International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 0959-0552
Publications
The dynamics of the corporate brand as a market driving force.
Article
The market orientation literature distinguishes between market driven and market driving approaches. Although, most of the companies provided as examples of the latter approach have strong corporate brands, the corporate brand and associated brand values have not previously been considered as a basis for market driving. We argue that the corporate brand provides a further source of the “leap” in customer value required for a market driving approach. Through a case study of Ikea we illustrate how the core values of the brand guide the behaviour and activities of internal stakeholders and relationships with external stakeholders, and explore the interactions between the global brand values and local market level activities.
 
Article
Already for a long time retailers take back products. In this paper we explore the factors contributing to the decision of combining vs. separating inbound and outbound flows during the return handling process. We do so through a comparative analysis of the operations in nine retailer warehouses, which can be divided in three groups: food retailers, department stores and mail order companies. We identify both aggravating factors and facilitating actions for return handling. Furthermore, we bring about recommendations for practice. At the end we put forward propositions that are useful in feeding studies on return handling efficiency. In particular, we conjecture over the impact that return volume and product diversity have on the decision for combining vs. separating the reverse and forward flows.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to determine which strategic objective factors have significant effects on competitive advantage of private label manufacturers in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach - A study was conducted of 90 Turkish private label manufacturers. A web-based questionnaire was the chosen method. Findings - Three strategic objective factors were found to have an effect on competitive advantage: production efficiency, market embeddedness and product selling control. Research limitations/implications - A comparative analysis between retailers and manufacturers of private labels was regarded as necessary to learn about their perspectives regarding competition. The large sample size encouraged confident generalization of the findings. Another limitation was only analyzing data from a country that has a low private label market share. Practical implications - The findings of this paper offer valuable insights to retailers, national brand manufacturers and private label manufacturers, enabling them to learn the triggers for product manufacturing from the perspective of private label manufacturers. Originality/value - It is hoped that this paper will reveal some valuable perspectives from an emerging private label market.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore retail format choice among male shoppers, using desired store attributes and shopping orientations as predictors of format choice. Design/methodology/approach - Male shoppers in the USA ( n =560) were surveyed via the internet. Multiple regression was used to evaluate the data. Findings - The findings identify distinctive predictors of male patronage across several retail formats including department stores, discounters, category killers, dollar stores and internet only stores. Research limitations/implications - The findings identify desired store attributes and shopping orientations of frequent male patrons of several retail formats. The information provided is useful for advancing the retail format choice literature as well as for retailers to better understand male patrons. Future research could examine patronage of newly developed retail formats and include situational variables that could provide additional predictive power for retail format choice among males. Practical implications - This research provides retailers with specific knowledge to identify males who are likely to frequent specific retail formats based on desired store attributes and shopping orientations. Originality/value - This exploratory study uses desired store attributes and shopping orientations to profile male shoppers of several retail formats in the USA. The research is unique because the investigation of retail format choice among males has been very limited.
 
Article
Current e-grocery models are based on the consumer making his or her purchase over the Internet, and the e-grocer delivering the purchase to the household. However, there are numerous opportunities for innovative new services. Analyzes the opportunities offered by bar code and radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to develop a new type of e-grocery related service, namely vendor-managed inventory (VMI) in the household. In assessing the opportunity for extending the value offering of an e-grocery business to VMI in the household a number of key operational issues are addressed, i.e. data capture, solution robustness and cost saving potential in the supply chain. The analysis indicates that the development of new value offerings such as VMI is critical if e-grocery businesses are ever to gain a competitive advantage over traditional retail formats.
 
Article
Purpose - This paper develops a research model to examine the relationship among e-service quality dimensions and overall service quality, customer satisfaction and purchase intentions. Design/methodology/approach - Data from a survey of 297 online consumers were used to test the research model. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement model, and the structural equation modelling technique was used to test the research model. Findings - The analytical results showed that the dimensions of web site design, reliability, responsiveness, and trust affect overall service quality and customer satisfaction. Moreover, the latter in turn are significantly related to customer purchase intentions. However, the personalization dimension is not significantly related to overall service quality and customer satisfaction. Research limitations/implications - Future research can use different methodologies, such as longitudinal studies, focus groups and interviews, to examine the relationship between service quality and customer purchase behaviour in online shopping contexts. Practical implications - This study suggests that to enhance customer purchase intentions, online stores should develop marketing strategies to better address the trustworthiness, reliability, and responsiveness of web-based services. Online stores can devote valuable corporate resources to the important e-service quality attributes identified by this study. Originality/value - This study developed the instrument dimensions of e-service quality by modifying the SERVQUAL model to consider online shopping context. Moreover, the results of this study provide a valuable reference for managers of online stores, as well as for researchers interested in internet marketing.
 
