International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 1467-6370
Publications
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the link between sustainability education and outdoor education and to encourage outdoor recreation educators to evaluate their programs with regard to sustainability and sustainable living. Design/methodology/approach – This paper starts by presenting several factors that currently hinder the delivery of sustainability education in outdoor recreation training programs. It then turns to a presentation of Lefebvre's sustainability education framework, which offers a helpful structure for integrating sustainability education into outdoor recreation academic curricula. Findings – Although there are programs that have successfully implemented sustainability training into their curricula, there are many factors that serve to hinder the education of outdoor recreation students in the philosophy and techniques of sustainability and sustainable living. No doubt these impediments pose critical challenges to those offering academic training programs. These challenges must be identified, met and overcome if the profession is to contribute, as it should, not only to local, national and global sustainable outdoor recreation, but also to sustainable living in general. Originality/value – It is hoped that this paper will encourage educators of post‐secondary outdoor recreation to better equip their students to introduce and teach others with respect to sustainable living values and practices.
 
Article
Following the World Conference of Scientific Academies, held in Tokyo, Japan in May 2000, this report focuses on the issues of sustainability and what the scientific and technological community can do in the short and longer term, and what the academies can contribute.
 
Predictors and Example Questions Predictor Example Questions 
Reported Frequency (percentage) of Staff Environmental Behaviours at Home Item Response Options 
Reported Frequency (percentage) of Staff Environmental Behaviours at Work Item Response Options 
Descriptive Statistics for Attitudinal Variables Variable 95% CI of the Mean Range 
Article
The purpose of this paper is seek to characterise sustainable attitudes and behaviours (including recycling and waste minimisation, energy efficiency, water conservation and "green" purchasing) amongst non-academic staff within Griffith University, Queensland. Design/methodology/approach: For this study, the attitudes and behaviour of 100 individuals from a cross-sectional sample from a single Department, along with the determinants of pro-environmental behaviours were investigated. The survey tool administered used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and was delivered via an online survey, which was e-mailed directly to all participating staff across Griffith's five campuses. Findings: The research sought to pilot the use of the TPB to determine sustainable behaviours amongst staff. The survey successfully showed that the TPB was effective at determining staff attitudes and behaviours and determined that staff were overall satisfied with the current efforts by Griffith University to become more sustainable. However, a number of barriers were identified that should be addressed in order to more comprehensively incorporate sustainability into the work environment. Significant differences in opinions were more prevalent amongst various demographic groups rather than between other characteristics such as department/function. Originality/value: The TPB has been widely adopted to determine both waste minimisation and recycling behaviours amongst householders. This is a new focus for the tool, to determine if it can accurately determine a suite of additional attitudes and behaviours associated with sustainability and why these differences occur. © Emerald Group Publishing Yes Yes
 
A schematic illustration of the time lag dilemma, showing various options for undertaking curriculum renewal towards EESD Source: The Natural Edge Project (2008) based on an earlier version presented by Desha and Hargroves (2007)
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the case for engineering departments to undertake rapid curriculum renewal (RCR) towards engineering education for sustainable development (EESD), to minimise the department's risk exposure to rapidly shifting industry requirements, government regulations and program accreditation. This paper then outlines a number of elements of RCR. Design/methodology/approach – This paper begins by proposing that Higher Education Institutions face a “time lag dilemma,” whereby the usual or “standard” curriculum renewal approach to embed new knowledge and skills within the curriculum may take too long, lagging behind industry, regulatory, and accreditation shifts. This paper then outlines a proposed RCR approach. This paper presents a number of preliminary “elements of RCR” formulated from a literature review of numerous existing but largely ad hoc examples of curriculum renewal within engineering and other discipline areas, together with the authors' experience in trialling the elements. Findings – This paper concludes that a strategically implemented process of curriculum renewal to EESD can help a department address its risk exposure to likely and impending shifts in industry, regulations and accreditation. A number of examples of implementing “elements of RCR” are emerging and this literature can inform a strategic approach to curriculum renewal. Practical implications – The aim of this paper is to highlight the potential risks and opportunities for engineering departments as they consider “how far” and “how fast” to proceed with curriculum renewal for EESD, along with providing an overview of a range of options for implementation. Originality/value – This paper fulfils an identified information/resources need. Keywords Curriculum development, Sustainable development, Education Paper type Viewpoint Yes Yes
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to report on the results of a case study in Botswana, aimed at raising awareness on climate issues. Higher-education institutions play a leading role in sustainability efforts, as their research role often lays the groundwork for social transformation. Design/methodology/approach – The Clean Air-Cool Planet (CACP) campus calculator was used to calculate emissions from various sections within the college. Findings – Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the college is 3,432.66 metric tons CO 2 e resulting in per capita GHG emissions of 3.20 metric tons CO 2 e, which is high compared to other universities. Options for reducing emissions are proposed. Practical implications – The procedure in carrying out the study provided learners with an opportunity to appreciate emissions from developing countries and also gain technical skills in conducting a GHG inventory. It also sensitized campus administrators about the scale of emissions and possible ways of reducing them. Originality/value – This paper is original in that it provides campus greenhouse inventory within a developing country, a unique undertaking. Furthermore, it highlights the fact that developing countries also produce significant emissions, hence the need for mitigation measures.
 
Article
Owing to the specialist nature of biological experimentation, scientific research staff have been largely neglected from the pro-environmental initiatives which have inundated other areas of higher education. This dearth of studies is surprising given that scientific research is recognised as a substantial contributor to the environmental impact of tertiary institutes. The present study seeks to utilise the current sustainability literature to identify barriers to sustainability in scientific fieldwork and determines which methods or procedures might increase pro-environmental behaviours in this technical environment. The resultant information serves to provide a comparison with previously identified barriers to sustainability in the laboratory environment and identifies which environmental initiatives might be successful in both the field and laboratory. Leverhulme Trust
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for OWM companies has been successfully promoted. Findings - Agricultural systems can assimilate self-produced organic wastes (OW) and others from different sources. Their management for crop production can generate enormous economic and environmental benefits which can contribute to sustainable development. The implementation of an integrated strategy for OW treatment (OWT) and management (OWM) must be adapted to the characteristics of the specific geographical region and must consider the interrelations among diverse subjects such as: soil science, fertilizer management, plant production, animal husbandry, farm machinery, climate and culture. Practical implications - The education of future specialists in OWM requires a multidisciplinary education which can be effectively achieved if those topics are incorporated into the educational programs of agriculture engineering schools. Originality/value - The paper shows how agricultural systems can assimilate self-produced organic wastes from different sources.
 
