International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy

Online ISSN: 2229-3566
Publications
Article
A series of pyrazine-2-carboxylamino acids and dipeptides were synthesized by solution-phase peptide synthesis by conventional as well as by using an ultrasonic bath-type sonicator. The reaction time was drastically reduced by sonication with good yields. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral analysis and evaluated for anthelmintic and insecticidal activities.
 
Article
The adulteration and Substitution of the herbal drugs is the burning problem in herbal industry and it has caused a major treat in the research on commercial natural products. The deforestation and extinction of many species and incorrect identification of many plants has resulted in adulteration and substitution of raw drugs. The concept of substitution prevailed ages back and in Ayurveda we can find this in the treatise of Bhavaprakasha and Yogaratnakara.This article throws the light on the concepts of substitution given by our preceptors and analyze these with the present day prevailing trend of adulteration and substitution.
 
Article
Honey is the only ingredient, which is used as the sweating agent and plays an important part in the preparation of food product. Honey is an important ingredient, which is used in the ayurvedic system of medicine. Most of the preparation is taken along with or in combination with honey. Honey serves the necessary of almost all the element of the body. Research and development provide the information regarding the therapeutic use of honey and its use in diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders, muscular weakness infection in body, skin wounds and eye defect. The evalution and the collection technique are also developed for the analysis of honey and are recently going on in searching the new constituents for it.
 
Spectral data of synthesized compounds
Article
The present research work is aimed to synthesize a series of various substituted benzothiazole derivatives containing 7-chloro-6-fluoro-N (substituted hydrozones) - benzothiazole.Structures of compounds has been established by means of IR, 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The compounds MIIIc, MIIIf and MIIIJ at dose 5 mg/kg and 10mg/kg body.wt were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carragennan induced paw edema method. The selected compounds have shown significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to the standard drug. Compound MIIIJ (10 mg/kg body weight) has shown more significant result when compared with standard drug.
 
Article
A solution phase peptide synthesis was employed to synthesize Dichotomin A analogs. The N, O-dimethylation on Tyrosine and configurational change of L- to D- on Valine was made on Dichotomin A to derive the compounds 1) Cyclo-L-[Gly-Thr-Phe-Leu-(N-CH3, O-CH3) Tyr-Val] and 2) Cyclo-L-[Gly-Thr-Phe-Leu-(N-CH3,O-CH3)Tyr-D-Val]. The structure of these compounds was confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, and FABMASS. The synthesized compounds were tested for their biological activities against bacterial and fungal organisms and were found to be active. Compound (2) carrying D-valine unit have shown more antimicrobial activity than the compound carrying L-valine unit.
 
Article
In Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer) Acharya Chakradatta mentioned Kshira mandura yoga which is prepared by taking 8palas (384 gm) of Mandura bhasma, 1 Adhaka (3 Kg 73 gm) of Gomutra and 1 Prastha(768 gm) of Dugdha are boiled and used with dose of 4 ratti (500mg). To establish Physical and Chemical factors present in Mandura before shodhana, after shodhana, after marana and in Kshira mandura by adopting Quantitative and Qualitative methods. Mandura was heated in burning charcoal (600-800 Co). This is dipped in (5 lIters of Cow’s urine) sufficient quantity of Gomutra. It is repeated for 7times, till Mandura breaks properly. Purified Mandura was powdered then it is triturated with Triphala kashaya after wards Chakrikas were prepared and dried. To this 30 number of Gaja puta was given. Mandura Bhasma was prepared.To this Gomutra and Godugdha was added and Kshiramandura was prepared. When analyzed it containing 68.35% of Ferric oxide, 0.66% MgCO3, 1.32% CaC03.
 
Optical characteristics and other parameters for Famotidine USP
Analysis of standard Famotidine USP
Article
Two simple, precise and economical UV method have been developed for the estimation of Famotidine USP in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Famotidine USP has the absorbance maxima in the first order derivative spectra is 280nm (Method A). Method B applied was Area Under Curve (AUC) for the analysis of Famotidine USP in the wavelength range of 264.0nm to 269.0nm. Drug followed the Beer-Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 10-80µg/ml in both the methods. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies and were found to be satisfactory.
 
Practitioners interviewed as per the specializations
Article
The biomedicines used in folklore practices prevalent in Nalgonda district are enumerated. The biomedicines are composed of single drugs or combination of drugs. The traditional family practitioners are interviewed personally and the findings are recorded. The present paper gives the information on various plants, their botanical names, family, parts used and mode of administration along with the diseases cured.
 
Article
Asthma is defined as a disease characterized by wide variation over short period of time in resistance to flow in intrapulmonary airways. Presently synthetic drugs used in asthma are known to show various side-effects and cases of resistance cases are also common. Ayurveda being a time tested system offers safe and effective remedy against asthma. Four drugs selected are Passiflora incarnate, Passiflora incarnate, Adhatoda vasica, Ocimum sanctum. All these drugs are mentioned in Ayurveda at a dose of 500mg they produce effective results. They are tested on various models and are selected on their pharmacological basis as they target specific etiological factors in asthma. Testing was done for their animal activities (preclinical trials). Seven different methods of pharmacological antiasthmatic testing protocols were used for this purpose.
 