Article
Five small Minnesota towns are examined one year after the arrival of six large discount stores. Three hundred consumers were surveyed to determine reasons for store choice and how the new discounters affected shopping. Findings indicate that consumers shop at discounters for low prices and large variety and specialty stores for the unique items they cannot find elsewhere. They shop at the new discounters more and the existing stores less. Specialty stores need to differentiate themselves from discounters by increasing product assortments in the key categories carried, upgrading quality with branded merchandise not available to discounters, and maintaining good in-stock positions.
 
Article
Using two complementary ideographic approaches, investigates theimpact of the servicescape on women's experience of the public houseservice encounter. Preliminary findings from both the focus group andthe in-depth interviews conducted indicate that women perceive theirdesired pub experience as diametrically opposite to that provided by thetraditional male-dominated pub. In the latter, barriers to enjoymentarise from the dynamic interplay between the physical environment andthe behaviour of staff. The latter, unless carefully managed, can act asreinforcement of the behaviour of other established male customers,whose actions have the effect of signalling to women that they areunwelcome. These barriers are seen to be particularly strong on entry,when getting served and when being seated. Explores how publicans canmake use of these crucial stages and shape the servicescape tofacilitate a more satisfactory encounter, thus enhancing loyalty amongfemale customers.
 
Perceived risk and consumer behaviour: beef purchases in Irish supermarkets  
Article
Purpose – For supermarkets in the UK and the Republic of Ireland, the strategic importance of own label or retail brands is crucial, with sales of fresh beef almost exclusively sold under the retail brand. Given safety and quality issues, this study seeks to understand pre-pack consumers' perceptions of risk associated with beef in the Republic of Ireland. Design/methodology/approach – Building on previous qualitative research, and using a survey methodology and adopting a perceived risk theoretical framework, face-to-face interviews with purchasers of pre-pack beef from supermarkets were conducted in Cork, Waterford and Limerick. Findings – The results confirm that for these particular beef purchasers, food safety and health issues are still the main concerns. However, perceptions of risk are reduced through loyalty to supermarkets, confirming that the investment by retailers in supply chain policies and strategies has paid off in terms of reducing customers' perceptions of risk associated with food safety. Research limitations/implications – One limitation of the research is that perceptions of risk and coping strategies are specific to the product category; therefore, results cannot be generalised to other categories. Practical implications – The findings demonstrate that a more focussed approach to marketing beef could include strategies based upon understanding particular aspects of perceived risk. Originality/value – A deeper understanding of consumers' risk perceptions and risk reducing strategies is necessary as consumers' perceptions of risk can both respond to and influence the strategies adopted at both firm and industry level. In particular, an understanding of perceived risk is particularly necessary for retailers following an own brand strategy in general.
 
Article
Fashion retailing has evolved in response to opportunities and market pressures. It has been both reactive and proactive. For example, Palmer, in 2001, analyses what might be called a partnership between Canadian department stores and European couture houses in the 1950s. Her work affords a rare overview of retailing's fit with fashion design and commercial delivery systems, and is a point of departure for closely examining an earlier period (1880-1920) in Australia. The current paper studies the leading role that department stores played in shaping the Australian fashion scene and the marketing techniques they used. A context, period and country, where a set of major retailers formed the predominant influence on fashion trends, and styles and diffusion throughout the community have been identified. Findings suggest that for the 1880-1920 period the department store retailers were market-driving rather than simply market-driven, implying a more proactive and innovative role for the department stores. Yes Yes
 
