International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)

Online ISSN: 2307-4531
Publications
Article
In the province of Papua, the number of drug abusers in the age group 10-19 years were 4,600 men and 2,000 in women, with the number of drug detention of 25 people in 2013 and 160 in 2014. Drug type of marijuana is so popular in Papua because of its easy access entering of the border in Papua New Gunea through Skouw tribe village. This study aimed to explore concepts and relationships between concepts related to tribal resistance Skouw to not use drugs. The study design was a qualitative approach with ethno methodology. Data were collected by interview, observation and study of the document. The informants were teenagers who do not use drugs, teenagers drug abusers, parents, community leaders, chiefs and (chief of tribe) Ondoafi. The results showed empirically drug abusers because teenagers do not become mothers message. Adolescent emotional closeness with the mother in the house drain naturally superstructure value. Teen drug abusers of Skouw tribes have a great desire to leave a drug that is motivated by the advice and affection of mothers who received any circumstances. This study found "Gluten Skouw" as immunity social tribe Skouw ie mother who has two deep meaning, namely mother meaningful mama who gives love and counsel retained by teenagers, and Mrs. meaning "Tribe Skouw" as the norm and the identity of the community Skouw held to avoid drugs.
 
Article
Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera's effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it.
 
Annualized departure delay based efficiency of an airport for half-normally distributed inefficiency term  
Annualized departure delay based efficiency of an airport for exponentially distributed inefficiency term  
Article
The study employs determinants of the aircraft departure delay to estimate airport efficiency. Two main parameters were applied to fit the stochastic frontier model using transcendental logarithmic function where both frontier and inefficiency models were generated. The estimated airport efficiencies over a period of 1827 days applying the half-normal and exponential distributions for the inefficiency error terms were (0.7498; δ=0.1417, n=1827) and (0.8181; δ=0.1224, n=1827) respectively. The correlation coefficient for the efficiency estimates (ρ=0.9791, n=1827, p
 
Article
This study presents an optimal design and a control shame for PMBLDC motor based on multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms NSGA-II which is able to optimum both volume and cost of constructing of dc motor and tune the PID controller parameters simultaneously in order of trade-off optimal solutions. Single objective population based method such as genetic algorithm or particle swarm optimization have only one solution in single run but multi-objective optimization can find various solutions in a single run. This paper deals with some objective functions. The cost function include of step response characteristic of motor speed, building cost and its volume that should be minimized simultaneously. To reach this goal in this application the NSGA-II and MOPSO are used for the first time. The results of simulations show the validation of this methods.
 
Article
Pregnancy is a dramatic episode of the condition of the biologicals, psychological changes and adaptations of a woman who never experienced it. Since during pregnancy, the mother has been experiencing anxiety. Anxiety increased towards birth, especially in the third trimester. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of health workers related to anxiety levels of third trimester pregnant women in face the birth process in maternity room Anutapura Palu General Hospital. The type of study was analytic survey used cross sectional approach. Sample total was 35 respondents with the sampling technique used purposive sampling method. The analysis in this study were univariate and bivariate. The results showed that with the good role of health workers, more respondents were at the mild anxiety level. Otherwise with the not good role of health workers, more respondents were at the moderate and severe anxiety levels. This study showed there was a relationship between the role of health workers with anxiety levels in the third trimester pregnant women (p = 0.016, p = 0.023, p = 0.003, p = 0.005, p = 0.009). The role of health workers to the anxiety levels of third trimester pregnant women in the face of the birth process was essential to reduce the anxiety of the pregnant women.
 