Article
Hibiscus rosa- sinensis L. (Malvaceae) is used in folk medicine for the treatment of pain and various inflammatory conditions such as the inflammation of oral mucosa, blenorrhoea, and asthmatic bronchitis. In the present study the methanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis leaves ( 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight orally) was studied for anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in carrageenin and dextran induced rat paw edema using Indomethacine as standard which showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied in rats using acetic acid-induced writhing response and tail flick method by using Pethedine (5mg/kg body weight, intraperitonially) as standard. The extract showed significant dose-dependent analgesic activity in both the models.
 
Article
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. (Papilionaceae) is used in male impotency, as aphrodisiac, in sexual debility, and as nervine tonic. It also possesses anti-parkinson property, possibly due to the presence of L-DOPA. Market samples of ‘Atmagupta’ (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC) an Indian Ayurvedic and Siddha drug contain seeds of seven taxa. The dried powders of commercial and genuine samples were analysed for anti-nutritional factors and L–DOPA content. Raw M. deeringiana seeds were rich in Tannin, Hydrogen cyanide and Phytic acid. M. utilis seeds were rich in Phenol. Results showed high L-DOPA content in M. deeringiana and Canavalia ensiformis showed minimum L – DOPA content. The present findings also suggest that the commercial samples contains different concentration of Anti-nutritional and L-DOPA content.
 
Article
In the present Study of Ethanolic extract of Stem of Rubia cordifolia Linn.(Rubiaceae) was screened for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema rats. The effect was assessed by Difference in paw oedema volume, before & after the low & high dose administration of the extract in Rats. Ethanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia stem (20 & 40 mg./kg./ml.) were administered orally. Anti-inflammatory effects were compared with Standard drug- Indomethacin (10mg./kg/ml.). These observations helped us to conclude that Ethanolic Extract high dose is endowed with anti-inflammatory property.
 
Zone of inhibition in antibacterial activity  
Zone of inhibition in antifungal activity  
Article
Chemical constituents of Adhatoda zeylanica (MP-1 to MP-4) were isolated successfully with higher yield. The structures of isolated compounds were confirmed by the use of spectral data UV, FTIR, 1H NMR, Mass and HPLC. The compound MP-1 to MP-3 of Adhatoda zeylanica was evaluated for antimicrobial activity.
 
Article
Calotropis gigantea Linn. belongs family Asclepiadaceae and contains flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugars cardiac glycoside alkaloids. In the present study, ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea was investigated for its antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro by reducing power, DPPH and nitric oxide method. Hydroalcohlic extract of Calotropis gigantea shown significant antioxidant activity. Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae) commonly known as arka and wild growing tropical plant, which possesses number of medicinal properties. It is reported to contain cardiac glycosides, -sitosterol, madrine, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, trisecharoides and flavonols. The plant has been used for various disease conditions, including leprosy, ulcers, tumours and piles. Various pharmacological activities reported like antifertility, anti-inflammatory activity, hepatoprotective activity, antimyocardial infraction activity and antidiarrhoeal activity.
 
Article
Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae), is used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric disorders viz., acidity and gastric ulcers. The present study was undertaken to determine the gastroprotective potential of the fresh juice extract of the roots of Daucus carota. The juice extract of the roots of Daucus carota (DCE) was tested orally at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, on gastric ulceration experimentally induced by pylorus ligation, aspirin and ethanol induced. The parameters considered to assess the anti-ulcer activity were volume of gastric secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity, mucus content and ulcer index. The DCE at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, significantly decreased gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index, while it increased the pH and the mucus content as compared with control. The DCE at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced 60.45, 56.80 and 43.51 % significant inhibition when gastric ulceration were induced by pylorus ligation, aspirin and ethanol, respectively. The DCE possesses gastroprotective property and the results supported traditional uses of the roots of this plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer and acidity.
 
Chemical Tests for Detection of Inorganic Constituents
Article
ABSTRACT Asafetida is an oleo gum resin obtained from the rhizome and root of Ferula narthex Bioss, & other species of Ferula, family of Umbelliferae.This spice is used as a digestive aid, in food as a condiment and in pickles. It is still widely used in India (commonly known there as Hing) as a food and even as a medicine in Indian systems of Medicine like Ayurveda. Despite its pungent aroma; Asafoetida is known to alleviate stomach ailments, cold symptoms, anxiety issues, chronic fatigue, yeast infections, and painful gas and flatulence. Since Asafoetida is not a native of India it has been importing from Middle East countries like Afghanistan. Since it is costlier and not available in pure form Practices like Adulteration has been observed in Market. Hence in this study Different market samples of Asafoetida were analyzed on Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Parameters and compared them with Standards of PharmacopiaKey words: Asafoetida,Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical, Market samples
 
Airways in normal and asthmatic person 
Ayurvedic Medicines Used In the Treatment of Asthma 
Article
Asthma is an inflammatory disease which is prevalent throughout the world. Allopathic medicines are commonly used for its treatment. Although allopathic medicines provide immediate relief to most patients but low risk, non drug strategies would provide a valuable adjunct or alternative treatment in Asthma Management. A holistic approach helps the body to come into balance naturally and can be used as a long term therapy with minimal side effects. The holistic approach includes different systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Herbal drugs, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Siddha, Unani and other therapies. Holistic treatment can be an effective solution for treating asthma Substantial scientific evidence is not available on these therapies and further trials need to be conducted to prove their efficacy and encourage the patients to use this approach in the management of asthma.
 
