Maintaining water quality and predicting the fate of water pollutants are one of the important tasks of present environmental problems. The best tool for predicting different pollution scenarios are the simulation of mathematical models which can provide a basis and technical support for environmental management.
A novel architecture for the On Off Keying (OOK) modulator with high gain and high data rate power amplifier (PA) operating at 11.6 GHz IBM 0.18-µm RF CMOS technology is presented for a X-band passive RFID tag. Currently used low frequency switching techniques such as multiplexers were not functioning in the high frequency X-band architectures. In this novel approach OOK modulator with power amplifier, a CMOS switch was used to transmit ‘1’ and ‘0’ coming from the digital signal unlike in the existing low frequency architectures. Both the load and driver in this proposed PA were class A operation supplied by a single ended 1.83V source. The important design considerations include output power, 1 dB compression point and linearity. The fabricated results of the amplifier have a 1 dB compression point of 1.2 dBm and input power of 5.19 dBm at 9.2 GHz.
The shift in punishment in the criminal justice system prioritizes justice for victims and perpetrators of criminal acts in addition to alternative punish- ments such as social work and others carried out with a restorative justice approach. Focusing on the process of direct criminal responsibility from the perpetrator to the victim and society, if the perpetrator and victim and the community whose rights have been violated feel that justice has been achieved through collective deliberation efforts, punishment can be avoided. The perpetrator is not the main object of the restorative justice approach, but the sense of justice and conflict recovery itself are the main objects. The Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia, on December 22 2020, through the Director-General of the General Courts Agency, has made Decree Number: 1691/DJU/SK/PS.00/12/2020 concerning the Enforcement of Guidelines for the Implementation of Restorative Justice in the Indonesian General Courts. With the normative juridical research method, with the nature of qualitative descriptive research, by examining secondary data obtained through the Decree of the Director-General of the General Courts of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia Number: 1691/DJU/SK/PS.00/12/2020 and other related regulations which has relevance to the implementation of restorative justice in the Indonesian general courts’ environment. The results of the research show the implementation of restorative justice in the Indonesian general courts, as stated in the Decree of the Director-General of the Supreme Courts Number: 1691/DJU/SK/PS.00/12/2020, which must apply and be applied by all district courts in Indonesia, especially in terms of case settlement in action. Minor offenses, child cases, women in conflict with the law and nar- cotics cases. The existence of alternative case resolution through restorative justice can realize the principles of fast, simple and low cost with balanced justice.
NACA 0015 and NACA 4415 aerofoil are most common four digits and broadly used aerodynamic shape. Both of the shapes are extensively used for various kind of applications including turbine blade, aircraft wing and so on. NACA 0015 is symmetrical and NACA 4415 is unsymmetrical in shape. Consequently, they have big one-of-a-kind in aerodynamic traits at the side of widespread differences of their utility and performance. Both of them undergo the same fluid principle while applied in any fluid medium giving dissimilar outcomes in aerodynamics behavior. On this work, experimental and numerical investigation of each NACA 0015 and NACA 4415 is done to decide their performance. For this purpose, aerofoil section is tested for a prevalence range attack of angle (AOA). The study addresses the performance of NACA 0015 and NACA 4415 and evaluates the dynamics of flow separation, lift, drag, pressure and velocity contour and so on.
This article sets out to study the evolution of the French language in Cameroon from the period of colonisation to the present. The article focuses in particular on the use of the language during the colonial period and its imposition on Cameroonians through the French policy of assimilation. Contrary to the British policy of indirect rule, France considered its colonies as oversea territories (la France outre-mer) whichss had to speak and write the French language in a manner as prescribed by the Académie Française. Our investigation looks at the evolution of the language after independence and the different varieties that developed from mainstream French: these include Cameroon popular French (CPF) or the social variety, and a hybrid variety (camfranglais) used mostly by the younger generation of Cameroonians. We aim at evaluating the influence of the latter variety, in order to analyse the radical transformation process that the French language is experiencing in French Africa in general and in Cameroon in particular. The article aims at validating our hypothesis that the French language as used in Cameroon is a repossession of a very complex language.
In this paper, we run for all INDIA mutations and variants a biomathematical numerical method for analysing mRNA nucleotides sequences based on UA/CG Fibonacci numbers proportions (Perez, 2021). In this study, we limit ourselves to the analysis of whole genomes, all coming from the mutations and variants of SARS-CoV2 sequenced in India in 2020 and 2021. We then demonstrate - both on actual genomes of patients and on variants combining the most frequent mutations to the SARS-CoV2 Wuhan genomes and then to the B.1.617 variant - that the numerical Fibonacci AU / CG metastructures increase considerably in all cases analyzed in ratios of up to 8 times. We can affirm that this property contributes to a greater stability and lifespan of messenger RNAs, therefore, possibly also to a greater INFECTUOSITY of these variant genomes. Out of a total of 108 genomes analyzed: None ("NONE") of them contained a number of metastructures LOWER than those of the reference SARS-CoV2 Wuhan genome. Eleven (11) among them contained the same number of metastructures as the reference genome. 97 of them contained a GREATER number of metastructures than the reference genome, ie 89.81% of cases. The average increase in the number of metastructures for the 97 cases studied is 4.35 times the number of SARS-CoV2 UA/CG 17711 Fibonacci metastructures. Finally, we put a focus on B.1.617.2 crucial exponential growth Indian variant. Then, we demonstrate, by analyzing the main worldwide 19 variants, both at the level of spikes and of whole genomes, how and why these UA / CG metastuctures increase overall in the variants compared to the 2 reference strains SARS-CoV2 Wuhan and D614G. Then, we discuss the possible risk of ADE for vaccinated people. To complete this article, an ADDENDUM by Nobelprizewinner Luc Montagnier vas added at the end of this paper.
Woman is the procreator and the mother of tomorrow shaping the destiny of civilization. For a woman, pregnancy is the most delighted event but in India in some cases the birth of a girl child is a gloomy and despair event and perhaps the gravest concern facing humanity. The United Nations has been observing each year on 8th March “International Women’s Day since 1975 to achieve specified mandate enshrined in its resolution. Subsequently, in order to focus undivided attention to girl child the United Nations, since 2012, has been observing 11th October each year as “International Day of Girl Child”. Acknowledging the significance of the girl child India went ahead and has been observing 24th January each year since 2008 “National Girl Child Day” & National Nutrition Week from September 1-7 since 1982 . It is against this background, this development perspective article briefly highlights the pathetic scenario of girl child worldwide & in India specifically despite the implementation of specific policy & programs in India and suggests strategy to achieve the goal “ Save the girl child & Educate the girl” as a part of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal-4 [“Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls “by 2030] when India could not achieve UN Millennium Development Goals by 2015 in this regard.