Characteristics of curriculum greening
Article
Purpose: To report on a project involving European and Latin American universities, focusing on curriculum greening. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the experiences gained in connection with the "ACES Project" which is a model of the implementation of sustainability principles in higher education, with a special emphasis on curriculum greening. This paper presents the principles and main results of the project, which involved 11 European and Latin American universities, with financial support from the ALFA programme of the European Commission. Findings: The paper identifies ten characteristics of the initial model of curriculum greening which were validated in the process and were interpreted in the paper. Research limitations/implications: The type of action-oriented research carried out in the context of the ACES Project, by means of cooperative efforts and the accumulation of diverse fields of knowledge, presented working difficulties which are different from those experienced by more homogeneous groups. Nevertheless, the knowledge generated is very consistent in response to environmental issues and problems and reflects the need for collaboration between all areas of knowledge in order to preserve and improve environmental conditions. Practical implications: The paper introduces not only the results obtained with the ACES model, but also ten components which characterise curriculum greening and may be used elsewhere. Originality/value: The approach used and the emphasis on international cooperation illustrate ways in which a multi-stakeholders project may be successfully undertaken. (Contains 2 figures and 1 note.)
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the behavioral barriers to sustainable action in a campus community. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reports three different methodological approaches to the assessment of behavioral barriers to sustainable actions on a college campus. Focus groups and surveys were used to assess campus members’ opinions about the barriers that limit sustainable behaviors on campus. After identifying general barriers, behavioral assessment was used to assess specific barriers to energy conservation in a target location on campus and to develop an intervention to reduce energy use for that location. Findings – Across methodologies, four key behavioral barriers to sustainable actions were consistently reported: communication/awareness, inconvenience, financial concerns and lack of engagement. The intervention that was developed targeted the barriers of communication issues and lack of awareness and resulted in reduced energy use for a target campus location. Originality/value – This paper highlights the value of assessing barriers to ongoing sustainability efforts using multiple methods and using this information to develop an intervention to foster behavioral change. The paper also highlights strategies that have been implemented to address some of the barriers which were identified.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of sustainability information and strategies to change pro-environmental (pro-e) behavior with introductory environmental science laboratory students. Design/methodology/approach – A one-group pretest posttest study was used to evaluate a two-hour workshop in which 30 participants were instructed in sustainability education and behavior change strategies. Participants implemented self-management strategies and tracked their energy use every week for two weeks following the pro-e training. Findings – A significant difference between participants’ baseline and Week 2 energy use assessments was found. The results suggest that the pro-e training increased participants’ energy conservation behavior for their targeted device. Moreover, participants decreased their energy usage for other measured electronic devices, suggesting generalization of treatment effects. Research limitations/implications – A sizable savings in energy was realized across all participants and devices (approximately 300 hours). However, there was no control group in this one-group pretest posttest study and the effect of reactivity cannot be discounted. Practical implications – This research suggests that behavior change strategies may be effective at improving pro-e behaviors. The relative ease and low cost of delivering the instruction, and minimal effort on the part of the participant to make behavior changes, provides a solid foundation from which to disseminate sustainability education. Originality/value – This paper describes a preliminary evaluation of a behavior change approach to teach students about how to change their pro-e behaviors. Limited prior research has examined self-management to alter pro-e behavior.
 
Article
Purpose – This study aims to identify the current barriers to sustainability in the bioscience laboratory setting and to determine which mechanisms are likely to increase sustainable behaviours in this specialised environment. Design/methodology/approach – The study gathers qualitative data from a sample of laboratory researchers presently conducting experimentation in the biological sciences. A questionnaire, regarding sustainability in the laboratory, was developed and distributed to all bioscience researchers at Aberystwyth University. Findings – Although the majority of respondents had favourable attitudes to sustainability, almost three-quarters (71 per cent) stated that they were not conducting their research in the most sustainable way possible. The factors most likely to hinder sustainable behaviour were lack of support, lack of information and time constraints. However, monetary costs and benefits, closely followed by “other” costs and benefits, were most likely to encourage sustainable behaviour in the laboratory. Research limitations/implications – There is a need to extend the present research to other types of biological research, such as field-based studies. Different biological disciplines may have different consumable requirements and waste streams, thereby changing the barriers to sustainability observed. Practical implications – The findings have immediate practical implication for higher education institutions wishing to adopt researcher-approved mechanisms to reduce the environmental impact of biological laboratory research. Originality/value – This is the first study to design a sustainability questionnaire which is specific to research scientists and laboratory users. The paper is therefore of immense value to the numerous global higher education institutions with working laboratories which seek to minimise the environmental impact of research.
 
Carbon dioxide emissions for campus and distance learning courses (average kg CO 2 per student per 10 CAT points)  
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to summarise the methods and main findings of a study of the environmental impacts of providing higher education (HE) courses by campus-based and distance/open-learning methods. Design/methodology/approach – The approach takes the form of an environmental audit, with data from surveys of 20 UK courses – 13 campus-based, seven print-based and online distance learning courses – covering travel, paper and print consumption, computing, accommodation, and campus site impacts. Results were converted into energy and CO2 emissions per student per 100 hours of degree study. Findings – Distance learning HE courses involve 87 per cent less energy and 85 per cent lower CO2 emissions than the full-time campus-based courses. Part-time campus HE courses reduce energy and CO2 emissions by 65 and 61 per cent, respectively, compared with full-time campus courses. The lower impacts of part-time and distance compared with full-time campus courses is mainly due to a reduction in student travel and elimination of much energy consumption of students’ housing, plus economies in campus site utilisation. E-learning appears to offer only relatively small energy and emissions reductions (20 and 12 per cent, respectively) compared with mainly print-based distance learning courses, mainly because online learning requires more energy for computing and paper for printing. Research limitations/implications – Assumptions were made in order to calculate the energy and emissions arising from the different HE systems. For example, it was decided to include all the energy consumed in term-time accommodation for full-time campus students while part-time campus and distance learning students live at home, only requiring additional heating and lighting for study. Future studies could include more distance and blended learning courses offered by institutions other than the UK Open University and impacts other than CO2 emissions. Practical implications – Existing HE sustainability programmes should be broadened beyond considering campus site impacts and “greening the curriculum”. Indeed, were HE expansion to take environmental impacts seriously, then part-time and distance education should be prioritised over increasing full-time provision. This appears compatible with the Leitch Review of Skills on continuing education and training for the UK workforce. Originality/value – The paper is the only existing quantitative study of this issue.
 
