International Journal of STD & AIDS

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1758-1052
Print ISSN: 0956-4624
The incidence of anogenital warts (condyloma acuminatum) is rapidly increasing while there is still no totally satisfactory treatment available. In light of the emphasis of experimental approaches toward the prevention of viral replication and evidence of the antiviral action of lithium salts it was proposed to investigate the efficacy of Topical Lithium Succinate cream (LSC) in the treatment of anogenital warts. A total of 101 patients (42 women, 59 men) were randomized to receive either active or placebo treatment for a period of 4 weeks. Assessment of the number, location, size and area of coverage of the warts was made by the clinician at baseline, weeks 2, 4, 6 and 12. Compliance to the study protocol following cessation of treatment at week 4 was extremely poor. The high drop-out rate after this was felt to invalidate data collected after that point. It was therefore decided that the analysis should concentrate on the treatment period. Of 101 patients entering the trial 51 received active (30 male and 21 female) and 50 received placebo (29 male, 21 female). The primary efficacy variable was percentage change from baseline in the overall coverage of lesions. Over all patients LSC treatment resulted in a reduction of 42% (P<0.02) in the overall coverage of lesions. Separate analyses for male and female patients showed that for males there was a highly significant reduction in the coverage of lesions of 65% (P<0.02). However for females the reduction of 11% was not significant. A possible explanation for this difference between the sexes is that as many of the lesions in the female patients were internal therefore this could lead to difficulty in both application of the cream, and subsequent lesion assessment.
Sixty women with genital warts were randomly allocated to treatment with either weekly application of 20% podophyllin solution or self-treatment with 0.5% podophyllotoxin cream twice daily for three days in weekly intervals. After a maximum of 4 treatment cycles a final assessment was carried out after 3 months. Primary clearance after termination of treatment was 82% for podophyllotoxin and 59% for podophyllin solution. After excluding relapses at the 3-month follow-up, final clearance for podophyllotoxin (71%) was significantly better (P < 0.05) than that for podophyllin solution (48%). The total frequency of warts eradicated was 94% with podophyllotoxin and 74% with podophyllin solution (P < 0.001). Local adverse effects were generally mild or moderate. Podophyllotoxin cream provides a mode of easy application for women with external genital warts and had in this study a significantly better effect than podophyllin solution.
The efficacy and safety of topical treatment for external condylomata acuminata with either self-applied 0.5% podophyllotoxin (PT) or hospital-applied 25% podophyllin (PODO) solution was compared in 138 males and 67 females in an open multicentre study. After one week of treatment, wart clearance was observed in 53% of males and 37% of females in the PT group as compared with 19% of males and 19% of females in the PODO group ( P < 0.001 in males; P = 0.13 in females). At 5 weeks after commencing treatment, clearance of warts had been achieved in 86% males and 72% females in the PT group as compared with 78% of males and 62% females in the PODO group ( P = 0.08 in males; P = 0.14 in females). Treatment had cleared 81% of 180 treated sites in all PT recipients as compared with 61% of 95 treated sites in all PODO recipients ( P < 0.001). The increased speed of action of PT was associated with an increased incidence of symptoms and signs of inflammation at treatment sites in both males and females ( P < 0.001). These were generally mild, did not interfere with continuing treatment, and were more frequent in those patients whose warts were eradicated most rapidly. Home-based treatment with 0.5% podophyllotoxin lotion in appropriately instructed patients of either sex is superior in efficacy to outpatient applied 25% podophyllin and has the potential to reduce the number of hospital attendances required in genital wart eradication.
Changes in individual symptoms by treatment (patients who die are counted as not improved. Patients whose scores are worse than baseline at the point of withdrawal are carried forward and counted as not improved at subsequent visits)
MOS± HIV week 16 subscale comparisons. Negative values connote improvement relative to baseline. The white line within each rectangle represents the median, the ends of each rectangle represent the 25th and 75th percentiles, and the black horizontal lines represent the minimum and maximum
Deaths and cumulative death incidence by treatment group
Our objective was to compare the effect of 2 regimens for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteraemia in an HIV-positive population on symptoms and health status outcomes using a substudy of an open-label randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in 24 hospital-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics in 16 Canadian cities. Patients had HIV infection and MAC bacteraemia and were given either rifampin 600 mg, ethambutol 15 mg/kg daily, clofazimine 100 mg daily and ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily (4-drug arm) or rifabutin 600 mg daily (amended to 300 mg daily in mid-trial), ethambutol 15 mg/kg daily and clarithromycin 1000 mg twice daily (3-drug arm). The primary health status outcome was the change on the 8-item symptom subscale of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS)-HIV Health Survey adapted for MAC. Changes on other MOS-HIV subscales and on the Karnofsky score were also evaluated. Patients on the 3-drug arm had better outcomes on the MOS-HIV symptom subscale at 16 weeks (P=0.06), with statistically significant differences restricted to night sweats and fever and chills (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients improving on the symptom subscale relative to baseline was 55% on the 3-drug arm and 40% on the 4-drug arm. Patients on the 3-drug arm also had better Karnofsky score at 16 weeks (P < 0.001) and better outcomes on the social function, mental health, energy/fatigue, health distress and cognitive function subscales of the MOS-HIV. The 3-drug arm is superior to the 4-drug arm in terms of impact on MAC-associated symptoms, functional status and other aspects of health status.