This study aimed to establish the best fit structural model of work engagement of police commissioned officers in region 11. The exogenous variables in the model are leadership factors, personality traits, and organizational commitment. The endogenous variable is work engagement. 400 police commissioned officers selected through stratified random sampling responded to the survey. Data analysis used the mean, Pearson r, multiple regression, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results showed the respondents' high leadership factors, personality traits, organizational commitment, and work engagement. Additionally, the correlation test revealed a significant relationship between the exogenous and endogenous variables. The regression results exposed the 61.2% combined effect of leadership factors, personality traits, and organizational commitment on work engagement. Only Model 5 met all goodness of fit indices among the five developed models. Further analysis of the model revealed that leadership factors, personality traits, and organizational commitment, with their select manifest variables, are predictors of work engagement. The model shows that for leadership factors, the indicators are intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, management-by-exception, and passive leadership; personality traits are agreeableness and openness; affective and normative for organizational commitment. For work engagement, the manifest variables left in the model are vigor and dedication. The study concludes with the significance of leadership, personality, and commitment toward meaningful work engagement. Police commissioned officers can work on their leadership skills, improve their character, and practice the art of commitment to face the challenge of police work. The paper further discussed the implications for the police agency in the country.
This study explored 12th grade reading scores on the 2015 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and how they relate to enrollment in dual credit college courses and the location in which they were taught. To gain a better understanding of dual credit attainment through various instructional delivery methods and the prediction of 12th grade reading scores, data was mined from the 2015 NAEP and presented in this descriptive research study. The findings of this study include for 12th grades students: (1) Students who earned ELA dual college credit delivered at their high school campus did not result in higher NAEP reading scores. (2) Students who earned ELA dual college credit delivered at a postsecondary campus did not result in higher NAEP reading scores. (3) Students who earned ELA dual college credit delivered through distance learning had higher NAEP reading scores when 11-25% of the 12th grade students enrolled. These findings make evident the high school campus or postsecondary campus dual credit courses for 12th grade students did not have an impact or can be used as a predictor on the NAEP reading test. The dual credit distance learning did have a positive impact on the 12th grade NAEP reading scores, specifically if a smaller percentage of students at the school enrolled, identifying that increasing access to dual credit may not always translate to increased college readiness and rigor.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the bulk density, total pore volume, carbon stock and natural abundance of 13C in Rhodic Ferralsol in no-tillage system (NTS) areas under different succession and rotation of cultures in the Cerrado of Goiás State, Brazil. In order to do so, NTS areas were selected in Montividiu, Goiás, under the same soil and climatic conditions as the following rotations: soybean-corn succession, soybean-millet succession, soybean-corn-millet-beans-cotton rotation, soybean-corn-brachiaria succession and a pasture area (PA), used as a control. In each area, samples were collected at depths of 0.0–0.05, 0.05–0.10, 0.10–0.20, and 0.20–0.40 m. The lowest levels of carbon content and stocks were verified in PA in comparison to the other areas evaluated. The NTS with soybean-corn-millet-beans-cotton crop rotation followed by NTS with soybean-corn-brachiaria succession were those that presented greater potential for carbon stock increase and total soil pore volume, as well as bulk density reduction. The origin of the soil organic matter in the NTS areas is related to plants employing the C4 photosynthetic cycle; however, for mixed C3 and C4 plant systems, the isotopic signature of 13C is reduced, mainly in areas with crop rotation.
Indian woman since ancient days had played an important role in the socio-cultural and philosophical development of the country. Especially in Medieval India, the royal ladies of the Mughal court were almost as remarkable as their male counterparts. Royal Mughal ladies like Hamida Banu Begam, Haji Begam, Nurjahan Begam, Jahanara Begam, Roshanara Begam, Zeb-un-Nisa Begum etc. not only played a dominant role in contemporary politics but also contributed a lot to artistic field. The present article is an attempt to highlight the contribution of Royal Mughal ladies especially in Artistic field.
Every year some parts of India witness droughts and floods directly impacting on food output. India experienced two drought years [July2014-June15 & 2015-16] impacting on low food output followed by 2016-17, a year of severe floods. As 36th World Food Day (WFD) will be observed on 16th October, 2016 India can size and capitalize this opportunity to redouble its efforts in creating awareness among all stakeholders by mounting a massive campaign to improve crop productivity per unit area and resources and eliminate hunger, poverty and rural unemployment. India could not achieve Millennium Development Goal-1 to half the percentage of hungry people by 2015. It has now committed to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal-2 target to “end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture” by 2030. In this context, this development perspective article highlights the current Indian scenario and suggests specific aspects to achieve the SDG-Goal 2 and make India free from hunger by 2030.
This study was conducted to evaluate the behavior of highschool students who take Physical Education Lesson classes within the Erzurum city center. The population of the study consists of high school students affiliated with the Ministry of National Education, and the sample consists of high school students in Erzurum city center. In the study, random sampling method was used and 100 students participated. In order to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects, frequency and percentage analysis, independent t-test to determine differences between genders, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test to determine differences between other characteristics was used. As a result, if these differences are thought to be in adolescence, it can be said that their attitudes towards physical education lesson in this period are taking shape. In this respect, it is seen that secondary school students have a important period in the sense of attitude formation. Therefore, the direction and strength of the attitudes of secondary school students should be measured. The attitude of highschool students towards physical education and sport lessons according to their age, number of siblings, family members' sports status and family income levels were examined.
Trade and commerce in the Brahmaputra valley of colonial Assam is understudied. This paper attempts to study the trade and commercial activities in the valley while keeping in mind the transition from pre-colonial to colonial rule. The late Ahom sources do not speak purposefully about trading activities in the valley. Early colonial sources term the region as backward and averse to trade. The valley came under colonial rule in 1826 with the Treaty of Yandabo. Were the first few decades of the nineteenth century in the Brahmaputra valley backward in matters of commerce? How different was the latter half of the nineteenth century? Analysis of Ahom chronicles, archival sources, and personal papers available in the National Archives of India has helped in finding structural changes in trade and commercial activities in the valley in the century under study. These findings help in understanding the nature of colonial economic policy and present economic structure of the region better.