Article
In participatory science the investigating tool or measuring instrument that probes in the nature is consciousness or our common sense . Without this tool one cannot be participator in the event . Gravity is the force that could only be studied by Participatory science . If three other natural forces are mediated by three different particles , then the gravity force must be mediated by fourth particle called gravitons. If no experiment could detect these particles , it does not mean they are not there.. Having known about graviton about its structure that it is made up of two B.B.Bs , ( Yang + Yin ) , we shift our investigation to know its function in the universe. It is to be noted that it is the mind of M2 that decides orbital path of the M2 and how much energy is to be taken from energized gravitons to give the energy effect (whether it is acceleration due to gravity effect (g) or orbital velocity effect , centripetal effect or centrifugal effect i.e. inter orbital shift , weight of object ( G.M. effect ) and Hubble law effect,) is also decided by M2. Hence M2 decides how much energized gravitons is to be locked to give desired effect. There has been many energized gravitons strings coming simultaneously in contact with M2 but how much energized gravitons is to be locked to interacting surfaces ( Yins of M2) is decided by M2 ( higher center of M2 i.e. yang B.B.B for fermions and yin B.B.B for bosons) . Mind of M1 only triggers attraction effect (direction is decided by yang B.B.B of energized gravitons ) i.e. fall effect ,bending effect ,gravitational red shift effect and retardation in velocity effect. If there is inter orbital shift effect , it is also decided by M1. But magnitude of these effects (fall effect , bending effect , gravitational red shift effect and retardation in velocity effect ) is decided my M2. These thoughts are fed thoughts and feeding was done in pre creation era by Highest center of the universe. Setting of thought expression is fixed (different ) in fixed( different ) frame of reference. That is what Quantum Gravity means.
 
Article
This paper analyzes the liquidity, profitability, activity and solvency ratio on the performance of Bank Bukopin. This study uses the secondary data that is financial statements of Bank Bukopin on the period of 2011-2013. From the calculation of these ratios, it can be determine the financial performance of Bank Bukopin. That financial performance then adjusted with the standards of the financial ratio. The research proves that the level of financial performance at Bank Bukopin from 2011-2013 according to the liquidity, profitability, activity and solvency ratios is expressed in good and healthy state. This study is limited in the scope of research on financial performance measured from the financial ratio. This study examines the cases of Bank Bukopin, Indonesia. The contribution of this study provide an insight how to keep the companies survive and develop accordance with the demands of the financial health and also this study is different from the previous studies because of the scale of study is a national level with a long research period that is for 3 years period.
 
Location of the Hamakoussou Basin 
The proposed diagenetic evolution of the Hamakoussou sedimentary Basin 
Article
Published studies in the Hamakoussou reservoir sandstones are very few and the characterization of the reservoir quality including diagenesis is unknown. In this paper, after lithological reports, classical petrographic techniques have been used to study the diagenesis and reservoir quality of the Hamakoussou sandstones: Diagenetic processes within and around detrital grains show that early cementation by calcite come from volcanic veins and late cementation originating from silicification. Diagenetic phenomena (early cementation, compaction, fracturation and late cementation) show that these sandstones have a low porosity due to the blockage of intergranular pore spaces by cement. Intense volcanic activity associated with the circulation of fluids (silica and calcite) as well as the dissolution along the contacts of quartz grains are the principal sources of early and late cements which are responsible for the decrease in porosity observed in these sandstones. The immediate consequence is the sudden drying up of boreholes drilled for water supply.
 
Article
Breast milk is the main nutrition for the children of 4-6 months old. The mercury of mother’s body may be transferred to infant via milk. Mercury is a neural toxic metal and endangers the propergrowth of infants. This paper aims to study the biomonitoring of mercury in the breast milk and infants’hair in the southern coasts of Caspian Sea. We evaluated the concentration of mercury in the milk of 82mothers and the hair of 82 infants and other affecting factors on this. The mean concentrations ofmercury in the breast milk and infants’ hair were 0.43 micro g L-1 and 0.92 micro g g-1 respectively. We did not observe any statistical significant correlation between the amount of mercury in breast milk and infants’hair. The consumption of fish was the only influential factor in the amount of mercury in breast milk. Otherfactors like mother’s age, living place and pregnancy periods do not affect the amount of mercury inbreast milk. The average density of mercury in the hair of 6.5 % of the studied infants (n=8) was higher than the normal WHO recommended limit and EPA Reference dose (2 mg kg-1). Also the density ofmercury in 2.4 % of breast milk samples (n=2) was more than daily intake of mercury for infantsrecommended by US EPA and WHO (0.5 mg kg-1). As results suggest, mothers in this region must be consume unpolluted fishes in order to minimizing the risk of toxic exposure for their health and infants. Key words: Mercury; Hair; Breast milk; Infants; Southern coasts of the Caspian Sea
 
