International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research

Online ISSN: 2229-5518
Publications
Article
For a non-empty ground set $X$, finite or infinite, the {\em set-valuation} or {\em set-labeling} of a given graph $G$ is an injective function $f:V(G) \to \mathcal{P}(X)$, where $\mathcal{P}(X)$ is the power set of the set $X$. A set-indexer of a graph $G$ is an injective set-valued function $f:V(G) \to \mathcal{P}(X)$ such that the function $f^{\ast}:E(G)\to \mathcal{P}(X)-\{\emptyset\}$ defined by $f^{\ast}(uv) = f(u){\ast} f(v)$ for every $uv{\in} E(G)$ is also injective, where $\ast$ is a binary operation on sets. An integer additive set-indexer is defined as an injective function $f:V(G)\to \mathcal{P}({\mathbb{N}_0})$ such that the induced function $f^+:E(G) \to \mathcal{P}(\mathbb{N}_0)$ defined by $f^+ (uv) = f(u)+ f(v)$ is also injective, where $\mathbb{N}_0$ is the set of all non-negative integers. In this paper, we critically and creatively review the concepts and properties of integer additive set-valued graphs.
 
Show Android system architecture. Green items are written in C/C++, blue items are written in Java and run in the Dalvik VM.  
Shows mobile GIS platform
Show SMS over IP architecture
Shows the flowchart of request help service
Article
Title of Paper: Mobile GIS and Open Source Platform Based on Android: Technology for System Pregnant Women The statistic of World Health Organization shows at one year about 287000 women died most of them during and following pregnancy and childbirth in Africa and south Asia. This paper suggests system for serving pregnant women using open source based on Android technology, the proposed system works based on mobile GIS to select closest care centre or hospital maternity on Google map for the pregnant woman, which completed an online registration by sending SMS via GPRS network (or internet) contains her name and phone number and region (Longitude and Latitude) and other required information the server will save the information in server database then find the closest care centre and call her for first review at the selected care centre, the proposed system allowed the pregnant women from her location (home, market, etc) can send a help request in emergency cases (via SMS by click one button) contains the ID for this pregnant woman, and her coordinates (Longitude and Latitude) via GPRS network, then the server will locate the pregnant on Google map and retrieve the pregnant information from the database. This information will be used by the server to send succoring to pregnant woman at her location and at the same time notify the nearest hospital and moreover, the server will send SMS over IP to inform her husband and the hospital doctors. Implement and applied this proposed system of pregnant women shows more effective cost than other systems because it works in economic mode (SMS), and the services of proposed system are flexible (open source platform) as well as rapidly (mobile GIS based on Android) achieved locally registration, succoring in emergency cases, change the review date of pregnant woman, addition to different types of advising according to pregnancy. Index Terms: Build-in GPS; GPRS; Mobile GIS; SoIP; Open Source; Google Maps API ; Android Technology
 
Article
Currently Mammography is a most effective imaging modality used by radiologists for the screening of breast cancer. Finding an accurate, robust and efficient breast region segmentation technique still remains a challenging problem in digital mammography. Extraction of the breast profile region and the removal of pectoral muscle are essential pre-processing steps in Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Primarily it allows the search for abnormalities to be limited to the region of the breast tissue without undue influence from the background of the mammogram. The presence of pectoral muscle in mammograms biases detection procedures, which recommends removing the pectoral muscle during mammogram image pre-processing. The presence of pectoral muscle in mammograms may disturb or influence the detection of breast cancer as the pectoral muscle and mammographic parenchymas appear similar. The goal of breast region extraction is reducing the image size without losing anatomic information, it improve the accuracy of the overall CAD system. The main objective of this study is to propose an automated method to identify the pectoral muscle in Medio-Lateral Oblique (MLO) view mammograms. In this paper, we proposed histogram based 8-neighborhood connected component labelling method for breast region extraction and removal of pectoral muscle. The proposed method is evaluated by using the mean values of accuracy and error. The comparative analysis shows that the proposed method identifies the breast region more accurately.
 