This study aims to determine the population dynamics of tuna including age group, growth, mortality, exploitation rate and yield per recruitment. It was conducted from June to August in West Waters of South Sulawesi. By method of age group using Bhattacharya method with FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tools II (FISAT II) program, growth using Von Bertalanffy’s equation, natural mortality (M) using Pauly’s empirical equation, total mortality (Z) using Beverton and Holt’s equations, fishing mortality (F) by the formula Z = F + M, exploitation (E) using Baverton and Holt’s equations and yield per recruitment (Y/R’) using Baverton and Holt’s equations. The results of research of tuna observed were 737 includes 355 male tunas and 382 female tunas. The estimation of total length ranging from 215 mm to 429 mm. Male tunas are classified into 4 (four) of age groups with a length of 236.67, 272.8, 326.04 and 375.53 mm, respectively. Asymptote length (L∞) = 455.00 mm, growth coefficient (K) = 0.33 and theoretical age (t0) of -0.2377 per year. Total mortality rate (Z) = 1.12 per year. Natural mortality (M) = 0.41 per year, fishing mortality (F) = 0.71, exploitation (E) = 0.63 and yield per recruitment (Y/R’) = 0.0691, while male tunas are classified into 5 (five) of age groups with a length of 235.73, 272.86, 326.89, 360.89 and 408.89 mm, respectively. Asymptote length (L∞) = 453.50 mm, growth coefficient (K) = 0.42 and theoretical age (t0) of -0.1853 per year. Total mortality rate (Z) = 1.35 per year. Natural mortality (M) = 0.48 per year, fishing mortality (F) = 0.87, exploitation (E) = 0.64 and yield per recruitment (Y/R’) = 0.0784. Thus, it can be concluded that tuna in West Waters of South Sulawesi have declined and thought occur overfishing.
People spend most of their lives indoors. One of the most important of these places, which meet basic needs such as security and shelter, is residences. In various periods, the time spent in closed areas may increase. Various diseases, which emerged at certain points in human history, caused closures and quarantines, increasing the time individuals spend in the house, and harmed societies physically, socially and economically. As of March 2020, the Covid-19 virus has caused semi and full closure practices in many parts of the world due to its contagiousness. During these closure periods, the effects of housing life and housing design on human health came to the fore. A field study was conducted by selecting the province of Bolu, which has a high earthquake risk and experienced various closure periods, to better understand what the users experienced in their houses during the closure periods and the points where they were dissatisfied. Within the scope of this field study, residential users from various occupations and age groups were selected and a survey study was applied. Within the scope of the article, the results of this survey study are evaluated and the precautions and suggestions that can be taken on the houses in the context of Covid-19 are discussed, and housing designs are criticized in line with the wishes of the users. Considering the results of the survey, to design houses that are healthier and provide the user comfort; natural lighting and ventilation, flexible space design and biophilic design are suggested.
Introduction and Objective:Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The disease severity is multifactorial, co-morbid conditions and advanced age are the most important risk factors. At present, there is a sparsity in published data on CAP in Sri Lankan adults and adolescents. Aim of study to identify complications and outcome of CAP.Methods:A single center descriptive prospective study was carried out in Respiratory Unit 11 in National Hospital-Kandy, Sri Lanka, among diagnosed CAP patients during six months from 1st of September 2020 to 28th of February 2021. Data were analyzed by SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) 21 package. Results:105 cases were analyzed; of which 35.2% had complications. Parapenumonic effusion was the commonest complication, whilst pyothorax was the rarest complication. Nine patients (24%) had multiple complications. Prevalence of complications significantly correlated with CURB 65 score (pearson correlation coefficient 0.57, p value 0.001). 93.3% of patients survived with treatment, however 6.6% of them demised with male predominance and all had at least 2 preexisting diseases. Five deaths (71.4%) occurred in the intensive care unit. During follow up, 3.8% were diagnosed with bronchial malignancy, 5.7% pulmonary tuberculosis, 2.8% other chronic infections (melioidosis) and 1.9% chronic organizing pneumonia, respectively.Conclusion:CAP is a major health concern in central Sri Lanka during COVID-19 pandemic. Most CAP patients recovered completely. Mortality 6.6% with male predominance. Parapneumonic effusion was the commonest complication. Number of Complications had significant correlation with CURB 65 score
Maadaath Thiruthi island (CP Thiruthi) in Balathiruthi is near Kadalundi estuary in Malappuram district. It is rich in its biodiversity with estuary, mangroves, and naturally picturesque inland. The place is a treasure of all categories of cultural ecosystem services. Perception of cultural ecosystem services in homeland is bliss for its local people. But people of this area cannot perceive it much due to many problems. One of the major problems is the issue of their livelihood options. This started after the termination of traditional industry of coir retting from the region. This became more severe due to COVID-19. These problems have affected its natives badly.This study attempts to measure the impact of COVID-19 on the perception of local people in accessing cultural ecosystem services in the study area. The study is based on primary survey of them using random sampling. The data were focused on Cultural Ecosystem Services, impact of COVID-19 and livelihood problems.
Upon observation of the steep rise in Covid cases patients all over the world, it seems to be clear that along with conventional methods for prevention and cure of this unpredictable disease, something more requires employment. This paper proposes that the concept of ’Yamdanshtra’ (described in Sharangdhar Samhita)1/ ”Ritusandhi”(described in Charak Samhita)2 is a viable solution. A specific ’diet modification pattern’(Padanshik Tyag vidhi) is recommended for better immunity. Detailed graphical studies have been shown about rela- tionship of the number of cases of Covid and the periods of Yamdanshtra or Ritusandhi(cusp between two seasons) in Bharat and three more countries viz. USA,UK and Russia. It was concluded in the study that a positive relation between Covid cases and transition periods can be established. In countries other than Bharat, the rise in Covid cases was present but not significant. It is hypothesized that that may be because the seasons do not show much differ- ence in climatic conditions or in other parameters. For Bharat, the Padanshik Tyag3 method of diet modification during transition periods may work,while other countries may prefer taking a lighter diet during them.