Demographic information about the age of the participants 
Article
In norm-dependent countries, where English is being taught as a foreign language, the main attention is mostly being paid to the native speaker teacher of English language as the ultimate teaching resource. In such countries, native speaker's norm is being considered as the standard by which the language should be taught to non-native speakers. However, in recent years, more emphasis has been given to the significance of non native teachers of English and to the advantages such teachers could have in the process of language teaching (e.g. Ellis, 2005; Llurda; 2005; and Seidlhofer, 1999). In this study, attitudes of the non native teachers of English toward their own status were explored, drawing on an empirical study of the self-perception of Iranian teachers. At the same time, advantages of nonnative speaker teachers as significant resources in the expanding circle are discussed.
 
Article
The role of oil: its output and infrastructure and technology in the world are established. Exploration and Exploitation of oil is not only significant as a revenue generator but has become indispensible in the world economy especially as a result of the inability of world economy to find a better substitute. The recent decline and fluctuation arising from oil sector over the decades have prompted a reassessment of petroleum fiscal systems. The research compares the current upstream fiscal systems of three oil exporting countries: Nigeria, Indonesia and Malaysia. The approach adopted for this study is a review of the existing literature on fiscal regimes; the focus is an objective presentation of empirical evidence. The methodology involved desktop research which looked into published literature. Based on the evaluation, the paper arrived at possible conclusions and implications for oil fiscal regimes for the respective countries and the world fiscal systems in general.
 
Article
Creative qualities are necessary in the professional activity of every specialist. In the article the results of diagnostics of these qualities with the help of N.F. Vishnyakova’s questionnaire are presented. Peculiarities of creative qualities in the sphere of a physician’s professional activity are shown. Creative disposition to teaching promotes the development of the students’ creative qualities. The author substantiates the advantages of innovative educational technologies for optimization of the medical students’ results and shows the necessity of a health care provider for the creative qualities.
 
Article
Ni 0.1 Mn 0.4 Cu 0.2 Cd 0.3 Fe 2 O 4 has been planned to prepare by the sol-gel auto combustion procedure. From the frequency 20 Hz to the frequency 15 MHz, dielectric properties, electric modulus, impedance spectroscopy, and ac conductivity has been documented with the help of an impedance analyzer. From the graph of the real dielectric part, it has been viewed that the dielectric constant value reduces with the boost of frequency that can be elucidated through Maxwell and Wagner's two-layer theory. A lucid peak has been found in the graph of the imaginary electric modulus part that is the clear distinction between two conduction regions in the frequency area. In the impedance spectroscopy, high impedance has been monitored in the low-frequency section. Enhance of ac conductivity in the high-frequency section reveals the activity of grains over grain boundary.
 
Article
Abstract Coptotermes heimi and Heterotermes indicola are lower termites which harbor protists flagellates for the digestion of lignocelluloses, a main component of wood. In the present work effect of anti-protozoan chemicals, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadimidine, diaviridine, entox and resochin was observed on the workers and soldiers of the two selected termite species and their gut flagellates. Filter papers were dipped in 10ml solution of 2% anti-protozoan chemicals, dried at room temperature and termites were forced to feed on these filter papers placed in the petriplates and maintained at 25°C. There was a gradual and significant decrease in flagellate’s population existing in the hind gut of termites during 72 hours of feeding on the drug impregnated filter papers followed by the death of workers in each case except entox. In the case of soldiers no significant difference in mortality was observed in termites and their gut flagillates compared to the control including entox. Anti-protozoan drugs used in this experiment, other than entox, could be the best replacement of insecticides for the termite control. Keywords: Coptotermes heimi; sulfaquinoxaline; sulfadimidine; diaviridine.
 
Data on Average Score if Presented in a Figure 
Data on Scores of Mathematics in Class III of Public Primary School 040457 of Berastagi 
Learning Outcomes in Cycle I and Cycle II 
Activities of Students in Cycles I and II if Presented in the Form of Figure 
Article
The objective of this research is to determine the Realistic Mathematical Approach in mathematics learning with subject matter of comparing fractions in class III of Public Primary School 040457 of Berastagi. The type of the present study is a classroom action research. Data analysis technique used in this research is quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis method, with the aim to know whether application of demonstration method can improve the learning outcomes of students. Based on the results of research and data analysis that has been conducted, it is evident that through the application of Realistic Mathematical Approach the learning outcomes of mathematics of students can be improved.
 
