International Journal of Stress Management

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1573-3424
Publications
Article
The goal of this study was to enhance understanding of the interconnections between stress, negative mood, and alcohol use. To achieve this goal, daily diary data collected over eight consecutive nights from a nationally representative adult cohort were used to identify if: 1) both daily stress and stress pile-up were associated with increased risk of binge drinking, 2) negative affect mediated associations between stressor variables and binge drinking, and 3) associations among stress, negative affect and binge drinking were moderated by educational attainment as an indicator of socioeconomic status. Results from hierarchical linear models indicated that the odds of binge drinking was higher on days that individuals experienced more severe stressors in contrast to no stress days. Further, the odds of binge drinking also increased as stressors piled-up over consecutive days. There was no evidence indicating that negative affect mediated the effect of stressor exposure on binge drinking. Associations between stressor exposure (both daily stress and stress pile-up) and binge drinking were moderated by educational attainment. The findings of this study are consistent with previous daily process studies examining the association between stress and alcohol. However, the pattern of results from this study suggest that affect regulation researchers need to handle "stress" in a multidimensional way and better situate stressors and individuals stress responses within their social context.
 
Article
At 1 year, 4 years, and 10 years after baseline, late-middle-aged adults reported whether they had successfully resolved their most important stressor of the past year. Compared to individuals who never resolved focal stressors over the 10-year interval, those who always did consistently showed less negative stressor appraisal, less reliance on avoidance coping, and less use of exploratory relative to directed coping responses, independent of type and severity of focal stressor. Less use of exploratory relative to directed coping and having more social resources, fewer health problems, and fewer depressive symptoms at baseline predicted more stressor resolution over the next 10 years. These predictors are promising foci for prospective efforts to optimize ways in which aging adults manage late-life stressors.
 
Article
Predictors of accident behavior among German medical staff revealed that work-related injuries/accidents experienced during a recent 12-month period were significantly related to working hours per week, distance from home to practice, number of dependent children, gender, and job-related stress. The average yearly number of car accidents was predicted by age and number of working hours. Furthermore, driving accidents going to or coming from work during the last year was determined by working climate, hours of work, length of lunchtime break, distance traveled to and from work, number of dependent children, and gender. Physicians working in excess of 48 hours per week displayed significantly more driving accidents but not work-related accidents, and they reported significantly higher levels of job-related stress than those colleagues working fewer than 48 hours per week. The implications of these results are discussed in the framework on risk management in the health services.
 
a and 2b show the specific activities of CuZn SOD and Mn SOD. The results were as follows: (1) an increase in SODs activity occurred in the
Stress-induced change in Na+K+ATPase activity in the rat brain (CTX for cerebral cortex, ST for striatum, HIP for hippocampus). Values are means ± SEM for nine animals. *p < 0.05 vs. control group (KLL).
Stress-induced change in protein carbonyl levels in the rat brain (CTX for cerebral cortex, ST for striatum, HIP for hippocampus). Values are means ± SEM for nine animals. *p < 0.05 vs. control group (KLL).
Article
We studied the role of free radicals on brain oxidative damage in rats after acute immobilization stress (restraint) and mild emotional stress (handling). To investigate brain oxidative damage, CuZn and Mn dependent superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD, Mn SOD) activities, lipid peroxidation (TBARs), Na + K + ATPase activity, protein carbonyl (PrC), and reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG) levels were measured in the cerebral cortex (CTX), hippocampus (HIP), and striatum (ST) of the animals after the two different stress stimuli. Because stress produces abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the intensity of the two stress conditions were measured by plasmatic corticosteroid (COR) levels: particularly, COR levels doubled in handled rats and increased 15-fold in restrained animals. The SOD activities increased in CTX and decreased in HIP of the handled rats, while in ST a significant decrease in handled animals but an increase in restrained animals occurred. TBARs, GSH, and GSSG levels remained unchanged, while an index of glutathione redox decreased significantly in ST of handled animals and in CTX of restrained ones. Na + K + ATPase activity increased significantly in the HIP and ST of both groups of stressed rats. The stress induced a remarkable increase in PrC levels in all studied cerebral areas. These findings provide evidence to support the idea that stress produces oxidants but that the oxidative damage in stress differs in cerebral areas and could contribute to the degenerative mechanism of aging.
 
Article
The relation between political life events and distress was examined with particular emphasis on coping strategies and locus of control as two possible mediators. Subjects were 88 Israeli children. Results partially supported a linear relation between reported impact of exposure and distress. Findings for coping strategies as a mediator suggested, counterintuitively, that greater use of coping strategies is related to more experienced distress. Findings for locus of control as a mediator suggested that subjects with external locus of control experience greater distress, other than in the case of depressive symptomatology. These results indicate that coping strategies and locus of control play a complex role in the stress-outcome relation, the precise nature of which remains to be resolved. Theoretical, clinical and political implications of the findings are discussed.
 