Utrecht's city centre shopping area
Number of retail premises in Utrecht's old city centre and entropy values of Utrecht and the 45 shopping streets from 1974 to 2003
Change in occupancy in clothing and accessories categories in Utrecht's historical city centre shopping area from 1974 to 2003
Change in occupancy in furniture and home furnishing categories in Utrecht's historical city centre shopping area from 1974 to 2003
Change in occupancy in consumer electronics categories in Utrecht's historical city centre shopping area from 1974 to 2003
Article
Purpose – Using a continuous dataset, the purpose of this study is to explore the evolution of retailing in the historical city centre of Utrecht between 1974 and 2003. Design/methodology/approach – Following an evolutionary framework entropy statistics and sector analysis are used to investigate the structural changes that have occurred over this period. Findings – The results indicate important changes over time. First, there is a decline of shops selling daily and space consuming goods. Second, the expansion of some sectors and the emergence of new sectors has compensated fully for the loss of these shops. The success of some of these sectors is related to the rise of recreational shopping. Despite increased competition of “out-of-town” retailing and other forms of retailing, Utrecht's historical city centre has remained on top of the retail hierarchy in The Netherlands by transforming itself into an attractive location for recreational shopping. Practical implications – The results indicate that new policies should encourage retail entrepreneurship to adapt to ever changing socio-economic and spatial contexts. Furthermore, in most sectors that are under pressure, possibilities exist to shift to related categories through what may be called upgrading. Research limitations/implications – In the main, the data investigate sector dynamics. Future research on the evolution of retail locations using time-series, therefore, should try to include more variables, like floor space, organisation type, etc. which can also provide explanations for the patterns of structural change. Originality/value – The paper has introduced entropy statistics as a new technique to analyse sector variety dynamics of retail locations, since it captures both the number of sectors and the skewness of distribution.
 
Article
Discusses the Hong Kong retailing system in relation to past and present social and economic issues. (1) 1997 return to Chinese governance, (2) labour shortages, (3) proposed tax changes, (4) relationship with the US, (5) Japanese retailers' influence, (6) retail diversification and (7) rising retail rental rates. Provides an overview of merchandising strategies utilized by existing department stores, both domestic and foreign. Emphasizes the strategies used by four major groups of department stores operating in Hong Kong (Hong Kong, Japanese, Chinese, and British). Discusses Hong Kong retailers' management strategies and adjustments being undertaken in anticipation of the colony's future.
 
Article
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published in International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, published by and copyright Emerald. Purpose – At the time of the imminent implementation of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995, Part III, this paper aims to raise awareness both amongst retail and marketing academics and practitioners of the opportunities and potential marketing benefits inherent in the implementation of the Act. Design/methodology/approach – A review of the UK disabled sector and the implications of DDA Stage III for retailers and service marketers is combined with an observational case study of shopping facilities for the mobility impaired shopper in a Manchester city centre and out-of-town location, complemented by interviews with Shopmobility representatives. Findings – Findings provide an observational insight into the status quo of the implementation of the Act. Questions are raised concerning potential retailer responses on a continuum between mere compliance and enthusiastic commitment to the enhancement of servicescapes to the benefit of all. The role of different stakeholders and the potential contribution to location marketing are discussed. Research limitations/implications – Insights are based on systematically gathered observational data representing one person's experience at one point in time and in a specific location, validated via key informant interviews with two representatives of Shopmobility services. They can therefore be seen as exploratory only. Furthermore the focus is on mobility impairment, which is only one of a wide range of disabilities. Practical implications – Implications for marketers include the need to move away from treating this market as separate from the mainstream and realize opportunities for enhancing servicescapes and retail offerings in ways which would benefit the wider population as well. Originality/value – Through its qualitative case study approach the paper represents a rich snapshot of the retail offering in two Manchester locations on the eve of the implementation of DDA Part III, as seen from the point of view of a scooter based shopper.
 
Article
Looks at key trends in the distribution sector and their potential impact on the warehousing property market. Draws on interviews held with property and distribution directors of major companies from a variety of business sectors.
 
Article
Snob, the women's fashion chain, was a typical sixties product — brash, crude, with red interiors decked about with Portobello Road pseudo twenties enamel advertisements, and so it had remained. Its failure last year gave a wonderful opportunity for a new managemet to give it a drastic overhaul, and surprisingly perhaps it wasn't snapped up by one of the larger fashion groups. They were pipped to the post by a relative newcomer in the retailing world, the Coutwall group, who are better known for clothes manufacturing. Sue Sharples takes a look at the new owners, charts their journey up the retailing ladder and examines their latest acquisition, which has been redesigned by John Michael Design Consultants.
 
Article
Food wholesaling will continue as a prominent economic factor during the 1980s. Wholesalers' service is not confined to retailers but to any institution dealing with food. Independent retailers relying on wholesalers have declined less than multiple retailers during the past 5 years. Large food wholesalers will get larger in the next decade. Rationalisation of retail outlets and controls on vehicle size will be reflected in the distribution of warehouse facilities. Anticipated trends in retailing will force the wholesalers to more sophistication in relationships with manufacturers and retailers. - Bryan A. SmithEnglish
 
Article
INTRODUCTION EPoS 90 took place in September in the Victorian splendour of Alexandra Palace against a background which, it might be argued, was hardly propitious. Quite apart from the Gulf crisis, the economic situation was uncertain to say the least. The past year had seen some of the major high street names of the 1980s running into difficulties — Lowndes Queensway, Sock Shop, Next, Laura Ashley — and the final figures for retail sales in August showed a 2 per cent fall in the volume of business during the month, and a 1 per cent fall over the quarter.
 