The aim of this paper is to describe the adherence of African HIV+ women to the counselling provided after announcement of the result of the HIV test during pregnancy, focusing on early weaning to reduce post-natal transmission, protected sexual intercourse to avoid sexual transmission, and contraceptive use to avoid unexpected pregnancies. In 1999-2000, a questionnaire on sexual and reproductive behaviours was administered to 149 HIV+ women followed in post-partum, informed and counselled in the ANRS 049 DITRAME project in Abidjan. Côte d'Ivoire. Duration of breastfeeding, post-partum amenorrhea and abstinence, contraceptive use and condom use were measured. Incidence of pregnancies during the first 24 months post partum was estimated and modelled by a Cox regression model. Average duration of breastfeeding was 7.9 months, average duration of post partum abstinence was 12.0 months, and 39% of women used contraceptives at the time of the survey. Frequency of condom use was 13%. Incidence of pregnancies was 16.5 per 100 women-years at risk. Half of these pregnancies were not desired and a third were terminated by induced abortion. The significant determinants of the pregnancy occurrence were the death of the previous child, the cessation of breastfeeding, the cessation of the post partum abstinence, and higher education. In conclusion, if counselling on early weaning can be followed by the HIV+ women, it is not easily the case for condom and contraceptive use. Hence, pregnancy incidence in the post-partum follow-up was high. The main strategy of these HIV+ women to avoid unexpected pregnancies as well as sexual transmission of HIV seems to be an increase of the duration of post-partum abstinence. The most educated women who cannot easily adopt this strategy are particularly exposed to unwanted pregnancies.
Bivariate associations of individual-level characteristics and self-reported HIV testing in the last 24 months, women (15 -49) 
Expanding the availability, utilization and coverage of HIV testing services is a critical step towards primary prevention and successful delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zimbabwe. We used data from the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2005-2006) to examine the coverage and correlates of recent HIV testing (HIV testing <24 months preceding the survey) among HIV-positive and HIV-negative adults. We estimated the relative contribution of HIV testing in both the antenatal care (ANC) setting and non-ANC settings. Uptake of recent HIV testing was 14.4% among women and 11.1% among men, with HIV testing in ANC accounting for 42.3% and 10.3% of all recent testing among women and men, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, recent pregnancies and being aware of ART were independent correlates after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. HIV testing in ANC was an important contributor to HIV testing coverage in Zimbabwe by reaching not only pregnant women but also their partners.
The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective evaluation of the success of patient referral for partner notification of chlamydial infections to the major Portuguese sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. A total of 8277 patients were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis during 2000-2007, and 695 (8.4%) tested positive. The sexual partners of 34% of these index cases attended the clinic as contacts following partner referral. In univariate analysis, heterosexual men referred partners more frequently than men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-negative index cases referred partners four-fold more frequently than HIV-positives; however, these associations were non-significant after multivariate analysis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-2.6; adjusted OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.9-18.7, respectively). Index patients who reported lower numbers of partners referred more frequently, and this association remained significant after multivariate analysis. One-third of the referred individuals tested C. trachomatis-positive; the risk for infection was three-fold higher for referred partners from symptomatic index cases (P < 0.001, adjusted OR, 95% CI 1.8-6.3). In conclusion, the results of the present study concerning sexual behaviour, HIV status and clinical signs highlight the need for further evaluations that may shape future partner notification strategies in order to reduce the chlamydial disease burden.
In 2006, we implemented an HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention programme for female sex workers (FSWs) in three Honduran cities. All FSW attending STI clinics underwent regular examinations and STI testing. Information on condom use with different partners was collected at each visit. After three years, we detected a significant decline in the prevalence of syphilis from 2.3% at the first screening to 0.0% at the third screening (P = 0.05), and of chlamydia, from 6.1% to 3.3% (P = 0.01). No changes were observed in the prevalence of gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis. The cumulative HIV prevalence remained constant (P = 0.44). Reports of condom use with clients increased from 93.8% to 98.9% (P < 0.001). The implementation of an HIV/STI prevention programme in FSW has contributed to increases in condom use with clients and the reduction in syphilis and chlamydia prevalence. The intervention should be strengthened and considered as part of a national health policy strategy.