Immobilization stress and/or ADX-induced changes of MDA in the regions of the rat brain (CX: cerebral cortex; CL: cerebellum; PM: pons-medulla oblongata; ST: striatum; MB: midbrain; HY: hypothalamus, and HP: hippocampus). Values are mean + SEM from 7-8 animals. The significance of differences was examined with one-way ANOVA and when P was < 0.05 are shown as connected groups.
Immobilization stress and/or ADX-induced changes of protein carbonyl in the regions of the rat brain (abbrevations are the same as in Fig. 1). Values are mean + SEM from 7-8 animals. The significance of differences was examined with one-way ANOVA and when P was < 0.05 are shown as connected groups.
Immobilization stress and/or ADX-induced changes of oxo8dG in the regions of the rat brain (Abbrevations are the same as in Fig. 1). Values are mean + SEM from 7-8 animals. There were no differences among the four groups evaluated by one-way ANOVA.
Immobilization stress and/or ADX-induced changes in glutamine synthetase activity in the regions of the rat brain (abbrevations are the same as in Fig. 1). Values are mean + SEM from 7-8 animals. Significances were determined with one-way ANOVA and when P was < 0.05 are shown as connected groups.
Immobilization stress and/or ADX-induced changes in DA turnover [(DOPAC + HVA)/DA] in the regions of the rat brain (abbrevations are the same as in Fig. 1). Values are mean + SEM from 7-8 animals. Significance were determined with one-way ANOVA and when P was < 0.05 are shown as connected groups.
Article
The paradox that increased levels of glucocorticoids can either enhance or suppress the organism's defense against stress, has been an obstacle to formulating a unified picture of glucocorticoid function. To clarify the glucocorticoid paradox, we examined male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to immobilization stress and/or bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX), and measured oxidative damage to lipid, protein, and DNA, as well as monoamine neurotransmitter turnover. ADX, which is similar to stress, induces an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, accompanied by increased monoamine neurotransmitter turnover in several regions of the brain of rats. The effect of ADX is greater than that induced by short-term immobilization stress. In addition, ADX enhances stress-induced oxidative damage and increase of monoamine neurotransmitter turnover. These results, together with our previous finding that long-term stress causes oxidative damage to the brain, suggest that stress levels of glucocorticoids, or levels lower than basal, cause oxidative damage. However, basal levels of glucocorticoids appear to buffer against oxidative damage. These findings provide possible mechanisms to understand the glucocorticoid paradox, and support the stress-oxidative hypothesis of aging acceleration.
 
Means, SDs, Ranges, and Cronbach Alpha Levels of the Israeli BSI Subscales (N = 510)
Article
The study aim is to establish Israeli norms for the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). A nationwide representative sample of 510 community respondents (age range 35–65, 51.4% women) completed the Hebrew version of the BSI. The data showed high internal reliabilities for the 9 BSI scales, as well as for their total score, indicated by the General Severity Index (GSI). Higher levels of GSI were found for widowed, divorced, and single respondents than for married respondents. Higher GSI was also found for unemployed and retired men than the self-employed and employees, validating the GSI as a measure of distress. Most importantly, the scores of the Israeli GSI, as well as each of the 9 scales, were higher than those reported in either the U.S. or the British norms. These findings may indicate that Israeli society is experiencing relatively high distress, highlighting the need for establishing BSI norms for each culture.
 
Article
This study examines the influence of aerobic exercise activity, soothing musicnature scenes condition, and suggestion on coping with test-taking anxiety. Sixty test anxious subjects were randomly assigned to four treatment groups consisting of 15-min episodes of exercise or soothing music-nature scenes condition with or without verbal suggestion that the treatment task in which they were engaged would be helpful to them. A videotaped intelligence test used to stimulate test-taking anxiety was given to the subjects after the soothing music-nature scenes condition or exercise tasks. The Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist (MAACL) was used to appraise anxiety during the laboratory procedures. Results indicate that exercise, soothing music-nature scenes condition, and suggestion play a role in reducing anxiety. While relaxation activity proved to be superior to exercise in reducing anxiety immediately following the treatment episode, these differences disappear following exposure to a stressful IQ test and exercise (as well as suggestion) had a better stress inoculation effect than soothing music-nature scenes condition or no suggestion.
 
Article
The study sought to evaluate the influence of gender, hypertension risk, and aerobic fitness on cardiovascular responses to laboratory-induced stress. Sixty nonsymptomatic subjects (30 males, 30 females) participated in the experiment. Half of the subjects had at least one biological parent with hypertension, while half had no parental history of hypertension and served as comparison subjects. Subjects completed a laboratory procedure measuring cardiovascular responses (i.e., pulse rate and blood pressure) while performing stressful laboratory tasks (i.e., the Stroop Color Naming Test and a sham IQ test). Aerobic fitness (i.e., VO2max using the Bruce protocol) was also determined using a submaximal treadmill test in the laboratory. Results suggest that males with a family history of hypertension were more stress responsive based on systolic blood pressure, while females were more stress-responsive according to pulse rate activity. Fitness levels were significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure throughout the stress and recovery periods but were unrelated to pulse rate and systolic blood pressure.
 