Due to the influence of COVID-19, the global electronic industry has encountered problems in cooperation. Including a number of chip supply problems, so want to know whether the electronics industry executives have an impact on the company's performance?This study through the investigation to the region in zhejiang province, 2020 local top one thousand electronic industry enterprise executives as questionnaire survey, the questionnaire (N = 331, excluding the reserved cross validity with data and error data, the number of available data and 195 pen, comply with the minimum sample demand, the main research object is for zhejiang area electronic industry as investigation object, and to establish its enterprise system agree with will affect the overall performance and profit of enterprise.Questionnaire design of this study was made through Likert seven-point scale, and reliability and validity verification analysis was conducted for this topic
Indian art presents in the form of art from the science of the body to the science of every corpus of the mind, from earth to sky, north to south, east to west, and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari as the subject of its stream of thought. Is. Animals, vegetation, sound, mind, mind, intellect, earth, space, sky, constellations, oceans, rivers, mountains, mountains, animals, birds, forests are all contained in Indian paintings. The artist and musician feels the beauty and sound of nature in every particle of the world through emotions and imagination. Trying to see each side from a new perspective, presents it. Art and music are the sumptuous expressions of the artist's feelings and perceptions. The purpose of this expression is to provide joy, to create good feelings in life, to remove social problems and sufferings and to lead human beings on the best and inspired path through rasaic artefacts. भारतीय कला षरीर के विज्ञान से लेकर मन के प्रत्येक कोष के विज्ञान को, पृथ्वी से लेकर आसमान को, उŸार से दक्षिण दिषा को, पूर्व से पष्चिम दिषा को, तथा कष्मीर से लेकर कन्याकुमारी को अपनी चिंतन धारा का विशय बनाकर कला रूप में प्रस्तुत करती है। प्राणी, वनस्पति, ध्वनि, मन्, चिक्त, बुद्धि, पृथ्वी, अंतरिक्ष, आकाष, नक्षत्र, बह्याण्ड, नदियां, पर्वत, पहाड़ पषु-पक्षी, वन सभी कुछ भारतीय चित्रों में समाहित है। प्रकृति के कण-कण में व्याप्त सौदर्य और नाद की अनुभूति कलाकार और संगीतकार संवेगो और कल्पना से करता है। प्रत्येक पक्ष को नये-नये आयामों से देखने का प्रयास कर प्रस्तुत करता है। कला और संगीत कलाकार के भावों और बोधों की सरस अभिव्यक्ति है। इस अभिव्यक्ति का उद्देष्य आनन्द प्रदान करना, जीवन में षुभ भावों का उदय करना, सामाजिक समस्याओं और कश्टों का निवारण और रसात्मक कलाकृतियों के माध्यम से मानव को श्रेश्ठ और प्रेरित मार्ग पर अग्रसर करना है।
The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about drastic changes in people's lives. In this scenario, health professionals became susceptible to acquire occupational diseases and began to have their work routine affected by the high demand for care to the infected. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the main factors that are harming the quality of life at work of professionals at a Ready Care Unit (Unidade de Pronto Atendimento - UPA) in the municipality of Três Rios/RJ during the pandemic scenario. This is an exploratory qualitative approach survey, which was conducted through a semi-structured interview with a non-probabilistic sample of fifteen employees. For the data analysis, we resorted to discourse analysis, where it was possible to verify that the main factors that are hindering the employees are: the lack of personal protection equipment (PPE), inadequate infrastructure and the absence of training. In addition, it was also found that the employees were not infected by the new coronavirus, but most have acquired some kind of psychological problem such as insomnia, mental fatigue, excessive stress or sadness. Such diseases mainly affect women with double work hours, thus showing a greater vulnerability among female individuals.
The COVID era is responsible for generating repercussions across the globe. These are responsible for generating tectonic shift in several domains. The educational sector is one of them. With forced lockdowns, stay at home and be safe being the norm, educational sector is witnessing the advent of online medium of instructions of teaching. This paper is an attempt to seek answer to the question. An extant review of literature resulted in the following research questions (a) In the context of education what is means to be sustainable? and (b) What means and mechanisms are needed to remain sustainable? The sample techniques are purposive and the sample size is 314 though the authors have targeted the sample size of 500. The data analysis was done by applying descriptive statistics and exploratory data analysis. The research implications of the study is the realisation of the fact that COVID is here to stay and that new variables are identified which form the new areas of research. The future recommendation arising out of the study is the fact findings can be customized to suit the applicability to the specific educational institution. A large sample size would have provided more insight into the behaviour of the variables and their interactions. The conclusion of the study stems from the fact COVID has generated the need for focussing the sustainability. The sustainability inn itself is different for different components of educational eco-system and that different means and mechanisms are adopted to ensure that sustainability is maintained.
The COVID-19 Pandemic has disrupted life and changed what we knew as normal, for the past 9 months. Although the first case of COVID-19 was identified in Wuhan, China in mid-December 2019, it was coined as a Pandemic by WHO in March 2020. The COVID-19 Pandemic has impacted each and everyone and caused a ripple effect in all areas of life, the healthcare is no exception. With its novel nature, limited information, lack of resources, risky working conditions, and high spikes in cases, it has caused a massive overload on the healthcare systems. It has caused mental health disturbances not just in the frontline workers and COVID-19 survivors but also in the general public owing to uncertainty, isolation, fear, anxiety, andmisinformation. In addition to this, there has also been an increase in the prescription of antibiotics which stems from the inability to examine the patient physically and obtain samples for cultures as consultations are scheduled through telemedicine. Antimicrobial resistance(AMR) is considered to be further potentiated during the Pandemic as Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) have been disrupted and there is an increase in hospital admissions and intubations of patients. Measures like lockdown and travel restrictions placed to curb the spread of the virus have negatively impacted individuals with addictions and substance use disorders (SUD’s) due to inability to access de-addiction centers, increased isolation, and inability to obtain toxicants which lead to the use of adulterated substances and in some cases withdrawal symptoms. The lockdown has also caused delays in the treatment of chronic and co-morbid diseases like Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases, Cancer, Dialysis leading to poor disease management and progression of the disease. It has also impacted regular vaccination schedules and periodic health checkups leading to late diagnosis of diseases.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had major influence on the people all over the world. This has also influenced the consumers to shop online owing to their apprehensions regarding the safety. Therefore, this has opened up huge opportunities to online retailers and platforms to increase their sales and revenue and at the same time posed several challenges. E-commerce business is becoming scalable as more and more people are forced to buy online due to their apprehension to go to physical stores in the time of pandemic. This study is aimed at understanding the factors that are causing an increase in the e-commerce transactions and also attempts to know the consumer behaviour during the COVID- 19 pandemic. Through a survey of 195 respondents, the study found that frequency of online shopping has increased during the pandemic period. The study suggests that both online and offline retailers have to invest in smarter technologies and improve customer engagement.