The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and radiological features at presentation, and the natural history of HIV-related bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma. A retrospective review of medical records and chest radiographs was performed in 106 HIV-infected homosexual men with bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosed at bronchoscopy between September 1988 and November 1994. The majority of patients had evidence of advanced HIV disease at diagnosis (median CD4 cell count was 15 x 10(6)/l, range 0-288), and 93% had had a diagnosis of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma for a median duration of 11 months prior to diagnosis of their bronchopulmonary disease. The most frequent symptoms at presentation were cough (92%), dyspnoea (69%), pleuritic pain (20%), haemoptysis (13%) and wheezing (10%). The most common radiological finding in 73% of our series was of poorly defined and confluent opacities, with predominant middle and lower zone involvement. Median survival was 4 months (range 0-37 months) from diagnosis and 9 months (range 1-25) from the onset of symptoms. Treatment with either chemotherapy or radiotherapy was associated with a significantly reduced risk of death (hazards ratio (HR)=0.48, 95% CI=0.26-0.87). Factors associated with a poor survival, after adjustment for treatment effect were older age (HR=1.79, 95% CI=1.22-2.84) for each 10-year increase in age; a history of pleuritic pain (HR=2.97, 95% CI=1.39-6.32); presence of pleural effusion on X-ray (HR=2.01, 95% CI=1.13-3.59) and a prior diagnosis of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (HR=1.8, 95% CI=1.00, 3.24). Bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma occurs mainly in patients with advanced HIV disease and a prior history of cutaneous disease. Survival is poor, and adverse prognostic factors include older age at diagnosis and the presence of pleural disease.
Working in our own geographical areas it can be easy to take a parochial view of sexually transmitted infection (STI) management and control. But although the problems and challenges faced by STI physicians vary enormously around the world there are also common themes which can benefit from a common approach. By understanding how health services in different regions identify and address STI control we can contribute and improve our local services and contribute to the development of global STI care. At the 17th conference of the International Society for Sexually Transmitted Disease Research (ISSTDR) in Seattle a symposium on Global Challenges was organized by the International Union against STIs (IUSTI) to provide feedback from physicians around the world on what they consider to be their greatest challenges. Moderated by Angelika Stary and Kit Fairley the symposium included contributions from North and South America Africa Europe and Asia-Pacific regions. In this article the speakers have summarized their talks and provide an insight into the many challenges facing global STI control today. (excerpt)
Bowenoid papulosis (BP) is an unusual dermatosis with variable clinical presentation: multiple, generally small, round, papules, isolated or confluent, with smooth or papillomatous surface, sometimes with desquamation. The colour is variable from rose, reddish-purple to brown. These papules are localized mostly on the genital mucosa or perigenital skin of young adults. The aetiopathogenesis of the disorder is not well defined, but it may be linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We report a case of BP with some particular aspects: (1) misdiagnosis of the disease for 2 years; (2) contemporaneous presence of different types of HPV.
In the developing world condom use among sex workers and their clients plays a dominant role in the transmission of HIV/STD. In Surabaya, Indonesia, data from the 1993 STD prevalence survey in female sex workers (brothels, street, massage parlours, barber shops, call-girl houses, and nightclubs) reveal that only 5% (33/692) of the brothel workers and 14% (25/177) of the street walkers had condoms in their possession at the time of the interview. During the last paid sexual intercourse, sex workers from the brothels, streets, and nightclubs used condoms infrequently (14%, 20%, and 25%, respectively). Sex workers from massage parlours, barber shops, and call girls were about 5 to 3 times more likely to use condoms than sex workers from nightclubs (adjusted odds ratio of 3.5, 4.9, and 4.2, respectively); thus condom promotion programmes should be targeted at sex workers at brothels, streets, and nightclubs. Programmes should include: (1) free distribution of condoms to sex establishments at the initial stage, and condom social marketing at later stages; (2) penalties, including legal sanctions, against any sex establishments that do not consistently use condoms; (3) participation of brothel owners and madams in encouraging sex workers to consistently have clients use condoms during sexual intercourse; and (4) establishment of sentinel surveillance to monitor STD/HIV and condom-use compliance.
This study identified causes of first hospitalization among perinatally acquired HIV-infected children at Chiang Mai University Hospital between 1989 and 2009. Data were stratified into three seven-year time periods: pre-Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) prophylaxis, pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ART period. Over the 21-year study period, 1121 children were hospitalized. The mean age at admission was 2.7 years and had become older over time. Of the 1121 hospitalization causes, 50.6% were AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs), 48.1% were non-AIDS-defining illnesses (NADIs) and 1.3% were related to immune reconstitution syndrome. Types of ADIs changed over time: PJP and recurrent Salmonella septicaemia decreased, while mycobacterial infection and systemic fungal infection increased. For NADIs, bacterial infections, viral infections and gastrointestinal problems decreased, but haematological problems increased in the third period. Decline in the number of hospitalizations and mortality rate, increase in the mean age of hospitalized children, change in the distribution of specific illnesses and appearance of immune reconstitution syndrome were observed in the ART period.