Article
This study sought to evaluate the association between perceived and aerobic physical fitness and both psychological functioning and physiological stress responsivity. Sixty nonsymptomatic participants (30 males, 30 females) participated in the experiment. Participants completed a series of personality and mood questionnaires as well as a laboratory procedure measuring cardiovascular responses (i.e., heart rate and blood pressure) while performing stressful laboratory tasks (i.e., the Stroop Color Naming Test and a sham IQ test). Aerobic fitness (i.e., VO 2 max using the Bruce protocol) as well as perceived fitness were also determined. Results suggest that perceived fitness was generally associated with positive personality and mood variables while aerobic fitness was not. Overall results support the view that perception of fitness may be as important or perhaps even more important than aerobic fitness in its association with psychological but perhaps not physical functioning.
 
Article
The present study examined the associations of personal factors and social resources with coping and affective reactions to simulated stressful encounters. The study tested coping strategies and assessments of affect in the context of 'health' and 'work' threats described in 2 vignettes in a sample of 147 community residents. They also completed the Monitor-Blunter Style Scale (MBSS) and a perceived social support scale. The results showed positive associations between active coping and positive affect, and negative associations between avoidant coping and negative affect, replicating previous findings. Most interestingly, neither monitoring/blunting nor social support were directly related to either negative or positive affect, but were differentially related to coping strategies. Monitoring and social support were positively correlated with active coping and support-seeking in both vignettes, while blunting was related positively to avoidant coping, and social support was related negatively to this coping strategy. These results suggest that personal factors and social resources affect the use of coping strategies, rather than the affective reactions to threats, and contribute to our understanding of the stress and coping process.
 
Model of the study. 
Trimmed model. 
Results for Research Models
Article
This article investigates the potential mediating role of job satisfaction between job stressors—namely, role overload-quantitative, role overload-qualitative, and lack of career development—as sources of stress on the one hand, and various facets of organizational commitment—namely, affective, continuance, and normative—on the other hand. A sample of 361 employees in a number of organizations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was used. Path analysis revealed that role overload-quantitative directly and negatively influences both job satisfaction and affective commitment and that lack of career development as a source of stress directly and negatively influences job satisfaction. Findings also suggest that job satisfaction mediates the influences of role overload-quantitative on various facets of organizational commitment. Implications, future lines of research, and limitations are discussed.
 
Article
Prior research has suggested that occupational stressors may contribute to the etiology, progression, and chronicity of pain problems in workers. This study used anonymous survey methods to assess the prevalence and frequency of self-reported pain symptoms and their relationships to demographic variables, sources of occupational stressors, nonwork stressors and affective distress in a large sample (N2000) of employed career public sector firefighters and paramedics. The findings were consistent with those of previous studies of high strain workers. More than 95% of the firefighter/paramedic sample reported at least one pain complaint (using a 1 week assessment time frame). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis entering demographic, occupational, and nonwork stressors, as well as measures of negative affective states targeting total pain scores, yielded significant relationships. Five occupational stressors were associated with respondent pain complaints. The results also suggest that negative affective states mediated the relationships between work and nonwork variables, and pain complaint outcomes. The implications of these findings for the development of preventive interventions for firefighters and paramedics as well as other emergency service workers are considered.
 
Article
A sample of 96 trolley car drivers was used to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior of passengers and burnout, the moderating effect of conflict management behavior of the drivers on this relationship; and the influence of burnout on customer-friendliness, passenger complaints, and absenteeism. The results show that aggressive behavior of passengers was related to all 3 burnout dimensions. The relationship of aggressive behavior of customers and professional efficacy was qualified by 2 significant interactions with 2 conflict management behavior styles: forcing and avoiding. The interactions showed that too much forcing as well as too much avoiding are related to less professional efficacy for drivers confronted with aggressive behavior. Passenger complaints were only related to less professional efficacy. The customer-friendliness of the drivers was related to less cynicism and more professional efficacy. Absenteeism was only related to exhaustion.
 
Article
This study examined the effects of sport participation on mood, including stress, arousal, and psychological reversals. The subjects (N = 42) of the study were enrolled in an international MBA program which included, in addition to a range of academic courses, a course in physical education for which attendance was voluntary. Subjects, 26 sport participants and 16 nonparticipants, completed mood measures on five occasions throughout a typical working day, including just before and just after a sport session. Significant differences on some mood measure items and a number of pre- to post-sport significant effects (seriousmindedness and stress) were found between the sport and non-sport group, as well as reversals in psychological state. These results suggest that sport may well act as a modulator of mood and/or an inducing agent for reversal and therefore may play an important role in stress management intervention programs at work.
 
