International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 1741-0401
Publications
Sample means and standard deviations, 1993 and 2001. 2001 1993
Proportion of women in top management (CEO) and on boards of directors, selected countries. Country CEO Board of directors
Educational level among female and male CEOs. 1993 and 2001. 1993 2001 1993 2001
Proportion of women among members of boards of directors including and excluding staff members. 1996 and 2001 1996 2001
Article
Corporate governance literature argues that board diversity is potentially positively related to firm performance. This study examines the relationship in the case of women in top executive jobs and on boards of directors. We use data for the 2500 largest Danish firms observed during the period 1993–2001 and find that the proportion of women in top management jobs tends to have positive effects on firm performance, even after controlling for numerous characteristics of the firm and direction of causality. The results show that the positive effects of women in top management depend on the qualifications of female top managers.
 
Article
The study examines whether the effect of ownership on the efficiency of Indian domestic banks is significant. The efficiency scores for public and private sector banks were computed using a deterministic, non-parametric and linear programming based frontier technique, which is popularly known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Using the cross-sectional data of the public and private sector banks, which operated in the financial years 2005-06 and 2006-07, the study finds that (1) De nova private sector banks dominate the formation of efficient frontier of Indian domestic banking industry; (2) The overall technical inefficiency stems primarily from managerial inefficiency (as reflected by pure technical inefficiency) rather than scale inefficiency; and (3) Though the efficiency differences between the public and private sector banks have been noted, these differences are statistically insignificant in most of the instances. On the whole, the study concludes that ownership does not matter in the Indian domestic banking industry.
 
Case Management Client Count  
Article
Purpose: This goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a data-driven clinical productivity system that leverages Electronic Health Record (EHR) data to provide productivity decision support functionality in a real-world clinical setting. The system was implemented for a large behavioral health care provider seeing over 75,000 distinct clients a year. Design/methodology/approach: The key metric in this system is a "VPU", which simultaneously optimizes multiple aspects of clinical care. The resulting mathematical value of clinical productivity was hypothesized to tightly link the organization's performance to its expectations and, through transparency and decision support tools at the clinician level, affect significant changes in productivity, quality, and consistency relative to traditional models of clinical productivity. Findings: In only 3 months, every single variable integrated into the VPU system showed significant improvement, including a 30% rise in revenue, 10% rise in clinical percentage, a 25% rise in treatment plan completion, a 20% rise in case rate eligibility, along with similar improvements in compliance/audit issues, outcomes collection, access, etc. Practical implications: A data-driven clinical productivity system employing decision support functionality is effective because of the impact on clinician behavior relative to traditional clinical productivity systems. Critically, the model is also extensible to integration with outcomes-based productivity. Originality/Value: EHR's are only a first step - the problem is turning that data into useful information. Technology can leverage the data in order to produce actionable information that can inform clinical practice and decision-making. Without additional technology, EHR's are essentially just copies of paper-based records stored in electronic form.
 
Article
Total factor productivity (TFP) growth in industrial manufacturing is measured for 15 major Indian states for the period 1982-83 to 2000-01 using non-parametric linear programming methods. TFP growth is decomposed into efficiency and technological changes and also measure for the bias in technical change. The resulting information is used to examine whether the post-reform period shows any improvement in productivity and efficiency in comparison to the pre-reform one. Findings of the present exercise indicate the improvement in TFP. The recent change in TFP is governed by the technical progress in contrast to similar gain caused by the improvement in technical efficiency in the pre-reform regime. The technological progress in state manufacturing exhibited a capital using bias during the study period. Regional differences in TFP persist, although the magnitude of variation has declined in the post-reform period. Moreover, it is also found that there is a tendency of convergence in terms of TFP growth rate among Indian states during the post-reform years and only the states that were technically efficient at the beginning of the reform remain innovative.
 