Abuan Village, Susut District, Bangli Regency is one of the Siaga Villages in Bali. Siaga Village is a picture of a community that is aware, willing, and able to prevent and overcome various threats to public health. However, in Abuan Village, there had been a case where the community was confirmed positive for significant Covid-19. This condition raises the question of why the covid-19 incident can occur in Siaga Village. The purpose of the research is to know the implementation of Siaga Village program in Prevention Covid 19 in the Abuan village of Bangli regency. This research uses qualitative and quantitative approaches through SWOT analysis and followed by IFAS and EFAS matrices, with 30 respondents taken purposively. The results showed that the implementation of the Siaga Village program for the prevention of the Corona Covid-19 virus disease in Abuan Village Bangli Regency was generally in a very good category. The factors that determine the implementation of the Siaga village program in efforts to prevent Covid-19 consist of internal factors, namely clean and healthy living habits at the household level, access to health services, and village forums. The external factor is the existence of negative information (hoax) from social media about Covid-19 and other health. The strategy for implementing the Siaga village program is to carry out clean and healthy household behavior, carry out village forums regularly, update Decree Letters, disseminate correct information about the Covid-19 virus disease, and increase the role of health cadres.
This article will throw the light on impact of the global pandemic COVID-19 on the Indian economy including its detailed impact on all the sectors of the economy. The outcome of the study will also highlight the impact of the measures undertaken by the ministry of finance to tackle situations more rationally and set an example and enough basis for the policymakers to make policies for handling the situation in an effective manner.
The pandemic COVID19, effects on global health, educations, clinical research, human civilization, and the economy. So, it has been an urgency to develop proper vaccines against coronavirus. India emphasis on the most nutritious economically-important number-one-consumption-vegetable, okra, used in many human diseases, is naturally infected by different pathogens and significantly reduces production. Though pesticides are the most effective means of control, but they are expensive and toxic to the environment. So, it will require new and more efficient solutions, technologies, products, and methods. Present pre- and post-treatment with biomedicines; Acacia auriculiformis-extract, prepared from the funicles of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn., dissolved in sterile tap water at 1mg/10ml, were applied by foliar spray once daily for 15 days @ 10 ml/plant, against Root-Knot (RK), Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) and Okra Enation Leaf Curl Virus (OELCV) diseases of okra, (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) cv.Ankur-40. The soluble root-proteins were separated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and were scanned with a recording densitometer electrophoretic scanner, measuring the molecular weight of proteins. Pre- and post-treatment with high-diluted-biomedicines; Acacia auriculiformis extract, were highly effective in reducing different okra-diseases by synthesis of new pathogenesis-related-protein (PR-proteins), inducing their natural defense-response against pathogens-infection and enhanced their growth as well as protein content of fruits and roots. The high-diluted-biomedicines; Acacia auriculiformis extract, not only used as a potential-biomedical-drugs or vaccine against various plant-diseases, by synthesis of new PR-proteins, increasing natural-defense-response, but also, it may help for the preparation of a vaccine against COVID-19, by increasing immunity and enriching science and technology communications applications, cost-effectiveness and biodiversity conservations as well as bio-economy-applications issues, reviving human civilizations in the old form. And in near future okra may itself be a ‘Potential Biomedicine as well as Vaccine’ and world will return in normal form by defeating COVID-19.
The sudden onset of the pandemic called COVID 19 took the entire world by shock and surprise. The reaction time was very less as most of the countries went into a lockdown to contain the spread of the virus. People were least prepared for the pandemic and its waterfall effects. The businesses were mostly reactive and internally started creating panic among employees and other stakeholders. This article is an attempt to explore the after effects of COVID 19 and how the Corporate Leadership got completely exposed during the pandemic.
The 5th epidemic-COVID-19 spreads all around the world forming total change of the world health, education, research, travel, socioeconomic, and human civilization, and the proper potential vaccine still unknown for the future efficacy of reinfection outbreaks of the vaccinated peoples with manufacturing capacity for the whole world population including new variant also. The poor marginalized society, aged people, street -children, and -animals, are not able to manage and purchase vaccines. And the pandemic must be controlled or managed by every nation; otherwise, a globe is at risk of further outbreaks, and India with the whole world develop a policy to overcome the pandemic-COVID-19. India emphasis on consumption of vegetable as the preventive traditional-ayurvedic-medicines against many naturally-infected-diseases of man, animals and plants caused by various-pathogens, remarkably reducing agricultural productions. The various-pesticides reduce the plant-diseases, but it is not cost-effective and environment-friendly. The present treatment confirms the flowering-meristems of wormwoods-Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp, prepared or developed the ayurvedic-medicine, dissolved in germfree-tap-water applying foliar-spray against plant-diseases, and the molecular-weight of soluble-root-proteins were determined. The recent treatment confirms once again that the ayurvedic-medicines-prepared from the flowering-meristems of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp are very much effective in controlling different-plant-pathogens caused many-diseases, synthesizing many new PR-proteins (pathogenesis-related-protein), boosting their response of defense naturally against pathogens, and increased growth of plants and protein-content, by confirming the “Immediate Apply Cost-Effective Easily Preparable-Available 21stCentury Potential-Ayurvedic-Herbal-Integrative-Medicinal-Vaccine of COVID-19: Achieved Agriculture Healthcare-Socio-Economy Science Technology Communication Mechanism with Clinical, Physical, Chemical, Biological, Physiological, and Molecular Weight”, by boosting-immunity. And it will be best side-effect-free potential-ayurvedic-COVID-19-Vaccine due to an ultra-diluted-low-dose, and globally develop all aspects in the scientific-basis of the ayurvedic-biomedicines, and it is thought that the present problems of the civilization of human will soon be overcome as early as possible retaining whole world in the new-normal or old-forms against the COVID-19.
This article analyses the uses of modal auxiliary verbs in reporting Covid-19 in selected articles in Daily Nation newspaper. Covid-19 is a member of the beta coronaviruses that can cause acute severe respiratory symptoms or possibly mild, cold-like symptoms. The reporting of the disease was done in the newspaper in Kenya every day from the first time it was reported in the country on 13th March 2020. The articles analyzed were purposively selected from articles in Daily Nation newspaper and analyzed using insights from Quirk et al’s (2000) dichotomy of modal auxiliary verbs. The data was analyzed manually with regard to different functions of the modal auxiliary verbs in question. Six categories of modal auxiliaries namely; Ability, possibility, prediction, obligation, intention and quasi-legal modals characterized the data. Findings indicate that the authors of the articles chose predictive auxiliary modals will, may, can and should in that order in the articles. Other types of modal used are would, must and might. The modals used presented the opinions of the article writers and the use of will reported the highest frequency.