Article
One-hundred and forty-eight professionals from six Washington D.C. area hospices responded to a questionnaire regarding satisfactions and stresses in AIDS patient care. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 22 of these respondents. Data analysis using descriptive statistics for the questionnaire data and a thematic, phenomenographic approach for the interview data led to the following conclusions: (1) Key satisfactions arose from providing high quality physical and emotional care. Stresses arose from factors which impede good care, from difficulties in patients' support network, and from concerns about infection. (2) Agreement with hospice philosophy, supportive colleagues, and spiritual beliefs heightened satisfaction and mitigated stress. (3) Professionals used multiple, healthy coping strategies to reduce stress. (4) Increased self-knowledge, learning about human differences and needs, and positive changes in personal goals occurred among professionals who perceived these to be a direct, positive effect of caring for AIDS patients.
 
Article
This study examined the relationship between job stress and employees' well-being in a developing country in Asia. Job stress was operationalized in terms of perceived experiences at jobs which were chronic in nature. Employee well-being was operationalized in terms of organizational commitment, job involvement, and job satisfaction. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire from 150 employees working in a national carrier in a developing country in Asia. Pearson correlation and moderated multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Job stress was significantly related to organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Moderated multiple regression did not support the role of gender as a moderator of the stress–outcome relationship.
 
Article
This dual-site longitudinal prospective study monitored and measured change in self-reported occupational stressors, emotional trauma, symptoms of stress, and alcohol consumption in urban firefighters. Study participants were 188 firefighters employed by two urban fire departments. The results showed that of 19 occupational stressors examined, only 5 (26%) changed significantly over time, and of those 5, only two—job skill concerns and concerns regarding reduction in force and benefits—decreased, reflecting less bothersome subjective ratings. Of the 12 measures of posttraumatic and other symptoms of stress, 9 (75%) increased significantly over time and none decreased significantly, whereas alcohol consumption was stable over time. Job stressors, trauma caseness, and stress response symptoms at baseline were strongly and significantly associated with the same measures at the two-year follow-up. The implications of the findings for prevention and remediation of stress disorders in fire service personnel are considered. It can be concluded that the stressful nature of urban firefighting is significantly associated with negative health outcomes, including the potential overreliance on alcohol use.
 
Article
Over the past 20 years, hundreds of studies have examined the construct of coping and its role in the stressor-strain relationship. Although coping is commonly viewed as a buffer in the stressor-strain relationship, multiple alternative models—buffering and direct effects—have been proposed. This study reviews alternative models of coping and then discusses the nature of the empirical support for these models. As a means of efficiently testing the relative soundness of these models, 3 work-related variables that represent a subset of all possible coping mechanisms, stressors, and strains (coworker support, workload, and emotional exhaustion, respectively) are employed. The results suggest that coping resources tend to serve as direct deterrents of strain and, thus, are general health maintenance mechanisms independent of preexisting levels of stressors.
 
Article
This study investigated coping resources (Coping Resources Inventory for Stress), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale) among American and Turkish university students. Results support the use of transactional stress constructs in studying life satisfaction with students in both countries. American and Turkish students did not differ significantly in regard to perceived stress, life satisfaction, or an overall measure of coping resources; however, they did differ significantly regarding specific coping resources. Variables entering regression models for predicting life satisfaction differed for students in the two countries and for the sexes within countries, and these models accounted for between 30% and 62% of variance. Social support and a sense of financial freedom were particularly useful in predicting life satisfaction. Coping resources accounted for 54% of variance in perceived stress. There were significant sex differences for both countries, generally favoring males, in regard to specific coping resources.
 
Article
This study examined psychological distress and functioning among Hurricane Andrew victims who lost their homes and were living in shelters. Four and one-half weeks after Hurricane Andrew struck southern Florida, 89 (45 males, 44 females) Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire asked for information about psychological and psychophysiological symptoms, use of mental health services, coping responses, and extent of preparation for the storm. The findings suggest that loss of home and property were related to distress and depression. About one-quarter of the sample were moderately depressed. Over one-third of the sample reported experiencing psychological and psychophysiological distress. Approximately one-half of the subjects did not take the hurricane warnings seriously. White subjects began preparing earlier for the storm, and evacuated their homes more frequently than did Black subjects. Implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.
 
Article
Twenty-six highly stressed family and community caregivers for people with a disability completed scales designed to assess perceived stress, state anger, and trait anger. They were randomly divided into three groups. Subjects in one group underwent stress-reduction training in a self-instructional procedure, subjects in the second group underwent stress-reduction training in systematic desensitization, and subjects in the third group were placed in a wait-list condition. Results showed that state anger and trait anger were correlated with perceived stress at pretreatment, and state anger was correlated with perceived stress at posttreatment and follow-up. Subjects in both the self-instructional and systematic desensitization groups showed a reduction in perceived stress. Subjects in the self-instructional training group also showed a decrease in trait anger. The wait-list group showed no significant change in perceived stress and anger.
 