Article
Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) is a popularly known medicinal plant said in Ayurveda. It has been used to promote vigor and strength. The current ongoing researches are approving the plant can be useful in malignacies at various levels and with different mechanisms. An effort has been made in this paper to review such results focused at cancer therapy and management. Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) is also known as Indian ginseng proves to be a beacon for blinded minds of cancer sufferers.
 
Article
Pineapple, a juicy and tasty fruit, belonging to family Bromeliaceae is scientifically known as Ananas cosmosus. The Pineapples are traditionally used as a blood purifier, to aid digestion, for gastro-intestinal disorders, diseases of the larynx and pharynx, as a mild antiseptic and to treat diabetes. There are no reports in literature pertaining to CNS actions of Ananas cosmosus fruit. In the light of above, the present study was undertaken to test the antidepressant potential of Ananas cosmosus fruit juice. Ananas cosmosus juice (ACJ) was administered at various concentrations ranging from 5% to 20% v/v to Swiss albino mice for 15 days and wistar rats for 8 successive days. The antidepressant activity was measured using forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and reserpine induced hypothermia. The efficacy of Pineapple juice was compared with standard anti-depressant agents viz: fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and imipramine (15 mg/kg). The results showed that Pineapple juice significantly decreased immobility time in both FST and TST models. It also reversed the hypothermia induced by reserpine. The efficacy of Pineapple juice was found to be comparable to fluoxetine and imipramine. Prazosin, sulpiride, baclofen and p-CPA antagonized the antidepressant effect of Pineapple juice in tail suspension test. Furthermore, Ananas cosmosus juice inhibited the monoamine oxidase MAO-A and MAO-B activity and reduced significantly malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. These findings reveal the anti-depressant potential of Pineapple.
 
Calibration curve of Beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside  
Article
A new simple, precise, rapid and selective high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method has been developed for determination of beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside in Karela (Momordica charantia Linn.) extracts as well as in plant based formulations containing Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. Dunal.) The mobile phase consisted of toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (5: 5: 0.5) (v/v) and TLC plates precoated with 60F254 silica gel were used as the stationary phase. Detection was carried out densitometrically using a UV detector at 540 nm after spraying with Anisaldehyde – Sulphuric acid Reagent (ASR). The retention factor of beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside was 0.47. Linearity was obtained in the range of 1.0 to 3.5 µg per spot for beta sitosterol -D-glucoside. The method was précise and accurate as the RSD was < 2 %. The method was found to be sensitive, selective and robust. The developed and validated HPTLC method was employed for standardization of methanol and petroleum ether extracts of Karela and seven different formulations containing Ashwagandha for the content of the beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside..
 
Article
Bioactive compounds from marine flora and fauna have extensive past and present use in the treatment of many diseases and serve as compounds of interest both in their natural form and as templates for synthetic modification. Several molecules isolated from various marine organisms (microorganisms, algae, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates) are currently under study at an advanced stage of clinical trials, some of them have already been marketed as drugs. This article gives an overview of current trends in screening and the activity analysis of metabolites from marine resources. Although the marine resources have been somewhat limited to date, selected bioactive from marine flora and fauna have already published. This report summarizes the screening for bioactive compounds of marine animals and marine microorganisms. Finally, new approaches for the screening of metabolites from marine resources are discussed. The goal of this article is to expose the new models and mechanisms of action of marine substances to bring new solutions for tackling some of the major public health problems.
 
Article
The main objective of the present work was developing a novel diclofenac formulation for colonic targeted drug release. The proposed delivery system consisted in a polymeric matrix tablet containing a drug central core purposely designed for obtaining a slow release of the drug from the matrix tablet with different natural polysaccharides. It was well known that many of the natural polysaccharides were utilized for colon targeted drug delivery system. The selection of the natural gum depends on the biodegradable capacity of the gum with the colonic micro flora with azoreductase. Tablets containing the drug central core were prepared by direct compression and tested for dissolution properties according to the USP (United state pharmacopoeia) paddle method. For series of formulations, the amount of the drug and the quantity of the natural polysaccharide were varied and reported. The invitro release of drug determined initially for 2hrs in 0.1n hydrochloric acid and subsequent six hours in phosphate buffer of pH 7.2 .the results showed that no drug was released during 2hrs time in 0.1N hydrochloric acid from all five formulations. However, formulations containing natural polysaccharides shows better release rate than compared with conventional method of targeting to colon. Also the colonic microflora was characterized for its microbial properties, found to have strict anaerobic condition, gram negative, non motile.
 
Article
Biotechnologies have played an important role in the development of food products over many centuries. In recent years the "modern biotechnologies" of molecular biology and gene technologies have gained a significant role in the cereals sector, sustainable development goals that embody ecological, social, and economic requirements. In addition, biotechnology should be considered one tool in a larger portfolio of technological options, to be applied where it is needed and where it offers the best available option for solving specific problems. Biotechnology contributes a significant role to fulfill the desired nutritional requirements of blasting population of the world.
 