Energy of emergence of mungbean genotypes at T1, T2 and T3 60 50 40 30 
Biplot graph between PC1 and PC2 for mungbean genotypes at T1 for all studied traits. 
Article
Mungbean is considered as cash crop because of valuable nutritional profile, short growing season and soil fertility restoration. Usually it is grown on marginal lands in both growing seasons in Pakistan (rabi and kharif). Marginal areas remain deficient in inputs needed to provide optimum conditions to developing plants. Moisture deficiency is one of the major threats amongst prevailing stresses especially during kharif season in Pakistan. It is mandatory to grow drought tolerant mungbean genotypes to minimize the adverse effect of drought. In present study 17 mungbean genotypes were screened for drought tolerance at seedling stage and to find out best selection criterion against drought conditions. Shoot length (SL), root length (RL), root shoot ratio (R/S), stem diameter (S.D), shoot weight (SW), dead leaf %age (DL%), dead over normal leaf ratio (DL/NL), emergence %age (E%) and energy of emergence (EE) were studied. Line graph, biplot graph and principle component analysis were used for evaluation of mungbean seedlings performance at different moisture levels i.e. 80% (T 1), 50% (T 2) and 30% (T 3) of the field capacity (FC). Genotypes AUM25, AUM-38, M-2004, 56-2 and NM-98 at T 1 , AUM-9, AUM-38, and AUM-25 at T 2 and AUM-31 and AUM-25 at T 3 were proved most suited at corresponding environments. Genotypes AUM51, AUM-2002, M-2006, AUM-28, NM-58 and AUM-25 performed better under all the three studied environments. Best performing genotypes might be used in future breeding programs to develop drought tolerant mungbean recommended for marginal lands. Parameters corresponding early growth and development proved as best selection standard for low moisture stress tolerance. Index Term˗˗˗ Mungbean, principle component analysis, biplot graph and moisture stress. I. INTRODUCTION Mungbean (Vigna radiata. L) ranks leading pulse of Asia after chickpea (Cicer arietinum. L) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) [1]. It is also named as mung, green gram, moong, golden gram and mungo. Short crop duration (90-120 days), nitrogen fixing ability, inhibition of soil erosion, soil enrichment, low input requirements and wide adaptability are amongst important beneficial features of this crop [2] which regards it as a cash crop. Mungbean is high quality protein source (upto 25% of dry weight of seed) for large number of Asian people [3] and rich in phosphorus, calcium and vitamins. It is mainly grown in developing countries of Asia, Latin America and Africa [4].
 
preparation of parachutes and buoy line
the size adjustment of the main rope for the parachute anchor during the 1 st trip
Article
Falkland Island is an England area whose largest income comes from fisheries: the export of squid. Squid brings important economic value and occupies the third number in fisheries after fish and shrimp. The squid fishing line's operation consists of automatic fishing machines, roll, yudei, fishing line, swivel, and ballast. The fishing line for squid has operated automatically. The influence of waves and currents influence the fishing line to not operate properly. Meanwhile, a parachute anchor is a tool that maintains the balance of the ship and fishing line. The operation system of the parachute anchor is to restrain the movement of currents underwater. The mainline and float line connected to a hydraulic machine at the bow of the ship. The main rope sizes are 50 m, 60 m, 70 m, 80 m, and 90 m. In calm water or wind speeds of less than 10 km per hour, the size of the mainline used is 50 m, and if the wave is big or the wind speed is more than 35 km per hour, the size used is 90 m. The application of the right size keeps the boat and fishing line in balance. The number of catches during one trip is 119,970 kg, with the lowest catch occurred in January, amounting to 1,710 kg, and the largest catch occurred in March, amounting to 82,530 kg. Types of the catch divided into 2: squid with 20 kg and 10 kg. For 20 kg size, mostly obtained in March with a total catch of 2M = 33,040 kg and for the size of 10 kg with a total catch of a size of Y is 23,510 kg.
 
