se, epitomized in the slogan 'no Sulukule here'. Thus the paper concludes by outlining the action needed to move toward sustainable regeneration, not only for the city's central historic neighborhoods, but also for the far more numerous poor and deteriorating 20th century neighborhoods where the threat is not from gentrification, but from the next earthquake.
Environmental noise and vibration annoyance – especially from road transportation networks – is widely accepted as an end-point of environmental assessment that can be taken as a basis for evaluating the impact and annoyance caused to the exposed population. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive monitoring program for environmental noise and vibration from ELEFSINA (ATHENS) – KORINTHOS (an upgraded three-lane motorway crossing the famous Korinthos canal with a total length of 63 km), as well as the resulting appropriate noise action plan, including adequate mitigation measures for environmental road noise abatement. In the framework of this monitoring program, 40 locations were selected for airborne noise monitoring (various indices as L A eq (08:00–20:00), L A 10(18 h), L den , L night ) and 24 locations for vibration (ground borne noise both in dB(A) and peak vibration velocity – PPV in mm/s) monitoring covering all sensitive uses as per residential buildings, educational uses, churches, etc. A full assessment of all measured results and the noise mapping assessment was also executed. This assessment aimed at the implementation of appropriate noise barriers with synthetic axes, upon which the total aesthetical and acoustic adaptation was based to fulfi ll the need for adequate noise protection criteria and full aesthetic consistency of the fi nal outcome with the builtup surrounding landscape. In conclusion, some 9,000 m 2 of semi-transparent noise barriers are already under construction. Environmental noise and vibration monitoring programs are proven to be a crucial parameter in
The green economic development ability (GEDA) is crucial to long-term sustainable development. Based on the relevant data from 2008 to 2018, this paper sets up an evaluation index system of the GEDA, and uses the entropy method to evaluate and analyze the GEDAs of central China's Hubei Province in the sample period. The results show that the GEDA of Hubei Province improved significantly in the 11 years from 2008 to 2018; the resource and environment carrying capacity (RECC) contributed the greatest to the GEDA improvement, followed by economic greenness and policy support. However, the RECC index had clear oscillations in the sample period. As a result, Hubei Province should further strengthen the protection of resources and ecology, and raise concerns about the environment and climate change.
Urban boosterism is increasingly being employed by cities around the world to garner provincial, national or even international attention. In an effort to rebrand and market itself as a 'Winter City', Prince George, Canada hosted the 2015 Canada Winter Games. However, urban boosterism focuses on economic influx and financial sustainability with little attention to environmental sustainability. Hosting mega-events like these results in a significant influx of visitors over a short period of time. To accommodate for this extreme change in a city's population, it is important to consider the concomitant environmental burden, particularly in terms of waste over the period of time and the need to dispose of it safely and properly. To examine the environmental impact of hosting this event, a waste audit was conducted on four of the venues to determine how much and what types of waste was accumulated. The largest contributor to the waste stream was food waste, occupying more than 1/3 of the entire samples that was accumulated in the volunteer lounges. This study focuses on the consideration of waste types and areas in mega-events.
With the intensification of global competition and development of investment theories, foreign direct investment (FDI) is no longer solely affected by economic factors. Many noneconomic factors, such as policies and institution, now play an important role in FDI inflow. As a composite indicator, business environment has attracted a growing attention from investors. From theoretical and empirical perspectives, this paper quantifies and qualifies the influence of business environment over the FDI under different conditions. The impact mechanism of business environment on the FDI was refined by decomposing business environment into multiple subfactors, and considering various factors of different economies, such as natural resources (NR), technological resources (TR), and political stability (PS). An empirical analysis was conducted on the panel data of 26 countries in 2005-2018. The results show that: the host country can attract more FDI inflow by improving business environment, NR, TR, and PS; excessively high NR and TR, to a certain extent, suppress the promotion effect of business environment on FDI; four subfactors of business environment, namely, the protection of small and medium investor (PI), cross-border trade (CT), electricity supply (ES), and insolvency (IN), have relatively high promotion effects on FDI inflow. The research results enrich the theories on FDI and business environment, and provide a reference for the design of innovative polices.