Article
A simple, sensitive, accurate, rapid and reliable visible spectophotometric method has been developed for determination of clopidogrel bisulfate in tablet dosage forms. The quantitative determination of the drug was carried out using Linear Least Squares Equation method values measured at 220.0 nm and Calibration graph constructed at 220.0 nm was linear in concentration rage of 40-65 μg/ml with correlation coefficient 0.9977. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and can be used for determination of clopidogrel bisulfate in tablet dosage forms.
 
Article
Different parts of Memecylon umbellatum were found infected during rainy season by fungi. To investigate the effect of these fungi on some of the basic metabolites like minerals and sugars, the present study was undertaken. Here we have collected healthy and infected leaves and bark samples from infected plants in rainy season (July-August). Sugar content was estimated by simple titrimetric method using benedict’s quantitative reagent and mineral contents were estimated by atomic absorption using acid hydrolysis method. Both healthy and infected parts showed presence of reducing and non reducing sugars along with minerals such as iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, lead etc. Total sugar content was found maximum in inflorescence (526.31mg/dl) and minimum in case of root (128.20 mg/dl). The reducing and non reducing sugars were also found maximum (294.11 mg/dl and 232.20 mg/dl) in inflorescences compare to all other parts studied. In case of inflorescence the difference between reducing and non reducing sugar is less (61.91 mg/dl) while in bark it was found more (164.51 mg/dl) compare to other parts tested. Healthy bark (5.898 mg/100g) and leaves (4.980mg/100g) showed maximum content of iron compare to other healthy and infected parts. Infected leaves and bark showed more deposition of calcium and magnesium compare to healthy leaves while all other minerals were decreased with respect to healthy leaves and bark which indicates the utilization of these minerals by pathogenic fungus specially iron content to great extent.
 
Article
Identification of primary and secondary constituents has become the utmost important tool for the presence of active moiety. The phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Calendula officinalis leaf done by TLC means. Petroleum ether extract showed the presence of fatty acids, chloroform extracts showed the presence of triterpens and sterols. Flavonoids, carbohydrates, amino acids and saponins were present in methanol extract and saponins, phenolic substances and tannins were present in the water extract of Calendula officinalis.
 
Article
Depression currently observed as the second largest killer disease across the globe commonly noticed because of negative feeling such as sadness and despair which also often involves physical and behavioural symptoms. Epidemiologic studies have confirmed that depression is an extremely common condition, but as also the one that is associated with an unexpectedly broad spectrum of morbidity. Depression is a major problem that can increase the chances of co-morbid cardiovascular and other metabolic complications, where the under-recognition and improper treatment is especially common. A large number of studies assessing the relationship between depression and medical burden have focused on patients with cardiac diseases and metabolic disorders. The present review is focused on the presence of the various cardiovascular complications and metabolic disorders associated with depression. Many previous studies have suggested depression as a risk factor for mortality, in patients with cardiovascular and metabolic complications.
 
Article
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Momordica charantia on the experimental hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Carbon tetrachloride was administered once and simultaneously suspension of dry fruit powder was prepared in aqueous medium and was daily administered at a dose level of 1mg/kg body weight for 4 days. Silymarin was used as a standard drug for this study. Administration of carbon tetrachloride showed significant changes in the levels of serum aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and total proteins levels, however necrosis, collagen deposition and altered hepatic architecture were also observed. Markers of liver injury, altered aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin etc. and morphological changes such as necrosis and collagen deposition were significantly decreased in the rats treated with Momordica charantia fruit powder. These results suggest that the Momordica charantia showed hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage and may be a potential clinical application for treatment of liver diseases.
 
Recovery Study Data of Tablet Formulation
Article
A rapid and sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic methods depicted for the qualitative and quantitative assay of glipizide in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Glipizide was chromatographed on reverse phase C18 column with mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M Potassium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate: Methanol [15: 85 %v/v, pH 7.0 ± 0.05, adjusted with 1% Triethylamine]. The mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate 1 mL/min. Quantification was achieved by monitoring the ultraviolet absorbance at 225 ηm. The average retention time for Glipizide was found to be 3.21 ± 0.07. With this method, linearity was observed in the range of 10 – 2000 ηg/ml. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 5 ηg/ml and 15 ηg/ml respectively. The method was applicable for the analysis of drug in tablet formulation. The results of analysis were validated statistically.
 
Scheme-I  
Article
A simple and convenient synthesis of chrysin and Nor wogonin is reported
 
chromatography result of C repanda methanolic extract. 
Article
Cissus repanda Vahl. (Family Vitaceae), commonly known in Hindi as ‘Panivel’, is a large climber distributed all over India and also occasionally cultivated in garden. The crushed or powder of stem is prescribed by tribal people and vidyas of Orissa, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Karnataka for its healing properties in case of bone fractures, cuts and wounds. Inspite of its reputation in these ailments it has not yet been investigated scientifically hence it was thought worth to study it in detail. The present paper highlights the pharmacognostical and phytochemical details and their role in laying down standardization and pharmacopoeial parameters. The fluorescence analysis of stem powder, physicochemical parameters like moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive value and water soluble extractive values are taken. The diagnostic characters are mucilage, calcium oxalate rosette and acicular crystals, starch grains, tannin content cell, annular and scaleriform vessels and fibres. Preliminary organic analysis revealed alkaloids, tannins, calcium, and mucilage.
 