Article
A summary of the Retail EFTPoS 90 conference is given. The conference highlighted many developments over the past 12 months in the progress of EFTPoS UK, and was enthusiastic about its future as a leading payment method system for the country's retailers. News of other payments was also discussed, including a futuristic look at the smart card on the one hand and an overview of how retailers would benefit from the dismantling of the credit card anti-competitive agreements on the other. Balancing the discussion about plastic payments, a contribution from Transax Financial Services, the UK's largest cheque guarantee company, drew attention to the continuing presence of the cheque (still Britain's second most preferred method of payment after cash) and highlighted the increasing requirement for retailers to be able to accept cheques without the risk of fraud.
 
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into, and guidance on, how to balance packaging standardisation and adaptation strategies in different markets in the fast moving consumer electronic goods (FMCEG) industry. Design/methodology/approach: The research was explorative in nature and was utilised in a case study format. The main data collection methods were a literature review, interviews, and field studies. Findings: The paper presents two models developed to: classify markets according to product/packaging visibility at the retailers; and to evaluate packaging portfolios. The use of these models provides insights and understanding for companies aiming to develop their packaging portfolios to increase their sales and make distribution more effective. Practical implications: The models developed were valuable in the analysis of the packaging strategy. Significantly, synergies emerged when the models were combined. Professionals can apply these models to other global companies in the FMCEG industry. Originality/value: This paper contributes to the debate on global standardisation vs local adaptation by taking a packaging perspective. This paper also demonstrates the need for global companies in the FMCEG industry to understand the value of packaging in different markets.
 
Article
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published in International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, published by and copyright Emerald. Purpose – This paper aims to explore Wal-Mart's varying performance in Europe and eventual exit from the German market by singling out the role of consumer acceptance of Wal-Mart's market propositions. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses the macro-constructs of institutional theory to interpret and conceptualise micro-level consumer data. Data were collected via telephone surveys in two regional German and UK markets in 2002/2003. Salient patronage norms in each market were established and Wal-Mart's as well as its competitors' performance on those norms were assessed. Findings – In the German context, the institutional theory approach to explaining Wal-Mart's problems clearly foreshadows market failure and exit. In UK market, no clear pattern between retailers adhering to salient patronage norms, patronage behaviour and market position could be established. The constructs of institutional theory were more likely to predict and explain market failure than success. Research limitations/implications – Research in two regional markets limits the applicability of findings. Nevertheless, some key issues seem to indicate overall market performance. The telephone survey approach carries inherent problems, which however have only marginally impacted on the relevance of the findings. Originality/value – The use of institutional theory constructs adds a further dimension to the discussion of international retailer success/failure and can constitute a valuable tool in the repertoire of the divestment and failure literature.
 
Article
The objective of this research was to assess whether the open-to-buy (OTB) system allows retail buyers to attain sales and profit objectives and thus obtain the bonuses available for budget attainment. The research used data from both Australia and New Zealand together with specific information from a major department store. Concludes with a recommendation that the traditional OTB system is in need of a major review and outlines specific recommendations.
 
Article
Despite the euphoria surrounding 1992, the recent international expansion of British retail organisations has been oriented mainly towards the US. Such expansion has predominantly taken the form of the acquisition of US retailers, rather than through the establishment of greenfield stores. As a consequence of their US acquisitions, a number of British retailers are now well established across the Atlantic. Some reorientation of the geographical focus of British retail acquisitions abroad, however, may be necessary to reap the expected benefits of the Single European Market. British retail acquisitions in the US are examined in the years between 1984 and 1989 with particular emphasis on acquisition strategy, motivations, performance and the impact of 1992.
 
Article
With all the hype around efficient consumer response (ECR) and the brave new world of technologies, one would believe that retail out‐of‐stocks have gone down over the last ten years. That is wrong. Retailers have been struggling with considerable out‐of‐stocks for decades – with little evidence of improvement. A similar wrong belief is that shoppers are also still unwilling to accept low service levels. In fact, increasingly, consumers switch brands when they do not find the brand they wanted. But retailers must be wary, because the results of our research show that increasingly shoppers switch stores quickly and may never come back. So, who is to blame? The supply chain. And where to tackle it? On the shop floor. Over the past two years, we have conducted a major, worldwide study of the extent, causes, and consumer responses to out‐of‐stocks in the fast‐moving consumer goods industry. In this article, we report these findings and provide insight to solving this chronic industry problem.
 