Article
Purpose ? The paper aims to provide the reader with a perspective for keeping the critical aspects of their job in focus, despite an endless sea of details. Design/methodology/approach ? The paper describes the research on ?high performance work practices? and highlights the importance of establishing effective work systems. Findings ? The paper shows that the system of work you design dictates how successful you will be. Department of Labor notes many innovative work practices are not systematically applied. Practical implications ? The paper provides information about how to create effective work systems. This includes clarifying ?who you are? and ?where you are going?. Explains the difference between having a purpose and having constraints. Originality/value ? This paper specifically shows show each individual can clarify their ?big picture? by using descriptive statements and use of relevant feedback. American Express is used as an example of how to incorporate some of the features.
 
Assessment of the Value 16 of the Interview Data By Category
Article
Purpose - This paper aims to promote an expanded two-way dialog between Chinese and Western leaders and executives which recognizes that "wisdom" can flow in both directions. Design/methodology/approach - Interviews were undertaken with three Chinese executives and analyzed against a model of performance excellence. Findings - An understanding of some of the similarities and differences of Western and Chinese business practices and a conclusion that there are lessons for Western businesses to learn. Research limitations/implications - The work involved interviews with only three Chinese executives and thus represents a tiny sample. Practical implications - Illustrates some of the practices that might be worth considering by the West as we climb out of the current economic depression and re-focus business efforts for a longer-term future. Originality/value - The paper adopts a novel approach of analyzing interview outcomes against a reference model. The core value is, however, in highlighting the benefits that might arise from extended dialog.
 
Article
Purpose - To evaluate the Cusum model as a means of rapid trend detection and dynamic response classifier in a low signal/noise environment. Design/methodology/approach - The method used was the design and implementation of an IT system for automatic on-line monitoring of press operator performance. Findings - Operators engaged following an in-house skills enhancement programme display a wide range of performance profiles. Research limitations/implications - Identifies opportunities for further management investigation of working practices identified as leading to regression plus operators obviously learning to "work smarter, not harder". Practical implications - A range of novel performance templates based on the Cusum model have been derived and tested on 18 press operators. Originality/value - The Cusum model is already well established in the literature. This case study shows that the model can be readily exploited via automatic operator performance monitoring and subsequent classification.
 
Article
Purpose - This paper aims to examine issues of government policy in creating an infrastructure that supports innovation and expertise. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is to reflect on trends in global trade and the role played by governments in supporting such trade. Findings - It is shown that Governments do indeed have a crucial role to play but they must tread a balanced line between support and over-regulation. Practical implications - The paper suggests approaches that governments might adopt to improve the support they offer to organisations which wish to be innovative and enterprising. Originality/value - The paper is a useful summary of the role of government in promoting innovation and enterprise.
 
Value stream map of orientation process
Employees' turnover by job type and length of tenure
Top reasons for leaving
Article
Purpose – The case study aims to illustrate the application of Lean Six Sigma into the human resource (HR) function of a service industry corporation. Design/methodology/approach – The study draws on process information and primary data from a real project. Findings – The study describes improvements in the HR management attributable to Lean Six Sigma: decrease of employees' voluntary turnover and increase in employees' satisfaction. Originality/value – Although being extremely successful in the last two decades in the manufacturing sector, the application of Lean Six Sigma to the service industry in general, and HR management in particular, has been a controversial topic: this study illustrates how its application can reduce employees' voluntary turnover rate and increase their satisfaction, hence increasing the return on investment of human capital.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges facing European manufacturing industry in an age of increasing global competitiveness and to explore models for survival. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reflects on trends in global manufacturing and examines the issues faced by European manufacturers. Findings - Manufacturing still has an important role to play in ensuring community welfare; and there are ways in which European manufacturing industry can establish a secure future. Practical implications - The paper suggests ways in which industry, supported by government, might change to become more competitive in an era of global competition. Originality/value - The paper presents a useful exploration of the issues and challenges facing modern manufacturing organisations in Europe.
 
Article
Purpose - To assess and share the experiences of users of a new generation of practical and knowledge-based job support tools. Design/methodology/approach - To illustrate distinguishing features of job support tools and the use of multi-media capabilities with examples of sales support tools. Findings - The tools mentioned and other similar tools examined by the underpinning research programme have had a very significant and beneficial impact on performance. Practical implications - Job support tools can make it easier for important work groups to undertake complex tasks. The essence of the greater success of superstar performers can be captured and shared by means of support tools that can be constructed to encourage adoption, build understanding with each use and change behaviours with benefits for both people and organisations. Originality/value - Shares the experiences of early adopters and draws practical lessons from them.
 