Shows how can obtain the Normal homology TP53 gene.  
Shows options of reach to normal homology TP53 gene.  
Article
Tumor protein P53 is believed to be involved in over half of human cancers cases, the prediction of malignancies plays essential roles not only in advance detection for cancer, but also in discovering effective prevention and treatment of cancer, till now there isn't approach be able in prediction the mutated in tumor protein P53 which is caused high ratio of human cancers like breast, Blood, skin, liver, lung, bladder etc. This research proposed a new approach for prediction pre-cancer via detection malignant mutations in tumor protein P53 using bioinformatics tools like FASTA, BLAST, CLUSTALW and TP53 databases worldwide. Implement and apply this new approach of prediction pre-cancer through mutations at tumor protein P53 shows an effective result when used more specific parameters/features to extract the prediction result that means when the user increase the number of filters of the results which obtained from the database gives more specific diagnosis and classify, addition that the detecting pre-cancer via prediction mutated tumor protein P53 will reduces a person's cancers in the future by avoiding exposure to toxins, radiation or monitoring themselves at older ages by change their food, environment, even the pace of living. Also that new approach of prediction pre-cancer will help if there is any treatment can give for that person to therapy the mutated tumor protein P53. Index Terms (Normal Homology TP53 gene, Tumor Protein P53, Oncogene Labs, GC and AT content, FASTA, BLAST, ClustalW).
 
Post-Consolidation Ratio of servers
Article
Data centers are the building blocks of IT business organizations providing the capabilities of centralized repository for storage, management, networking and dissemination of data. With the rapid increase in the capacity and size of data centers, there is a continuous increase in the demand for energy consumption. These data centers not only consume a tremendous amount of energy but are riddled with IT inefficiencies. All data center are plagued with thousands of servers as major components. These servers consume huge energy without performing useful work. In an average server environment, 30% of the servers are "dead" only consuming energy, without being properly utilized. Their utilization ratio is only 5 to 10 percent. This paper focuses on the use of an emerging technology called virtualization to achieve energy efficient data centers by providing a solution called server consolidation. It increases the utilization ratio up to 50% saving huge amount of energy. Server consolidation helps in implementing green data centers to ensure that IT infrastructure contributes as little as possible to the emission of green house gases, and helps to regain power and cooling capacity, recapture resilience and dramatically reducing energy costs and total cost of ownership. Comment: 7 pages, IJSER Journal accepted paper
 
Article
A hole of a simple connected graph $G$ is a chordless cycle $C_n,$ where $n \in \Bbb N, n \geq 4,$ in the graph $G$. The girth of a simple connected graph $G$ is the smallest cycle in $G$, if any such cycle exists. It can be observed that all such smallest cycles are necessarily chordless. We call the cycle $C_3$ in a given graph $G$ a primitive hole of that graph. We introduce the notion of the primitive hole number of a graph as the number of primitive holes present in that graph. In this paper, we determine the primitive hole number of certain standard graphs. Also, we determine the primitive hole number of the underlying graph of a Jaco graph, $J^*_{n+1}(1),$ where $n \in \Bbb N, n \geq 4$ recursively in terms of the underlying Jaco graph $J_n(1)$, with prime Jaconian vertex $v_i$. The notion of primitive degree of the vertices of a graph is also introduced and the primitive degree of the vertices of certain graphs is also determined in this paper.
 
Article
Traditionally, drugs were discovered by testing compounds manufactured in time consuming multi-step processes against a battery of in vivo biological screens. Promising compounds were then further studied in development, where their pharmacokinetic properties, metabolism and potential toxicity were investigated. Here we present a study on herbal lead compounds and their potential binding affinity to the effectors molecules of major disease like Alzheimer¿s disease. Clinical studies demonstrate a positive correlation between the extent of Acetyl cholinesterase enzyme and Alzheimer¿s disease. Therefore, identification of effective, well-tolerated acetyl cholinesterase represents a rational chemo preventive strategy. This study has investigated the effects of naturally occurring nonprotein compounds polygala and Jatrorrhizine that inhibits acetylcholinesterase enzyme. The results reveal that these compounds use less energy to bind to acetylcholinesterase enzyme and inhibit its activity. Their high ligand binding affinity to acetylcholinesterase enzyme introduce the prospect for their use in chemopreventive applications in addition they are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent Alzheimer¿s Disease.
 
Language Tree [21]
Article
The machine translation process may be unidirectional or bidirectional between a pair of languages. Or it can be multilingual too. A number of software's are developed till date and different advancements are taking place in this field to overcome the language barriers and create borderless marketplace. Still there are many challenges involved in this field of AI which are yet to be overcome. The translation quality of MT systems may be improved by developing better methods as well as by imposing certain restrictions on the input. All sort of challenges peak in case of Multilingual Machine Translation as compared to bilingual one. Paper focuses on long term challenges like High-Quality MT for many more language pairs, training with limited data resources, robustness across domains, genres and language styles, Achieving human-level translation quality and fluency.
 