The most common sexually transmitted infection is infection by human papillomavirus. There are more than 100 types of human papillomavirus, and over 30 of them involve the genital area. Urethral involvement is uncommon and usually limited to the distal 3 cm of the meatus. There are various treatments for urethral condylomas; as a rule, they are limited by a difficult approach, by recurrences, and by potential complications, the most significant of which is urethral stenosis. The purpose of the treatments is to remove the warts and induce lesion-free periods. Such treatments do not eliminate the infection nor do they prevent continued transmission of the virus. We retrospectively evaluated 123 patients diagnosed and treated for condylomas in the genital area at our Institution between April 2009 and April 2012. The patients' mean age was 28.7 years (range 19-51). Of the 123 patients included, 48 (39%) had a history of previous STIs, most frequently gonococcal urethritis. Three of them had a urethral malformation in the shape of hypospadias, and other three reported a previous urologic manipulation (catheterisation). Meatal/urethral condylomas are rare, cryotherapy is simple, easy to apply, and has a very low risk of complications in patients with externally accessible warts. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:
It has been proposed that changes in sexual behaviour arising out of concerns regarding HIV infection can be inferred by changes in the incidence of gonorrhoea. We have reviewed data on gonococcal isolates in Newcastle over the last 13 years and looked at changes in relation to HIV test requests, new cases of HIV infection and media campaigns. HIV testing has been available in the clinic since late 1985. There was a steady decline in cases of gonorrhoea from 1985-1991 and then as in other areas an increase in incidence was seen among homosexual and bisexual men. The majority of this recent increase was due to pharyngeal infection. Sexual behaviour may have changed but this cannot be purely attributed to HIV concerns. HIV testing began after the incidence of gonorrhoea in England was already falling and we found no relationship between trends in gonorrhoea, HIV test requests and new cases of HIV infection.
Fifteen men with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and poor risk disease according to the TIS staging were enrolled in a phase II trial of oral 13-cis-retinoic acid. The median CD4 cell count was 95 cells/microl (range 7-260) and 6 had prior AIDS-defining opportunistic infections. One patient was withdrawn on account of cutaneous toxicity. Evaluation was by AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)1 defined assessment. One patient achieved a partial response and remains on treatment in partial remission. Thus the overall response rate is 7% (95% confidence interval 0-23%). A further 5 patients had stable disease (38%: 95% confidence interval 7-64%). The overall low activity, considerable toxicity and limited cosmetic benefit even in responding patients limits the value of this approach in KS. However, this treatment strategy may be more rewarding in early good risk KS.
In a retrospective database study at two HIV treatment centres, medical records were accessed to evaluate long-term efficacy and safety parameters in all HIV-infected adults who had achieved HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL following the initiation of fosamprenavir (FPV)/ritonavir (RTV) 1400 mg/100 mg once-daily (QD)-containing regimens between January 2004 and January 2006. Data were available for 20 antiretroviral (ARV)-naïve patients (baseline median HIV-1 RNA 5.0 log(10) copies/mL; CD4+ cell count 307 cells/mm(3)), 30 protease inhibitor (PI)-naïve, ARV-experienced patients (HIV-1 RNA 3.6 log(10) copies/mL; CD4+ count 348 cells/mm(3)) and 25 PI-experienced patients switching to FPV/RTV100 for reasons other than virological failure (HIV-1 RNA 2.7 log(10) copies/mL; CD4+ count 328 cells/mm(3)). HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL was achieved in 100% of the ARV-naïve cohort (median monitoring period, 2.4 years; range, 1.4-3.2 years), 87% of the PI-naïve cohort (2.4 years; range, 1.2-3.4 years) and 88% of the PI-experienced cohort (2.2 years; range, 1.0-3.2 years). Virological failure occurred in 0%, 7% and 8% of the cohorts, respectively, and median CD4+ count increased above baseline by 224, 155 and 115 cells/mm(3), respectively. Change from baseline in median fasting lipids was: total cholesterol +12, -6, -2 mg/dL; low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol 0, -5, +12 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol +4, +2, +7 mg/dL; triglycerides +9, -21, -65 mg/dL, respectively. In conclusion, FPV/RTV 1400/100 mg QD-containing regimens remained effective long-term in all ARV-naïve and most PI-naïve and PI-experienced HIV-infected patients.
Number of serotypes showing response by timing of vaccination. Number of serotypes showing response (a 2-fold increase in immunoglobulin anticapsular antibody concentrations) by timing of vaccine at one, six and 12 months postimmunization. Solid bars indicate antibody response after immediate immunization; hatched bars indicate antibody response after delaying immunization until after reconstitution of the immune system 
Opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titre of .2 by vaccine type and by timing of vaccination. Percentage of patients with OPA titre of .2 for each serotype by vaccine type and by timing of vaccine at one and 12 months postimmunization. Solid bars indicate antibody response using pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine or after immediate immunization; hatched bars indicate antibody response using 7PCV vaccine or after delaying immunization until after reconstitution of the immune system 
To investigate whether patients should be immunized immediately or delay immunization until after reconstitution of the immune system and whether a conjugate or polysaccharide vaccine results in a better immunologic response. Seventy-nine patients were randomly assigned, utilizing a two by two factorial design to receive immediate immunization or delay immunization. Baseline characteristics were similar for the four arms: 78% men, median age 41 years, median time since HIV diagnosis 0.3 years, median CD4 60 cells/mm(3) and median HIV viral load 5.02 log copies/mL. Results in favour of delayed immunization were observed for those serotypes showing a response. The proportional odds ratios for delayed versus immediate immunization were 0.341 (P = 0.04) and 0.204 (P = 0.004) at months 6 and 12, respectively. No differences in immunological response were observed between the two individual vaccines for the shared serotypes studied. HIV-infected adults produced a higher immunological response to pneumococcal vaccine after reconstitution of the immune system.