Article
Purpose - The objective of this paper is to develop a methodology and a framework to assess performance measurement and generate a better understanding of the project context. The paper aims to present an application to illustrate the proposed methodology, to identify and measure the success parameters for a project. Design/methodology/approach - The research method is a mixture of qualitative and quantitative and it is applied to a case study. The primary data were gathered using unstructured interviews with decision makers. Bibliographic research is used in order to construct the theoretical framework and the intervention instrument adopted is the multicriteria decision aiding methodology - constructivist (MCDA-C). Findings - The methodology makes it possible to visualize the criteria that must be taken into account according to the decision makers' values in the project selection process. The framework supports the ordinal and cardinal measurement of the project performance, making it possible to compare and rank proposals, as well providing a process to improve project proposals. Practical implications - This process has helped in negotiations between stakeholders in the project, and, consequently, has helped the chief project officer to select and prioritize strategic projects within the demand for new products. Originality/value - This paper offers an empirical understanding of the application of performance evaluation to project management and identifies a complementary tool in this interdisciplinary area.
 
Example map 
Capital project delivery process map (macro-level) 
Closeout process map (micro-level) 
Contracting process map (micro-level)
Perceived enhancement of transparency by attribute 
Article
Purpose – Process mapping is used to articulate the activities and procedures of business entities in a graphical way as pictorial images readily convey considerable information. The objective of this research is to provide evidence and a methodology to assist organizations in evaluating the early stages of their process mapping efforts. Design/methodology/approach – A review of literature identifies key characteristics of transparency (process visibility) related to process mapping. Quizzes and surveys are used to study the impact of process mapping on transparency in an employee training session. Findings – The paper finds that process mapping increases transparency between 5 percent and 27 percent for the applications discussed in this paper. Research limitations/implications – The research presumes that better understanding and recall of the company’s business processes equates to higher transparency. This research study is limited to one field test, organization, and process mapping methodology. These limitations should be considered when extrapolating the results to other organizations. Practical implications – The methodology outlined in this paper provides a way to measure the impact that formalizing (mapping) an organization’s business processes and then using these maps to communicate the organization’s business processes has on an individual employee’s understanding and recall of those business processes. This methodology may help other organizations evaluate the early stages of their process mapping efforts. Originality/value – A measurable definition of transparency is developed. A field study provides evidence that process mapping increases transparency and a methodology is shared for others to study the impacts of their process mapping efforts.
 
Article
Purpose – To exploit the main implications of the revised series of quality assurance standards ISO 9000:2000 for the certified organisations. The paper aims to identify the anticipated benefits of the changes in the series, as well as the main barriers and pitfalls that may deprive organisations of these benefits. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines the ideas and views of different authors and studies in this subject and organises them accordingly, based on the author's previous experience and empirical studies on ISO 9000 implementation, in order to fully describe the subject for the reader. Findings – The paper finds that although the revised series of standards may offer important benefits to the certified organisations in areas which were previously considered to be the weak areas of the standards, there are still important dilemmas regarding the degree to which companies will be able to overcome a number of barriers and implementation pitfalls. Research limitations/implications – The paper is not based on official empirical research, since it is still too early to empirically test the results of the new standard to the certified organisations. However, this would be the focus of a future survey. Practical implications – The paper offers important information to certified organisations, regarding the main benefits of the new ISO 9000:2000 series and the barriers that they will have to overcome in order to realise them. Originality/value – The paper is the first one to bring all these ideas regarding the new standard's implementation together, offering a complete, comprehensive review of the new standard, and raising important questions that will have to be answered through further research.
 