The model depSIM is a dump simulation model, which allows a detailed and time-scaled focus into the complex processes of a landfill. Description of the mechanical model: The biological, chemical and physical processes in the waste body are closely connected with each other and can be described mechanically. Therefore, a number of differential equations are needed and implemented in the model. The porous media body is examined under the acceptance of a compressible gas phase, a materially incompressible solid state, an organic phase and a liquid phase. For the verification of the numerical model the long-time behaviour (100 years) was simulated. Further details about the model and the mechanical background are summarized in Robeck, Ricken et Widmann: A finite element simulation model of biological conversion processes in landfills . Use potentials: The developed model allows a differentiated, time wise and locally calculation and representation of the temperature, the organic conversion rate, the local pressure ratios and the gas current speeds. There were several case studies with the depSIM model in Germany which show the correlation between the temperature, gas production and gas potential. Therefore three different landfills were evaluated. Here, in the correlation between measured temperature in the landfill body and the temperature in the model was shown. The average divergence between both was less than 2 degree. By the detailed calculation of the gas speeds in every point of the dump an essential improvement arises compared with conventional arithmetic models for gas forecast and gas capture. These forecast models are based on estimated initial parameters. This allows only forecasts for a complete dump or a dump segment, but allows no coupled calculation of the relevant parameters. The model depSIM offers a spatially differentiated consideration of the gas production. However, just a spatially exact, quantitative forecast of the gas production is necessary for dump operator and authorities. The right forecast is elementary for the right dimensioning of the gas collection system and gas treatment and the possible use in combined heat and power units. All gas streams can be shown with the simulation model along the dump surface spatially and time wise differentiated. This allows a locally differentiated dump gas management with a division in areas with active or passive gas collection or to estimate the feasibility of a methane oxidation layer.
The purpose of this work is to study and evaluate the impact of world commodity prices on the dynamics of investment in exporting countries of natural resources using the developed methodology under the influence of industry 4.0 aspects. Modern economic activity is accompanied not only by the impact of COVID-19, but also by the impact of the first manifestations of industry 4.0. This applies not only to export-import operations but also to the very need for them due to the cost of new technologies. Using mathematical methods, we investigate the impact of world commodity price indices, in particular, the general commodity price index, the agricultural commodity price index, the food price index, the metal price index, and the crude oil price index, on the dynamics of investment in commodity-type economies in both dimensions – level and volatility. The innovativeness of the study lies in determining the significance of the impact of world commodity prices on the dynamics of foreign direct investment (FDI) of raw material exporting countries (on the example of three groups of countries with different levels of economic development). The proposed methodology makes it possible to empirically evaluate the mechanisms of the macroeconomic impact of commodity prices on investment dynamics.
The key concept of the Industrial Revolution IR 4.0 has been conceptualized as the new wave of digitalization, robotization, and broader usage of information and communication technology. However, the construction industry is complicated, which has led to its slow industrial evolution. The construction industry still follows traditional labor-intensive industry practices, with high energy consumption, environmental pollution, and low productivity in project delivery. Moreover, the recent cataclysmic COVID 19 pandemic has opened the vision of the construction industry towards IR 4.0 due to the human movement restriction. This paper aims to investigate the adoption of indispensable monitoring technology in the construction industry as effective visual communication of data towards the IR 4.0. This research closes the gap and gives an intensive literature investigation to acquire insights into Construction 4.0 and a case study to showcase the developed monitoring dashboard. Adoption of IR 4.0 technologies will achieve sustainable construction development, lower costs and fast construction with the highest quality. The critical literature review of previous studies with content analysis to demonstrate the recent research in this area. The monitoring dashboard brings the construction performance assessment data to real life and provides key performance indicators required for construction management and support decisions.