Mucocutaneous findings in 150 HIV+ve cases (F, 79; M, 71) were evaluated over a one-year period. Mucocutaneous manifestations were seen in 96% with 2.9 mean number of dermatoses and mean cluster of differentiation (CD4) count of 196.33 cells/mm(3). The highest number of mean dermatoses, 3.29, was seen in individuals with severe immunosuppression. The most common mucocutaneous manifestation seen was candidiasis (35.33%), followed by seborrhoeic dermatitis (31.33%), oral pigmentation (29.33%), xerosis/ichthyosis (22.67%), pyodermas (22%), periodontitis (17.33%) and nail pigmentation (16.67%). Patient stratification according to the WHO immunological staging, according to CD4 counts, showed a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) for candidiasis, scabies, paronychia, oral pigmentation and diffuse hair loss. Nail and oral pigmentary changes, trichomegaly and subcutaneous fungal infections caused by dermatophytes were highlights of the study. Incidences of xerosis/ichthyosis, pyodermas, scabies and molluscum contagiosum reported in our study were higher and pruritic popular eruptions was lower than those in previous Indian studies. Cutaneous neoplasms were not seen in the present study.
Treatment characteristics and antiretroviral resist- ance among the successfully genotyped samples in 137 patients during therapeutic interruption ARV resistance 
Most of the antiretroviral (ARV) studies in Brazil have been reported in treatment-experienced and naive patients rather than in the setting of treatment interruption (TI). In this study, we analysed reasons given for TI and resistance mutations occurring in 150 HIV-1-infected patients who underwent TI. Of the patients analysed, 110 (73.3%) experienced TI following medical advice, while the remaining patients stopped antiretroviral therapy (ART) of their own accord. The main justifications for TI were: ARV-related toxicities (38.7%), good laboratory parameters (30%) and poor adherence (20%). DNA sequencing of the partial pol gene was successful in 137 (91.3%) patients, of whom 38 (27.7%) presented mutations conferring ARV resistance. A higher viral load prior to TI correlated with drug resistance (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that there are diverse rationales for TI and that detection of resistant strains during TI most likely indicates a fitter virus than the wild type. High viral loads coupled with unprotected sex in this group could increase the likelihood of transmission of drug-resistant virus. Thus, treating physicians should be alerted to this problem when the use of ARVs is interrupted.
The objectives of the study were to investigate the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), uptake of full STI screening and contraceptive use during pre- and post National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) periods and to determine the prevalence of sexual abuse/assault. The method used was a retrospective case notes audit of children aged <16 years. STIs were found in 20% (n = 264) of children; 10% had genital chlamydia. 157 (59%) of 264 children had an assessment for non-consensual sexual activity; of those, 34% had a history of past or continuing sexual abuse/assault. An uptake of 'full STI screening' and contraceptive use were similar in both pre- and post-NCSP periods. Overall STIs and chlamydia rates were higher during post-NCSP period. In conclusion, NCSP has not yet made any significant impact on sexual health of under-16-year-olds and the prevalence of past or ongoing sexual abuse/assault was high.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 infections in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) according to the use of various contraceptive methods. In a study group of 1435 patients with histologically proven CIN, among whom 391 (27.2%) used no contraception, 44 (3.1%) used barrier methods, 705 (49.1%) used oral contraceptives and 295 (20.7%) used an intrauterine device (IUD), the presence of HPV infection was evaluated by DNA in situ hybridization. HPV 16 or 18 infection was present in 666 (46.4%) of all patients in 348 (49.4%) patients who used oral contraceptives, in 169 (43.2%) patients with no contraception, in 128 (43.4%) patients with an IUD and in 21 (47.7%) patients who used barrier methods. There were no significant differences in HPV 16 and 18 infection frequencies among all four groups of patients regarding the contraception method used.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people are increasing, with children aged less than 16 years being particularly vulnerable. We compared the demographic details, spectrum of infection, contraceptive practice and source of referral in patients aged less than 16 years attending 2 genitourinary clinics, one in Swansea and the other in London. In the London population, children aged less than 16 years represented 0.7% of the total new attendances compared with 1.4% in Swansea. The female to male ratio was almost 4:1 in both clinics with most infections confined to female attenders. In females the incidence of chlamydial infection, genital warts and anaerobic (bacterial) vaginosis was 5.5%, 19% and 8%, respectively in London compared with 27%, 32% and 36% in Swansea. Seventy-two per cent of patients attending the clinic in London were self referred compared with 40% in Swansea. Contraceptive practice was also markedly different in the 2 populations, and over one-third of children in both clinics used no contraception. The high incidence of STIs in both populations and low use of contraception has serious implications for the sexual health of young people and emphasizes the need for effective sexual health education at an early age.