This window is used to show physical changes in body. 
Circuit diagram of Advanced coma patient monitoring system. 
Complete hardware of Advanced coma patient 
Article
Embedded system is becoming an integral part of Engineering design process for efficient analysis and effective operation. From data analysis to hardware work, everywhere embedded products are the main interest because of its reliability and time bound perfection. There is not much time with anyone now a day to give enough in all aspects, so demand of embedded products which serve as we want is high on demand. Further it describes the design of an embedded system for the control of Temperature & Light intensity with continuous monitoring in a single system using sensors, microcontroller and LCD. It describes the controlling action incorporated in the hardware to control any device connected when specific conditions are met. Further set up is made such that data can be stored for future offline analysis. The hardware developed namely "Advanced Coma Patient Monitoring System" is very advanced product related to physical changes in body movement of the patient and gives Warning in form of alarm and display on the LCD in less than one second time. It also passes a sms to a person sitting at the distant place if there exists any movement in any body part of the patient.
 
Article
In today¿s computer world security, integrity, confidentiality of the organization¿s data is the most important issue. This paper deals with the confidentiality of the data that organization manages and works with. This paper proposes a new approach to data security using the concept of genetic algorithm and brain mu waves with pseudorandom binary sequence to encrypt and decrypt the data. The feature of such an approach includes high data security and high feasibility for practical implementation.
 
Article
Ant Colony Optimization can be used for scheduling tasks on resources in Grid. In earlier work this technique has been applied for independent task scheduling. This paper applies the above technique for dependent task scheduling. Here a hybrid algorithm by Sakellariou can be applied, where tasks in DAG (Directed acyclic graph) are upward ranked and sorted decreasingly. Then the sorted tasks are grouped along the sorted sequences and in every group, tasks are independent. Then independent task groups can be scheduled to resources using algorithm specified by author Chang.
 
Comparison of non-coded BPPM in weak turbulence of 0.3 scintillation index with Reed Solomon (255,207) and in strong turbulence of 1.0 scintillation index.
Average number of photons per ppm bit required achiev- ing ber 10 -9 in strong turbulence.
Comparison of non-coded 8-PPM in weak turbulence of 0.3 scintillation index with Reed Solomon (255,207) and in strong turbulence of 1.0 scintillation index. 
Comparison of non-coded 256-PPM in weak turbulence of 0.3 scintillation index with Reed Solomon (255,207) and in strong turbulence of 1.0 scintillation index. 
Article
Atmospheric turbulence induced fading is one of the main impairments affecting the operation of free-space optical (FSO) communication systems. In this paper, the bit error rate (BER) of M-ary pulse position modulation (M-ary PPM) of directdetection and avalanche photodiode (APD) based is analyzed. Both log-normal and negative exponential fading channels are evaluated. The investigation discusses how the BER performance is affected by the atmospheric conditions and other parameters such as the forward error correction using Reed Solomon (RS) codes and increasing Modulation level. Results strongly indicate that, RS-coded M-ary PPM are well performing for the FSO links as it reduces the average power required per bit to achieve a BER below 10-9 in both turbulence channels.
 
Article
Abuse of E-Mail by unwanted users causes an exponential increase of E-Mails in user mailboxes which is known as Spam. It is an unsolicited commercial E-mail or unsolicited bulk E-Mail produces huge economic loss to large scale organizations due to high network bandwidth consumption and heavy mail server processing overload. Statistical spam filters could be used to categorize incoming E-Mails into legitimate and spam but they are vulnerable to Good Word attack which obfuscates "good words" in spam messages to make it legitimate. This paper attempts for a counterattack strategy to eradicate insertion of good words by proposing architecture of enhanced DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail) as a solution. Our experimental result shows that DKIM serves to be the best as it incorporates sender evidence with random values in the E-Mail messages which is critical for the spammers to evade E-Mail filtering process. The misclassification of the spam E-Mail as legitimate E-Mail would reduce the performance of text classifiers. As the number of E-Mail increases, the misclassification percentage decreases by using DKIM
 