Means and Standard Deviations for Energy, Tired, Calm, and Tension Variables
Correlation Matrix for Study Variables PPFS MC ENERGY1 TIRED1 TENSE1 CALM1 ENERGY2 TIRED2 TENSE2 CALM2 ENERGY3 TIRED3 TENSE3 CALM3
Article
This study sought to determine if the stress-reducing benefits of exercise are improved by exercising with others rather than alone. One hundred and thirty-six participants completed a series of questionnaires measuring levels of tension, calmness, energy, and tiredness before exercise, immediately following exercise, and later that day before bedtime. Participants exercised on a laboratory stationary bicycle for 30 minutes at moderate intensity either alone, with another person while talking, or with another person while remaining silent. A series of ANOVA procedures revealed that participants generally experienced more energy and calmness and less tiredness after exercise. Furthermore, exercising with someone resulted in more calmness but also more tiredness than when exercising alone. Males generally reported more positive psychological effects than females. Results suggest that exercise with someone may be calming but more tiring due to a potential increased competition or workload.
 
The Main Characteristics of the Sample (n = 397)
Means, Standard Deviations and Intercorrelations of the Variables of Interest
Path Analysis Results
Article
The present study investigates the antecedents and consequences of job stressors, especially role conflict and role ambiguity, in an environment where multiculturalism is a dominant feature of the workforce. This study used a sample of 397 employees in various manufacturing and service organizations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Path analysis revealed that age is negatively related to role conflict and positively to role ambiguity, and that nationality is positively related to role ambiguity. Results further indicate that role conflict directly and negatively influences job satisfaction, whereas role ambiguity directly and indirectly influences job satisfaction. Role conflict (directly), role ambiguity (directly and indirectly) and positively influence absenteeism. Both role conflict and role ambiguity negatively influence affective and behavioral tendency dimensions of attitudes toward organizational change, while role ambiguity directly and negatively influences cognitive attitude toward organizational change. Implications, limitations, lines of future research, and contributions were discussed.
 
Article
This research examined the relationship of perceived threats to job security, job satisfaction, and psychological mood among recent business school graduates. Most job insecurity research has considered longer-tenured organizational employees. Two hundred and seventeen respondents completed anonymous questionnaires. LISREL analysis provided considerable support for the research model. Perceived threats to job security had direct effects on job insecurity and job satisfaction and indirect effects on psychological mood through job insecurity and job satisfaction.
 
Article
We examined the oxidative damage and antioxidant defense changes with immobilization-induced emotional stress in the rat brain. Though superoxide dismutase activity remained unchanged, brain peroxidation was significantly accelerated by the immobilization stress. Membrane fluidity study with spin labeling in brain cortical membrane showed that immobilization stress induced an increase in microviscosity of membrane layer near the surface and in the ordering of membrane proteins but a decrease in microviscosity at the core of the membrane bilayer. The Na, K-ATPase activity decreased whereas the levels of some monoamines and their metabolites increased along with their metabolic rate. The administration of reduced glutathione showed a protective effect on the immobilization stress-induced stomach bleeding, oxidative damage and abnormal changes in the brain antioxidant defenses. Based on these results and on previous reports, we hypothesize that immobilization stress may induce the formation of reactive oxygen species which weakens the brain antioxidant defenses and induces oxidative damage. The antioxidant administration of reduced glutathione provides further evidence to support the above hypothesis, and also may provide clues in the search for a rational therapy to emotional stress. A possible correlation of emotional stress to aging is also discussed.
 
Article
The study examined the sources of stress encountered by inexperienced compared to experienced teachers. Sixty-nine female teachers in elementary schools and kindergartens in Israel participated in the study. A questionnaire was administered measuring job-related stress factors, emotional involvement in the job and active coping with stress factors. The results show that inexperienced compared to experienced teachers stated that they experience an overall higher level of stress. The major sources of stress for inexperienced teachers are interaction with pupils' parents and workload. Inexperienced teachers are less involved emotionally in their work, especially in regard to incidents of unsatisfactory performance. However, they are similar to experienced teachers in both their emotional reactions to successful performance and in their actions in stressful situations. Since the research design was quasi-experimental, the differences between experienced and inexperienced teachers might be due to other confounded factors such as general life experience. The results are discussed in regard to the adaptive functions of selective emotional involvement.
 
Article
Workplace violence covers a wide spectrum of incidents of aggression that may occur at work. One area of particular concern relates to holdups. This study reviewed all incidents of robbery (holdups and bag snatches) occurring in a quasi-government wagering organization throughout Queensland, Australia between 1990 and August 1993. The study covered 30 robberies, at 28 sites with 34 subjects, 22 of whom consented to complete a questionnaire related to the stressfulness and impact of the event. Most robberies occurred at opening or closing time, at sites situated on a main thoroughfare, predominantly on a Monday. Single males (n =15) or a pair (n =15) mostly carrying a gun were the perpetrators. Nineteen of the 22 victims attended critical incident debriefing and most found this valuable. Only one subject interviewed lost time for stress (and this was the fourth time she had been robbed). One subject not interviewed was hospitalized. Other subjects had minor physical injuries, but suffered emotionally for up to a year after the incident. Recommendations focused on the hierarchy of control (environmental and engineering controls in preference to people-focused change). Additionally training in the normal processes of grief and trauma was recommended.
 
