International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 0144-333X
Publications
Article
"The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze patterns of labor absorption by occupation in the Dominican Republic using national population census data." The author develops a measure that facilitates the identification of patterns of labor absorption into various occupations. The results, based on data for the period 1970-1981, show sharp differentials by sex and zone. It is found that the service sector is absorbing more workers but that agriculture is not, even in rural areas.
 
Article
PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER: To assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: OLS regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy. FINDINGS: The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms, Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy than steady workers. Supervisory support may be especially important in enhancing adolescents' confidence as they anticipate their future family lives, community participation, personal health, and economic achievements. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: This research includes only a small set of the work dimensions that may be important for adolescents. Ethnography and in-depth interviews are recommended to further explore the subjective and emotional dimensions of youth work experiences. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In developing policies and guidance, educators, parents, and employers should be aware that steady employment and supervisory support enhance the development of adolescent self-efficacy. ORIGINAL VALUE OF PAPER: This paper finds evidence that adolescent work experiences spill over to influence youth's developing confidence in the realms of family life, community and personal health. It also suggests that sporadic and occasional work patterns can impair the development of self-efficacy in adolescence.
 
Article
PIP This article analyzes the impact of the twin factors of rapid population growth and expanding urbanization on social and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and compares policies that have been developed in Tanzania and Kenya in response to these factors. The principal consequences of overpopulation and overurbanization have been economic stagnation and physical and cultural malaise in urban population centers. Between 1960-80, per capita incomes in 19 countries of sub-Saharan Africa grew by less than 1%/year and 15 countries recorded a negative rate of growth in per capita income during the 1970s. Urban populations have increased at at overall rate of 6%/year as sub-Saharan Africans have migrated to cities in search of employment. Few national governments in the region have formulated longterm strategies to deal effectively with this double-faceted development constraint or have integrated new urban populations into the national economy. tanzania's development strategy is focused on the goals of socialism, rural development, and self-reliance. Urban development has remained a residual item in Tanzania's national development process, despite the fact that the urban population increased from 5.7% of the total population in 1967 to 12.7% in 1978 and is projected to comprise 24.7% by the year 2000. In contrast, Kenya, whose proportion of urban population increased from 9% to 15% between 1962 and 1979, has pursued an urban-focused development strategy. The strong urban-rural linkages of the economy have focused migration to the secondary towns. The national development plan includes urban spatial, employment, and investment policies. Although this plan constitutes a good basis for future planning, the magnitude of the urban problem is beyond the capabilities of the central government and requires the development of local capabilities.
 
Article
PIP The author discusses problems of population pressure and limited resources in developing countries. He suggests that the development experiences of the United States and Europe may not be applicable to developing countries, due to more extreme needs for food and resources. He presents new guidelines for thinking about population development and the environment in developing countries, and suggests ways for the West to assist these nations.
 
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PIP The arguments for and against policy measures designed to increase birth rates in European countries are reviewed. The author concludes that the deterioration of the environment associated with the growth of population in developed countries outweighs any arguments in favor of policy measures to increase fertility.
 
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PIP The impact of divorce and remarriage on fertility is examined. The author reviews the literature and questions the approach used in most studies, which focus on the fertility experience of remarried women. He argues instead that the remarried couple should be the focus of inquiry. Original data from interviews with 25 remarried couples in Aberdeen, Scotland, are used to illustrate childbearing patterns in second marriages.
 
Article
Global cycles of leadership and hegemony have repeated since 1492, leaving to history Dutch, British, and now declining US hegemonies. Theoretical models (Chase-Dunn and Rubinson 1977; Hopkins and Wallerstein 1979; Arrighi 1994), historical narratives (Wallerstein 1974, 1980, 1989; Kennedy 1989), and statistical analyses (Modelski and Thompson 1988; Boswell and Sweat 1991) portray the cycle of hegemony as a fixed dynamic inherent to the world-system. Can we expect the future to be any different?
 