Article
Purpose – Worker activity identification and classification is the most crucial and difficult stage in work sampling studies. Manual methods of recording are tedious and prone to error and, hence automating the task of observing and classifying worker activities is an important step towards improving the current practice. Very recently, accelerometer-based systems have been explored to automate activity recognition in construction, but it had been carried out in controlled environment. The purpose of this paper is to cover the evaluation of the system in field situations. Design/methodology/approach – Experimental investigation was carried out on crews of iron workers and carpenters with accelerometer data loggers worn at selected locations on the human body. The accelerometer data collection was spread over a time period of two weeks, and video recording of the worker activities was concurrently carried out to serve as ground truth, the reference used for comparison. The activity recognition analysis was carried out on accelerometer data features using a decision tree algorithm. Findings – It was found that the classification using the individual training scheme performed better when compared with the collective training scheme for both the trades. The field studies results showed that the classification accuracies for iron work and carpentry are 90.07 and 77.74 per cent, respectively, using decision tree classifier. It was found that similarities of movements were a major cause for lower accuracy of recognition. Research limitations/implications – The work being preliminary in nature has used the basic classifier and pre-processing methods and, standard settings of algorithms. Originality/value – The paper has investigated accelerometer-based method for construction labour activity classification in field situations.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper seeks to further our understanding of the research in the area of quantitative management accounting research. The purpose of this study is: (1) to provide a synthesis and an extended discussion of the literature from the performance outcome standpoint, and (2) to foster future research in this area by identifying promising recent developments in the assessment of performance outcomes and gaps in the literature. Design/methodology/approach – A literature analysis was adopted based on empirical studies and literature reviews published in a wide range of journals. Findings – The overall conclusion of this study is that future management accounting research can still make progress in the measurement of performance outcomes. Research limitations/implications – Research published in English, and the period of the past decade was emphasized to examine recent frontiers of knowledge. The results imply that increasing and simultaneous analysis of various kinds of performance outcomes could be conducted in different settings. They include behavioral, market-based, accounting-based, non-financial, competitive strategic, social and environmental outcomes, competitiveness of systems and relative-to-peers assessments. If possible, development of performance outcomes could be investigated with longitudinal and panel, in addition to cross-sectional, research designs. Attempts could be made to analyze the nature of causality to advance both management accounting literature and social science research. Practical implications – This study furthers understanding of behaviorally-, organizationally- and strategically-oriented management accounting research that has played a central role in assessing to what extent people are likely to succeed with their management accounting and control systems in various settings. Originality/value – This paper presents a theoretical framework and several examples potentially useful for both academic scholars and practitioners.
 
Article
Uses research in a major UK company on the introduction of an electronic document management system to explore perceptions of, and attitudes to, risk. Phenomenological methods were used; with subsequent dialogue transcripts evaluated with Winmax dialogue software, using an adapted theoretical framework based upon an analysis of the literature. The paper identifies a number of factors, and builds a framework, that should support a greater understanding of risk assessment and project management by the academic community and practitioners.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the fundamentals of a performance measurement system (PMS) as discussed in the literature for the past 32 years in an attempt to provide a research agenda (RA) for future research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a systematic review of the business, public and non-profit sector literature in examining what constitutes the fundamentals of PMS, and how these fundamentals have influenced the use of data (especially on non-financial data), development of measuring methods, measuring attributes and measuring process. Findings – The paper finds that there are a small number of articles providing that can be considered to have provided substantial discussion of the fundamentals of PMS. While there is no consensus on what constitute the fundamentals of PMS, using content analysis, citation analysis and on the strict criteria of necessary and/or sufficient for the existence of a PMS, this paper managed to characterize the fundamentals into six categories. This paper found that the field of PMS has not change much during the past 30 or more years, and there remains various pragmatic and research gaps that need to be addressed. Practical implications – The results, outcomes, and analysis of this paper have both practical and academic implications. The gaps and recommendations for future research is consolidated into a RA that provides practitioners to evaluate existing PMS, avoid issues and seek ways to develop a conceptual (theoretical) PMS that is of greater practical significance. Originality/value – The results of this study contribute toward providing an update of the current state of development and research into PMS; and managed to identify existing practical issues and research gaps of PMS, and provided a RA on which ongoing and future research efforts on this topic can be built upon.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to focus on the question of what accounts for appropriate performance reports in the context of the new public management (NPM), and how they can deliver the information they need to politicians. Design/methodology/approach - The study is based on a survey of members of cantonal and federal members of governments and parliaments, where performance contracting has been introduced; 454 questionnaires answered. Findings - The results of the study reflect the distinct roles of the parliament in the performance contracting process. On the content side of the reports, they are expected to contain general as well as detailed information. Outcome rather than output indicators are demanded, especially by parliamentarians. There is, also, a need for "early warning indicators" of long-term threats, and extra-ordinary incidents. Formally, a homogeneous reporting format across government should be realized. Reports are expected to be well visualized and to contain the most relevant indicators. Changes and deviations should be commented on. Reports should be printed, additional electronic publication would be accepted; external revision is considered to be necessary. Regarding time-related aspects, the assumption is confirmed that political decision makers have very little time to deal with the reports. Reporting has to be as up to date as possible. Parliaments demand a one- or two-year rhythm; governments require annual or even semi-annual reports. Originality/value - Up to now, public management research has addressed the issue of appropriate performance reporting insufficiently, despite the fact that the central concept of outcomes is a political concept. The research question answered in this paper - what the essential components of appropriate performance reports under NPM conditions, and how should they be characterized in order to give politicians the performance information they need, provides some public management research in a Swiss context.
 