Online meetings required to eliminate the need for the South Campus Parking Lot. 
illustrates the minimum percentage of online meetings required for given percentages of hybrid courses at SJSU to allow the removal of the South Campus Parking 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the relationship between hybrid classes (where a per cent of the class meetings are online) and transportation-related CO 2 emissions at a commuter campus similar to San José State University (SJSU). Design/methodology/approach – A computer model was developed to calculate the number of trips to campus for a student body similar to SJSU. Different scenarios considered the theoretical effectiveness of implementing a hybrid course system to reduce CO 2 emissions. Findings – Increases in hybrid courses resulted in decreased student trips to campus and associated CO 2 emissions. The utility of such a relationship is demonstrated through a case study where the required increase in online class meetings needed to eliminate the need for an overflow parking lot is studied. Finally, preferential scheduling of online meetings can further reduce trips to campus. Research limitations/implications – A limitation of the model is that student schedules are random. Future research could use actual student schedules to better model how online course delivery will affect trips to campus. Practical implications – As today’s universities struggle with financial pressure, online course delivery is being offered as a way to cope. This analysis provides an additional metric to evaluate online courses and includes other potential financial savings. Social implications – Transportation contributes to local air pollution and emissions of heat-trapping gases. As universities move toward more sustainable behaviors, reducing automobile trips to campus can be seen as a priority. Originality/value – To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to model the relationship between hybrid courses and CO 2 emissions at an urban university. This information will be valuable to the SJSU community, as well as many other institutions.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practical realities of using a college seminar to fulfill the carbon audit requirement for signatories to the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment (ACUPCC) and presents evidence of this approach's advantages as an educational and practical tool. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews the course structure and presents research findings, based on student questionnaires on student learning outcomes. Findings – Structuring a course around a campus carbon audit has unique educational advantages for students and practical advantages for ACUPCC signatory campuses. Originality/value – This paper enumerates the concrete advantages to using a college class to conduct a greenhouse gas emissions inventory and provides evidence of valuable learning outcomes for students in such a class.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report an attempt to quantitatively evaluate pedagogies designed to help learners clarify their personal values systems in a sustainability context. Design/methodology/approach – A pre-test/post-test survey was used to assess shifts in values orientations among 113 undergraduates from the same discipline, following the completion of intensive values-based sustainability training workshops. Findings – The results indicate that small but statistically significant shifts in participant perceptions of their personal values orientations occurred, particularly in relation to values correlating with sustainability. Research limitations/implications – The survey data were collated in six separate groups, potentially introducing unforeseen variables. As value types, rather than individual values, were used as the basis of the survey, there could be variations in participant perception and understanding of the value-type labels. Practical implications – No control group was possible because the training intervention was a compulsory aspect of the participants’ degree programme, and the surveys were administered by the participants’ tutor, which could lead to “teacher” bias. Social implications – This research evaluates pedagogies aiming to allow individuals to clarify their values and better understand the motivational role these have in influencing “sustainable” behaviour. The research can inform the design and execution of “holistic” educational and training programmes seeking to help individuals understand their personal role in creating a more sustainable future. Originality/value – The originality of this research lies in the quantitative analysis of values-specific education for sustainable development pedagogies. Findings point to the need for further research to assess the application of the pedagogies across different disciplines.
 
Article
Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in SCM were investigated through a secondary data literature review. Findings: Wal-Mart's best practices in SCM can be categorized into four segments: strategic concepts, logistics and distribution, information technology, and supplier collaboration. The company's technology, outsourcing, and collaboration practices are particularly useful in higher education. Research limitations/implications: The adoption of Wal-Mart's best practices was investigated for only one service industry (higher education). Future research could apply these practices to other service industries, such as hotels and transportation. Practical implications: Higher education is looking for best practices to help control costs and can learn from Wal-Mart's best practices. Originality/value: Past research has focused on applying the best practices of other colleges and universities to higher education. Benchmarking Wal-Mart's best practices can add further value to the sustainability of higher education.
 
Article
This paper introduces a new distance learning course, “Working with our environment: technology for a sustainable future”. An inter-disciplinary team within the Technology Faculty of the Open University developed this undergraduate course, which enrols over 1,500 students per year. One of the overall course aims is to help students understand how the use of technology to meet human material needs contributes to environmental effects. The process of producing this course, its philosophy, aims and design will be briefly discussed. At the start of the course a lifestyle environmental assessment activity, called EcoCal, is integrated within students’ study materials. The activity enables students to assess the main impacts on the environment arising from their own households’ consumption of transport, energy, food and water and production of waste. Through the use either of a printed questionnaire or publicly available software students can calculate their “ecological footprints” and then consider and model the effects of changes to their lifestyles. Through the combination of undertaking this activity and submitting an appropriate assignment, students are encouraged to think critically and creatively about their personal and household impacts on the environment and how these might be reduced. At the end of the course students are surveyed to explore whether their attitudes and behaviour have changed.
 