Article
Over the last two decades, change has been an important theme for the public services in England and Wales. The Salmon Report heralded the change era by attempting to rationalise the nursing hierarchy according to specific definitions of nursing tasks and grades of pay (1). The Seebohm Report followed suit, recommending that any improvements in the social services had to be accompanied by fundamental administrative re-organisation(2). Seebohm stated that the three separately administered local authority social work departments of childrens' welfare and mental health (as part of the local health department) should be integrated in one organisation - the social service department (SSD). The recommendations of the report were implemented by the Local Authority Social Services Act 1970. Within two years, the Local Government Act 1972 was in operation requiring substantial changes in local government boundaries and the re-allocation of local government duties within the new units. The reason for the change of boundaries was that previously different local authorities had substantially different numbers of population in their catchment area. In order to promote equality of resource distribution nationwide, the new local government units were created to meet the demands of comparable population sizes. A year later, the Health Services were reformed on the grounds of attempting to establish comparable geographical boundaries with the newly created local govern-ment units.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper seeks to study the influence of industrialisation, urbanisation and means of communication on the association between father’s and son’s occupational status in all 117 municipalities in the province of Zeeland, The Netherlands from 1811 to 1890. Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses from both the logic of industrialism thesis and reproduction theory are tested with multi-level analyses on data on the individual as well as the contextual level. First, the paper studies the influence of contextual factors on intergenerational occupational status attainment. Second, it uses relatively large-scale individual and contextual historical data over a long period of time. Findings – The paper adds to the current literature by showing that the association of father’s and son’s occupational status differs between municipalities and over time and that these differences are partly explained by industrialisation, urbanisation and means of communication. All findings point in one direction, that the province of Zeeland became a more closed society in the nineteenth century. This finding goes against claims that the increasing openness in Dutch society, found after the Second World War, is a trend that came about with the rise of industrialisation. Originality/value – The results provide support for the reproduction theory and they refute the logic of the industrialism thesis.
 
Article
This article examines the myths and the truth of the ancient African civilization. It also sheds some sociological light on the second great Sahelian kingdom of Mali as an example of the ancient West African kingdoms. It demonstrates the level of civilization, wealth, and power this empire had during the Middle Ages. Also, the ambitiousness of its kings through the discovery of trade routes via the high seas, its level of importance as a cultural, learning and trade centre, the influence of its cities and the development of its urban centres, and its socioeconomic relationships with other African and non-African peoples. It concludes with a discussion of the influence of the Arabic-Islamic culture on the Mali Empire and illustrates its points with the advanced culture, and the use of the Dogo people and their exploration of outer space.
 
Article
In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter, 1985, 1992) to interpret why the American electricity industry appears the way it does today, and start by addressing the following questions: Why is the generating dynamo located in well-connected central stations rather than in isolated stations? Why does not every manufacturing firm, hospital, school, or even household operate its own generating equipment? Why do we use incandescent lamps rather than arc lamps or gas lamps for lighting? At the end of the nineteenth century, the first era of the electricity industry, all these technical as well as organizational forms were indeed possible alternatives. The centralized systems we see today comprise integrated, urban, central station firms which produce and sell electricity to users within a monopolized territory. Yet there were visions of a more decentralized electricity industry. For instance, a geographically decentralized system might have dispersed small systems based around an isolated or neighborhood generating dynamo; or a functionally decentralized system which included firms solely generating and transmitting the power, and selling the power to locally-owned distribution firms (McGuire, Granovetter, and Schwartz, forthcoming). Similarly, the incandescent lamp was not the only illuminating device available at that time. The arc lamp was more suitable for large-space lighting than incandescent lamps; and the second-generation gas lamp - Welsbach mantle lamp - was much cheaper than the incandescent electric light and nearly as good in quality (Passer, 1953:196–197).
 
Article
Highlights the importance of music in ritual and culture generally, extending the focus to collective action. Argues that music and its emotional and cognitive impacts can be fundamental to the construction of social movement culture. Analyses song lyrics from the southern textile strikes of 1929-1934 in an attempt to show how music and song helped construct a collective identity across relatively dispersed mill villages, shifted accountability for mill workers problems towards the labour process and its beneficiaries and suggested to the listener a collective solution. Discusses the implications of the findings for understanding music, culture and their relation to subordinate group challenge.
 