Article
Diseases are an inevitable aspect of society and thereby their appropriate treatment is an important responsibility of the medical community. Before instilling any therapy, proper understanding of the pathophysiology of the ailment, is of utmost importance. The next important aspect is the role played by experience and evidence based practices by physicians and the entire health care team, in finding the best possible cure for the ailment. The study was carried out to find out the prevalence of diseases and treatment pattern in village of Pilani. This is a review generated on the basis of analysis of patient cases. A total of 1,135 patient cases were analysed over a period 4 years i.e. January 2005- December 2008. Respiratory tract infection, Asthma, Fever and Anxiety were commonest aliments urging people to seek medical attention. This is also in agreement with the natural settings of the area as Pilani is a place struck constantly with sandstorms, both extremities of season and with a huge population of illiterate people, predominantly farmers and labour class. The analysis was done after direct observation of prescription and monitoring patient signs and symptoms. Physicians were found to follow both, experience and evidence based prescription practices. A large number of prescriptions included cephalosporin antibiotic – mostly third generation, many a times slightly higher than prescribed doses, mainly due to the resistance pattern of pathogens, observed in the community. At the same time patients were found not completing the antibiotic course and so spent on an average 5 days in the hospital mainly attributed to illiteracy, poverty and poor understanding, discontinuation of medication with slight improvement in symptoms.
 
Comparative cumulative percent drug release versus time plots of promising piroxicam formulations, control and commercial dispersible tablet formulation in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer.  
Precompression Parameters of Piroxicam Tablet Formulations
Article
The aim of the present study was to develop dispersible / mouth dissolving tablets (orodispersible tablets) using piroxicam as a model drug for improving patient compliance, employing low cost directly compressible co-processed granular excipients developed in our laboratory, based on various sugars/polyols such as mannitol, maltodextrin and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate along with a native food grade corn starch. The designed tablet formulations were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time, water absorption ratio, drug content, in-vitro dissolution rate (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the designed piroxicam tablets, one formulation prepared with the granular excipient containing 25% w/w corn starch and 75% w/w dicalcium phosphate dihydrate using starch paste for granulation, without super disintegrant addition was found to be promising dispersible tablet formulation (in vitro dispersion time of 17.66 s and wetting time 8.4 s). Another tablet formulation prepared with the granular excipient containing mannitol and food grade corn starch (50:50 ratio) and granulated with starch paste, along with 2% w/w crospovidone as superdisintegrant emerged as promising orodispersible tablet formulation (in vitro dispersion time 17.66 s and wetting time 14.3 s. Short-term stability studies of promising formulations (over a period of 3 months) indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (p<0.05). IR-spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug–excipient interactions.
 
Vateria indica – Swollen leaf base  
Vateria indica – Inflorescence  
Article
Herbal medicine in India is resurrecting with a huge demand, with a number of new pharmacies sprouting out in the due course of time. Though the situation is promising to the Herbal practitioners, the increase in consumption of the flora in the name of medicine, timber etc. critically affects the Bio-diversity, there by drawing a plenty of indigenous plants to the endangered species list released by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Sarja (Vateria indica Linn.) is one such Indigenous & Endemic plant species to the Western Ghats, which requires an urgent attention to be conserved. On critically analyzing the status of Vateria indica Linn. It was found to be over exploited & highly felled for the purpose of making Plywood’s. Datas reveal that a shocking rate of around 6200 tons of timber per annum was being used for the same purpose in the late 1960’s. Traditional medicine & Astrological sciences too yield references which make us understand its bondage with the culture and tradition of the country. This study is being undertaken to bring about awareness among the Herbal practitioners & Environmentalists to take Voluntary measures in conserving such Red listed plants, so that it would be made available to the generations to come. “Nature creates, human predates & only humane protects”.
 
Article
The process of mucoadhesion involving a polymeric drug delivery system is a complex one that includes processes such as wetting, adsorption and interpenetration of polymer chains. The success and degree of mucoadhesion bonding is influenced by various polymer-based properties such as the degree of cross-linking, chain length and the presence of various functional groupings. The attractiveness of mucosal-targeted controlled drug delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients, has led formulation scientists to evaluate numerous polymeric systems for such tasks. Formulation scientists have at their disposal a range of in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesion testing setups in order to select candidate adhesive drug delivery system. As such, mucoadhesive systems have found wide use throughout many mucosal covered organelles for active ingredients delivery for local or systemic effect. Evolution of such mucoadhesive formulations has transgressed from first-generation charged hydrophilic polymer networks to more specific second-generation systems based on lectin, thiol and various other adhesive functional groups.
 
Peak of oleanolic acid in M. piperita L. methanolic extract determined at 529 nm  
Calibration curve in between standard area and concentration  
Article
A simple, monetary, reproducible, precise high performance thin layer chromatography HPTLC method was used to determine the content of oleanolic acid in 99.9% methanolic extract of Mentha piperita L., plant from the family of the Lamiaceae., Aerial part of Mentha piperita using toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (4.0:1.0:0.1v/v) as mobile phase. Quantification were performed by densitometry at λ = 529 nm. oleanolic acid have also been long recognized to have anti-inflammatory and antihyperlipidemic property In aerial part methanolic extract, oleanolic acid content is found 0.099 % w/w validated method shows linear response over conc. range of 500 ng to 5000 ng. The limit of detection is noticed to be of 2ng and is statistically tested for repeatability by interday and intraday precision test as per ICH guidelines and its updates international convention. Method was found precise, accurate, specific and recoverable.
 