Article
The compression ignition engine is the most popularly used prime mover. The compression ignition (CI) engine moves a large portion of the world¿s goods & generates electricity more economically than any other device in their size range [1]. All most all the CI engines use diesel as a fuel, but the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems. The application of bio diesel as a substitute for conventional petroleum fuel in diesel engine gain ever increasing demand throughout the world wide, because it is produced from renewable resources, bio degradable and potential to exhaust emissions & use of bio diesel in diesel engines generates rural employment opportunities by cultivating such oil producing crops[1-5]. In this research work the detailed investigation on performance and emission characteristics of four stroke single cylinder engine with variable loads were studied, cardnol bio fuel volumetric blends like 0, 10, 15, 20%, and 25% were used. The results indicate that brake power increases (by 76% approximately) as load increases. Brake specific energy conversion decreases (by 30-40 % approximately) with increase in load. Brake thermal efficiency increases with higher loads and emission levels (HC, CO, NOX) were nominal up to 20% blends.
 
The numerical value of u for Re 100 at time level 
The numerical results for v in comparison with the exact solution at 0.01 t and 1.0 t with 0.0001 t ,and Re 10 . 
Article
In this paper, a semi-implicit finite-difference method is used to find the numerical solution of two-dimensional Coupled Burgers¿ equation. The proposed scheme forms a system of linear algebraic difference equations to be solved at each time-step. The linear system is solved by direct method. Numerical results are compared with those of exact solutions and other available results. The present method performs well. The proposed scheme can be extended for solving non-linear problems arising in mechanics and other areas of engineering and science.
 
Article
This study aims at promoting the physical capital maintenance concept, as a solution for the development of economic entities, by demonstrating the reliability of this concept in obtaining performance at the level of economic entity due to the technological upgrade. Physical capital maintenance is a relatively new concept in the accounting theory and practice. Very fast, convenient and handy indeed, we associate production capacity with technology, devices, networks, with the staff and its knowledge, and it seems that we are not far away from the truth. Physical capital maintenance requires the recognition of the profit only if the entity was able to maintain its current activity level which is measured by production capacity. This article aims to highlight the results that the practical application of the concept of physical capital maintenance strictly related to the technological aspect has in the organizational behavior changing. In this sense, the empirical research will demonstrate the changes in the current forms of business management through the use of the physical capital maintenance concept.
 
Article
The literature on the color image segmentation is very large and it has been delimited to review some important literature to trace the core issues. On the basis of the identified issues, objectives were drawn to prosecute a fresh study in the color image segmentation. This Literature review helps researcher to understand various techniques, themes, methodologies, approaches and controversies so for applied for color image segmentation. The algorithm combining color and texture information for the segmentation of color images. The algorithm uses maximum likelihood classification combined with a certainty based fusion criterion. It was validated using mosaics of real color textures presented in Color and texture fusion: application to aerial image segmentation.
 
Article
This paper is all about superconductors. It deals with the current state of high temperature superconductors (HTS), the application of these materials and possible breakthroughs in the field. It also provides information about how to synthesize YBCO compounds and explains the material from structural point of view. It describes the method of verifying the prepared material is a superconductor or not by observing Meisner effect at 77K. Finally, it describes the technique of finding out the critical current by finding out the resistances of a thin prepared sample of YBCO for temperatures between 77 and 300K.
 
Article
In this paper a comprehensive model for Distribution Systems Planning (DSP) in the case of using Distributed Generation (DG), with regard to load models is provided. Proposed model optimizes size and location of the distributed generation. This model can optimize investment cost in distributed generation better than other solutions. It minimizes the operating costs and total cost of the system losses. This Model affects the optimum location and size of the distributed generation in distribution systems significantly. Simulation studies based on a new multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is achieved. It is important that in the analysis made in this paper, DG is introduced as a key element in solving the DSP. Moreover, the proposed method easily and with little development can satisfy the other goals.
 
Article
The effect of free convection and mass transfer in the unsteady flow of an incompressible electrically conducting visco-elastic past an isothermal vertical porous plate with constant suction normal to the plate has been studied. The effects of permeability parameter (Kp) of the porous medium, rotation parameter (R), Grashof number for heat transfer (Gr), Grashof number for mass transfer (Gm), frequency parameter (¿) and the heat source parameter (¿0) on the transient primary and secondary velocity field, temperature field and the rate of heat transfer have been investigated with the help of graphs and tables.
 