Article
Evaluates changes in the welfare system in Sweden, the UK and the USA over a decade, basing arguments on the divergence of economic globalization and domestic forces. Presents brief economic snapshots of each country, stating quite categorically that the welfare state is an impediment to capitalist profit-making, hence all three nations have retrenched welfare systems in the hope of remaining globally economically competitive. Lays the responsibility for retrenchment firmly at the door of conservative political parties. Takes into account public opinion, national institutional structures, multiculturalism and class issues. Explores domestic structures of accumulation (DSA) and refers to changes in the international economy, particularly the Bretton Woods system (Pax Americana), and notes how the economic health of nations mirrors that of the US. Investigates the roles of multinationals and direct foreign investment in the global economy, returning to how economic policy affects the welfare state. Points out the changes made to the welfare state through privatization, decentralization and modification of public sector financing. Concludes that the main result has been an increase in earnings inequality and poverty.
 
Article
The economic depression of the mid-1970s gave reasons to question many presuppositions taken almost for granted earlier. This was the case with the welfare state too, which was seen to be in crisis. This study focuses on one particular aspect of the welfare state, namely, its acceptability or legitimacy among the citizens of Finland.
 
Article
The most startling characteristics of the 1987 General Election were, by common consent, the scale of the Conservative victory nationally and the extraordinary contrast to this British picture provided by the results in Scotland. North of the border the Conservatives found themselves reduced to holding only 10 of the 72 Scottish seats. Scottish Office Ministers such as Michael Ancram and John MacKay were dumped by the electorate, leaving the Secretary of State, Malcolm Rifkind, with the immediate problem of finding enough live bodies to fulfil the administrative requirements associated with parliamentary business in Scotland (apart from the difficulty of also ensuring that his team had a minimum level of ability necessary to understand and undertake their duties!).
 
Article
At issue in the debate over home employment is whether paid work performed in the home exploits workers or enables them to decide when and where to do their work. Converting the terms of the debate into a set of variables, I compare blue-collar workers in manufacturing industries by work location. Although observed differences are open to varying interpretations, I conclude that as a group the home workers in this sample may be choosing to work at home. However, my analyses also demonstrate the diversity of home working arrangements, and that worker's ‘choices’ are socially shaped such that home employment has different meanings and consequences for different groups of workers. I further argue that the exploitative potential in home work cannot be dismissed because the findings are controversial, and the sample most likely underrepresents home workers, especially those most vulnerable to exploitation. Evidently, more research is necessary on the diversity of home working arrangements and their implications.
 
Article
Examines the extent to which social policy adopted by the colonial government in Hong Kong (prior to its hand-over China in 1997) has set the agenda for the government of the newly formed Special Administrative Region (SAR). Chronicles the historical development of social policy in Hong Kong since the inception of the colonial government in 1842; identifies that, with the exception of a short-lived period of expansionism (stimulated by social unrest in the mid-1960’s) social welfare provision appears to have been low on the government’s agenda and incremental in nature - the emphasis being on economic growth, rather than public spending on welfare programmes. Examines the strengths and weaknesses of this incremental approach; outlines the commitment of the SAR government to the market economy and its proposals for a modest increase in welfare provision, essentially building on the legacy left behind by the colonial government.
 
Article
As Sir Anthony Alment has indicated: “Much of the public debate which followed publication of the report of the Committee of Inquiry into Human fertilisation and embryology in July 1984 has followed predictable polarities” (Alment, 1985, p.300).
 
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This paper will consider the notion of “parental responsibility” in British policy in relation to two major pieces of legislation, the Children Act 1989 and the Child Support Act 1991. These have considerable impact on the shape of policy in relation to families with children in the 1990s. These two Acts originate in different processes and address different areas of the family- state interaction — in the case of the Children Act, public and private law concerning who should care for children in case of dispute or problems; in the case of the Child Support Act, the question of how children should be financially maintained. But both embody a notion of greater parental responsibilities (as opposed to rights) which cannot be lightly surrendered or neglected. The differences and similarities between these two Acts will be examined, and the underlying theme of Conservative “family policy”, and its long-term intentions and implications, will be addressed.
 