Article
Somatic cell mutation is able to create genetic variance in a cell population and can induce cancer and tumor when gene mutations took place at repressor gene in controlling cell cycles such as p53 gene. Whereas germline cell mutation can cause genetic disease such as sickle cell anemia, breast cancer, thalassemia, parkinson’s as well as defect of biochemical pathway that influence drug-receptor interaction, which has negative effect and lead to hospitalized of patient. Most of reports mentioned that point mutation such as a single base of nucleotide substitution (purine replaced by purine or transversion (purine replaced by pyrimidine or vice versa) that affected genetic disease as well as adverse drug reaction that involved genetic factors. Mutation that occurred in germline cell would be inherited to the progeny, and these mutated genes can spread in a population through fertilization process. Mutation that occur in coding frame of DNA region which of their expression are responsible for synthesis of specific products could be rise of genetic disease, because the lost of gene function. Similarly, mutation that take place for CYP450 gene family which related to drug metabolism included pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic gene function could affect drug biosynthesis and degradation. Abnormality of drug metabolism that results in pharmacogenetic effect which is indicated by adverse drug reaction to individual that severe metabolite defect. On the future, therapy of genetic disease as well as abnormal of drug metabolism can be directed into gene therapy techniques with using stem cell engineering.
 
Article
Seed oil from species viz.,Khaya senegalensis plant belonging to Meliaceae family has been analyzed for physico-chemical properties by IR, NMR, TLC, and GLC techniques. The seed oil resembled the simple ‘linoleic-oleic-palmitic’ type. The chief components among unsaturated acids are oleic and linoleic together forming 18.20-72.50% of total components of acids. Among saturated acids, palmitic acid is present in the range of 10.90-40.90%. Khaya senegalensis seed oil containing 72.50% of oleic acid is very unusual. The seed oil is screened for LD50 studies, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities.
 
Article
Cancer is a group of diseases caused by loss of cell cycle control. Cancer is associated with abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth. Colon cancer is the second most common cancer in females and the third most in males worldwide. The rate of colon cancer was low in India. But at present, it is increasing out 3.5 million cancer cases, 35,000 have colon cancer. Polyps, which are the small growths in the colon, are most often benign, even though some have the potential to become cancerous. For cancer treatment, 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) is commonly used as a chemotherapeutic drug. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is a potent colon carcinogen inducer. These colorectal tumours share many resemblances to human colorectal cancer, including similar responses to promotional and preventive agents. This review article highlights various In vivo studies on colon cancer induced by 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and treated by standard drugs with the help of parameters like Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), Histopathology of the colon, Haematological parameters etc.
 
Composition of Diets Use for the Animal Experimentation 
Effect of Selected Extract on Some Markers of Toxicity on Rats after Injection of Wr-1339 
Effect of the Extracts on Glucose Tolerance of Rats Consuming HFHS Diet 
Effect of Sub Acute Treatment with HEE of Hypodaphnis zenkeri and EE of Xylopia aethiopica on Evolution of Weight of HFHS Diet Rats 
Effect of HEE of Hypodaphnis zenkeri and EE of Xylopia aethiopica on Blood Lipids of HFHS Diet Rats 
Article
Obesity is a complicated multifaceted problem generally accompanied by disturbances in carbohydrate and fat metabolism, insulin resistance as well as an increase in oxidative stress. The bark of Hypodaphnis zenkeri (HZ) and dry fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (XA) commonly used as spices in Cameroonian cuisine also have applications in traditional medicine. This study evaluates their effects on some biological parameters of acute hyperlipidemic rats and on rats fed with High Fat High Sucrose (HFHS) diet. The spices were extracted in water, water/ethanol (50/50) and ethanol. The first part of the work was the in vitro study where, the partial phytochemical composition as well as the antioxidant potential of extracts were studied, using folin Ciocalteu's phenol method and ABTS (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay. The best extract for each spice was selected and used for the "in vivo" study which consisted in studying their effect on weight and biochemical parameters in acute hyperlipidemic rats and insulin resistant rats. The extracts contained phenols like flavonoids. They also showed free radical scavenging properties in vitro. Total phenolic content were higher particularly for the hydroethanolic extract (HEE) of Hypodaphnis zenkeri (413.87 ± 13.19 mg Eq catechin/g of extract), but lowest for the water extract (WE) of Xylopia aethiopica (63.07 ± 1.60 mg Eq catechin/g of extract). At a concentration of 400 mg/kg, the HEE extract of Hypodaphnis zenkeri showed a hypotriglyceridemic activity on rats with hypertriglyceridemia induced by triton WR-1339 unlike the EE of Xylopia aethiopica. But these two extracts inhibited weight gain and reduced postprandial glycemia in insulin resistant rats. The bark of Hypodaphnis zenkeri, and dry fruits of Xylopia aethiopica contained bioactive ingredients; they ameliorated the glucose uptake and the evolution of weight impaired by the chronic consumption of HFHS diet in rats.
 