Article
Describes how first-year civil engineering students interpreted the content and structure of an ecology course. Students' learning processes were analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective that takes into account the students' educational aims and conceptions of the study situation. Interviews were carried out with six civil engineering students who had taken the ecology course. Classroom observations were carried out and the dialogue between the lecturers and the students recorded. Interviews were transcribed and analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. meaning is ascribed to the students' actions and utterances in terms of intent. Students contextualised the content of the ecology course in different ways--within natural science, cultural, social and political, applied and professional, and existential contexts. Students found the content of the ecology course to be a question of value judgement. Also, among the students there were feelings of accusation on behalf of engineers as professionals. Learning processes among the students were analysed in terms of contextual awareness and contextual inconsistency. Students mainly enhanced their knowledge in the sense that they tended to elaborate concepts solely on an empirical level and learned more facts. Suggests that environmental issues can be seen and dealt with from natural science, social science and philosophical perspectives, and that it is important that these different perspectives are explicitly addressed on a meta-level. The tendency to enhance the amount of content matter to be taught without considering the meta-level issues can cause the students problems in their efforts to learn. Suggested that the premises for teaching certain content should be made explicit by the teacher. To know why certain content has been included in the teaching may be of considerable help for the students in formulating relevant learning projects.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the need for integrating a focus on digital literacies and digital ethics into sustainability education, proposing a conceptualization of these for sustainability education. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on relevant literature in the field of sustainability education and in the field of digital literacies and digital ethics. It synthesizes perspectives in both fields to form a conceptualization of digital literacies and digital ethics for sustainability education. Findings – The paper conceptualizes “digital literacies” as a capacity to reflect on the nature of digital space in relation to sustainability challenges and “digital ethics” as a capacity to reflexively engage with digital space in ways which build rich discourses around sustainability. Critically reflective and exploratory activities in digital space are a means of developing these capacities. Originality/value – The conceptualization allows sustainability education to account for the increased role digital space plays in shaping views of sustainability challenges. It proposes a pedagogical approach to doing this.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to present the authors’ views on education for responsible consumption (ERC) in higher education, and deals with major components to be considered to educate students for responsible consumption. Design/methodology/approach – There are three components that seem relevant for ERC in higher education: taught courses should be closely linked with research being carried out into responsible consumption, ERC should focus on a global approach to reducing ecological impacts by changing consumption behaviour and the diversity of situations in terms of specific characteristics of local administrative areas and populations must be properly understood to adapt ERC messages and actions to significant local features. Findings – The diversity of modes of consumption and the complexity inherent in responsible consumption mean that the issue of ERC has to be considered from a global, cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspective. In the educational context, the wide variety of students, although creating some difficulties in terms of teaching, is nevertheless a positive factor, as it provides a cultural mix and encourages the appropriation of responsible consumption issues by all. Regarding the effectiveness of this type of ERC in achieving the expected outcome of reducing ecological impacts, assessment tools have to be introduced from student level to the level of the local authority as a whole. Originality/value – To reinforce these concepts and recommendations, this article highlights the master’s degree in “Human ecology: environmental challenges of the activities of production and consumption” (University of Bordeaux, France). This course is the only one in France to cover the issues involved in responsible consumption using a cross-disciplinary approach.
 
Article
Purpose – To show the key points of a development education program for engineering studies fitted within the framework of the human development paradigm. Design/methodology/approach – The bases of the concept of technology for human development are presented, and the relationship with development education analysed. Special attention is dedicated to the role of case studies in engineering courses. After that, the development education program pushed by the Civil Engineering School of Barcelona and Engineering without Borders is explained, focusing on two major contributions: two optional courses about international aid and development and nine classroom case studies about different technologies used in real co-operation projects. Findings – This work provides a conceptual basis for incorporating development education into engineering studies, a general overview of different activities promoted in Spanish technical universities and practical information about optional courses and classroom case studies. Research limitations/implications – The proposal is based on the experience in Spanish engineering curricula (mostly in five-year degrees). Some of the topics covered by the courses and the case studies can be better adapted at postgraduate level in three- or four-year degrees. Practical implications – It is shown that development education can be incorporated into engineering studies through different specific non-expensive activities. Originality/value – This work presents and puts in context the development education activities pushed coordinately between a non-governmental organization and an engineering school. Thus, it can be of major interest for both teachers and workers of the international development field. Peer Reviewed Postprint (author’s final draft)
 
Article
The purpose of this paper is to review and highlight some recent examples of embedding education for sustainable development (ESD), within science and related curricula in ways that are meaningful and relevant to staff and students and reflect on different embedding strategies and discourses. A review of recent selected UK and international teaching and learning practice drawing on an expert workshop and link to wider debates about student competencies and embedding ESD in the curriculum. There are a number of practical ways of bringing sustainable development into science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) related subjects. Successful implementation requires linking teaching activities to the core activities of the STEM discipline. Reformist approaches to curriculum re-orientation are more likely to be successful than calls for radical, transformational models. Embedding ESD into the core curricula of STEM subjects is potentially difficult. This paper highlights practical ways of doing this which can be adopted and introduced within the mainstream of STEM curricula and have a greater chance of being taken up than bolt-on approaches. The treatment of ESD in STEM subjects is relatively under-developed compared to social sciences, humanities and subjects allied to environment. The economic and social significance of STEM subjects means that STEM-related subjects are integral to sustainable development and therefore STEM education must be re-oriented to sustainable development.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent and type of extra-curricular ESD-related practice in UK universities and to record opinions about the utility of such work. Design/methodology/approach - A postal questionnaire survey of all UK universities was undertaken in 2006. Over half (51 per cent) of the UK's 140 universities with degree-awarding powers responded. Findings - Extra-curricular ESD-related interventions were found to be widespread and in 31 per cent of cases were the primary approach to ESD. Respondent opinions highlight a paradox whereby the voluntary nature of extra-curricular interventions can both extend and limit the reach of ESD. Research limitations/implications - The survey approach gathers impressions of UK practice at one point in time, only. Further case study research to look at the impact of such practice is now under way. Practical implications - In the UK, much recent work to support ESD has focused on efforts to support curriculum change. The paper suggests that attention should also be directed at the extra-curricular sphere in parallel. Originality/value - This paper partly fills a gap in the literature, there being little empirical enquiry into extra-curricular ESD in higher education.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debate about the relevance of sustainability in management education through exploration of the needs and expectations of a key group of business schools’ stakeholders – senior executives of leading corporations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents findings from a survey regarding sustainability within management education returned by executives from a wide span of global companies. The study includes 194 survey responses by senior executives from companies that are signatories of the United Nations Global Compact. Findings – Results from a survey of executives from leading multinational enterprises reveal widespread recognition that sustainability issues are increasingly important for effective management, thus that managers must be appropriately trained for these emerging challenges. Survey results also indicate the kinds of skills and qualities seen as valuable by corporate leaders. Research limitations/implications – It is not possible to extrapolate from this study the aggregate sentiment of all senior business executives, but the sample of 194 respondents is significant. Practical implications – The expressed demand from business leaders provides context for business school faculty and administrators involved in the development of appropriately trained professionals. Originality/value – The study provides indication of demand from a significant subset of influential executives, providing support for the on-going progress of the integration of sustainability topics and training in the curricula of business and other fields.
 