Article
A Global pandemic, declared by WHO, caused due to a deadly virus known as a "SARS-Cov-2", has resulted in 4.3 million deaths. Its RNA based genome and lack of proofreading ability has made this virus more prone to get the frequent mutations and results in the formation of new variants and increased pathogenicity. Scientists had been trying hard to develop the ways through which this lethal virus could be eradicated, from the day the genome of SARS CoV-2 was first reported. In order to prevent from this viral infection more than 90 vaccines were developed but few of them were approved by FDA for the human trials. Moderna Inc came up with "mRNA-1273" vaccine which was given EUA approval on 18th December, 2020 by the FDA. The vaccine is based on active mRNA, translated into spike proteins of virus, is developed by the help of nanotechnology. The clinical trials have proved an efficacy of 94.1%. Moreover, the vaccine is able to prevent disease caused by the alpha, beta, gamma and delta variant of SARS-Cov 2 in recent studies. In this review article the composition, technology, mode of action, immune responses, clinical trials and efficacy as well as the comparison of moderna vaccine with other available covid-19 vaccines has been discussed.
 
a,6 b) shows a cross-section SEM image of the Sno2 Thin Films was using by SEM TESCAN VEGA ш CZECH, about (100-200) nm. 
Article
thin dioxide SnO2 thin film is one of the important transparent conducting dioxide (TCOs) due to its electrical and optical transparency in visible light, it is applied in various fields such as solar cells, optoelectronic devices, heat mirrors, gas sensor. SnO2 thin film layer was grown up on a (12x12 cm2) glass sheet by thermal spray method and study of the structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties is introduced.
 
Linear regression modeling for the antibacterial effect on the formation of polymicrobial biofilm
Linear regression modeling of the antibacterial effect on the mature polymicrobial biofilm
MIC values of the antibacterials in a single and combinational uses for inhibiting the growth of
Article
The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of four regents; two naturals, olibanum and alum, and two standards, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and chlorhexidine (CHX) to affect the growth and biofilm of three types of periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, "the red complex group". Clinical isolates of the red complex pathogens were isolated from chronic periodontitis. They were identified by phenotypic properties and molecular method. The inhibitory activity of the four reagents was tested by microdilution method. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) on the bacterial plankton and minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) on biofilm of the four reagents in a single and combinational use was determined on mono-and polymicrobial populations. Simple linear regression modeling was used to explore the effect of each reagent and determine MICs and MBICs. All reagents showed inhibition activity against the growth of mono-and polymicrobial planktonic population. MIC values on polymicrobial growth were higher than on monomicrobial growth and MBICs were much higher. All reagents had antibacterial activity on a monomicrobial biofilm with greater significant effect on T. denticola then T. forsythia and P. gingivalis. On polymicrobial biofilm, just olibanum continued showing its effect whilst CHX was less effect and both alum and CIP had no effect. Combinational use with Olibanum encouraged the effect of other regents on polymicrobial biofilm. This combination is a promising medicated preparation to combat the subgingival plaque of red complex pathogens.
 
Article
The charge mobility of the light emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) device is studied by the Space Charge Limited Current (SCLC) technique. The LEC type diode is constituted as hole only device in order to understand how affect interface modification with the 4-[(2E)-3-carboxyprop-2-enamido] benzoic acid (CABA) on the charge mobility of the device by carried out I-V measurements.
 
Article
Reactions of isatin–N–acetylchloride 2 with equivalent amount of hydrazine hydrate gave 2-(2, 3-dioxo-2, 3-dihydro-1H-indol-1-yl) acetohydrazide 3 which was then cyclized to give [1, 2, 4] triazino [4, 3-a] indole-3, 10 (2H, 4H)-dione 5 but when 2 reacted with excess of hydrazine hydrate it give 2[(2, 3-bishydrazono)-2, 3-dihydro-1H-indol-1-yl] acetohydrazide 4. Isothiocyanate derivative 6 was prepared from the corresponding acid chloride and ammonium thiocyanate in acetone. The reactions of isothiocyanate with anthranilic acid, glycine, benzoyl glycine, hydrazine hydrate and benzoyl hydrazine were also investigated. The condensation reaction of benzoyl glycine with isothiocyanate in the presence of benzaldehyde gave 16 which was easily cyclized to give 17.
 