Article
Sorption of Cr (VI) & As (V) on HDTMA modified zeolites were investigated by batch technique, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared analysis, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. HDTMA was exchanged with extra structural cations of zeolite up to the external cation exhange capacity. The HDTMA modified surface was stable when exposed to extremes in pH, ionic strength and to oxoanions. The HDTMA modified zeolites showed significant sorption for chromate and arsenateions in aqueous solution. Sorption data for each anion was well described by Freundlich isotherm equation. Increase in Cr (VI) & As (V) sorption on to modified surface occurred in neutral solution (pH7) and the amount of sorbed Cr (VI) & As (V) described rapidly with increasing pH since (OH-) concentration competes against Cr (VI) & As (V) for the sorption sites, thus, inhibiting formation of Cr (VI)- SMZ & As (V)-SMZ complex. FTIR analysis showed that sorbed SMZ forms an ad-micelle surfactant surface coverage, which is responsible for Cr (VI) and As (V) sorption.
 
Article
The usefulness of most high technology devices such as cell phones, computers, and sensors is limited by the storage capacity of batteries. In the future, these limitations will become more pronounced as the demand for wireless power outpaces battery development which is already nearly optimized. Thus, new power generation techniques are required for the next generation of wearable computers, wireless sensors, and autonomous systems to be feasible. Piezoelectric materials are excellent power generation devices because of their ability to couple mechanical and electrical properties. For example, when an electric field is applied to piezoelectric a strain is generated and the material is deformed. Consequently, when a piezoelectric is strained it produces an electric field; therefore, piezoelectric materials can convert ambient vibration into electrical power. Piezoelectric materials have long been used as sensors and actuators; however their use as electrical generators is less established. A piezoelectric power generator has great potential for some remote applications such as in vivo sensors, embedded MEMS devices, and distributed networking. Developing piezoelectric generators is challenging because of their poor source characteristics (high voltage, low current, high impedance) and relatively low power output. This paper presents a theoretical analysis to increase the piezoelectric power generation that is verified with experimental results.
 
Article
This paper is concerned with various effects of disease caused death on the host population in an epidemic model of SIR type. Various effects of disease caused death on the host population are studied in this epidemic model. The basic problem discussed in this paper is to be describing the spread of an infection caused death within a population. It is further assumed that there is no substantial development of immunity and that removed infectious are in effect cured of disease. The rate of natural birth and death is assumed to be balanced.
 
Article
Service selection is essential for fulfilling the requirements of service requestors. In the service oriented environment, Quality of Services (QoS) is one of the utmost concerns for consumers during service selection. Existing web service standards do not undertake the QoS issue efficiently and the load balancing is not performed to the maximum degree. In this paper we propose a new architecture called the Delegation Web Service (DWS) for selecting the web service more efficiently and with maximum load balancing. The load balancing is achieved by grouping the web services of similar type from the registry by the DWS for each consumer¿s request and it is predestinated to each monitored web service. The monitoring of QoS parameters such as response time, efficiency, round trip time are done using the Web Service Distributed Management (WSDM) standard, since it has the better method and specifications.
 
Article
The biometric person identification technique based on the pattern of the human iris is well suited to be applied to access control. Security systems having realized the value of biometrics for two basic purposes: to verify or identify users. In this busy world, identification should be fast and efficient. In this paper we focus on an efficient methodology for identification and verification for iris detection using Haar wavelet and the classifier used is Minimum hamming distance, even when the images have obstructions, visual noise and different levels of illuminations.
 
Effect of sampling time on the flow behavior of mesocarp oil viscosity (p < 0.01)
Effect of temperature on the flow behavior of mesocarp oil viscosity in 12 weeks
Effect of temperature on the flow behavior of kernel oil viscosity in 16 weeks 
Effect of temperature on the flow behavior of kernel oil viscosity in 20 weeks after anthesis 
Article
This research was done on Tenera oil palm variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera) on eight-year-old palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Research Station. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested and were removed the fruits from outer and inner layers of them randomly, during the ripening process between 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after anthesis for oil extraction and determine to the affect of high temperature on palm oil viscosity as a Non-Newtonian fluid during the ripening process. The soxhlet extraction tubes with hexane were used to palm oil extraction. Oil viscosity as a one of the important rheological properties of palm oil during the oil development in the bunch and constant function of shear rate, exhibiting Non-Newtonian fluid behaviors was measured by Rheostress, (Thermo Hakke, RS 600, Germany) with rotary parallel plates (35 mm diameter and 0.5 mm gap distance) in order to the effect of high temperature on palm oil viscosity. The oil was sheared at a constant shear rate of 100 s-1 over temperatures ranging from 20 to 70 °C and viscosity was then measured. All experiments were carried out in Microsoft Excel and MSTAT-C to statistical analysis and Regression coefficients.
 