Article
With grocery brands manufacturers trying to respond to the increasingly concentrated retailing environment and the significant investment in own labels by retailers, a less than healthy future has been reported for some brands (eg Leahy, 1987). To succeed, grocery brands manufacturers should not only take into account consumer buying behaviour, but also recognise and respond to retailers' strategic objectives. However, brands manufacturers have to strike the right balance between satisfying consumers' needs and helping retailers achieve their corporate goals. Warnings have been sounded about the dangers of brands manufacturers shifting their attention too much to retailers, with the consequential cut in consumer related activities, and during the first part of this decade there has been speculation about whether own labels and brands were becoming more alike. This paper is concerned with the problem of similarities/dissimilarities between brands and retailer labels and by reporting on a major consumer research programme provides insight as to the way consumers perceive the competitive tiers of brands, own labels and generics.
 
Article
Purpose of this paper To investigate the determinants of e-commerce adoption in the retail sector using duration analysis. Design/methodology/approach The study proposes a conceptual model based on technology adoption and population ecology models. It identifies specific determinant factors organized under three areas: perceived benefits, organizational readiness, and external influences. Duration analysis is applied to data on 392 retailers. Findings Organizational readiness and external influences were the main driving factors of the adoption decision. There is no strong support for the perceived benefits construct. This suggests that e-commerce adoption was to a great extent responsive to external pressures. Research limitations/implications Major limitations include insufficient data. Future research can collect other types of data. Other extensions include the investigation of the effect of e-commerce adoption, the construction of a formal theoretical model, and the collection of data from other countries. Practical implications The study provides guidelines to entry anticipation. It appears that many retailers mimetically responded to the online entry of other retailers. Managers should be also aware of the suitability of e-commerce adoption to their organization. In order to be proactive, firms can put more emphasis on internal factors and rely less on outside signals in their strategies. What is original/value of paper The paper investigates the e-commerce adoption decision among retailers using a unique database collected from public sources, avoiding potential subjectivity bias. It traces the timing of e-commerce adoption incorporating both fixed and time-varying covariates.
 
Article
When the UK went into the EEC, there was quite a lot of speculation that before long we would be seeing the development of truly multi-national retailing; Fine Fare and Tesco would stalk across Europe, Hema and Hertie would invade Manchester and Cardiff. It hasn't happened like that. To be sure, Marks & Spencer and Mother-care have made some successful forays, and from the other side of the Channel, GB-Inno-BM has made its appearance over here — in partnership, of course, with Sainsbury. Why hasn't it happened? At a recent conference in London on Pan-European Consumer Advertising and Marketing, organised by Macfariane Conferences, Roderick White offered some answers. In this slightly edited version of the paper he presented at the conference, Roderick White concludes that genuinely multi-national retailing seems likely to advance only slowly in Europe. He also takes the view that international retail expansion seems unlikely to develop through the large-scale spread of retail brands on an internationally integrated basis. And the detail of merchandise policy will remain determinedly national.
 
Article
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published following peer-review in International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, published by and copyright Emerald. Purpose – This paper seeks to explore antecedents for online success and conceptualizes the stages by which a small-sized “pure-player” has achieved profitable and sustainable e-retail in the fashion sector by utilizing a multi-niche strategy involving an e-portfolio of five fashion-related cyberstores. Design/methodology/approach – This qualitative critical-case utilizes the in-depth interview technique and rich thematic data analysis to provide insight into e-retail development, with conceptualizations inductively developed from the data. Findings are linked to business growth, e-business strategy, portfolio management and entrepreneurship literatures. Findings – Findings identify a staged, evolutionary approach to transactional cyberstore development and outline 20 key factors for e-retail success. The “web-weaving” process is conceptualized: this strategic “e-portfolio management” approach identifies a multi-niche opportunity for e-retail, which spreads risk, maximizes revenue streams, utilizes knowledge economies/synergies across multiple-web sites, promotes customer added value and offers potential for competitive advantage and sustainability for the smaller-sized e-retailer. Research limitations/implications – This is an in-depth study of a single, long-standing e-retailer maintaining superior retention levels across an international customer base. That this enterprise bucks current trends by surviving (when 75 per cent e-retail ventures fail) adds validity to web-weaving as a sustainability strategy. Future research should explore this phenomenon within a wider inter/intra-niche context to further contribute to the enhancement of e-retail strategic marketing/enterprise development. Practical implications – Implications indicate that a (niche) e-portfolio strategy is perceived as defensible, from an owner-director perspective, for sustaining a fashion e-retail enterprise. Targeting multiple-niches via “web-weaving” provides a clear route to critical-mass and sustainability, which could prove a valuable lesson for many small e-retailers – potentially providing a framework for internet-strategy development in other marketing domains. Originality/value – This research presents a rich picture of how an e-retail enterprise, in a highly competitive/dynamic market, can develop and sustain transactional e-business over the longer-term – presenting obvious implications to SME retail/marketing management.
 