Background: The current covid-19 Pandemic situation has affected many lives, their health and well-being. This pandemic situation undoubtedly contribute to sudden change in daily routine like social distancing, isolation leads to emotional distress and increased risk for psychiatric illness. Day by day increase in number of patients of covid-19 put all of us in great fear, stress, uncertainty about life, loss of will power, loss of positivity about life. Ayurveda does not only deal with physical wellness but mental wellness also. Ayurveda, the science of life dealing with maintenance of everyones health and eliminating rogas From body. Ayurveda will definitely help us out from this worst situation by some easy lifestyle hacks. Ayurveda has already gifted us with lots of easy going daily routine Concepts for betterment of life. Now it is the time to when we should understand importance of Ayurveda and pick some lifestyle hacks according to Ayurveda such as Dincharya, Ratricharya, Ritucharya, Ahara, Rasayana, Yoga, pranayama etc. Objectives: An overview of Dinacharya and Ahara in covid-19 pandemic situation for physical and mental health improvement.
We are facing the worldwide invasion of a new coronavirus. This follows several limited outbreaks of related viruses in various locations in a recent past (SARS, MERS). Although the main current objective of researchers is to bring efficient therapeutic and preventive solutions to the global population, we need also to better understand the origin of the newly coronavirus-induced epidemic in order to avoid future outbreaks. The present molecular appraisal is to study by a bio-infomatic approach the facts relating to the virus and itsprecursors. This article shows how 16 fragments (Env Pol and Integrase genes) from different strains, both diversified and very recent, of the HIV1, HIV2 and SIV retroviruses have high percentage of homology into parts of the genome of COVID_19. Moreover each of these elements is made of 18 or more nucleotides and therefore may have a function. They are called Exogenous Informative Elements (EIE).. Among these EIE, 12 are concentrated in a very small region of the COVID-19 genome, length less than 900 bases, i.e. less than 3% of the total length of this genome. In addition, these EIE are positioned in two functional genes of COVID-19: the orf1ab and S spike genes. Here are the two main facts which contribute to our hypothesis of a partially synthetic genome: A contiguous region representing 2.49% of the whole COVID-19 genome of which 40.99% is made up of 12 diverse fragments originating from various strains of HIV SIV retroviruses. Some of these 12 EIE appear concatenated. Notably, the retroviral part of these regions, which consists of 8 elements from various strainsof HIV1, HIV2 and SIV covers a length of 275 contiguous bases of COVID-19. The cumulative length of these 8 HIV/SIV elements represents 200 bases. Consequently, the HIV SIV density rate of this region of COVID-19 is 200/275 = 72.73%.
This study is about the management of Tri Pusat Pendidikan in the COVID-19 Pandemic. This study aims to find out the management of Tri Pusat Pendidikan strictly in the current situation, namely COVID-19. It was done at Universi- tas Kristen Indonesia within three months, from January – March 2021. The method of the study used as library research, and the instrument used in this study was a checklist document used to record offline or online documents sourced from books, papers, journals and articles taken from Google Scholar. The documents taken are documents that examine the management of the Tri Pusat Pendidikan, as also discussed in this study. The result of the study is that as the critical success of educating children, Tri Pusat Pendidikan should be well managed by conducting a better collaboration among teachers, parents, the community involved in education program implementation, and the learn- ing process during the COVID-19 Pandemic must remain sustainable.
From the beginning of the year 2020 until now, the Covid-19 pandemic has heavily, deeply and comprehensively impacted the state of international politics and security in both positive and negative directions. On one hand, the pandemic has encouraged nations to strengthen cooperation in order to effectively deal with the risks that it brought; on the other hand, it has contributed to a rise in competition as well as opposition between countries and global powers alike, especially between the U.S. and China, in multiple politics and security-related issues. In the coming times, the state of international politics and security is predicted to witness many changes, especially in the context where the U.S. is highly expected to adjust its policies. For this text, the writer will place an emphasis on providing in-depth analysis on the negative impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on the state of international politics and security, and therefore provide commentary on the trends of the state of international politics and security in the coming times.
The main result of this updated release is the formal proof that 2019-nCoV coronavirus is partially a SYNTHETIC genome. We proof the CONCENTRATION in a small région of wuhan New genome (300bp) of 3 different régions from HIV1 ENVELOPPE gene and 3 others from HIV2 and SIV (ENV and POL RT). All this is remarkable and bears the mark of a desire for organization of a human nature: LOGIC, SYMETRIES. In this article, we demonstrate also that there is a kind of global human hosts adaptation strategy of SARS viruses as well as a strategy of global evolution of the genomes of the different strains of SARS which have emerged, mainly in China, between years 2003 first SARS genomes and the last 2019 COVID-19 Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus isolate Wuhan-Hu-1, complete genome. This global strategy, this temporal link, is materialized in our demonstration by highlighting stationary numerical waves controlling the entire sequence of their genomes. Curiously, these digital waves characterizing the 9 SARS genomes studied here are characteristic whole numbers: the "Fibonacci numbers", omnipresent in the forms of Nature, and which our research for several decades has shown strong links with the proportions of nucleotides in DNA. Here we demonstrate that the complexity and fractal multiplicity of these Fibonacci numerical waves increases over the years of the emergence of new SARS strains. We suggest that this increase in the overall organization of the SARS genomes over the years reflects a better adaptation of SARS genomes to the human host. The question of a link with pathogenicity remains open. However, we believe that this overall strategy for the evolution of the SARS genomes ensures greater unity, consistency and integrity of the genome. Finally, we ask ourselves the question of a possible artificial origin of this genome, in particular because of the presence of fragments of HIV1, HIV2 and SIV retroviruses.