Article
Secure home provide a sense of security to its owner. Home security has two aspects, inside and outside. Inside security covers the concept of securing home from threats like fire etc. whereas, outside security is meant to secure home against any burglar/intruder etc. This work is aimed to provide a solution for home security that takes decision dynamically using the pervasive devices. Also this solution has the feature to intimate security analysis results anywhere in the world using internet.
 
Article
UMTS is in one of the third generation mobile telecommunication technologies. And it supports various multimedia applications and services at an enhanced data rate with better security. It also supports mobile users and for that there is a process called handover where new channels are assigned to the user when it moves from a region covered by one node to a region covered by other. In this paper we analyse the effect of handover over the performance of the system.
 
Article
The Slantlet Transform (SLT) is a recently developed multiresolution technique especially well-suited for piecewise linear data. The Slantlet transform is an orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) with 2 zero moments and with improved time localization. It also retains the basic characteristics of the usual filterbank such as octave band characteristic and a scale dilation factor of two. However, the Slantlet transform is based on the principle of designing different filters for different scales unlike iterated filterbank approaches for the DWT. In the proposed system, Slantlet transform is implemented and used in Compression and Denoising of various input images. The performance of Slantlet Transform in terms of Compression Ratio (CR), Reconstruction Ratio (RR) and Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (PSNR) present in the reconstructed images is evaluated. Simulation results are discussed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
 
Packet delivery fraction vs No. of node
GLOMOSIM MODELS AT DIFFERENT LAYER
Average E2E delay vs No. of nodes
Article
Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) represents complex distributed systems that comprise wireless ad hoc network that does not rely on any fixed infrastructure and has dynamic topology also called short lived networks. MANET is self-organized and self-configurable network where the mobile nodes move arbitrarily. The mobile nodes can receive and forward packets as a router. Routing is a critical issue in MANET; efficient routing protocols will make routing reliable. The most popular ones are AODV, DSDV and DSR. The performance measurements are based on the various performance metrics such as packet delivery fraction, average end to end delay. This paper also analysis the performance of using execution time by varying different MANET simulation parameters.
 
Article
Object tracking is a challenging task in spite of all sophisticated methods that have been developed. The major challenge is to keep track of the object of a particular choice. In this work, a new video moving object-tracking method is proposed. The segmentation of the video is done by contextual clustering. Clustering is an important method in data analysis because of its ability to ¿discover¿ the inherent features in the data. The fundamental concept in clustering techniques is to group a given set of objects into subsets according to properties associated with each object, so that the members in each individual subset share some similar properly defined features. A multitarget human tracking is attempted.
 
Article
The elimination of the microorganisms in its totality, during the endodontic therapy, although desired, is hard to be achieved. Even after the canal filling, the microorganisms are able to be into the dentinal mass and into the periapical region. This essay aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of endodontic materials against to the Enterecoccus faecalis NEWP 0012. The inoculation of this microorganism in the glass plates was done using swabs pressing the cotton against the wall of the pipe. The bacterial suspension was sowed evenly on the sterile surface of the Ágar MH. The plates were incubated by aerobic conditions, in a constant temperature in the range of 35º a 37°c, for 24 hours. The endodontic materials tested were: Sealer 26, Endofill, AH plus, MTA Filapex, calcium hydroxide paste associated to the chlorhexidine, Maxxion R glass ionomer, MTA and MTA HP. After material manipulation, they were impregnated into absorbent paper discs of 5mm of diameter and distributed sporadically on the plates that contained the microorganism. The experimental data were obtained by the measurement of the inhibition halo in the period of 24h, 72h, 7, 15 and 21 days; thus, the microorganism was classified as resistant or sensible to the different products. From the results, it was possible to verify that the calcium hydroxide paste associated to the chlorhexidine presented superior antimicrobial activity on Enterecoccus faecalis NEWP 0012. It was concluded that the calcium hydroxide paste associated to the chlorhexidine has satisfactory antimicrobial activity against the Enterecoccus faecalis NEWP 0012 in the period between 24h to 21 days.
 