NPV of projects 
Duration of projects 
Payback periods of projects 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the question of the effectiveness of business consultants in operations development projects. It does this by analysing the results of collaboration between a multinational firm and business consultants who applied the theory of constraints to a series of development projects.Design/methodology/approach – Following the presentation of an overview of business consultants and the need to measure the effectiveness of business consulting practices, the paper presents empirical data on the return on investment achieved from 20 development projects in the multinational company under study.Findings – The findings indicate that the involvement of business consultants in development projects has a positive impact on outcomes and can be justified in financial terms.Research limitations/implications – The generalise ability of the results in service sector companies remains to be tested. The data is limited to a set of internal operations development consulting projects within one multinational company. Management consultants and managers will benefit from the results of study.Originality/value – The study provides important insights into the assessment of the effectiveness of business consultants in operations development.
 
Article
Purpose – Labor productivity is one of the most important factors that affect the physical progress of any construction project. In order to improve labor productivity, site production should be measured on a regular basis, and then compared to acceptable standard benchmarks. The objective of this paper is to measure masonry labor productivity in Gaza Strip, Palestine, using a consistent benchmarking approach. Design/methodology/approach – Production data were collected from nine different construction projects located in Gaza. For each project, values for baseline productivity, disruption index, performance index and project management index were calculated. Findings – Based on the nine targeted projects, the baseline productivity of masonry works in Gaza seems to range from 0.29 to 0.80 work‐hours per square meter. Calculated values were utilized to develop a correlation between two project benchmarks (i.e. disruption and project management indices). AS only four out of the targeted nine projects performed reasonably well, the paper strongly recommends developing a benchmarking standard for each local construction firm in Palestine which may lead to an improvement in the national construction productivity. Originality/value – The outcome of this research will improve the national construction productivity in Palestine and highlights the benefit of improving benchmarking standard.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show the way to unlock the black box of HRM and performance linkages by exploring one of the key variables that mediates the link, namely whether line managers can stimulate improvements in firm performance by eliciting appropriate employee outcomes in a call centre context. Design/methodology/approach – The research draws on Purcell's "People-Performance Model" as a sensitising framework to inform an in-depth case study of a call centre. This provides a mechanism to unlock the HRM-Performance black box by focusing on the ability, motivation and opportunities for line managers to perform and any subsequent impact on employee outcomes. Data were collected over multiple site visits by means of multi-level interviews and a survey of telesales representatives (TSRs). Findings – Research findings indicate that one large client exerted significant control over the HRM policies developed within the call centre. Evidence suggests, however, that line managers'interventions ameliorated some of the negative aspects of work tasks and the HRM imposed by this dependency relationship. Research limitations/implications – This research is an exploratory attempt to better understand HRM-Performance linkages in one specific context. Results are not generalisable across contexts or even within call centres, which can vary extensively. Nonetheless, the research suggests that exploring line management behaviour is a promising avenue for more extensive research. Originality/value – This paper considers HRM-Performance linkages in a service context. Results indicate that both external relations and line managers are critical mediating variables conditioning HRM-Performance linkages, thereby lending support to the notion that hard and soft HRM practices are not necessarily irreconcilable.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to improve business strategies approach by performance improvement through contextual managerial behavior development. Design/methodology/approach – Management branding is the result of deep analysis and observations made in many multinational companies, especially in the automotive industry. Management branding is the answer to pressing questions such as: ”What is wrong with our implementation of lean principles?”. The paper uses various methods of scientific research (definition and checking of assumptions, field research, laboratory research, questionnaires and interviews). Findings – Often, the partial failure of key performance indicators is derived from managers' behavior. Often, managers are frustrated at the end of the assessment period because of the total or partial failure of key performance indicators. Often managers seek solutions that are too old; they were valid in the past but are inappropriate for current decision challenges. Too often managers rely on past experience for today's decisions, to the point where making decisions based on preconceived ideas is no more than one step. Research limitations/implications – Future developments will focus on testing the management branding methodology in public and non-profit organizations and on defining the major types of risks of various decisions taken using contextual managerial behavior identities. Practical implications – Management branding definitely has practical implications, such as “calming down the organizational climate” and increasing the chances of meeting key performance indicators. Understanding the business and social character and wise use of management branding in the everyday life of companies can create premises for strategy improvement in companies in any industry, all around the globe. Originality/value – This paper promotes new concepts such as management team by contexts, desirable behavior, contextual behavioral strategy, etc.
 