National defence cannot be separated from the spectrum of threats faced by both military and non-military as well as the efforts made to overcome them. In line with that, national resilience is defined as the resilience of the nation and state in facing multidimensional challenges in planning its national interests. In general, the eight elements that support the achievement of Indonesia's national resilience are described in the Astagatra of National Resilience, which include aspects of geography, natural wealth, demography, ideology, politics, economy, socio-culture, defence, and security. Indonesia's national defence faces internal and external challenges; The current challenge is the Corona Virus Disease 19 (Covid-19) pandemic. Since the COVID-19 pandemic hit Indonesia, the government has continued to look for the most appropriate solution to reduce and break the chain of transmission of COVID-19, one of which is the provision of the COVID-19 Vaccine. This makes the government need to prepare a financing strategy for the procurement of COVID-19 vaccines. This study examines the Financing and Procurement of the COVID19 Vaccine in Indonesia. Researchers use library designs or research from several sources such as articles, news, regulations, official websites, and others located in Indonesia. The results of the study show that the Government of Indonesia must be prepared to finance the COVID-19 vaccine for as many as 182 million people, which is 70% of the total population. The government stipulates that funding for the COVID-19 vaccine procurement will be sourced from the State Revenue and Expenditure Budget and the Regional Revenue and Expenditure Budget. Based on the above context, this paper examines how the pandemic triggers the threat of food scarcity in Indonesia in a narrow sense and challenges the achievement of national security in a broad sense. This paper uses the Astagatra approach model to see how the Government of Indonesia responds to Covid-19 these challenges.
Background: Dental schools were compelled to temporarily close clinics due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and switch from traditional classroom instruction to distance learning. The aim of our survey was to determine the impact of online education on dental students and to find out the preparedness of final year dental students for independent practice after their graduation.Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 300 BDS students studying in Bapuji dental College. The questionnaire was distributed online using email. The questionnaire was divided into two parts: the first portion included online learning experience, while the second section concentrated on readiness for independent dental practise.Results: The survey received an 81% response rate. Nearly 95.6% of fourth-year BDS students reported that their clinical training had a negative impact. Due to lockdown, the majority (82%) of our students missed their clinical classes. BDS students in the first (81%) second (85%) third (54%) and fourth (82%) years favoured the traditional lecture method (p 0.001). Online lessons are not a suitable way to improve communication skills, according to our students (70.5%). Students in the final year reported decreased confidence in their ability to set up independent practise following graduation.Conclusion: Online learning is not a substitute for in-person clinical classes, according to our students. The amount of readiness for independent practise was not positive.
This study is about classroom management during the Covid-19 Pandemic. This study aims to find out how the classroom should be managed during the Covid-19 Pandemic. It was done at Universitas Kristen Indonesia within three months, from February – April 2021. The method of the study is library research, where the researchers were the instruments of this study. To answer the problem of the study, the researchers collect some documents related to school management taken from online and printed journals, books, articles. The documents analyzed to provide the answers to this study were taken from the library and Google Scholar. The result of this study is that good and correct management requires commitment from all elements involved in school management, parents of students and community members who are members of the school committee, and the community in the school environment during the Covid-19 Pandemic. To run the school management smoothly, the leadership must apply the principles of transparency and professionalism. So it is concluded that those involved in the school management should cooperate, and transparency and professionalism should be implemented during the Covid-19 Pandemic.
The title mentioned above is discussed to overcome the difficulties of learning when facing Covid-19 for PAUD (Early Childhood Education Students) in Indonesia because they are the basic and the main level for success in Education. In fact, with the change from studying at school to learning at home, many parents face problems and difficulties, not just the teacher as a delivery of material to students and as teachers. The changes that occur are very sudden without proper preparation, because the arrival of the covid-19 pandemic is also very sudden. However, teachers and parents are required to be able to overcome the problem of learning and education for students as the successor to the nation in order to be able to successfully achieve future achievements for their future. The learning model is created immediately and by adjusting the situation, reality and situation. The model used is the Online and Environmental models. Over time learning in the face of a covid-19 pandemic, is faced with a focus that needs to be overcome and must be completed simultaneously. How learning can take place well, success according to objectives, and measuring learning success are also special things that need attention. How to measure the success of online learning at home is needed, because by measuring what has been done so far through direct teacher observation it is not possible to do, because students learn at home, so the role of parents is crucial. Therefore, in this paper, it is necessary to find out how to measure the success of PAUD students in their studies at home under the supervision of parents and deal directly with the main school with the teacher.
This study was an investigation of the effectiveness of fear appeals on the adoption of COVID-19 preventive measures among boda boda riders in the Nairobi County, Kenya. The problem of the study was that little or no research has been conducted on fear appeals and adoption of COVID-19 preventive measures, hence a gap that demands specific studies to be undertaken to fill it. This study draws from the Health Belief Model (HBM). Case study research design was used because the study focused only on boda boda riders operating in the seventeen constituencies in Nairobi County. Convenience sampling was used to identify the riders who were available and willing to participate in the study. The main data collection tool was telephone interviews. Findings of this study revealed that fear appeals were effective in making boda boda riders in Nairobi County adopt the COVID-19 preventive measures. The boda boda riders’ felt that they were susceptible to the coronavirus disease, police arrests, fourteen days mandatory quarantine, motorcycles being impounded and payment of fines, if they did not adopt the COVID-19 preventive measures. Moreover, the riders believed that the virus posed a more serious threat to their health and lives. The operators perceived susceptibility to the threats, elicited high levels of fear. The COVID-19 preventive measures, also, provided the riders with an effective method of changing behavior which they believe will protect them from contracting the virus. This study recommended that in order to motivate the boda boda riders to continue practicing the COVID-19 preventive measures, the government should frequently give the riders masks and hand sanitizers. Further, more communication campaigns should be developed and conducted on COVID-19 awareness and prevention among boda boda riders.
The aim of this article is to address the changes in consumer behavior due to the political, legal and economic factors caused by the COVID-19 process by reviewing the literature. It was not expected that this epidemic, which first appeared in Wuhan, China, would make such radical changes in the world's living conditions and bring heavy consequences. For this reason, it has been started to investigate what kind of changes this epidemic will create in consumer behavior and whether these changes will be permanent. Consumer behavior knowledge is an important factor in the success of businesses. Knowing how the consumer behaves and what factors affect him enables businesses to manage their marketing mix, branding and communication with customers more effectively. Consumer buying behavior shows a complex trend and can change. The current financial downturn has a huge impact on the economic and social aspects of consumers around the world. Therefore, by emphasizing the fundamental changes in consumer purchasing behavior, this article provides some important information for the immediate decision-making and management of businesses in times of crisis and the transformation of consumers in the face of the epidemic.
The Covid-19 Pandemic has adversely impacted the world economy, including those of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). The border closures, lockdowns and social distancing have, to a varying degree, affected economic activities negatively. These include, among others, the loss of lives, jobs, outputs and national incomes. But how and when to begin to maintain some levels of economic activities amidst increasing infection rate, death rate, and hospitalization rate is a major issue of disagreement between health experts, political leaders and economists. In this article, therefore, we shall attempt to illustrate a pathway towards the reopening of economic activities in a corona virus economy or community, following a graphic explanation of the virus infection rate over a period of time which resembles the English small letter 'n'.