Molecular structure of 4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4triazole derivatives.
A linear correlation between NICS and global hardness for AMT, AMMT, and AEMT
Comparison of experimental FT-IR spectra with
Article
Abstract— The inhibition of copper corrosion by three 4-amino-5- mercapto-1,2,4-triazole derivatives was studied theoretically using hybrid DFT functional (B3LYP/6-31G (d,p)). The chemical reactivity descriptors, such as electronegativity, global hardness, softness, electrophilicity, EHOMO, ELUMO, dipole moment, ∆EBack-donation, Fukui functions of the investigated inhibitor computed from density functional theory were reported in this paper. In addition, Nucleus independent Chemical Shift Analysis (NICS) were introduced to further study the aromaticity parameter to describe the reactivity of these inhibitors at the Cu surface. The studies have shown that, 4- amino-3-ethyl-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AEMT) is the most efficiency inhibitor than 4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AMT) and 4-amino-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AMMT) for copper in HCl medium. The theoretical work was consistent with the experimentally obtained result.
 
Article
Pakistan is facing severe power crisis where power demand is greater than the total generated power. Distributed generation (DG) is a preferred scheme to improve system efficiency and to meet the power demand for domestic and commercial applications. This paper investigates those areas where DG installation is necessary to overcome power crisis. Comparative analysis of all 132kV grid stations of Peshawar has been carried out on the basis of overloaded transmission lines, MWh energy losses, line losses, and duration of load shedding. Statistical analysis of the data collected for more than fifteen grid stations shows the locations where DG is necessary to be installed to meet power demand and to avoid load shedding. The newly introduced type of DG renewable energy sources are more suitable in the selected areas of Peshawar based upon different weather conditions. Index Terms—distributed generation, energy crisis, grids, line losses, load shedding, power demand, renewable energy
 
Article
COVID 19 infection is a devastating viral disease-causing multiorgan damage and severity of the complications. Several studies have reported the major effect of COVID 19 on the respiratory, cardiac system as well as on other organs. There has been an increased prevalence of the COVID-19 infection observed in patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) because of many unknown reasons.
 
Article
A new variant of the corona virus family found in the Wuhan city market of the China causing serious harm to human being. After the WHO decided COVID-19 as a pandemic situation, everyone has started to measure the prevention from infectious disease according to WHO guidelines. It includes social distancing, isolation, quarantine, lockdown, sanitation and masking respectively. During the time researcher has observed the difficulties of cultivating new normal to people in Nepal. People have perceived the single corona virus differently; common populations and frontline workers have different perception towards to corona virus. Researcher started to measures the psychosocial impact of COVID-19 pandemic into frontline workers and general populations in Kathmandu valley. The total number of sample unit for this research is 82; it includes 52 general populations and 30 frontline workers.
 
Article
With COVID-19 being the highlight of the decade and information related to it on the rise in an unorganized manner, the need for a centralized platform to gather information from on an international front doesn't seem to be far fetched.
 
Article
Amid 1947-1979, the impact factor of cultural diversity in Britain become profound, which majorly comprised of Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims. After the second world war, the laws and regulations were reconsidered seriously to reshape the society into a civilized and modernized one. For such proclamations, the utmost necessity was the Social Policy; therefore, the policy makers were given a complicated task to accomplish concerning the integration of harmony, equality, and peaceful society. This paper has investigated such major changes throughout the period from 1979 onwards. Not only this research has focused on the analyzation and changes in social policy, it further has reflected their impacts on the social work in the 21st century. Furthermore, this paper is aimed to briefly discuss, analyse, and assess each policy change under the umbrella of categories to further refine the research, such as health programs, social security, social work and so forth. Index Terms— Britain Social Movements, Social Change, Social Impacts, Social Programs, Social Work, Societal Integration, UK Social Policy.
 
Article
The study investigated the impact of foreign direct investment on CO2 emission in Nigeria over the period 1980 to 2014. Econometric techniques which included correlation analysis, unit root test, co-integration, error correction model were employed to determine the direction and the magnitude of impacts. Findings from the analysis revealed gross domestic product positively influence CO2 emission in Nigeria and was insignificant while foreign direct investment and energy consumption have negative impact on CO2 emission in Nigeria but not significant. Also gross domestic product per capita, foreign direct investment and energy consumption in one year lag (-1) have negative impact on CO2 emission in Nigeria but only energy consumption was significant at 10% level of significant. Furthermore, gross domestic product per capita, foreign direct investment and energy consumption in two year lag (-2) have a negative impact on CO2 emission in Nigeria but only foreign direct investment is significant at 10% level of significant. Furthermore, gross domestic product per capita, foreign direct investment and energy consumption in three year lag (-3) have a positive impact on CO2 emission in Nigeria but all the variables are insignificant. The result of ECM indicated that the model seems to be good as it satisfies the diagnostic test and also has an adjusted R-Squared (R2) value of 0.413645, which indicate that only about 45.64% of the total systematic variation in CO2 emission in Nigeria is not accounted for by the explanatory variables all taken together. The Durbin Watson (DW) statistics value of 1.701254 shows that there is no serious problem of serial correlation and heteroskedasticity. The error term is also found to be normally distributed and it will take approximately six years and some months for full adjustments to take place after a shock has occurred.
 