Article
One hundred and eighty-four physicians or General Practitioners (GPs) in the five Divisions of General Practice in Rural New South Wales, Australia, completed scales designed to assess Workplace Stressors, Negative Affect caused by stressors, General Work Stress, Other Stress, and General Health. GP Stress was positively correlated with Negative Affect, General Work Stress, poor Psychological Health, poor Somatic Health, Anxiety, Social Dysfunction, and Depression. Results showed that the Rural GP Stress Scale (scale that assessed the presence of stressors in the GPs' work environment) possessed concurrent or criterion validity. Factor analysis of GP Stress scores revealed Workload, Family and Leisure Considerations, Bureaucratic Interference, Education and Training Considerations, and Professional Isolation as five of the nine major stressors in the GPs' work environment. Re-testing, 4–6 weeks later, revealed that the Rural GP Stress Scale was highly reliable.
 
Article
This study presents a newly developed self-report Posttraumatic Stress Scale (PTSS) based on the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The scale assesses the trauma experienced by people via the specific criteria of reexperiencing, numbing and avoidance, hyperarousal, and functioning. The instrument was validated on 52 Vietnam veteran subjects diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 64 subjects who were attending professional counseling for trauma-related incidents, and 176 subjects who had never been diagnosed with PTSD or had professional counseling. The test survey comprised the PTSS, Beck's Anxiety Inventory, Beck's Depression Inventory, Impact of Events Scale, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and Symptoms Checklist–90R. The test-retest reliability of the scale was assessed over a four- to six-week period. The scale had a high test-retest reliability and showed high convergent and concurrent validity. Construct validity as assessed through the comparison between the three groups was high; however, factor analysis revealed only two factors instead of the three factors assumed in the DSM-IV. Overall, the scale may be used by clinicians or clients.
 
Article
The Ways of Coping Questionnaire (Folkman & Lazarus, 1988) yields eight scales which purport to measure eight unique coping styles. Using Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) this study seeks to find the underlying dimensional structure of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire, using three samples: (1) Folkman and Lazarus' normative sample (1988, N = 150), (2) a Canadian normative sample (N = 385; Sinha, Willson, Madhukar, & Watson, unpublished manuscript), (3) an East Indian sample (N = 199; Sinha et al. , unpublished manuscript). Analysis yields one interpretable dimension which appears to be effective/ineffective coping strategies. To provide a more rigorous comparison, Spearman's rank-order correlations of the MDS solutions were examined, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the eight scales. Some cultural differences are noted between the Canadian normal sample and the Indian sample: although the effective/ineffective dimension is supported across cultures, rank-ordering of the MDS loadings of the eight scales shows that there is only a small correlation between the loadings of these two samples.
 
Significance Test and Fit Indices for Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Scales Designed to Measure Two Workaholic Behavior Dimensions 
Article
This article reports on the development and preliminary empirical testing of two new scales designed to assess workaholic behavioral patterns. One scale assessed employee tendencies to perform nonrequired work (typically, spending time thinking of ways to perform work better), and the other measured tendencies to intrude on and attempt to control the work of others. These scales seem consistent with both conceptual definitions and anecdotal accounts of workaholism. Moreover, the scales were designed to assess behavioral tendencies rather than work attitudes, to circumvent the possibility of rationalization and denial among workaholic respondents, and to be applicable across multiple work contexts. Evidence from a sample of 278 employed respondents indicated that the scales were internally consistent, and represented distinct constructs. The scales also demonstrated evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. For example, scores on the nonrequired work scale correlated positively with hours worked and with the needs for achievement, autonomy, and affiliation. Scores on the control of others scale correlated positively with job involvement, stress, work-nonwork conflict, role conflict, dominance needs, and self-monitoring. In summary, the workaholism scales developed for this investigation appear both reliable and valid and thus potentially able to shed light on the phenomenon of workaholism.
 
Article
The present study examines the relationships between aspects of the concept attendance pressure and sickness absenteeism. The study was carried out in a large public company in Norway during a major reorganization. It was hypothesized that employees with sickness absenteeism during this period would experience a high degree of attendance pressure in the form of reactions from managers, fellow workers, and job insecurity. Two surveys were carried out with the same sample (N=401). Attendance pressure in the form of censure pressure explained significant parts of the variance in sickness absenteeism. Employees with sickness absenteeism during the reorganization were a vulnerable group with low job satisfaction, significant health problems and low personal work ethics. Implications for preventive work on organizational level are discussed.
 