Article
In the writers' view, an order processing system can best be built up by identifying the facilities required, and considering methods of order entry. They then discuss the advantages of telephone selling and describe how telephone sales operators can make full use of the order processing system to achieve maximum effectiveness.
 
Article
Retailer internationalisation (RI) is lacking in detailed empirical research. What is available ignores the critical factors important to the success of retailers operating internationally. Consequently, this exploratory study attempts to unearth various factors, labelled Differential Firm Advantages (DFA), vital to the smooth performance and competitive differentiation of international retail operations. The nature and attributes of DFAs, with specific reference to retailing, are reviewed and subsequent survey results reveal certain DFAs can be regarded as prerequisites for retailers operating in international markets. The underlying structure of differential advantages is also examined, giving the study a further unique dimension. Performance in international markets appears to depend upon the balanced integration of various compatible DFAs. Indeed past experiences show certain UK-based international retailers have had problems in achieving this equilibrium.
 
Article
In an ariticle last year, (RDM, May/June 1975, p.22, Foodstore Advertising), I deferred consideration of what was then a new advertising campaign—the now familiar “Wonder of Woolworth”. Time has given a new perspective to the task and enabled me to write about developments in retailing which I would scarcely have believed possible eleven months ago.
 
Article
The development of market segmentation over the past few years means that most retail companies now have a much shrewder idea of the customers they want to reach than they used to have. Unfortunately the media in which the retailers advertise are rarely so clearly targeted. So how effective is retail advertising? In a recent Management Horizons survey, a third of the retailers questioned thought that more than half of their advertising budgets were wasted; some top retailers admitted that their only test of advertising effectiveness was “gut feel”. Retailers have been big spenders on advertising for quite a few years; total retail advertising budgets are now running at around £510m. This could mean an awful lot of wasted money. With this in mind, Management Horizons recently put on a conference on the subject as part of its RIS Seminar programme. Speakers came from Benetton, J. Walter Thompson, Rich's, and Granada.
 
Article
Fourteen Consumer Advisory Centres are at present operating and many more are planned for the New Year. Encouraged by the Government and financed by local authorities, the Centres are primarily located in working-class areas, thus providing a welcome change from a situation in which the professional middle-class have dominated the consumer protec-tion field. From a retailer's point of view, they need not be considered as focal points of dissension and breeding-grounds for angry complaints. On the contrary, reputable retailers should welcome the emergence of the Centres; if the customer is well-primed with information and can do her shopping intelligently, this will clearly lead to more satisfied customers and a more efficient transaction on both sides. In addition, the Centres should have an important role to play in dissuading shoppers from bringing unjustified complaints against the retailer.
 
Factor structure and reliability of the scale of aesthetic style:
Confirmatory factor analysis of the scale of aesthetic style: Luxury goods shops
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the recent evolution of the luxury goods sector as well as the distribution strategy of some major companies. The distribution strategy must consider two different issues: first, the need to control the value chain in order to gain a competitive advantage in a sector that is becoming concentrated; second, the need to meet a desire for emotions and for aesthetic experience, as expressed by the customers of luxury goods. Design/methodology/approach – For this exploratory phase, the paper chooses to draw the data from a convenience sample made of undergraduate students from the Rouen School of Management. Slides presenting a varied selection of luxury goods stores are exposed. On the basis of this sample, a principal component factor analysis with Varimax rotation is performed. This enabled us to find a three‐factor structure. As a preliminary, tests are carried out on the suitability of the data sample for factor analysis. The paper also testes the internal reliability of this scale. Findings – The paper introduces and validates a scale measuring the aesthetic style of consumers of luxury goods and an extension of this scale to the outlets selling these papers. Originality/value – As for the academic aspect, it is the first application of a measurement scale of aesthetic perception to retail. Concerning the managerial aspect, the three dimensions of the scale could bring important indications to luxury goods firms as well as to shop designers concerning the elements which influence consumer perception.
 