Article
The etiology and treatment of substance abuse are matters of great concern in applied social science. This special issue of the International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy consists of a collection of papers on these matters presented in regular sessions on Alcohol and Drugs of the American Sociological Association at the 1995 meetings. Also included are models for study of the progression of substance abusing careers and for the evolution of drug alcohol treatment developed by the panels' discussant and co-editor of this issue, Mark Peyrot.
 
Article
Considers the consequences of population growth in relation to space, resources and conflict. Covers environmental issues such as water and pollution. Uses India in the year 2000 as a case study, looking at areas such as housing, agriculture, transport, water, food and environment. Discusses the plans of the country and concludes that an integrated plan for population with development is needed to optimize the use of natural resources. Cites four phases of human development: primitive, active, uncontrolled and aware.
 
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Compares the opposing schools of thought regarding prenatal personhood and how this state should be defined. Looks at definitions based on a person’s potential and a person’s actions and compares these arguments with lower animal species. Concludes that there is an unacceptable cost in both arguments.
 
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Argues that the basic case for abortion is based upon the assumption that the foetus is not a person. Discusses the concept of a person and the potential for and actualization of this status. Concludes that the child is born with value and therefore possesses inalienable rights.
 
Article
Studies of how societies preserve the past have focused on the "social frames of memory." This study of Abraham Lincoln during World War II extends a semiotic interpretation of culture as it focuses on "memory as a social frame." Memories invoked in the context of a present crisis are rooted in generational experience. One-third of all Americans living in 1940 were born during the late nineteenth century, when Civil War resentments were fading and remembrances of Lincoln were more positive and vivid than ever. This generation understood the meaning of World War II by "keying" it to the Civil War. Patterned arrays of images of Lincoln were invoked by local and federal agencies to clarify the purpose of World War II, legitimate the preparations for it, and then to orient, inspire, and console the people who fought it. As a model for the present and of the present, images of Lincoln comprised a cultural system that rationalized the experience of war. I compare and contrast memory as a cultural system with constructionist theories of collective memory and discuss it in light of the erosion of American society's grand narratives.
 
Article
The abuse of alcohol and other drugs (AOD) has become one of the most important social problems in modern society. AOD abuse causes untold personal anguish to the abusers and their families, is associated with high levels of crime, and the health consequences include death and disability. Billions are spent on treatment, prevention, and incarceration. The papers in this special issue focus on two key issues in the study of AOD abuse: etiology and treatment. Etiology is a key factor because it is the foundation for prevention and treatment programs. If the etiology of AOD abuse can be unraveled, abuse can be prevented and treatment can be effectively targeted. But, effective treatment also requires an understanding of how treatment works.
 
Article
This study examines the relationship between age, physical violence and non-physical abuse within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). It tests the hypothesis that while the prevalence of physical violence is lower among older women, other forms of intimate partner violence are not related to age. The study uses data from the Michigan Violence Against Women Survey to measure physical violence and two forms of non-physical abuse: psychological vulnerability and autonomy-limiting behavior. Findings support the hypothesis that the rate of physical abuse is negatively related to age but the rate of nonphysical abuse is not. By expanding the definition of IPV to include other forms of abusive behavior, the study finds that older women have IPV prevalence rates similar to younger women. This raises the question of whether batterers alter their means of power and control by emphasizing non-physical abuse rather than continuing to use physical violence that exposes them to formal and informal social controls and sanctions.
 
Article
Charitable Choice Policy, the heart of President Bush’s Faith-Based Initiative, is the direct government funding of religious organizations for the purpose of carrying out government programs. The Bush presidential administration has called for the application of Charitable Choice Policy to all kinds of social services. Advocates for child-abuse victims contend that the Bush Charitable Choice Policy would further dismantle essential social services provided to abused children. Others have argued Charitable Choice Policy is unconstitutional because it crosses the boundary separating church and state. Rather than drastically altering the US social-policy landscape, this paper demonstrates that the Bush Charitable Choice Policy already is in place for childabuse services across many of the fifty states. One reason this phenomenon is ignored is due to the reliance on the public-private dichotomy for studying social policies and services. This paper contends that relying on the public-private dichotomy leads researchers to overlook important configurations of actors and institutions that provide services to abused children. It offers an alternate framework to the public-private dichotomy useful for the analysis of social policy in general and, in particular, Charitable Choice Policy affecting services to abused children. Employing a new methodological approach, fuzzy-sets analysis, demonstrates the degree to which social services for abused children match ideal types. It suggests relationships between religious organizations and governments are essential to the provision of services to abused children in the United States. Given the direction in which the Bush Charitable Choice Policy will push social-policy programs, scholars should ask whether abused children will be placed in circumstances that other social groups will not and why.
 