Article
Employees who planned to attend a worksite stress management program (volunteers), those who planned not to attend (nonvolunteers), and those who had participated in worksite stress management training were assessed on the variables of work stressors, perceived stress, and organizational spontaneity (extrarole) behavior. Twelve hundred hospital employees were randomly selected from seven VA hospitals that had been offering a stress management program for at least 5 years. Participants received questionnaire packets in the mail and 461 (38%) of the employees responded. The results showed that volunteers reported significantly more perceived stress than the nonvolunteers. However, volunteers did not report greater frequency or intensity of work stressors. Also, respondents who had participated in past stress training reported less perceived stress than volunteers and significantly more organizational spontaneity behavior than respondents who had not participated in past stress training. These findings suggest that employees who plan to attend stress training have the greatest need and that the stress intervention reduces perceived stress levels and, possibly, affects work behavior.
 
Basal and postexercise levels of Tsal (A) and Csal (B) for the total sample. 
Mean (SD) of Anthropometric Characteristics
A. Baseline, task, and recovery HR in the Stroop task for the total sample. B. Baseline, task and recovery SCL in the Stroop task for the total sample. 
Mean (SD) of Measures in the Bicycle Exercise
A. HR reactivity for high and low Tsal and Csal responders. B. SCL reactivity for high and low Tsal and Csal responders. *p < .05; **p < 0.01. 
Article
This study examined the effects of an acute physical stressor on salivary testosterone (Tsal) and cortisol (Csal) and their relationship with the autonomic responsiveness to a mental task in fit young men (n = 30). Salivary testosterone (Tsal) and cortisol (Csal) levels were determined before and after a maximal bicycle exercise. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance levels (SCL) were continuously recorded before, during, and after a Stroop task. Tsal and Csal levels diminished while HR and SCL increased in response to stressors in all the sample. When subjects were distributed in function of their endocrine response to the physical stressor, high Tsal responders showed higher HR reactivity than low responders, and high Csal responders showed higher SCL reactivity and lower reaction time in the Stroop task. These results show that the influence of an acute physical stressor on hormones is associated with the autonomic responses to a mental task.
 
Hormonal Levels and Mood Scores in Both TSs for Both Teams
Article
Mood and basal hormone levels were measured before and after a 4-month training period in 20 professional basketball players on 2 different teams. Training volume was daily quantified by intensities, showing that Team 1 trained nearly twofold the volume of Team 2. Apart from the lack of differences between teams in anthropometric and physical variables, results showed mood improvements in the total sample without differences between teams. However, cortisol levels decreased in Team 1 and increased in Team 2, while the free testosterone–cortisol ratio, free testosterone, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone did not show significant changes. Changes in cortisol were positively related to depression and negatively related to training volume. Results suggest that differences exist in sensitivity and/or timing of both psychological and hormonal responses to 2 given volumes of training.
 
Article
This study examined the relationship of three types of predictors of self-reported workaholism components and workaholic job behaviors: individual demographics, work situation characteristics, and two substantive workaholism antecedents (personal beliefs and fears, perceptions of organizational support of work-personal life imbalance). Data were collected from 530 women and men managers and professionals using anonymous questionnaires. The three blocks of predictors explained statistically significant but moderate levels of variance in workaholism components and workaholic job behaviors. The two substantive workaholism antecedents showed somewhat consistent relationships with the criterion measures. Participants more strongly endorsing the beliefs and fears and participants perceiving greater organizational support of work-personal life imbalance generally indicated higher levels of workaholism components and workaholic job behaviors.
 
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This article extends the organizational entry and newcomer stress literature by focusing on the importance of building a self-reliant workforce. It posits that newcomer socialization now and in the future requires building a workforce of self-reliant managers and employees who can function effectively in a dynamic, global workplace. This article suggests that socializing workers to be self-reliant helps employees and organizations to thrive in the uncertain economic environment that is the determining factor in the success of today's organizations. It further contends that by reducing ambiguity and increasing employability, employees are likely to suffer less distress and organizations are less likely to pay the price for distressed employees.
 
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Patients with chronic stress and ambiguous symptoms are likely to be more frequent in primary care. Somatizers represent 75.8% of the patients in this study and executives 56% of the sample. Job stressors were present in 78.3% of executive men. This scenario suggests that the primary care physician has to be academically better prepared to fully understand and deal with stress problems in daily clinical practice. The physician must have skills to deal with stress at a curative and preventive level, extending those skills to the workplace.
 
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Occupational stress is a pervasive problem among blue-collar workers, and women employees are especially vulnerable, yet this population is rarely addressed. The study concerns a stress management training program developed for female production workers with little formal education, based on the cognitive approach of Rational-Emotive-Behavioral Training (REBT). Several strategies and teaching aids suitable for such a population are suggested. Twenty-seven women participated in the program. Fourteen of them comprised the waiting-list control group. Burnout, tension, listlessness, cognitive weariness, and work/home conflict were assessed before, at the end, and at 12 months follow-up. At the end of the six-session program, four of the five measures in the experimental group were significantly reduced compared to the control group. At the 12 months follow-up, tension and burnout were still reduced compared to baseline suggesting that REBT can be successfully taught to such participants but booster sessions are required.
 