Article
The decline of the independent retailer as a result of the growing strength of the multiples has been a persistent factor in British retailing for decades, and the effectiveness of the affiliated retailer in fighting back in the form of voluntary groups is equally well-known. But why do so many independent retailers still prefer to operate outside the group structure? The authors carried out a study of 100 unaffiliated retailers in the north-west of England; this article outlines their findings.
 
Article
Purpose – The “4Ps” of the marketing mix have long been popular with students, tutors, trainers and practitioners as a learning and teaching aid. The purpose of this paper is to present an equivalent tool for retail and e-retail: “Sale the 7Cs”. Design/methodology/approach – The approach is by reference to and synthesis of other authors' versions of the marketing, retail and e-retail mixes, distilled into a simplified framework. Findings – The findings or outcome of the study are summarised into a framework that has seven components, linked by the “C” mnemonic. Starting with C1 for convenience; the framework also includes C2 for customer value and benefit, C3 for cost to the customer, C4 for computing and category management, C5 for customer franchise, C6 for customer care and service and C7 for communication and customer relationships. This simplified mnemonic is new for (e-)retail. Originality/value – Mini case examples are used to illustrate the applicability. These have a practical value for trainers and educators as specimen answers to activity exercises. Retailers may find the convenient 7Cs structure useful when planning strategies and tactics. Yes Yes
 
Article
Successful retailing concepts never remain static. When they become popular, competition increases and this inevitably leads to the need for differentiation and a repositioning of marketing appeal. In America off-price apparel retailing originated in the early 1970s, selling high quality brand name clothes from relatively spartan stores where the overheads were minimal. It was designed to serve a marketing void that fell between high priced department and speciality store goods and discount operations. Their success and growth has inevitably meant a move up market, however. In the second of an irregular series of articles on American retailing Dr David Rogers describes this experience and muses on whether an equivalent operation could work in the UK.
 
Article
The process of suburbanisation produced the great flowering of the American shopping centre during the 1950s and 60s, although they started even earlier. They evolved into three major types — regional, community, and neighbourhood, and in the 1970s these were augmented by specialty theme, multi-use, and factory outlets type centres. But US shopping centres are now facing a number of problems: department stores (their principal tenants) are in decline; regional malls are finding difficulty in adapting to new retail conditions; and the malls themselves are becoming very expensive to operate. David Rogers looks at the “mid-life crisis” of the American shopping centre and makes some comparisons with the situation in the UK.
 
Article
In America, as in other societies where volume-trading and out-of-town retailing are established features of the distributive system, the problems of the small retail unit have been evident for some time. Since 1939, the number of grocery outlets in America has been reduced from 427,500 to 198,130 in 1974. In recent years, however, evidence has emerged which suggests that the small retail unit is beginning to play an important part, once more, in the American retail system. Convenience stores (defined as small, compact, self-service stores with an annual turnover of up to $250,000) increased in number from 5,000 in 1965 to 22,700 in 1974. Over the same period, their share of the total U.S. turnover in groceries increased from 1.1 to 4.1 per cent and it has been estimated that they are likely to double this achievement by the turn of the century. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to examine the nature of this development and to determine whether the phenomenon has implications for Britain.
 
Article
Looking beyond and “beneath” the short-term effects of the 1990-1991 recession, the general trends taking place in American retailing as it enters the third year of the 1990s are reviewed. These include: the effects of demographic changes, the significance of retailing in the economy, specialisation, “value” retailing, merchandise “scrambling”, the increasing segmentation of retail “offers”, the decline of the American department store, the “hangover” from the 1980s “space race”, the continued decentralisation of retail floorspace, the impacts of LBO debt problems, a return to “basics”, store “localising”, the “internationalisation” of American retailing, and the contributions of information technology. In conclusion, a brief prognosis is given for the remainder of the 1990s.
 
Article
Explores the usefulness of capturing information about the shopper basket from computerized scanners, instead of only using data based on article numbers. Shopper baskets, as reflected by the receipt, are more akin to the consumer's shopping problem and can be used to study shopping behaviour on a per shopper level. In this way individual shopper behaviour can be studied regarding short-term effects of marketing share of shoppers instead of share of market in monetary units, the combination of items that shoppers put it their baskets, etc. The arguments for basket analysis are backed up by the empirical examples.
 