Article
We carried out a photometric study on two young open clusters NGC 1545 and NGC 2099 in the near-infrared region by making use of JHK s of the 2MASS catalog and the GAIA DR2 survey. In this study, we utilized a method that is able to distinguish cluster stars from background stars. Our calculated results indicate that for both cluster NGC 1545 and NGC 2099, the number of members are 3059 and 2932, respectively. We have computed the cluster center of the two clusters and found it to be estimated at α = 04 h 20 m 59 s .87, δ = 50 o 15′58′′.46, α = 05 h 52 m 17 s .8, δ = 32 o 33′5′′.58, respectively. The limiting radius for both clusters is about 3.5 ± 1.1 arcmin and 29.2 ± 1.3 arcmin, respectively. The Color Magnitude Diagram, in GAIA DR2 Bands, for NGC 1545, enabled us to estimate the reddening at RP band to be E (BP-RP) = 0.09 mag, and E (BP-RP) = 0.08 mag, for G band. For NGC 2099, the reddening at RP band is estimated to be E (BP-RP) =-0.08 mag, and for the G band, it's estimated to be E (BP-RP) =-0.08 mag. While in the 2MASS Bands, the reddening at K s band is estimated to be E (J-K s) = 0.00205 mag, and at J band it's estimated to be E (J-H) = 0.001 mag for NGC 1545. For NGC 2099, the reddening at K s band is estimated to be E (J-K s) =-0.09 mag, however, and E (J-H) =-0.09 mag at J band. We obtained the distance modulus at RP band to be (m-M) RP = 9.6 mag and 10.6 mag, and (m-M) G = 10.4 mag and 10.6 mag, for the G band, whereas the distance modulus at K s band (m-M) Ks = 9.5 mag and 10.6 mag, and (m-M) J = 9.5 mag and 10.6 mag, for the J band., for NGC 1545 and NGC 2099, respectively.-75 In contrast, the luminosity and mass functions of these two open clusters, NGC 1545 and NGC 2099, have been estimated to be 1997.85842 M • (for GAIA DR2 Bands) and 1847.36496 M • (for 2MASS Bands) and 3289.40412 M • (for GAIA DR2 Bands) and 3317.5277 M • (for 2MASS Bands), respectively, while the mass function slopes are-2.69397 ± 0.24234 (for GAIA DR2 Bands) and-2.69142 ± 0.26602 (for 2MASS Bands) and-3.37104 ± 0.65729 (for GAIA DR2 Bands) or-3.55212 ± 0.28216 (for 2MASS Bands) for NGC 1545 and NGC 2099, respectively. Finally, the dynamical state of these two clusters shows that NGC 1545 and NGC 2099 are clusters that can be considered as dynamically relaxed.
 
Article
Surveys were conducted in the field, near the port of Bouzedjar with fishermen, to acquire a knowledge of the spatial and depth distribution of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (Linneaus, 1758). To complete our investigations, we referred to the informations obtained during the Spanish trawling and acoustic survey which was carried out on the Algerian coast in 2004 aboard the Spanish research vessel R / V Vizconde de Eza. Analysis of the results reveals that the rich funds in norway lobster were located in the central area of the continental shelf between the immersions 250 and 400 m. It is thus observed very clearly that fish caught on these funds are mostly represented by Gadidae family; the most common species is the Greater forkbeard Phycis blennoides (Brünnich, 1768) (12.30%) followed by L. budegassa (10.86%) and P. bograveo (6.27%). Elasmobranchs were very few except the small dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758) (6.15%) which is quite common.
 
Stramonita heamstoma collected 
positioning of sampled stations
Study area 
Article
Stramonita heamstoma is carnivorous gastropod mollusk who is feeding on bivalves and sessile macrofauna. The ecobiological study of this gastropod on the Algerian west coast has demonstrated the presence of significant populations in the zone Z3 with a density of 1,117 ind / mlc, as saying in the other study areas (Z1 and Z2), populations are less significant. This species shares the rock substrate with other mollusks and obeys all anthropogenic pressures that act more or less on their survival. Keywords: Stramonita heamstoma; gastropod; mollusk; density; anthropogenic pressures.
 