Article
The Design for the Environment Multimedia Implementation Project – demi – links design and sustainability information in a Web-based resource and was set up in response to a number of UK Government reports which highlighted the dearth of knowledge and activity about sustainability in higher education design courses across the country. This paper details the design and development of demi, discussing its content, structure and educational potential. Also included is an investigation of design and sustainability pedagogy, which discusses the importance to the demi Web-resource of a sustainability (rather than design) context and an exploration of the possible transferability of the demi structure to other disciplines, promoting practical and widespread action in education for sustainability.
 
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This article has no abstract
 
Article
The Institution of Engineers Australia (Engineers Australia) believes that it is critically important for all engineers, regardless of their discipline, to have an understanding of sustainability issues and opportunities to fulfil this role in society. The Environment College of Engineers Australia (the College) has also been proactively engaged in developing material, through collaboration with The Natural Edge Project (TNEP). In 2003, the College provided a grant to TNEP to develop an Introductory Module as part of a larger initiative called of the TNEP Engineering Sustainable Solutions Program: Critical Literacies Portfolio (ESSP:CLP). This paper provides summary of the trial process that was undertaken in the Australian teaching Semester 1, 2005. Key findings from the trial are presented and review requirements are identified for the Module. No Yes
 
The Sustainability Helix (Hargroves and Smith, 2005).
Article
Purpose – This paper seeks to provide details of Griffith University's (GU) approach for sustainably dealing with electronic waste (e-waste) and the benefits of using the e-waste programme as a valuable educational case study for ESD. Design/methodology/approach – The e-waste programme is explained with reference to key resources and literature, so as to provide a practical approach for any organisation looking to sustainably manage its e-waste stream. The rationale and structure for the e-waste educational case study is also presented so that other academics may use it as a template or study aid within their own teaching. Findings – The paper provides references to web resources and GU internal resources so that readers can access valuable information, and to show how those resources can be applied to their own organisation. The paper also identifies and discusses the factors which may hinder the implementation of a sustainable e-waste programme. Research limitations/implications – The paper has been written to be as succinct and as accessible to readers as possible and, as such, has not presented each of the aspects of the sustainable e-waste programme in depth. This information, for those requiring more detail, is accessible through the resources presented. Practical implications – The paper is a useful source on how e-wastes can be sustainably managed by Universities and presents a modelled approach. Originality/value – This paper highlights an individual response to an increasingly complex and potentially polluting and unsustainable waste stream. It provides a practical institution-wide approach for dealing with e-wastes; and in particular, raises the awareness of the issues associated with e-waste to those institutions who may not be aware. Yes Yes
 
Article
Introduces the special issue on “Stories of transformation” in higher education (HE). Highlights that transformation in HE involves multi-disciplinary and applied orientations to curriculum change, which break down the modernist dichotomy of theory and practice. Also highlights the significance of change processes that are value-based and require the involvement of committed individuals and groups that are prepared to engage the often rhetorical nature of declarations and institutionalized commitments to sustainable development. Also highlights the absence of theorizing about change and action in institutional contexts amongst academics involved in transformation towards sustainable development in HE institutions.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of managing the major environmental costs from an accounting perspective. The current state of practices for managing the costs associated with the consumption of electricity, water and paper, as well as the generation of wastes within three universities in Taiwan, was investigated. The costs mentioned above were termed “major” environmental costs for the purpose of this study. Design/methodology/approach – Being an exploratory study, the paper followed a qualitative, case study methodology. A multiple‐case design was chosen and three Taiwanese universities were investigated. The major source of data collection was through face‐to‐face interviews. However, available resources were also examined, such as the charts of accounts, annual reports, strategic plans, sustainability reports and information disclosed on the web‐pages of the three universities. Findings – The findings demonstrated that there appeared to be a general absence of environmental management accounting (EMA) utilisation to manage the major environmental costs by the three universities. Efforts to improve environmental performance, in particular from an accounting perspective, were still lacking. Originality/value – The study contributes significantly to the following areas: providing specific information about how the major environmental costs are accounted for and managed; identifying limitations of current management accounting systems being used for the purpose of managing environmental costs; and extending the applicability of EMA to the higher education (HE) sector.
 
Article
Purpose – Universities can provide a leadership role to develop and mobilize knowledge to meet societal needs. In fulfilling this mission, universities can also serve as agents of sustainable development on campus and in communities they serve. The purpose of this article is to describe the drivers that have advanced the University of British Columbia Okanagan campus' operational and academic sustainability objectives; the initiatives and partnerships developed on campus and in the community in response to these drivers; and the outcomes and lessons learned. Design/methodology/approach – This article summarizes the experience of the University of British Columbia Okanagan campus in leveraging key drivers to develop sustainability initiatives and partnerships for greater operational efficiencies, cost savings, environmental stewardship and applied research. The university's leadership commitment to sustainability, economic opportunities and provincial legislative requirements are among the drivers discussed. This paper also provides an innovative partnership framework to support sustainable community development. Findings – Drivers of sustainability in higher education can contribute to the development of sustainability initiatives and partnerships that benefit institutions and communities and achieve operational and academic sustainability mandates. Practical implications – This article provides information that can be applied by institutions of higher education to advance sustainability within the context of current economic conditions and societal needs. Originality/value – The experience of the campus and the partnership framework presented in this paper is original. The framework provides a mechanism to engage students, faculty and the community in sustainable community development research. Key insights from multiple perspectives and lessons learned are shared.
 
Article
Purpose ‐ University campuses behave as complex systems, and sustainability in higher education is best seen as an emergent quality that arises from interactions both within an institution and between the institution and the environmental and social contexts in which it operates. A framework for strategically prioritizing campus sustainability work is needed. This paper seeks to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach ‐ First, a conceptual model is developed for understanding institutions of higher education as systems. Second, a leverage points framework is applied to experiences at the University of Vermont in order to evaluate campus sustainability efforts. Finally, real-world examples are used to analyze and prioritize campus sustainability leverage points for advancing organizational change. Findings ‐ This systems thinking approach identifies key leverage points for actions to improve sustainability on campus. The leverage points framework is found to be valuable for: evaluating the potential of individual programs or actions to produce system-wide change; coordinating individual programs into a strategic effort to improve the system; and making connections between campus and the surrounding social and environmental contexts. Advancing campus sustainability is found to be strengthened by particular ways of thinking and an organizational culture committed to continuous improvements and learning improved ways of doing business based on environmental and social, as well as institutional, benefits. Originality/value ‐ Campus sustainability workers must develop a prioritization process for evaluating which ideas to move forward on first. Systems thinking can cultivate our ability to consciously redesign and work with the systems that are in place, to intentionally pursue organizational improvements, and to plan and coordinate sustainability programs with potential for big changes.
 