Article
The choice of a disused airport at Portsmouth for the siting of a Safeway superstore, opened in March of this year, may seem odd as there were only 700 houses scheduled to be built on the site and there were no others within at least a mile. Furthermore, the Safeway unit became the tenth superstore to open in the Portsmouth travel-to-work area.
 
Article
Store image has long been recognized as a determinant of business success and has been used as a positioning and differentiation tool. Over the years, the retail image research stream has witnessed numerous conceptual and operational definitions, However, despite the long-term fascination of researchers with this construct, substantial “noise” is evident in store image research. Provides an overview of the store image literature and illustrates the usefulness of an attribute-anchored conjoint methodology for operationalizing this construct.
 
Article
Explains how the system of labour restructuring known as “annual hours” helped Tesco's new composite distribution. It solved the problem of matching the manning levels to the rapidly changing hourly and day-of-the-week fluctuations in work load. The result was outstanding performance and consistently high productivity.
 
Article
Since the 1960s there have been over twenty attempts at changing the ambiguous and confusing 1950 Shops Act; the most spectacular failure was the most recent attempt, the Shops Bill in April 1986. This piece of legislation foundered although it carried the support of the Prime Minister, her Cabinet, and a sizeable number in the House of Commons. In all cases attempts to change the legislation has been successfully blocked by a coalition of churchmen, trades unions, some retailers and other committed sections of the general public. The latest attempt, in the form of a (Tory) Private Member's Bill, is currently under way. Its thrust is a much more watered-down set of proposals than those suggested in the Auld Report (and subsequent 1986 Shops Bill), calling for only DIY stores and garden centres to be allowed to open on a Sunday. Dr Clements takes a look at the implications these proposals might have on enforcement of the law, and reports the findings of two consumer studies that suggest that the proposals are not going far enough for many consumers. Empirical data referred to in the paper is drawn from two studies, each of over 1,000 households randomly selected in North Staffordshire, in November 1983 and again in November 1985.
 
Article
Examines the consumer behaviours which result when an apparel product fails and the situations of seeking, receiving, and satisfaction with redress, in relation to the consumer's intent to repurchase a brand and to revisit a store. Results indicate a definite relationship and have direct financial implications for retailers and apparel manufacturers.
 
Article
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) has often been utilised in retail store positioning and repositioning research. However, MDS results constrain store movement to existing perceptual dimensions. This work indicates that an assessment of higher level preference functions should be conducted before utilising MDS results in store positioning. Despite this limitation, the ability of MDS to reveal current perceptual criteria means that it can serve as a very useful diagnostic. In this regard, MDS can be utilised to determine if a new dimension has emerged from a given positioning, or whether consumers have changed the salience of their perceptual criteria, as a result of a positioning. It can also reveal if a referent store has moved in the appropriate direction (e.g. away from competitors and towards a gap that evidences utility).
 
Article
Perhaps the most controversial feature of the UK retailing scene over the past few years has been the emergence of the hypermarket; the principal company concerned has been Carrefour, who will shortly open their fourth unit at Minworth, near Sutton Coldfield. Carrefour's senior management maintain there is nothing complicated about their operation—that it has in fact been developed from the simple principles of wholesaling. This is the third in the series of “Analysis” articles in which Dr David Walters looks at a company's organisation policy, location policy, product range, pricing and promotional policies.
 
Article
DI is a Belgian retail chain of drug stores based on American and French ideas. It was developed by its parent company — Delhaize Le Lion — with two objectives: there was a marketing opportunity available for exploitation in the personal care market. But equally important was the opportunity to offer Delhaize personnel the means for development. The company believes in its staff and DI now has the potential to reward ability and loyalty.
 
Article
Currys, originally associated with cycles, claim now to be the largest consumer durable multiple in the UK. It has not been a good time for consumer durable retailers but nonetheless the company has done well with turnover more than doubled over the past five years. The market aimed at is wide; this has benefits but also accompanying problems.
 
Article
This article examines the current status of franchising in Saudi Arabia. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia exhibits some attractive characteristics for an intensive penetration of this form of distribution, franchising has made a limited appearance in some major cities of the Kingdom, primarily in the fastfood services area. After reviewing the history of the franchising scene in Saudi Arabia and identifying some of the prominent participants in this area, the article describes a number of problems that could be hindering a more successful exploitation of franchising in the Kingdom. Some practical solutions are also outlined.
 
Top-cited authors
Ruby R Dholakia
  • University of Rhode Island
Christopher M Moore
  • Glasgow Caledonian University
Jamie Baker-Prewitt
Leslie Stoel
  • The Ohio State University
Jihyun Kim-Vick
  • Kent State University