Article
Only within the past decade have sociologists begun to investigate the relationships between humans and other animals. Even more recently, college courses that examine this subject have emerged. This article looks at one such undergraduate sociology course – Animals and Society – at the University of South Carolina Spartanburg. It outlines the opposition to the course and the fight for its approval. Then an overview of the course objectives and content is presented, followed by an assessment of the impact of the course on students. Finally the implications of the emergence of animals and society courses in sociology, and the new sub-field of animal studies, are discussed.
 
Article
Focuses on the relative underachievement of First Class degrees by women in the UK compared to men. Cites problem areas as history, sociology, and english. Attempts to test a hypothesis that this is due to inequality in assessment with graduate writing styles labelled as “gendered”. Presents findings which suggest the above to be the case, with male academic styles tending to be bold, confident and risk-taking and female styles perceived as cautious and conscientious. Argues that the effects are seen in “argument-based” subjects rather than “fact based” subjects.
 
Article
Investigates leprosy as both a medical and social problem, particularly as the sufferer loses the ability to hold an economically productive role, affecting their social status and acceptance in the family. Surveys two areas in Tamil Nadu (India) to collect data on the extent of deformity and to assess if there is any difference in acceptance in the family depending on the individual)s deformity or non-deformity. Suggests, from findings, that sufferers of leprosy are actually at greater risk of dehabilitation from their families, due to the social stigma of the disease affecting the family’s standing within the community. Indicates the need for prevention or correction of deformities, as it appears to be degree of physical attractiveness which influences interpersonal behaviour in the home, work place, school, health setting and other communal places. Discusses World Health Organization policies on leprosy and the economics of deformity.
 
Article
Considers the way in which UK and American pension schemes are structured for women’s poverty and social exclusion in later life. Analyses recent trends in women’s employment and the impacts on current pension structures. Looks at the impact of different pension schemes and goes on to cover the effect on different classes and ethnicities. States that childcare is currently uncrecognised within pension systems as it is unwaged work and can lead to serious adverse financial impacts on women undertaking this role.
 
Article
Sociologists of crime and deviance have devoted considerable time and effort, in recent years, to the study of deviants' accounts of their activities. There are good reasons why students of deviance in particular should be interested in what can be learned from their subjects' explanations of their social practices. Actors are normally called to account for or to explain their activities precisely when these actions are seen by significant others to be in some sense “unreasonable”. Moreover, accounts are central to the processes of law. The purpose of legal judgements is to attribute or withold responsibility. In order to assess an individual's guilt, where criminal activities are concerned, lawyers, judges, and juries pose such questions as: “Did the defendant perform an illegal act?”; “if so, can he or she explain his or her actions in reasonable terms?”; “Was the act in question pre-meditated?” (that is, “motivated”); and, perhaps most important of all “What is the relationship between the accused's account of his or her involvement in an act, and their real involvement?”
 
Article
It is quite possible to use the cluster of conventional service terms without further specification, (service jobs, service sectors, service economy), as long as no rigorous empirical theories are intended and as long as data aggregated under that category is likewise not mobilised on behalf of explanation claims. Hence, data published by any number of sources classifies economic activity with reference to agriculture, manufacturing and services, in which services is a residual category. However, the researcher using such data comparatively is at risk since the residuals included in “services” are apt to be the least standardised of all the grossly aggregated data. Where “services” is used as an empty nominal term to stand for other itemised subcategories of service, the term is redundant. Hence, in a recent semi-popular article, after noting that the term may indeed be so broad as to signify “anything sold in trade that could not be dropped on your foot”, a specification of sub-categories is given which includes financial services, communication and transportation services, and distribution and retail networks, “among others”, which latter then becomes a rather sizable, unspecified residual itself. (Quinn, Baruch, Paquette 1987).
 