Article
A survey study was conducted in order to examine the hypothesis that workaholism may be a mode of adapting to a stressful work environment. A questionnaire was distributed to members of the Japan Federation of Automobile Workers' Unions in Japan. A total of 4,621 workers (4,083 men, 509 women, 29 unidentified) returned usable data (response rate = 71.9%). The results of a correlation analysis indicated that work overload-quantity and work overload-quality had significantly positive relations with Driven and little or no significant relations with Enjoyment of work. Blue-collar employees who work in highly structured and controlled environments were less likely to be workaholic than white-collar employees (in particular those in sales divisions). The results of ANOVA indicated that work overload had different effects on workaholism by age groups among blue-collar employees. It was found that work overload increased the degree of Driven and Enjoyment of work for those under 34 years old and it increased Driven and decreased Enjoyment of work for those over 35 years old.
 
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Traumatic experiences associated with the recent war in Bosnia (1992–1995) have impacted the lives of many Bosnian refugees and displaced people. Approximately 25% of Bosnians were forced to leave their homes and resettle in other areas of Bosnia or abroad. In this study, 82 displaced Bosnians living in the area of Tuzla, Bosnia, and 53 refugees living in the San Francisco Bay area completed the same questionnaire in the Bosnian language. The study describes war-related stress and the association of marital status, anxiety, depression, and sensitivity levels. Furthermore, being single, having lower anxiety ratings, finding and adapting to a new environment easily, and moving on with their lives indicated better self-reported health. Findings also revealed that being divorced or separated, better self-reported health, and lower anxiety, depression, and sensitivity ratings were predictors of more effective coping.
 
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Walter Bradford Cannon, M.D., made a significant contribution to psychology and medicine with the discovery of the stress response around 1915, setting the cornerstone for psychosomatic medicine. This brief, introductory article etches out the nature of his contribution and sets the stage for Dr. Bradford Cannon to reflect on his father's important professional contributions and personal life in the following article.
 
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The psychological stress and work satisfaction of two groups of nurses working with clients having brain injuries were assessed and compared with norm groups of people working with other types of injuries and disabilities. Contrary to previously published reports, there was no evidence that the groups in this study were higher on measures of burnout than the selected norm groups. However, work satisfaction was found to be significantly lower for one of the groups when compared not only with the other group but also with the selected norm groups. This lower work satisfaction was associated with significantly lower scores on certain aspects of the work environment when compared with the other group. Results from semi-structured interviews in the study confirmed the importance of the work environment and provided additional information concerning causes of the lower work satisfaction and possible solutions.
 
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Since the burnout syndrome has a negative impact both on the individual affected and the institution in which he/she is employed, it is important to identify the factors which may alleviate the level of burnout. Social support is said to be one of such factors. Our study was undertaken to investigate the influence of social support in the workplace and general social support on relationships between global stress and stress related to role conflict, ambiguity, and overload and burnout components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment). The subjects were 1,023 hospital nurses. The results indicate that burnout level correlates highly with organizational and global stress. The role of social support in determining the level of particular burnout components varied according to the type and scope of support. No reliable correlation was found between emotional exhaustion and social support of any type. The level of depersonalization was related only to general support whereas a personal accomplishment factor was related to both types of support. The study did not reveal a buffering effect of both types of social support on the relationships between stress and components of burnout.
 
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This paper explores the psychometric properties of the Bulgarian version of the OSI. It was found that most of the OSI scales were applicable in a Bulgarian context. In addition, the validity of the OSI Type A scale was confirmed using Jenkin’s Type A questionaire. Further work is needed however if the OSI is to be an appropriate instrument in other Eastern countries.
 
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Three process models of burnout are discussed, Cherniss' process model, Golembiewski's phase model and Leiter's process model. Empirical support for each model is reported. The models make different contributions to the problem of burnout and its development, and the kind of interventions that follow from each model seem to represent different targets. The strengths and weaknesses of the three models are assessed, and the relative merits of individual versus organizational level interventions are addressed. More model-driven research is necessary to reduce the problem of burnout for individuals and organizations.
 
Means, Standard Deviations and Reliability Coefficients of Dependent Variables
One-Way ANOVA Between Shift-'l~jpe and Employees Well-Being Variables
Article
This study examined the relationship between shift-time and employees’ burnout, psychosomatic health, job satisfaction, skill use, intrinsic motivation, and absenteeism. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire from nurses (N=175) working in a psychiatric hospital in a large metropolitan city in eastern Canada. One-way ANOVA,t-tests, and two-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Shift-time was not related to burnout. However, nurses on rotating shifts and night shifts appeared to suffer more seriously than nurses on other shifts in terms of their well-being. Limited support for gender (males vs. females) as a moderator of shift-time and outcome variables was found. Results are discussed in light of the previous empirical evidence on shiftwork and employees’ well being. Implications for management and employees involved with shiftwork are highlighted.
 
Top-cited authors
Wilmar B Schaufeli
Evangelia Demerouti
  • Eindhoven University of Technology
Despoina Xanthopoulou
  • Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
John Astin
  • Santa Clara University
Scott R Bishop
  • University of Toronto