Article
Purpose ‐ The aim of the present study is to contribute to the discussion introducing the concept of social capital as a significant parameter influencing students' perceptions concerning greening initiatives in HEIs. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A theoretical analysis is presented concerning the possible links of social capital components with students' perceptions on environmental management initiatives. Furthermore, the results of an empirical study are presented exploring these issues from the perspective of students, both through quantitative and qualitative social research methods. Findings ‐ The empirical study reveals that students' social capital is connected with their perceptions for the environmental management of the university. Social implications ‐ The paper underlines the importance of examining and taking into consideration social factors prior to the implementation of environmental management initiatives in HEIs, in order to increase their effectiveness. Originality/value ‐ The paper is a first attempt to empirically explore the influence of students' social capital on their perceptions for environmental management initiatives in higher education institutions.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how a cohort of university faculty leaders in Canadian universities conceptualize sustainable development, sustainable universities, the role universities play in achieving a sustainable future, key issues facing the university, and the barriers to implementing sustainability initiatives on campus. Design/methodology/approach – Research was collected through in‐depth interviews with university faculty leaders from university members of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Interviews included both closed and open‐ended questions and two checklists focused on sustainable development and sustainable universities. Interview transcripts are analyzed through the identification of respondent themes and using N'Vivo software. Findings – The majority of participants demonstrated they had previously given thought to their own understanding of sustainable development, but less had thought about the term sustainable university. The majority of participants would like to see their institutions incorporate sustainability in the avenues of education, research and daily operations. Participants agreed that the most obvious barriers to sustainability were financial and that leadership, incentive and demand are required to move forward with improving sustainability at universities. Originality/value – There are few studies that explore the conceptualizations of sustainability, what constitutes a “sustainable university” and what role universities should play in achieving sustainability held by major stakeholders, including faculty leaders. Higher education scholars share a reasonably common understanding of these concepts, but if universities are accountable for creating a sustainable future, all university stakeholders too must share a common understanding. This paper attempts to make a contribution to this significant gap in the literature.
 
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to argue that Richard Register's ecocity model offers a strategic framework to help guide sustainability initiatives in North American higher education (HE) institutions. Design/methodology/approach ‐ This conceptual paper examines the theory of the ecocity and investigates the implications for its proposed building strategies for university and colleges, as institutions seek to create more sustainable campuses. The paper examines previous efforts to achieve sustainability and how the concept of the eco-campus can be practically and productively applied. Findings ‐ There is no single campus that has fully embraced every facet of sustainability, but numerous HE institutions are strong leaders in diverse areas. The eco-campus model provides concrete principles that proactively address HE institutions' ecological footprints and develops sustainable community practices. Social implications ‐ Sustainability is a pressing social issue. As world leaders in research, innovation, and education, universities and colleges are key places to address this global issue and foster progressive action within current and future generations. The eco-campus approach represents an opportunity to initiate a cultural paradigm shift, whereby university and colleges become global leaders in sustainability. Originality/value ‐ While sustainability is now a cornerstone of research and teaching, North American HE institutions are faced with the challenge of realigning institutional practices, processes and resources to fully institute sustainability on campus. The eco-campus model provides an innovative guide around which to hinge the development of sustainable institutional practices, structure progressive action, and foster meaningful change.
 
Article
The authors would like to thank Warren T. Byrd, Mary Guzowski, Margot McDonald, Steven Moore, Brook Muller, Donald Watson, and Vivian Loftness for their valuable input during the symposium at the Pennsylvania State University. The authors also recognize Denson Groenendaal for his dedication to CECA and contribution to the history of environmentally conscious design education. Support for the symposium on environmentally conscious design – educating future architects was generously provided by the Raymond A. Bowers program for excellence in design and construction of the built environment, Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence, the Penn State College of Arts and Architecture, and the Stuckeman School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture.
 
Article
Purpose – The University of Saskatchewan (UofS) has indentified five areas of campus life critical to improving the university's sustainability performance: education, research, operations, governance, and community engagement. In recognition of the need to track and assess the university's performance in all of these areas, a study was conducted to identify an effective sustainability‐benchmarking tool for the UofS. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – In order to indentify an effective benchmarking tool for assessing sustainability for the context of the UofS, two academic‐focused tools and two tools with a broader scope were reviewed. The academic tools are Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Campus Sustainability Assessment Framework (CSAF), while the general tools are the College of Sustainability Report Card (CSRC) and the Sustainability Tracking Assessment and Rating System (STARS). Each tool was rated on the basis of 27 questions developed to directly relate to indicators of sustainability in the five areas of campus life. The highest rated tool was recommended as the most effective tool for assessing and tracking sustainability for the UofS. Findings – Each benchmarking tool was developed to address specific goals. Accordingly, one tool may have strength in one area but weakness in another area. The study has shown that CSRC is the best tool for addressing governance and operations, although overall CSRC earned the lowest score in terms of its potential application to the UofS as it is not an effective tool for addressing sustainability in the context of education and research. Both academic tools – SAQ and CSAF – do not adequately address issues of sustainability in campus operations. STARS obtained the highest scores in all areas of campus life. Hence, STARS was identified as the most effective tool for assessing and tracking sustainability in all areas of campus life at the UofS. Originality/value – Extrapolating from the UofS assessment, the STARS would appear to be the most effective benchmarking tool for assessing and tracking sustainability for higher educational institutions that want to assess and track sustainability across the breadth of campus life in education, research, operations, governance, and community engagement.
 
By percentage, where juniors and freshmen purchased the majority of their textbooks in spring 2010 and in their first semester 
By percentage, overall junior and freshmen claims regarding the fate of their printed course material after the semester 
Article
Purpose – A survey of students in different undergraduate majors and years asked where they bought their textbooks, the types of electronic devices they used, and their post-class use of textbook material. The research goal was to determine the groups of students likely most receptive to e-textbooks and to assess the potential environmental benefits of e-textbook adoption. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – The student population of freshmen and juniors registered at Michigan State University were surveyed via e-mail/online in summer 2010. 477 freshmen (7.8 percent of surveyed) and 652 juniors (10.2 percent of surveyed) responded. Responses were grouped together into seven categories by student major. Findings – Surveyed students used far more print textbooks than e-textbooks. Laptops were the dominant student device and their future promise for e-textbook use is limited. The higher-than-expected rate of e-waste generation by students indicates that the environmental benefits of e-textbook adoption may be limited without improvements in e-waste management. However, results suggest that students from all majors and years were willing to experiment with different textbook vendors, so if functionality and cost incentives are improved, e-textbook adoption will likely be a widespread campus phenomenon. Originality/value – Research on e-textbooks often focuses on educational value or student preference; this research instead provides results assessing whether current e-device use on campus will support e-textbooks and whether adopting e-textbooks will have an environmental benefit over print textbooks. The study also reveals that many students learn to adapt their purchasing behavior with experience, and that this trend is widespread throughout all majors.
 