Article
Tests the reliability of an empirical model designed by Szapocznik et al to measure acculturation levels of first-generation immigrants. Applies model to a demographically diverse sample group of first-generation Asian-Indian immigrants in three cities near New York (USA) to establish levels of cultural and behavioural acculturation, and the relevance of demographic variables, such as gender, marital status, religion and occupation. Establishes a series of statistically significant correlations between the variables examined; compares these results with findings of other studies involving different immigrant groups. Asserts that the model provides a reliable basis for assessing acculturation characteristics of immigrants; concludes that the findings of this study provide an objective basis for the development of social and public policy aimed at accommodating acculturation needs of this particular immigrant group.
 
Article
Aims to address some of the ethnic considerations, regarding ex-offenders’ rehabilitation, which are current in present social policy. Elaborates on media attention to deviant behaviour among ethnic minorities and how crime by black offenders (when compared with levels of similar committed by white offenders), has been highlighted but that numbers of Asian offenders are lower than blacks or whites. Commends the Apex Community Entrepreneurs Scheme (ACES) project that aims to help ex-offenders to continue their lives as law-abiding members of society, by assisting them to find employment. Sums up that numerous amendments are needed to assist the rehabilitation of ethnic minority ex-offenders into the mainstream.
 
Percentage of Informal and Second-hand Acquisitions:
Article
In the past few years, the view that participation in informal and/or second-hand modes of goods acquisition results from economic necessity has been contested by an agency-orientated cultural reading that views such engagement to be about the search for fun, sociality, distinction, discernment, the spectacular and so forth, and more recently by an approach that ascribes agency-orientated motives to affluent populations and economic rationales to deprived populations. Drawing upon 120 face-to-face interviews conducted in the English city of Leicester however, the aim of this article is to display how engagement cannot be simply reduced to either economic necessity or agency. Finding that both co-exist in people’s explanations for participation and combine in varying ways in different populations, a both/and approach is here advocated that recognises the entanglement of both economic necessity and choice in rationales for participation in informal and second-hand modes of goods acquisition.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to explore activation policy as a condensate for new forms of governance in respect of welfare institutions and in relation to welfare subjects. It asks how far apparently similar concepts – contractualisation, individuation, personalisation – can be applied to the governance of institutions and the governance of persons. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on a model of different governance regimes to trace different dynamics at stake in the shift to activation policy. Findings – Tensions in the dynamics of the transformation of welfare governance around notions of activation are highlighted. It is also argued that different reconfigurations of power are at stake in the governance of institutions and the governance of persons. Finally tensions between notions of active, activist and activation conceptions of citizenship are traced. Research limitations/implications – The paper challenges a govermentality perspective in which managerial discourses are assumed to have similar consequences for institutions and for persons, so drawing attention to the importance of context. Practical implications – Limited value Originality/value – This paper makes an original contribution to the field by tracing a number of different dynamics at stake in activation policy rather than assuming a coherent shift from earlier forms of welfare regime.
 
Article
Purpose – This editorial aims to introduce the first of a set of two special issues on New modes of governance in activation policies. Design/methodology/approach – The article explores the concept of governance, distinguishing a broad and more narrow use of the concept. Then, it argues that issues of governance should be an integral part of studies of welfare state transformations. Not in the last instance, because governance reforms do have an impact on the content of social policies and social services such as activation. The article continues by discussing three models of the provision of social services. Findings – The article states that the development of the modes of governance in activation in various countries reveals that a mix of service provision models is being used. Originality/value – The article introduces the articles of the special issue.
 