Article
Ayurveda is as old as human civilization based on two ideologies i.e. maintaining health of the healthy persons and curing the disease of diseased one. According to Ayurvedic point of view mandagni (reduced digestive power) is the mother of all diseases including Amlapitta. On Amlapitta more than 153 research works in PG/PhD level have been reported so far from various research institutions across India. Among these, 36 research works (PG-32/ PhD-4) were carried out at Institute for Post Graduate Training & Research in Ayurveda (I.P.G.T. & R.A.). Out of 36 research works 7 were from dept. of Kayachikitsa, 4 were from Dravyaguna department, 10 were from Basic Principles, 2 were from Rogavigyana Vikritivigyana & 13 were done from dept. of Rasashastra & Bhaisajyakalpana. Research works include 24 clinical studies and 12 experimental cum clinical studies. 21 single drug formulations ( Sunthi, Bhringaraj, Patola, Shatavari, Amalaki, Guduchi etc.) & 20 compound drug formulations ( Sutashekhara rasa, Sunthi Khanda, Puga Khanda etc.) were studied. Maximum drugs used in these research works possess kapha-pitta shamaka, grahi, kledahara, dipana, pachana & medhya properties with Madhura, Tikta & Kasaya predominant rasa, Shita virya (potency) which very easily counteract the etiopathogenesis of Amlapitta.
 
Ayurvedic Clinical conditions resembling Covid-19
Article
COVID-19 pandemic which has spread to 216 countries in eight months resulted in 7.50 lakh deaths across the globe. SARS CoV-2, highly infectious causative agent of this disease is transmitted through droplets, contact routes and aerosols. Even the most developed nations are experiencing difficulty to limit its spread and the disease is still spreading at an alarming rate. For filling the gaps and lacunas in the healthcare system this is high time to integrate different healthcare systems available to meet the ever emerging health challenges. Ayurveda has documented the first reference of epidemics as Janapadodhwamsa and has given a scientific insight to its causes, effect and prevention along with management strategies. No established and approved treatment of COVID-19 is yet available and off label drugs are being tried for prophylaxis and therapeutic purpose. Variation in host susceptibility and outcomes has been observed and host factors are being explored along with fast track vaccine development. Ayurveda treatment always take into account the host factors to alleviate the disease by improving the Agni and providing nutrition and strength to the host by means of Rasayana, Panchakarma, lifestyle measures and using drugs of varied origin. The clinical profile of COVID-19 matches with Vata-Kapha dominant Sannipataja Jwara for which detailed treatment guidelines and array of pharmaceutical preparations are described in Ayurvedic literature which are being practiced by qualified Ayurvedic physicians effectively since long. This paper highlights the Ayurvedic perspective of the COVID-19 along with its prevention, prophylaxis and management strategies through Ayurveda.
 
The herbal ingredients of Punarnavadya Ghrita
Article
COVID-19 disease has created panic among all with respect to health and economy. On 11th March 2020 WHO (world health organisation) declared novel corona virus outbreak as global pandemic. Confirmed effective remedy to prevent or treat COVID-19 is not yet established. Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine is the oldest medicinal literature known to mankind as old as 3000 BC and is recognised as medical system by WHO. There is a need to investigate time tested potent classical Ayurvedic formulations backed by contemporary scientific studies in treating symptoms of COVID-19 disease. Vijaya (Cannabis sativa Linn.) in Ayurveda notable for its Vyavayi (quick absorption) and Yogavahi (synergetic action) properties said to be originated from ambrosia as per Vedic mythology. Recent scientific research on the phytochemicals of Cannabis plant showed promising results in decreasing the pro-inflammatory cytokine storm and to an extent halting the replication of SARS-CoV-2. We have put forward one such classical Cannabis Ayurvedic formulation Punarnavadya Ghrita available in market which can be useful as an alternative remedy for prophylactic and curative to the symptoms of novel corona virus disease whose individual herbal phytochemical compounds are studied through in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods in treating COVID-19 with positive outcomes.
 
Article
Tribhuvankirti Rasa is a herbo-mineral Ayurvedic medicine regularly used to treat different types of fever. It has antipyretic and analgesic activities. It is an effective medicine for the common cold, flu and other Vata kapha problems. Laghumalini Vasanta is also Ayurvedic medicine, used to treat chronic fever and effective in pitta disorders. Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India also recommended these medicines to prevent the severe conditions of Cov-2 infection. Review of literature suggested that phytochemical and elemental characterization parameters of Tribhuvankirti Rasa and Laghumalini Vasant are not reported. The objective of this study is to report phytochemical and elemental profiling and to standardize Tribhuvankirti Rasa (TKR) and Laghumalini Vasant (LMV) to confirm quality and purity. Tribhuvankirti Rasa and Laghumalini Vasant evaluated for phytochemical and elemental parameters by HPTLC and ICP-OES respectively. HPTLC analysis confirms LMV contains Piperine and TKR contains Piperine and 6-Gingerol. The solvent systems toluene: ethyl acetate (7: 3) v/v for Piperine & Hexane: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (4 : 6 : 0.1) v/v for 6-Gingerol were optimized. ICP-OES analysis confirms presence of Zn in LMV and Hg in TKR. HPTLC and ICP-OES methods were validated successfully for Tribhuvankirti Rasa and Laghumalini Vasant. The characterization and method validation parameters presented in this paper may serve as standard reference for quality control analysis of Tribhuvankirti Rasa and Laghumalini Vasant.
 