Background Female sex workers are at high risk for HIV infection. Sexually transmitted infections are known to be co-factors of HIV infection. Our aims are (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in this population; (2) to determine the association between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral variables, and variables related to HIV prevention and HIV infection.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted in Conakry, Guinea, among a convenience sample of 223 female sex workers. A questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and exposure to prevention was administered. Screening of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis was performed.ResultsPrevalences of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, N. gonorrhoeae, and C. trachomatis were 35.3%, 84.1%, 12.2%, 9.0%, and 13.6%, respectively. Having a child, lubricant use, and human papillomavirus type 16 infection were associated with HIV infection.Conclusion Interventions that promote screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections are needed in order to achieve successful interventions to prevent HIV among female sex workers in resource-limited settings.
Condyloma acuminatum is an anogenital lesion caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a common sexually transmitted disease. It usually affects the external genitalia while urethral and/or bladder involvement is rare. HPV types are classified into three categories depending on their oncogenic potential: low risk (type 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 59, 66, 68, 70), intermediate risk (type 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 49, 51, 52, 53, 57, 58, 63, 64) and high risk (type 16, 18, 45, 56). High-risk and intermediate-risk HPV-DNA types, together with other co-factors still to be defined, are responsible for over 90% of the cases of anogenital pre-malignant and malignant tumours. We report a unique case of a urinary bladder condyloma acuminatum positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, presented as the primary and only site of the disease in an immunocompetent patient. We review the treatment and follow-up strategies of this rare lesion.
In 2004, the management of under-16-year olds in UK genitourinary (GU) medicine clinics was surveyed. Questionnaires were sent to 185 lead GU medicine consultants. A total of 111 questionnaires were returned (60%). Ninety-eight percent of respondents managed young people aged 13-16. Fifty percent managed under 13-year-olds. Twenty-nine percent of respondents ran dedicated young people's clinics. Ninety-eight percent were aware of the National Guidelines, and 74% had adopted them. Fifty-seven percent had a named departmental child protection lead. Thirty-seven percent of consultants had received training specific to child protection issues in GU medicine. Improvements had been made since a similar survey published in 2001, but the need for further training was still apparent.
A total of 183,912 persons were screened from September 1986 to May 2002 in and around Haryana, out of whom 1178 were reactive (0.64%) for anti-HIV antibodies. The overall incidence of HIV-1 in the seropositive patients was 98.5%, HIV-2 alone was 0.8% and 0.7% had a mixed infection with both HIV-1 and 2. High seropositivity (22.8%) was observed among the relatives of these HIV-positive individuals. The heterosexual route (78%) remained the predominant mode of transmission. Among the jail inmates only one individual out of 1306 (1986 to 1993) was found to be positive. Tuberculosis (46.7%) was the most common opportunistic infection in these seropositive patients. Significant titres of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory tests were observed in 8.8% seropositive patients, 7.9% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and only two patients were suffering from chancroid. Forty-six of these HIV-seropositive patients had already died. In order to cope with this epidemic, new models of care and cost-effective preventive measures are needed.
The aim of this paper is to compare the time to a viral load <50 copies/mL of three or four antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens among ART naïve patients within the first 16 weeks after the start of treatment. A retrospective study was carried out on ART naïve patients who started HAART between 1 January 1999 and 1 January 2004. ART naïve patients with a viral load >5.3 log10 copies/mL at the time of treatment were routinely started on four ART regimens in one of the HIV centres in Edinburgh. These patients were compared with ART naïve patients with viral load >5.3 log10 copies/mL at the time of start of three ART regimens in the other centre within the study period. During the study period, of 93 ART naïve patients with a viral load >5.3 log10 copies/mL, 56 and 37 commenced four drug and three drug regimens, respectively. Patients in each group were matched for their age, prevalence of HCV, median age, and median viral load at the start of therapy; however, patients on three drug regimens had significantly lower CD4 counts (P<0.01). The median time to undetectable viral load was 13.5 weeks for three and four drug regimens (P>0.05). By the time of undetectable viral load, there was no difference in the CD4 count of patients on three or four drug regimens. Similar proportions of immunosuppressed patients on three and four ART regimens had undetectable viral load within the first 16 weeks of therapy.
Daniel Turner 1667-1741 was the first English medical author to use the term syphillis incidentally, also mentioning early usage of the condom (condum). This paper shows that venereologists in 18th century London wrote on the use of condoms by some men, but who were sceptical about its usage. This paper also describes some of the contemporary spellings of condum and syphillis.