Parameters of length, weight and yield of Nile Tilapia in the control (T 0 ) and treatment (T 1 and T 2 ) ponds at the three stocking density levels during the experimental period
The change in the weight of Nile Tilapia in the control (T 0 ) and treatment (T 1 and T 2 ) ponds at the three stocking density levels during the experimental period
List of phytoplankton identified from the control (T 0 ) and treatment (T 1 and T 2 ) ponds during the experimental period
Article
This experiment was conducted to explore the effects of chemical and organic fertilizers at different levels of stocking density on the growth performance and yield of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)) in earthen pond culture in southwestern Ethiopian highland located at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level. The ponds were divided into control and treatment with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and poultry manure application at three levels of stocking densities as 1, 2 and 3 fish m-2 in a completely randomized design. All the experimental ponds had two replicates. The fertilizers were applied to the treatment ponds at a rate of 2 g m-2 per week for 150 days. Juveniles with mean initial weight of 20.9 ± 0.19 g and mean initial length of 11.51 ± 0.16 cm were stocked.-The results showed that the growth performance parameters (viz. weight gain, daily growth rate and specific growth rate) and yield of Nile Tilapia were dependent on both the stocking density and fertilizer type. The fishes stocked in the ponds treated with DAP at 1 fish m-2 attained the highest mean values on all the growth parameters followed by the fishes stocked in the poultry manure treated ponds at the same rate of density. In contrast, total weight gain and yield increased with an increase in stocking densities, and they were greater in the treatments with DAP than in the treatments with poultry manure at the same loading rate. Therefore, it can be concluded, from this experiment, that the most effective stocking density for Nile Tilapia earthen pond culture is at 1 fish m-2 for larger size fish demand while 3 fish m-2 gives higher gross production or yield with DAP treatment. Survival rate remained fairly similar for all levels of stocking density and fertilizer types.
 
General body shape of Bitterling. 
List of captured species in sampling station and two nearby poonds (present + and absent -).
Article
The Bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) is reported for the first time from the Iranian part of Tigris-Euphrates basin. Previously, this species is reported in Caspian Sea Basin. In this report, a total of 7 Specimens from a treebutary of upper Tigris-Euphrates Basin, Ghare-sou River (Kermanshah province, Iran) were caught by an Electro-fishing. Morphological characteristics were examined and then compared with those reported in previous studies.
 
Location of study sites (A.F: Ain Franin, S.L: Sidi Lakhdar)
Intraspecific comparison of reproductive characteristics in H. tubulosa and 4 species from temperate regions.Methods used: 1: histological examination; 2: GI; 3: field spawning observations; 4: presence of eggs and embryos in plankton; 5: macro-and microscopic analysis of the physical characteristics of tubules.
Article
Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) of the order Aspidochirotes constitute a highly visible and diverse group within marine ecosystems. This echinoderm filled with fundamental ecological functions by its activities detritivore and of bioturbation. In the Mediterranean is more precisely in Algerian waters, among the dominant species is the Holothuria tubulosa hence the interest in the study of this species. A total of 170 specimens are harvested at the sites of Sidi lakhdar and Ain Franin during the period October 2013 to October 2014. The analysis concerns the physiological indices, namely the gonad index (GI) and the repletion index (RI), allowing us to determine the reproductive periods and the various stages of the reproductive cycle of Holothuria tubulosa according to the seasons and the temperature and to see the relation between the feeding period and the reproduction period. The results show that sea cucumbers exhibit fluctuations in physiological indices as a function of temperature and seasons.
 