Article
Purpose – The literature on climate change knowledge and attitudes has focused on primary and secondary school children. The limited research on college students is dated or narrowly focused. This study aims to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of views about climate change across a wide range of current college students. Design/methodology/approach – The authors surveyed college students in a sample of lower- and upper-division courses in three content areas: knowledge and attitudes about climate change, intentions to reduce their personal greenhouse gas emissions, and student satisfaction with the amount of current teaching at the university about climate change and suggestions for improvement. Findings – A strong majority of respondents believe that climate change is real and largely human-induced; a majority express concern about climate change. Yet, students in the sample hold misconceptions about the basic causes and consequences of climate change. Research limitations/implications – Further research is warranted to understand the college population, so educators can improve and target their educational efforts to the students most in need. Practical implications – Higher education needs to expand its educational efforts to ensure that all university graduates understand scientific consensus about climate change and are actively engaged as part of the solution in their public and private roles. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the literature by providing a broad portrayal of college student knowledge and engagement with climate change issues, at least for students on one campus. The study is the first to observe noteworthy differences in climate change understanding and concern between college women and men and across academic majors. It is the only study that asks college students how they would like to learn about global warming.
 
A dendrogram describing the relationships between individuals within the occupational therapy programme based on the four contributory tendencies to the overall NEP score  
Article
Purpose ‐ The aim of this paper is to respond to calls for higher education institutions to address sustainability within the curriculum. Institutions that aim to graduate citizens with prescribed attributes relevant to sustainability may need to develop teaching and learning support-programmes appropriate to the varied nature of students' worldviews. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The research described here used the NEP (Revised New Ecological Paradigm) and statistical cluster-analysis to explore if individuals within cohorts of students could reasonably be clustered into subgroups with identified sustainability attributes relevant to the design of learner-support programmes. Findings ‐ All seven programme cohorts in one institution's annual intake clustered into three subgroups with identifiable attributes. Practical implications ‐ The results are discussed in relation to how post-compulsory education institutions can define the sustainability characteristics of their students and to the pedagogic literature that addresses diversity in student groups. Originality/value ‐ The approach may help higher education institutions better understand the needs of individual students within large groups and to develop appropriate support programmes for students with similar attributes and needs.
 
Article
The Commonwealth Government of Australia appears to be moving towards a national policy on environmental education for a sustainable future. Using the new environmental campus of Charles Sturt University in New South Wales as a case study, this paper outlines how one Australian university is providing sustainability in higher education by integrating its designs, operations and teaching practices. In doing so, it shows recent initiatives in the higher education sector and highlights the gap between Commonwealth Government moves to enhance the national effort and what is happening on the ground. It is suggested that this gap exists because the Government outlines a series of actions rather than a set of ethical propositions for development at a local level.
 
Article
Purpose – In the context of universities implementing education for sustainability (EfS), the aim of the research presented here is to review the extent to which capabilities related to sustainability are represented by the capabilities generally sought by employers, and to determine whether these are incorporated in the graduate capability statements of Australian universities. Design/methodology/approach – Based on the discussion of graduate capabilities and those associated with sustainability, a web-based survey of university graduate attribute statements was undertaken. Findings – Generally, Australian universities have established frameworks of graduate capabilities that relate to the broad needs of employers. Of eight capabilities listed as important by employers, six were identified at some two-thirds of universities. Just under half of the universities' statements contained references to sustainability, while all the literature derived sustainability capabilities, except for “systems/holistic thinking”, are represented to some degree. Those most strongly represented included understanding of social justice and equity; skills in communication and cooperation; and having commitment to social justice and equity. Practical implications – Apparently, in Australian universities, the framework for the development of sustainability capabilities is broadly in place, but not all have sustainability capabilities in place. This framework supports the implementation of EfS, but without development of pedagogy to underlie implementation, the authors have little insight about the extent of implementation, and whether graduates leave with sustainability capabilities. Originality/value – Uniquely this research identifies the extent to which Australian universities are providing direction in the development of capabilities related to the requirements of employers, and for sustainability.
 
Article
Purpose – This study examined the relationship between environmental management practices developed at a campus of a Brazilian university (University of Sao Paulo) and the greening of its organizational culture. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – This article presents a theoretical background based on the concepts of environmental management, organizational culture and environmental management in higher education institutions. The main framework of this research is the model proposed by Harris and Crane. Findings – The studied university has an environmental management program that is sometimes constrained in the following ways: the university bureaucracy and hierarchy; the main performance indicators for lecturers and professors are based on scientific production and publication, giving them little time for complementary activities; and some units develop their own environmental management practices, but they are not disseminated as best practices for use by other units. Some academic units showcase the proactive actions of professors who incorporate environmental management into their daily activities. The general perception is that the phrase “environmental management” is almost synonymous with “solid waste management”. Originality/value – This research details the first Brazilian application of the Harris and Crane model. It contributes an original analysis of environmental management and “green” organizational culture of a Brazilian university, an organizational type that has seldom been studied to date.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to identify learning points and inspirations from two different approaches by examining how education for sustainable development (ESD) initiatives are delivered in the University of X in the UK and Tongji University in China. Design/methodology/approach – Through comparison of case studies, the pros and cons of each approach are made clear. The paper adopts semi-structured interviewing among staff and group interviewing among students as its main data collection methods. A snowball sampling strategy is employed to select potential interviewees in addition. Findings – Learning points are drawn from each institution which could be useful in informing the strategy of other higher education institutions. The main learning points for UoX are: first, engage as many students as possible through linking extra-curriculum activities back to the curriculum and offer opportunities for students to take part in campus operations. Second, a project-oriented approach could be employed to enhance interdisciplinary cooperation. The main learning points for Tongji are: pedagogic changes are required to realize a transformative education and additions of more active learning into the curriculum are needed. Third, policy support is necessary to promote the ESD agenda but only when the top-down approach mixes with a bottom-up approach significant changes will happen. Practical implications – ESD is transformative education rather than traditional education. It will guide students to study and live in a more sustainable way, which is promoted in both the formal curriculum and informal areas (including campus greening and extra-curriculum activities) in UoX as a model for developed countries and Tongji as a model for developing countries. As a dynamic whole, both of them comprise students' learning and living experiences in a microcosm of a pilot sustainable community through inter-disciplinary approaches. Originality/value – Little comparative and international research has been done in the field of educational ESD. The research seeks to address the deficiency by comparing the ESD approaches in one British and one Chinese university.
 