A retrospective analysis was performed on case notes of patients aged less than 16 years who attended a Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine as a new case in 1998. Seventy-four case notes were reviewed. There was a high rate of sexually transmitted infection (STI) (gonorrhoea six [8%], chlamydia 23 [31%], genital warts nine [12%], trichomonas seven [10%]) and low condom (30, 41%) and other contraceptive use (21 females [35%], six males [60%]). Many female attendees were victims of current or previous sexual abuse (eight, 8%) and/or exploitation, and for a further eight (8%) abuse/exploitation was considered possible; little reference was made to this in the notes. Thirty-three (45%) attendees were seen by junior members of staff, and only 49 (60%) were seen by a health adviser (42 females, seven males [60%]). Young attendees have a high STI rate, low contraceptive use and a significant minority are victims of abuse. Genitourinary medicine clinics need to provide a full sexual health service to this vulnerable group and have guidelines in place to assess for sexual abuse. Recommendations on how to achieve this are given.
We compared 956 samples for AMPLICOR Neisseria gonorrhoeae polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Roche) with species verification using the 16S rRNA gene to verification using gyrA gene. Control was the culture method. The gyrA verification uses pyrosequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA. Of 52 samples with optical density >/=0.2 in PCR, 27 were negative in culture, two samples from pharynx were false negative in culture and four samples from pharynx were false positives in verification with 16S rRNA. Twenty-five samples showed growth of gonococci, 18 of the corresponding PCR samples were verified by both methods; three urine samples were positive only in gyrA ; and one pharynx specimen was positive only in 16S rRNA. Three samples were lost. We conclude that AMPLICOR N. gonorrhoeae PCR with verification in gyrA gene can be considered as a diagnostic tool in populations with low prevalence of gonorrhoea and that pharynx specimens should not be analysed by PCR.
Basic characteristics of study subjects
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an educational course on knowledge and attitude of students regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in Tabriz, Iran. The study was conducted by self-assessment technique among university students before and after an educational training programme. The findings showed that the knowledge of students increased significantly (P<0.05). The attitude to the problem also improved positively in the subjects (P<0.05). It is concluded that short-term training courses and continuous educational programmes (i.e. peer education, etc.) should be provided to young students through the course materials in the universities and schools promoting the awareness and attitude to this ever-increasing health problem.
Men entering prisons have high rates of sexually transmitted disease (STD), hepatitis, and HIV. This study sought to determine the acceptability and feasibility of screening for STD and hepatitis in young men released from prison. Participants were interviewed six months after release and offered free screening. Of 42 (56%) eligible men who participated in the qualitative interview, 33 (79%) provided at least a blood or urine specimen. Eight of 33 (24%) men tested had chlamydia, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B or C virus (HBV or HCV). Three of 32 (9%) had chlamydia, three of 32 (9%) had trichomoniasis, two of 28 (7%) had prior syphilis, and two of 28 (7%) had HCV. Of 28 tested for HBV, six (21%) were immune, two (7%) had chronic infection, and 20 (71%) were susceptible. Barriers to screening included lack of forewarning, inconvenience, and insufficient incentive. In conclusion, screening for STD and hepatitis among former inmates can be acceptable and feasible. Forewarning, reducing the time burden, and providing monetary incentives may increase screening rates.
Today, Kaposi is remembered for giving the first description of the angiosarcoma which bears his name. During his lifetime, he was acknowledged as one of the great masters of the Vienna School of Dermatology, a superb clinician and renowned teacher.
Our objective was to describe how genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in the North Thames region manage sexually acquired reactive arthritis (SARA), and to compare management with national guidelines. A self-completed questionnaire survey and retrospective case note review was conducted between September and October 2001. Clinicians in 33 clinics were asked to describe their clinic's policy on the management of SARA, and to review the last five cases seen or the last cases seen in the preceding two years, if less than five. Nineteen (58%) clinics took part. There were inter-clinic variations in the investigation and management of patients, with only 63% (12/19) of clinics offering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and 58% (11/19) giving doxycycline 1001mg. twice daily for two weeks for urethritis - the rest using any of three other antibiotic regimens. There was no consistent policy of referral between other specialties and GUM for genital screening and partner notification. A total of 36 male and female case notes were reviewed. Patients without arthritis or joint swelling (5/38, 13%), or with non-typical symptoms such as diarrhoea (5/38, 13%) were diagnosed inappropriately with SARA. Only 33 (87%) had evidence of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) with at least two (5%) of patients being treated with antibiotics despite no apparent indication being present. Only 21 (55%) had documented NSAID therapy. Case identification was difficult due to the lack of a national disease code (KC60) for SARA. The data suggest that a diagnosis of SARA is sometimes being made with no identifiable STI, or where symptoms are more suggestive that another route of infection is likely. A clear guideline within clinics to standardize prescribing of antibiotics is needed and collaborative policies with GUM are needed for other specialties to use when investigating and managing patients with seronegative arthritis. GUM should consider re-introducing a KC60 code for SARA for better case identification.