The year 2020 was bad but it was not the worst year in human history. From 1348’s Plague, to 1644’s collapse of Ming Dynasty and Thirty Years War of Europe, to 1919’s Spanish Flu, to 1944’s Holocaust and World War II, we have witnessed worse and have lost millions more (Berhnhardt, 2021).
Macroeconomics concerns with total income, employment, investment etc. at countries level. The modern economy follows 4-sector model; wherein there is engagement of household sector, firms sector, government sector and the foreign sector. The volume of exports and imports of a country in percentage of its GDP gives indication of their exposure to the foreign sector. Post Covid-19, there is tendency of many countries to follow 3-sector economic model and reduce their dependency on the foreign sector. This paper does overview of the economic models in view of the pandemic Covid-19.
The economic-plant-mulberry is infected by different pathogens causing diseases and significantly reduces silk production. Though pesticides are the most effective means of control, but they are expensive and not environment friendly. On the other hand, the ongoing spread of the novel coronavirus, forming epidemic, affecting human civilizations, because recently, no appropriate antiviral drugs for effective treatments or vaccines against COVID-19. To meet the challenge, it is reported that the therapeutic value of traditional-, complementary- and alternative-biomedicines-Artemisia nilagirica, has been used for centuries, to overcome various medical disorders. So, to concur with the situation, it will require new and more efficient solutions, technologies, and products. Present pretreatment with ultra-high-diluted biomedicines-Cina, prepared from the flowering meristems of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) pamp, mixed with water at an extremely low dose, were applied by foliar spray once daily for 15 days @ 10 ml/plant, against naturally occurring, root-knot-, leaf spot-, powdery mildew-, mosaic- and tukra- mulberry diseases, in field trials and silkworms rearing. Pretreatment-investigations have revealed that ultra-high-diluted-Cina, highly effective in ameliorating different mulberry-diseases by inducing their natural defense-response against pathogens-infection and leaving no residual-toxicity in the leaves to affect the growth of silkworms also. It can be concluded that the ultra-high-diluted, eco-friendly easily-available, easily applicable-Cina, at an extremely low dose, not only used as a potential-biomedical-drug against various plant-diseases, by inducing natural-defense- response, but also, it may be effective against COVID-19 for vaccinations and clinical trials by boosting the natural immune system for the improvement of Science and Technology communication cost-effectiveness green-economy and biodiversity conservations as well as bio-applications issues. And the future clinical-scientists develop all aspects of clinical-case-reports by publishing in the appropriate medical research archives, with the sincere hope that this crisis will soon be over and the whole world, may fight against the COVID-19 war, retaining normal forms of human civilizations globally.
Background: The first case in Uttarakhand was recorded on March 15, 2020, and the total positivity rating was 17.5 on May 22, 2020. Given that Vaccination was the only “foolproof” way to fight against COVID-19, the inoculation of the population was necessary to revitalize the economy, protect its citizens and take a step closer to defeating the pandemic. Thus, Vaccine Drives were heavily incentivized and marketed to the general population.Methods: In this research paper, the marketing, and challenges of vaccination in Uttarakhand have been analysed by collecting primary data through questionnaires and secondary data through research papers, articles, official government websites and newspapersFindings: The Uttarakhand government employed various strategies to vaccinate the general public. They provided non-monetary incentives, appointed vaccine ambassadors, provided for workplace vaccinations and associated with private offices to run vaccine programs. These were met with certain barriers caused mainly due to the demographic factors such as nature of locality (rural/ urban), gender, etc. and vaccination shortage.Conclusion: The programs of the Uttarakhand Government were met with mostly satisfactory responses. The problems causing barriers to vaccination have mostly straightforward answers which have to be implemented through long-term plans such as providing technical skills, better accessibility in rural regions and education to be scientifically aware among the general populace.
The first ever Coronavirus outbreak was identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China in December 2019 and was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. The cases of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) are increasing exponentially around the globe. Various measures like Social Distancing, Complete lockdown and Curfew are seen in the likes of India, China, Italy among others. India, as a nation, got an opportunity to learn from their experiences and initiated a complete lockdown in the whole country until the end of April. The economies around the world got hit by such lockdowns due to which, as many economists predict, a recession seems inevitable. The unemployment rate will likely increase and people will be left with less disposable incomes, paving the way for an economic crisis. With the experience of major crisis in the past, we have noticed that the crime rates in and post such situations tend to increase. The situation with the law enforcement organization needs to be handled with care and caution if India and other countries hope to bounce back strongly. This paper has studied the past economic recessions and changes in crime rate during and post economic recovery. It also aims to enlist a variety of measures that the government of India is taking to fight the crisis arising due to COVID-19 along with some suggestions to control the situation afterwards.
The aim of this study was to contribute to the improvement of knowledge on the growth of endogenous catfish of Cameroon Clarias jaensis to develop the standards of his breeding. For this purpose, 396 fingerlings (36.7 ± 10.1 g) were divided into four comparable group with three replications. Four experimental rations containing 3000, 3100, 3200 and 3300 Kcal/kg of metabolize energy were distributed in these group at 5% of ichtyobiomasse. Except the feed intake and survival rate, other growth characteristics were comparable (P>0.05) between rations. The higher feed intake and the lowest consumption index were recorded with the ration containing 3000 Kcal/kg. The weight (95.10 ± 8.14 g), total length (23.77 ± 1.15 cm), weight gain (58.70 ± 9.49g), average daily gain (1.01 ± 0.16 g), specific growth rate (1.66 ± 0.26%) and K factor (0.71 ± 0.05) were higher with the ration containing the lowest level of energy. This reveals that Clarias jaensis fingerlings requires less energy for growth compared to other catfish like Clarias gariepinus. In view of the above and given the cost of manufacturing the food, the ration containing 3000 kcal/kg would be agro economically sustainable although the search for the optimal level of energy remains.
Can one understand the present without knowing the past? Isn’t life a continuation of the past and doesn’t the present owe many of its characteristics to the past? Asking these questions helps one to figure out how women who lived in a secluded and closed environment were able to break the walls that separated them from the public sphere. It is thus that we come to realize and understand how Bchira Ben Mrad’s (from now on: BBM) initiative in the early 1930s did not start from nowhere but had its origins in the women’s past of her country.