THE RESULT OF AVERAGE VARIANCE EXTRACTED (AVE) ESTIMATION
THE RESULT OF COMPOSITE RELIABILITY ESTIMATION
THE RESULT OF RELIABILITY INDICATOR AND COLINEARITY INDICATOR TEST
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This study aimed to analyze psychological effect of waiting environment on perceptions of waiting time for outpatients in Kendari Regional Public Hospital. Respondents participitated in this study were 384 patients, taken during study period between September-December 2019. Data analysis employed Partial Least Square Method and analyzed on SmartPLS 3 application. The results revealed that, there is a positive and siginificant effect between queuing environment on perception of waiting time in outpatient care in Kendari Regional Public Hospital with regression coefficient of 0.217 (positive) and t-value of 2.463> 1.96. Environmental elements regarding enjoyable management of queue services were found to positively influence the affective state of individuals which consisted of interactions of pleasure and passion during the period of waiting for service. A short waiting time perception can compensate for the long actual waiting time and and can take on the role of as service recovery. Index Terms— Perception of Waiting Time, Waiting Environment, Psychology of Waiting
 
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Nowadays the facts indicate that’s the human population rise 7.7 billion as of April 2019 according to the most recent United Nations estimates elaborated by World meters beside the burden of demand daily on the production sector of livestock which hindered by the consequences of overpopulation and climate change that pushes land degradation, decrease in soil fertility which are challenges of getting recommended animal daily intake basically feed.
 
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The art of Kantanagar Temple in Bangladesh ancient history is the most powerful combination of architecture & sculptures which were created from 1704 to 1752 A.D. [1]. The doors, windows, pillars, ceilings, and walls were adorned with the terracotta design. Kantanagar Temple is a unique example of the temple architecture in the sub-continent because of the finer details of reprieves.
 
Graphical summary showing homology and De novo modeled Mycobacterium tuberculosis 16S rRNA motifs bound to antibiotics 
Front and back view of the combined 30SM. tuberculosis ribosomal subunit. 
A) Total structure of M. tuberculosis 16S rRNA (left) B) Total structure of the M. tuberculosis 30S ribosomal subunit (Centre) C) 21 proteins of M. tuberculosis in space (right). 
Hybridization of target-probe interaction (labelled MTB rRNA) on a ntibiotic (Kenamycin and streptomycin) platform with a negative control (-ve Ctl; water) 
Article
Abstract— Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of the tuberculosis, has infected more than 33% of the total populace to date. It is known to be considerably aggressive and profoundly impervious to current medications that target it. Aminoglycosides, for example, viomycin and capreomycin have been shown to bind to important functional regions of the M tuberculosis ribosome thus its process of protein synthesis is inhibited subsequently affecting the cell viability. Current techniques for studying drug interaction through generation of three-dimensional macromolecular structures are slow and tedious. This study exhibits a more proficient and cheap method for producing structure models in silico by utilizing both de novo and homology modeling strategies. Here, a three dimensional 3Å high-resolution crystal structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit from Mycobacteria tuberculosis through structure prediction modeling methods is reported. This ribosomal structure is practically identical in quality to experimentally determined crystalline structures. This technique gives novel chances to drug target screening, and will be critical in the advancement of new classes of anti-bacterial compounds. Screening of ligands In-silico can be done to distinguish compounds that show binding potential on ribosome structures. This study demonstrates Mycobacteria Tuberculosis 30S ribosomal subunit generation that provides a structural scaffold allowing in silico design of drugs.
 
Top-cited authors
Nikolay Raychev
  • Web of Open Science
Miqdam Tariq Chaichan
  • University of Technology- Iraq
Hussein A Kazem
  • Sohar University
Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar
Charles Kennedy
  • Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori, Rivers State, Nigeria