Article
Unlike previous outbreaks like SARS and MERS, caused by corona family viruses, COVID-19 became a much worse worldwide pandemic. SARS CoV-2, another coronavirus, causes it. Finding effective therapeutics against this global health crisis became a significant challenge for researchers. However, Allopathic medicine is effective to some extent with severe side effects, which cause concern. In this process, some researchers focused on natural compounds like plant-synthesized secondary metabolites (PSMs) for the treatment of COVID-19. Because these natural compounds like PSMs had a history of tackling a wide range of viral pathogens successfully without significant side effects. Many medicinal plants from different families have antiviral activities. This review intends to systematically evaluate the natural metabolites that could be used against this new disease looking at their natural sources, mechanism of action, and previous pharmacological usages. So, it can be a good initiation for the greater goal of finding effective natural therapeutics for the treatment of Covid-19 without any severe side effects.
 
Effect of Nandhi mezhugu on liver markers of experimental wistar rats in sub-acute toxicity study 
Effect of Nandhi mezhugu on serum biochemical parameters of experimental wistar rats sub-chronic oral toxicity study 
Article
Nandhi Mezhugu (NM) is a classical Siddha herbo-mineral formulation indicated for all types of Arthritides. Acute toxicity study was performed at 3 dose levels, i.e., 50, 300, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of rats. Sub-acute toxicity study was performed at doses of 9, 45, 90 mg/kg body weight and sub-chronic toxicity study was performed at doses of 9, 45, 110 mg/kg body weight of rats. Palm Jaggery solution was used as vehicle. In sub-acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies, the drug was administered twice for 7 days followed by 7 days of drug holiday, i.e., in sub-acute toxicity study, the period was 56 days and in the sub-chronic toxicity study, it was 180 days. In both studies, the high dose recovery and recovery control groups were used to study the safety of the drug. Biochemical, haematological parameters, gross pathology and histopathology of the rats were analysed in both studies. ICP-OES detection of heavy metal traces in animal tissue samples in sub-chronic toxicity study (high dose group) were analysed. Acute toxicity study showed no mortality and no treatment-related toxicity signs. Similarly, sub-acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies showed no treatment-related abnormalities at the high dose levels such as 90 and 110 mg/kg body weight in rats respectively. Hence, the scientific validation of the safety of Nandhimezhugu is proven by the toxicity studies.
 
Article
Colon cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer disease in westernized countries its management remains a challenge in eve ryday oncology practice. Thus, advanced therapeutic strateg ies are required to treat colon cancer patients. Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) (CAR ) is a promising anticancer agent for various cancer types. The main objective of this study was to develop a polymeric drug delivery system for active components from Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) intended to be intravenously administered, capable of improving the therapeutic index of the extract. To achieve this goal Caralluma adscendens (Roxb loaded poly (lactic - co - glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (PEG - PLGA - Nps) were prepared by single emulsion solvent - evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and TEM analysis. The in vitro cytotoxic a ctivity of CAR PLGA - Nps developed was assessed using a human colon cancer cell line ( HT - 29 ) in MTT assay and DNA fragmentation assay and compared to the in vitro anti - tumoral activity of the Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) extract. Keyw ords : Colon cancer, Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) , poly (lactic - co - glycolic acid), Poly ethylene Glycol, DNA fragmentation assay, MTT assay,HT - 29 colon cancer cell lines
 
Article
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia in elderly. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease. But some category of drugs like AchE inhibitors and NMDA antagonists were used along with some antioxidants and some other supportive therapy. There is a possibility to slow down the brain's degeneration caused by Alzheimer's with natural treatments. In the present study animals were divided randomly into five groups of six animals each. Group I animals were given 0.1 % w/v CMC orally by using intra-gastric catheter at dose (10 ml/kg), Group III and Group IV animals were pretreated with hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu Linn (HAEAC) for a period of 3 weeks (200 and 400 mg/ kg b.w) and Group V animals were treated with donepezil (1.5 mg/kg/b.w i.p) and were kept in light/dark cycle. During this period the animals were trained in water-maze, Y-maze, exploratory behaviour and passive avoidance apparatus for memory. Amnesia is induced by intra cerebro ventricular injection (I.C.V) of β- amyloid (25-35). I.C.V injection for the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups were performed on the 21st day of the pretreated animals and continued for 5 days. The last dose was given 60 minutes prior to behavioral testing and on 30th day scarification of animals was done for in-vitro studies. Hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu Linn showed significant protective effect on neurodegeneration and also showed improvement on memory retention activity when compared with β-amyloid (25-35) induced animals (Group II).
 
Top-cited authors
Milind Parle
  • Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology
Deepa Khanna
  • Rajendra Institute of Technology and Sciences
Dr Quazi Majaz Ahamad Aejazuddin
  • Ali-Allana College of Pharmacy
Asif Karigar
  • Maratha mandal's college of Pharmacy, Belgaum Karnataka, India
Carol Macwan
  • Dharmsinh Desai University