Article
Purpose – This article aims to discuss the individualisation trend in the provision of social services, focusing on activation services specifically. Design/methodology/approach – The individualisation trend in the provision of activation services is analysed against the background of public sector as well as social sector as well as social policy reforms: the introduction of new modes of governance and the rise of the active welfare state respectively. Findings – Concrete manifestations of individualised service provision are often based on various interpretations of individualisation and reflect different meanings of citizens’ participation, and refer to different modes – or rather, mixes of different modes – of governance. The general argument of the article is illustrated and elaborated by analysing three national case studies of individualised service provision in the context of activation: the UK, The Netherlands and Finland. Originality/value – The trend that is analysed in the article – individualised service provision – is very clearly present in welfare state reforms, but has thus far not received much attention in academic literature.
 
Article
Purpose – The first part of the paper aimed to interpret the changes addressed by the concepts of governance and activation in their context, in order to grasp the larger picture of the societal transformation underlying them: the starting point is the assumption that new modes of governance in activation policies are a fruitful entry point for effectively understanding deep waves of change of contemporary society. The second part aims to briefly introduce the papers included in this issue. Design/methodology/approach – The paper insists on a perspective according to which there are two main dimension characterising the context of addressed transformations: the paradoxical torsion of the historical process of individualisation in the new spirit of capitalism; the profound redesign of the institutional programme, implying a new horizon for the instances of publicness. Findings – Different and contradictory trends are pointed out in the actual pursuing of objectives of governance and activation, as far as the process of individualisation and the redesign of publicness are concerned. The impossibility of finding an abstract and universal evaluation of these transformations and the necessity of situated empirical inquiries are stressed. Originality/value – The paper demonstrates the relevance of deepening the normative underlying dimensions (with regard to individualisation and publicness) of social processes for a better understanding of concrete transformations (specifically: operational and substantive changes introduced by new modes of governance in activation policies).
 
Article
Reports on a survey conducted to investigate acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children in developing countries, looking particularly at the Philippines. Explores the role of the National Committee for Acute Respiratory Infections and states its objectives and responsibilities. Asserts that state of health is associated with community structure, environmental factors, and social and psychological conditions. Finds also that maternal factors are important determinants in the incidence of ARI episodes, for example, the mother’s characteristics, level of health knowledge, her illness control activities, age, level of education, number of children, smoking behaviour, and the extent to which she has to fulfil other tasks. Explains the methodology used in the survey, the sampling procedure and research instruments used. Indicates that poor housing and living conditions should become the focal point of developmental efforts, and that better nipping in the bud health management should be encouraged through health education programmes.
 
Article
Questions of the form ‘what is “x”?’ raise their heads from time to time, and are often very important. Whether the question is ‘what is virtue?’ or ‘what is sociology?’ the search is on for something fundamental. At least one philosopher seems to have handled that most awkward of ‘what is “x”?’ questions ‘what is philosophy?’ with both humour and wisdom: ‘The story is told that the preferred response of G.E. Moore was to gesture towards his bookshelves: “It is what all these are about”’ (reported in Flew, 1979, p.vii). Indeed, the form in which the answers come to many of these questions has been of direct concern to philosophers from Plato to Wittgenstein, including Moore himself.
 
Article
Examines patterns of social exclusion in the compulsory school system of England and Wales. Suggests that the weakening of local government control of the school system from the 1980s onwards led to a very real fear that market forces would lead to increased polarisation of school intakes and results in terms of social background. Lists key policy changes and early research relevant to the increased use of market forces in compulsory education. Describes the methods used to investigate the impact of this policy change on the secondary school system. Summarises the findings before presenting some tentative explanations and conclusion. States that the Local Education Authority still have a significant role to play.
 
Article
Considers the need for school aged children to develop their own health behaviours as often both parents have to work. Outlines the findings of a survey of 14 to 19 year olds in a small rural town in northeastern Missouri. Measures qualities such as self esteem and personal characteristics together with physical activity, health knowledge and diet, enabling the researchers to make observations regarding gender differences and influences on health behaviour. Suggests some implications for educators and parents.
 