Article
Purpose ‐ This study seeks to assess the role that sustainability concerns currently play in educational travel within higher education. Although sustainability issues and initiatives have become popular on campuses across the globe, little has been written specifically about efforts within higher educational travel programs. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The paper conducted an online survey of practitioners in the field of higher education travel about attempts, if any, to incorporate themes of sustainability and sustainable travel into travel programs at the institutions. Findings ‐ In general, the paper found that sustainability-related themes and concerns have yet to develop to the level of campus sustainability. The paper also found three additional themes: a disparity between sustainability in discourse and practice; sustainable measures that focus on local organizations/relationships and external programs; and the financial, marketing and relational offsets associated with the implementation of sustainability. Originality/value ‐ The paper could find no other similar study; thus the paper represents a first glimpse into current efforts to incorporate and address sustainability concerns in higher education travel programs.
 
Article
Purpose – Interdisciplinary approaches to climate change teaching are well justified and arise from the complexity of climate change challenges and the integrated problem-solving responses they demand. These approaches require academic teachers to collaborate across disciplines. Yet, the fragmentation typical of universities impedes collaborative teaching practice. This paper aims to report on the outcomes of a distributed leadership project in four Australian universities aimed at enhancing interdisciplinary climate change teaching. Design/methodology/approach – Communities of teaching practice were established at four Australian universities with participants drawn from a wide range of disciplines. The establishment and operation of these communities relied on a distributed leadership methodology which facilitates acts of initiative, innovation, vision and courage through group interaction rather than through designated hierarchical roles. Findings – Each community of practice found the distributed leadership approach overcame barriers to interdisciplinary climate change teaching. Cultivating distributed leadership enabled community members to engage in peer-led professional learning, collaborative curriculum and pedagogical development, and to facilitate wider institutional change. The detailed outcomes achieved by each community were tailored to their specific institutional context. They included the transformation of climate change curriculum, professional development in interdisciplinary pedagogy, innovation in student-led learning activities, and participation in institutional decision-making related to curriculum reform. Originality/value – Collaborative, non-traditional leadership practices have attracted little attention in research about sustainability education in university curricula. This paper demonstrates that the distributed leadership model for sustainability education reported here is effective in building capacity for interdisciplinary climate change teaching within disciplines. The model is flexible enough for a variety of institutional settings.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to advance the understanding of the role design education plays in sustainable development. It presents a capacity building framework that can be accommodated in various levels of design curriculum development. The framework allows for a macro-view on the key clusters of competencies for ecodesign while allowing for alignment with quantitative and qualitative approaches to evaluation and assessment. The proposed framework does not intend to be universally prescriptive, and it should provide a context for the development bespoke educational programmes and activities. Design/methodology/approach – The research utilises a variety of data sources and methods to provide answers to the research questions. Empirical data were collected through the course of a two-year programme of capacity building with design educators in Wales. This two-year programme incorporated a series of workshops and scoping discussions with teaching staff. Additional data were collected through a literature review and best practice scanning. Thus, the research did not follow a linear process. Instead, it was performed according to an iterative process, evolved by interaction between a theoretical foundation (capacity building, ecodesign education) and empirical material (workshops, literature review). Findings – Design education may need to situate itself away from the traditional art or engineering setting to facilitate greater interdisciplinary learning. This repositioning of design education will allow for multidisciplinary relationships with other schools and communities such as social science, business or planning. There will be a role for the promotion of international design institutes that provide a more concentrated experience of the value of design and design education. Research limitations/implications – This paper sought to explore the context of capacity for sustainable development as it relates to design education. It briefly highlighted some gaps in the literature on capacity building for ecodesign education along with proposing a conceptual framework of key competencies. The intention is to initiate a discussion on the means by which these can be integrated into mainstream design education, lifelong learning and entrepreneurship training. Originality/value – There is no similar framework presented in the literature. Much of the research originates from original research conducted with four universities in a unique programme of capacity building. The paper provides the basis for deeper insights into the interdisciplinary perspectives required. This is something the authors hope to report on this year.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the use of integrated campus sustainability plans at US institutions of higher education. The paper also offers a preliminary framework for the evaluation of these plans. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines 27 campus sustainability plans. It determines the types and characteristics of the institutions that have adopted these plans. It then uses content analysis techniques to determine their typical contents and emphases. Finally, the paper draws on literature pertaining to sustainability plans and plan evaluation to present a preliminary tool for evaluating campus sustainability planning efforts. Findings – Campus sustainability plans in the USA are extremely diverse. Environmental aspects are most prominent in these plans, and social equity aspects are least prominent. Campus operations receive more attention than do academic or administrative aspects. Most campuses have taken an inclusive, campus-wide approach to developing their sustainability plans. The evaluation of these plans should consider both their process and their substance and should account for circumstances unique to higher education. Research limitations/implications – The research is focused on US colleges and universities and may have overlooked some campus sustainability plans that have other titles. Nevertheless, it is a fairly comprehensive analysis of campus sustainability planning efforts to date in the USA. Practical implications – Campus sustainability plans are an important integrative tool. Understanding the details and potential evaluation of these plans can help determine their broader adoption and implementation. Originality/value – As an emerging tool for campus sustainability efforts, sustainability plans allow colleges and universities to examine operational, academic, and administrative functions in an integrated manner. To date, there has been very little scholarly attention to these plans, and no prior attempt to consider how they might be evaluated.
 
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Arnim Wiek
  • Arizona State University
Matthias Barth
  • Hochschule für nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde
Walter Leal Filho
  • Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (Germany) & Manchester Metropolitan University (UK)
Roland W. Scholz
  • Danube University Krems, Faculty of Economics and Globalization
Marco Rieckmann
  • Universität Vechta