Map of study area in the estuary of West Segara Anakan 
Carapace width distribution frequency of mud crab Scylla tranquebarica in West Segara Anakan 
Monthly carapace width distribution frequency of mud crab Scylla tranquebarica in West Segara 
Relationship between the carapace width and weight of crab Scylla tranquebarica in West Segara Anakan 
Condition factor of mud crab Scylla tranquebarica in West Segara Anakan 
Article
Mud crab (Scylla tranquebarica) is one of the important fisheries comodity in West Segara Anakan. However, the information concerning on its biological population is still limited. This study aims to analyze the growth of mud crab including the size distribution, carapace width-weight relationship, condition factors, and growth parameters. The study was conducted from June 2016 to May 2017 in the estuary of West Segara Anakan. The total of 271 samples were collected during this study to observe the growth of mud crab. The result shows that the carapace width distribution frequencies of male and female mud crab were considered to be normal distribution with a majority of catch were on sub-adult life stage (70-120 mm width). Linear regression showed that male mud crab has isometric growth pattern, while the female one has a negative allometric growth pattern (P<0.05). Mud crab has a maximum condition factor value in November for male, and in December for female. Based on Electronic Length Frequency Analysis (ELEFAN I), asymptotic carapace width (CW∞) value were 190.05 mm for male, and 163.00 for female. Growth coefficients (K) for male and female were 0.29 and 0.39, respectively.
 
The Lanao Sultanate Geo-Political Divisions 1. PANGAMPONG/STATE OF BAYABAO
Structural Chart of the Pat a Pangampong sa Ranao (Four States of Lanao). Source: Sultan Monsing Macabando, Chairman of the Marawi Sultanate League, 2017. Marinaut, Marawi City.
Article
Abstract The Pat a Pangampong sa Ranao or Lanao Sultanate in the Philippines was founded in the early 17th century after its leaders seceded from the Magindanao Sultanate. The Lanao Sultanate had the traditional laws i.e. the taritib and igma or the Adat Laws, and Shari’ah (Islamic laws). The political structure of Lanao Sultanate consists of council of elders, house of board of advisers, house of bais (ladies), imāms (prayer leaders), kalis (judges), gurus (teachers), askars (army), pananalsilas (genealogy experts), defence units headed by a radia-laut (naval and war commander), and the forty-three sultans who ruled the pagawidan (supported) states and pagawid (supporting) states. The supported states had fifteen sultans who were the executive bodies of the fifteen royal houses of the Lanao Sultanate. The pagawid (supporting) states had twenty-eight governors called m’babaya ko taritib who were also the legislative bodies of the four states of Lanao: Bayabao, Masiu, Unayan, and Baloi. The Islamicity of the Lanao Sultanate in the 17th century as an Islamic state is not represented in literature. This explains why there is a huge research gap on this study. This paper will explore in-depth the Islamicity of Lanao Sultanate in the 17th century using the functions and the characteristics of an Islamic state as parameters according to contemporary Muslim scholars.
 
Article
Freshwater A. scabra is an endemic species of the Bia river precisely in Aboisso and Biaka. A total of 720 individuals were collected from August 2014 to July 2015 in the above-mentioned localities. No significant difference of the sex ratio have been observed (Aboisso: 1.2 M/F; Biaka: 1.16 M/F). The initial volume of eggs has increased during incubation of 66.25 and 79.17% of stage I to III respectively in Aboisso and Biaka. Thus, the size (Lt) at first maturity obtained respectively in males and females was estimated at 8.28 and 8.21 cm at Aboisso and 8.13 cm and 8.01 cm at Biaka.-46 It was a respectively variation of 0.15 cm and 0.20 cm in males and females of both study sites. Aboisso absolute fecundity ranged from 7876 eggs (2.5 cm Lc and 6.4 cm Lt) to 33156 egg (4.1 cm Lc and 11.7 cm Lt) while at Biaka, it fluctuated between 6941 eggs (2.3 cm Lc and 6.7 cm Lt) to 37721 eggs (4.3 cm Lc et 12.4 cm Lt).The relative fecundity (FR) was 704 ± 86 eggs/g at Aboisso and 744 ± 97 eggs/g in the locality of Biaka. The correlation between the carapace length, total length and absolute fecundity (FA) were respectively FA=9.816Lc 3.285 (r=0.923), FA=4.384Lt 2.827 (r=0.704) for Aboisso and FA=15.737Lc 2.762 (r=0.814), FA=5.328Lt 2.640 (r=0.634) for Biaka.
 
Top-cited authors
Edy Surya
  • State University of Medan
Rustam E. Simamora
  • Universitas Borneo Tarakan
Nahid Akbari
  • Isfahan University of Technology
Masoud Hashemi
  • Islamic Azad University
Abhijit Mitra
  • University of Calcutta