According to its complex properties like ergodicity, unpredictability, and sensitivity to its initial states, chaotic systems are attracting more and more attention and are widely used for security purposes. Moreover, the chaotic signals are considered suitable for spread spectrum modulation due to their wideband properties. It is able to reduce the peak to average power ratio (PAPA). This paper presents a new Dynamic Diffeo-Difference Multi-Dimensional (DDD-MD) system. It is used as a key for a new cryptosystem designed based on the chaotic stream segmentation (CSS) method. The proposed system provides the best trade-off between efficiency, robustness, and high data rate transmission. The behavior of the proposed chaotic system is evaluated numerically by analyzing the Lyapunov exponent spectrum, complexity, and attractor phase diagram. Besides, it is practically assessed based on the principle of system circuit design; the circuit diagram of the system is prepared and simulated by Multisim, which shows high consistency with the numerical simulation. These evaluations show that the proposed system has a rich dynamics behavior to be realized in an encryption system and provides a foundation for many engineering and physical applications.
This article aims to prioritize and assess each architecture element to ensure its compliance with the users’ needs, leading to interaction, and holistic interrelation as well as systematic solutions. As a result, fundamental data, and needs for the landscape architecture elements, were collected using a structured questionnaire with residents living in Muang District, the main service district. A structured interview was conducted with current visitors to the park and collected data concerning physical components for collaborative analysis. Article findings suggested that the elements are ranked and put into three groups: Group 1, the element of providing access, Group 2, the element of leading to activities, and Group 3, the element of creating a good environment. Consistent and more frequent visits represent the success of a designer. The designer could prioritize and assess each component to ensure compliance with the users’ needs, leading to interaction, holistic interrelation, and systematic solutions.
This study presents a multi-criteria strategic approach of decision-making in sustainable adaptive reuse by evaluating cultural heritage assets and identifying potential alternatives. For effective preservation, adaptive reuse of heritage buildings is a strategic decision. Whereas adaptive reuse decisions are based on several, sometimes contradictory criteria, in addition to decisions from multiple parties and stakeholders are potentially inconsistent. This research finds that the reuse process should consider many important criteria to expand and enhance the knowledge base. This paper presents a systematic application and analytical method in decision-making for adaptive reuse of heritage Cordahi complex in Alexandria, Egypt. The A'WOT analysis application was used as an analytical tool to obtain results through the integration of a SWOT matrix and an Analytical Hierarchy (AHP) process. The SWOT technique was used to examine the internal and external factors and identify the important strategic factors, then apply the AHP method to prioritize these factors to make them measurable. Then, SWOT priority factors were used to formulate strategies using the TOWS Matrix. The proposed strategy relates to protecting and promoting the importance of heritage and the context, enhance the tourism potential, economic development for the population, interpretation strategy, community engagement, sustainable management, partnerships.
Cultural heritage tourism is a proven economic stimulus that creates jobs and direct economic benefits to locals. Heritage zones promote conservation of historic resources and can incubate small businesses, revitalize commercial districts, generate local jobs and foster positive change in a community. The social benefits are many, yet long-term retention of the benefits requires deliberate planning. The prosperity brought by the tourists tends to destroy the experiences they seek. Heritage tourists seek experiences of authentic cultural heritage. Yet, the economic prosperity of tourism can swiftly alter a region. Business and real estate development pressures increase as the tourist market expands, bringing changes that occlude and displace the local heritage. This paper posits that attention to cultural sustainability can mitigate negative impacts and correlate to a robust heritage tourism economy. Sustainable development practices can support cultural heritage tourism in a manner that sustains the local culture. The San Antonio Missions and potential development in South San Antonio are reviewed here as an economic development tool designed to attract visitors to an area based on the unique aspects of the locality's history, landscape and culture. The heritage tourism market needs cultural heritage in order to grow and retain the economic prosperity over time. This research investigates and analyzes the potential of the San Antonio Missions Historic District toward community-based cultural heritage tourism. The connections of Missions to the river will feature historic and artistic interpretations of the story of the missions and highlight their social and cultural importance to the area. This will reinforce the importance of the river to the missions and encourage visitors to circulate between the Mission Reach and the river. Accelerating tourism in Missions Historic District will be a considerable economic and social benefit through the workforce, income and infrastructure developments. This research provides a legacy of positive development within the Missions Historic District, especially as San Antonio moves toward World Heritage designation. World Heritage designation brings international attention and increased tourism with both positive and negative impacts. Cultural heritage tourism can bring many benefits to a local economy but it can also disrupt the quality of life of the local inhabitants. This research also investigates how to prevent gentrification and the loss of authenticity while tourism in the district accelerates. This paper also promotes cultural and environmental sustainability at the local or neighborhood level, and highlights the potential benefits for small business owners to connect to the growing heritage tourism economy of the San Antonio Missions Historic District. Prosperity for residents of the district is a viable path to sustaining the community's cultural heritage, identity and authenticity.