Trends in morbidity from syphilis in Hungary between 1952 and 1996 were analysed. The incidence of syphilis/100,000 inhabitants declined rapidly owing to the public health and therapeutic measures of the early 1950s (1952: total=73.6, early infections=60.2; 1962: total=13.7, early infections=8.7). After a temporary, slight increase until 1973 the number of reported syphilis cases declined continuously between 1978 and 1989 (1989: total=0.9, early infections=0.84). In 1994 a marked increase occurred when compared with 1993 (1993: total=early: 1.4. 1994: total=2.3, early infections=2.2). Incidence trends were statistically analysed using Chi-square test and linear regression. Chi-square analysis showed that the changes in the incidence of total and early syphilis are significant (P<0.00001) comparing the time intervals 1952-1962 with 1962-1966 and 1975-1979 with 1988-1992. The same trends were found using the linear regression test, except for the time interval of 1960-1973.
Prevalence of antibody to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 was assessed in consecutive serum samples from a total of 3700 women pregnant in 1969, 1983, or 1989 from the same catchment area in Stockholm. There was little change in seroprevalence of antibody to herpes simplex type 1 in the 3 groups, but age-adjusted herpes simplex virus type 2 antibody prevalence was 19, 33, and 33% respectively. Increase in type 2 seropositivity with age was slight and similar in 1969 and 1989, but steep in 1983, indicating a shift in sexual behaviour. However, rising prevalence in women will be mirrored by rising prevalence in their male partners. The increase from 1969 to 1989 will thus partly be due to higher risk of infection per partner, and cannot be taken as direct evidence of increased rate of partner change during this 20-year period.
The relationship between changes in hospital service interventions at St Mary's Hospital, London, reduced case fatality for patients with their first episode of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and improved survival from diagnosis of AIDS was investigated for the period 1982-1991. Multivariate logistic regression models identified factors independently associated with episode survival; for those patients who survived their first episode of PCP, survival from time of diagnosis of AIDS was analysed using multivariate Cox's proportional hazards models. The case-fatality rate after 1987 was significantly lower for the 159 subjects. Median survival from diagnosis of AIDS increased significantly from 142 days to 554 days (P=0.01). Improved survival of first episode of PCP was associated with it being the index diagnosis and having a haemoglobin at diagnosis of PCP greater than 12 g/dl. The presence of a concurrent AIDS-defining condition in patients who presented with an A-a gradient equal to or greater than 40 mmHg was associated with reduced episode survival, especially before 1987. For the 126 individuals who survived their first episode of PCP, death rates were lowest in patients treated with primary or secondary PCP prophylaxis and those who received zidovudine since their first episode of PCP. Survival in patients with HIV disease is better in patients who receive appropriate antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection and timely treatment of opportunistic illnesses. Early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection with early diagnosis and treatment of first episode of PCP was associated with improved episode survival. Subsequent medical follow up combined with PCP prophylaxis and zidovudine were significantly associated with long-term survival.
This retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of the viral types and temporal epidemiology in patients with ano-genital herpes between 1983-92. One thousand one hundred and thirty-five patients with anogenital herpes were available for analysis. The annual incidence of anogenital herpes nearly tripled over the period of 7 years (1986-92) from 59 to 171 cases. The percentage of HSV-1 infection in female cases (63-79%) was much higher than in other reported studies and remained relatively constant over the study period.
For 227 episodes of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) treated at St Mary's between 1983 and 1989, factors predictive of fatal outcome were age, haemoglobin levels, peripheral lymphocyte count and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Case fatality for the 47 empirically-treated episodes was significantly higher compared with the 180 cytologically proven episodes (55% vs 18%, χ ² = 25.7, P<0.0001). Case fatality for episodes which could not be bronchoscoped was significantly higher compared with bronchoscopy negative cases (66% vs 25%, χ ² = 4.5, P<0.05). Predictive factors for fatal outcome differed significantly for cases which could not be bronchoscoped and cytologically proven cases: haemoglobin level (10.7 g/dl vs 12.0 g/dl, P<0.001), lymphocyte count (0.64 × 10 ⁹ /l vs 0.87×10 ⁹ /l, P=0.05) and oxygen gradient (77.7 mmHg vs 58.9 mmHg, P<0.02). Such differences were not observed between bronchoscopy negative and cytologically proven cases. Case fatality decreased significantly over time ( b = –0.39, SE=0.14, P<0.05). Total and non-fatal first time episodes displayed an inverse relationship between oxygen gradient and time ( r = −0.22, P<0.006 and r = −0.24, P<0.01, respectively). Mean oxygen gradient of fatal episodes for sequential years increased significantly from 73 mmHg in 1983 to 102 mmHg in 1989 ( r = 0.92, P<0.01). This suggests that medical intervention as well as presentation with less severe disease both contributed to improved case fatality over time.
Top-cited authors
Sung-Jae Lee
  • University of California, Los Angeles
Ann K Sullivan
  • Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
Anne Fortino Rositch
  • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Robert Colebunders
  • University of Antwerp