Article
In the history of business management thought, six idea families have predominated during the last eighty or so years — bureaucracy (Max Weber), scientific management (Frederick Winslow Taylor), classical management (Henri Fayol), human relations (Elton Mayo), neo-human relations (Abraham Maslow). To these one can add the more recent contributions of different writers under the heading of guru theory. The first five idea families are well known, but the sixth requires explanation. Gury theory achieved prominence during the 1980s. While not yet featuring extensively in management textbooks it has received widespread attention in the financial and business press (Lorenz, 1986; Dixon, 1986; Clutterbuck and Crainer, 1988; Pierce and Newstrom, 1988; Heller, 1990). Guru theory consists of the diverse and unrelated writings of well-known company chief executives such as Lee lacocca (Chrysler), Harold Geneen (ITT), John Harvey-Jones (ICI) and John Sculley (Apple Computer); of management consultants like Tom Peters and Philip Crosby; and of business school academics like Michael Porter, Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Henry Mintzberg. Since their contributions are so heterogeneous, and as the writings draw so much of their authority from the individual authors themselves, the adopted label is felt to be appropriate.
 
Article
The last decade saw a major shift in the management of the mentally handicapped and their place in society. The dual influences of the movements for human rights, emphasising the rights of minority groups; matched by an increasing tendency to replace institutionalisation with community based care (often under the banner of economy), have had an impact on the liminal positioning of the mentally handicapped in Western society.
 
Article
In recent years, many Western countries have tightened the legislative provisions which require parents to provide for the financial support of their children. For example, new child support payment schemes have come into force in the various states of the United States, in the United Kingdom, in New Zealand and in Australia. In all of these countries, there was existing legislation providing for the support of children by their parents, but the legislation or orders arising from it were often ignored. With the rapid rise in marital breakdown and in the incidence of children being born outside of marriage, the scale of the problem became greater and hence more noticeable. Two main reasons were espoused for reform of existing legislation: it was believed that respect for the legal system in general was lessened when the law was held in contempt by so many people and, in addition, pressure was placed on the public purse for the support of the children affected.
 
Article
Marx's formulation of the alienation problematic is grounded in a strategic set of underlying assumptions concerning the human condition. On the one hand, people are seen as the creators of their material and mental world through their labour activity. They are endowed with natural human qualities, creative powers and historically existing potentialities that are essential to human growth. People are, in essence, free, creative, productive beings of praxis in conscious control of their activities and the world they have created. But the material and mental products of human labour (e.g. commodities, ideas, social institutions) assume an autonomous life of their own. They come to rule over people as dehumanizing objects and powers, as alien and hostile forces operating independently above and against the common will of their own creators. People no longer experience themselves as active human agents in conscious control of their life circumstances. Their own productive activities, human creations, social relationships and nature at large remain alien and beyond their grasp. The realization of natural human capacities and potentialities for a genuinely human life in an alienating world of domination and oppression is consequently thwarted, repressed or denied. Alienation is construed as a universal social phenomenon that pervades all spheres of human life in the existing world.
 
Article
Marx's analysis of alienated labor still explains much about how the capitalist labor process shapes the thoughts and feelings of direct producers. But Marx's analysis fares less well in explaining how the work people actually do with their hands and minds leads to specific psychological consequences. This weakness stems from an inadequate social psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide Marx with this needed social psychology by drawing on the work of G.H. Mead. Specifically, Mead's philosophy of the act and his concept of aesthetic experience will be used to show how alienated labor leads to a reified mode of consciousness and a dislike of work itself. This synthesis of Marx and Mead makes good theoretical sense when we consider, first, the remarkable similarity of their respective philosophical anthropologies.
 
Article
An earlier examination of the relationship between states' per capita expenditures for public welfare and their divorce rates found no relationship between the two for observations prior to 1985. However in 1985, the two were related, states' public welfare expenditures being inversely predictive of their divorce rates: the less states' spent for public welfare, the higher their divorce rates, and conversely, the more they spent, the lower their divorce rates. Translated, this meant that family life was less stable in states that did less to support family life and more stable in states that did more to support family life. This finding is important because of the wide-spread belief that government social programs undermine family life and foster family break-up.
 
Top-cited authors
Rik van Berkel
  • Utrecht University
John Barker
  • Middlesex University, UK
Susie Weller
  • London South Bank University
Ray Bromley
  • University at Albany, The State University of New York
Gunnar Lind Haase Svendsen
  • University of Southern Denmark