The research aims to determine the factors causing the low achievement of environmental sustainability in tourist villages and accelerate it. This study uses a desk research method with online data and information search techniques, secondary sources, and other scientific publications. Meanwhile, the analysis technique used is a descriptive qualitative analysis technique, analogy, and comparison of several research results and other scientific publications related to environmental sustainability in tourism villages through the local wisdom approach and digital transformation. The research was conducted by interviewing several sources to get input on ecological sustainability standards in Tourism Villages. The result shows that the standards used to measure environmental sustainability in tourist villages can be used because of the global nature of the standards. Tourism Villages have local wisdom that has become part of the community's life. This local wisdom is very likely to have encouraged the tourism village community to behave environmentally friendly. Local wisdom becomes the focal point and main attraction of a tourist village that can be disseminated to villagers and tourists. The results of the study suggest the optimal way in which sustainable environmental development in the village can occur.
This paper seeks to evaluate the public space potential of riverbanks in the case of the city of Valdivia. The main goal of this research is to understand the relationships that promote or hinder the equitable enjoyment of watercourses and riverbanks. In the case of river access, spatial equity will be considered as the possibility for all inhabitants to access the benefits and resources of the river in their daily lives. Different analytical techniques and quantitative data were used to explore the relationships between socioeconomic characteristics, like socioeconomic groups and land value in the riverbank urban area. This evaluation will be applied by river edge transects. This article is a contribution to the theoretical discussion of social equity in urban riverfronts as an application in the case study since there are few studies on river banks from this perspective. Lack of a comprehensive shore planning in waterfront neighborhoods and of diverse public spaces impedes due public riverside and water use, as well as neglects ecological deterioration processes and social vulnerability.
The Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act 2005, the UN Millennium Development Goals, and Water as a Human Right are all mechanisms for enhancing access to water for the world's poorest populations. However, these water policies are not integrated into a holistic framework. They are fragmented between multiple governing agencies, founded on competing ideologies for water management, and enforced through confusing regulatory structures for land tenure tenuously linked to water rights. Alternatively, this is the governing landscape that provides the basis for innovative approaches to water solutions: integrated water resource management (IWRM), collaborative partnerships, and adaptive management strategies focused on place-based solutions. This paper examines efforts to map the intersection of poverty and water focusing on access to water and sanitation. Webbased geospatial tools of global water access issues are reviewed. The US Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act 2005 (WfP Act), the human right to water and sanitation (General Assembly Resolution 64/292, 2010), the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) to improve access to water and sanitation (Goal 7), and the codification of water as a human right into law by specific water poor countries are spatially cross-referenced to map the institutional landscape where water policy and water need intersect. Fundamental to improved access to water and sanitation is the need for a healthy environment. We conclude our research by examining the question: how well can these policies reconcile the confl icting demands upon the socio-ecological landscape?
Community resilience is widely used in managing natural resources and the environment as a means of system capacity to cope with stress. However, our findings show that resilience is not easily applied to common-pool resources (CPRs) such as peatlands, which are open access and full of importance. This is experienced by the community of purun craftsmen (Eleocharis dulcis) in Ogan Komering, Ilir Regency, South Sumatra, Indonesia. This paper was conducted to determine the community's social resilience in overcoming pressures originating from environmental, socio-economic, and political changes. We used a qualitative research method with a descriptive approach and obtained data through observation, in-depth interviews, and documentation. Our findings suggest that community resilience on peatlands is influenced by mechanisms to gain and maintain access to the resource. This mechanism is relatively limited, so it can be said that it is less robust, mainly if three threat scenarios co-occur, such as massive activity by companies, weak rules for managing, utilizing, and protecting resources, and extreme weather conditions. In conclusion, from these findings, we show that “access politics” and policy implications also play an essential role in increasing the resilience of socio-ecological systems in important peatland areas.
Guaranteeing permeability between port and city areas is a complex issue since, in recent years, there have been deep changes, due to the evolution of maritime transport, traffic volumes and port infrastructures, which have profoundly influenced the port-city relationship. The recent growing of the cruise and yachting sectors, however, highlighted the huge possibilities of economic development related to these activities, especially in the areas of the cities located close the ports. In this light, it is essential to ensure good accessibility to the city from the port (and vice versa) and to ensure that urban routes within the areas close to the port offer visitors a pleasant experience, in terms of walkability and opportunities. In this paper a Walkability Comprehensive Index to evaluate the quality of facilities in proximity to port areas will be presented; the index will include evaluation concerning the accessibility of the facilities, their Level of Service and the Places of Interests for visitors entering the city from the port. The calculation of the index is based on a spatial analysis with data obtained through field surveys and by an open source approach. The methodology is applied to the case study of the Port of Catania, a coastal city located in the south of Italy. The comprehensive index provides with information on each arc of the road network, offering an aid for decision-makers in prioritizing intervention for the improvement of non-motorized infrastructure within the interface area between the port and the city.
One of the basic goals of urban sustainability is to manage urban flows efficiently. Urban transportation is considered one of the aspects that largely generate environmental, social and economic impacts in cities and urban regions. With the increase of automobile dependence, the new perspective about urban transportation has to favor accessibility over mobility. Accessibility is considered one of the main goals of sustainable transportation and it is used as a good concept to develop an integrated land use-transportation planning process. According to this, this paper examines the relationship between urban form and transportation in the Tijuana-Rosarito-Tecate metropolitan region, located in the cross border space between Mexico and the Unites States of America, as a framework to implement a more integrated planning process. The research is conducted at three scales: urban, metropolitan and cross border space. The first stage of this study is developed at the urban scale (Tijuana), analyzing data at the city and district level. Linear correlation analysis was implemented to identify the relation of land use factors and automobile trips. The results in this first stage indicate at the city level that population density and distance from center have negative correlations with automobile trips; significance correlation between urban form factors evidence a segregated land use pattern in Tijuana. At the district level, negative correlations appear in other factors (job density, land use mixture and transit routes density) with no relevant significance; nevertheless, core districts appear as the ones which urban conditions favor other transportation modes. Preliminary conclusions indicate that urban conditions of core districts could be implemented in the rest of the city through new zoning and transportation strategies.
This research was aimed at defining accommodation businesses' crises and management guidelines, by adapting the concept of participatory action research model or PAR model, for 25 accommodation entrepreneurs in Ubolrat district, KhonKaen province, Thailand. Data collocation was investigated from questionnaires, site surveys, in-depth interviews, and brainstorming with the accommodation owners and key policy-makers at district and provincial level. The research results indicated that the root cause of the declining tourism situation at the site was due to the owners' use of low-price strategy for their business competition which seriously affected the accommodation standards and tourists' satisfaction. Therefore, to solve both accommodation businesses and tourism problems sustainably, all entrepreneurs decided to establish and take part in an accommodation club in the district; i.e. set up accommodation standard guidelines and business networking strategy.