Article
Purpose – Manufacturing companies worldwide have been replacing traditional mass-production practices by lean initiatives. This translation process is progressive and may vary depending on several factors. Hence, it could be expected that the degree of adoption of the lean practices could vary significantly among industries, regions and even countries. The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation performance of lean principles in Brazil, the paper developed a survey in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, which considered 51 industries of different sizes, from several industrial segments, nationals and multinationals. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed survey was developed using as a normative framework the SAE J4000 standard – identification and measurement of the best practice in implementation of lean operation and the SAE J4001 – implementation of lean operation user manual. To measure the implementation degree of the lean practices in the researched industries, the paper proposed the utilization of two concepts: the degree of leanness (DOL) of an element of J4000 and DOL of a company. Also three hypotheses were tested, trying to establish the relationship among the DOL and firm ownership, their size and respective industrial sector. Findings – The results obtained in the survey demonstrated that the performance of lean initiative implementation is not uniform among the companies located in the researched area. Outcomes also showed that the degree of implementation of the lean practices by multinational companies was higher than that for the national firms. However, it was not possible to establish a relationship between the DOL and the size of the firms. Neither a clear and definite association between DOL and industrial sector was possible to be identified. Practical implications – For the practitioners and managers dealing with the lean implementation, this paper gives a relevant contribution because it shows how they can effectively use an existing tool to measure the implementation of the lean practices in their respective firms. Furthermore, the DOL calculation for each individual element of the J4000 standard could also be used by practitioners and managers to identify specific problems and opportunity areas where practical actions could be identified to improve the lean implementation. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the lean manufacturing theory because it proposes a theoretical way to measure the degree of implementation of the lean initiatives in the manufacturing companies. Also the survey results generate additional research material that could be used by other researchers to further explore the subject in the area.
 
From problems through process towards results
Features of the Research Design (Karvinen, 2002, p. 112)
Case Study Tactics for Four Design Tests (COSMOS Corporation in Yin, 1994, p. 33)
Content Analysis for HC team
Specification of Questions in the Questionnaire
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to describe an investigation into how company performance can be improved by integrating internal and external customers and technology. The approach was developed, implemented and evaluated in the operations of the building components industry. The research was carried out in the precast concrete division of a Singapore company. Design/methodology/approach – For the purpose of undertaking the investigation an exploratory case study approach was used. This was divided into conceptual and action research stages. The action research was also used to implement the changes in the company. Questionnaire surveys were carried out among company employees and external customers to assess the effect of these changes. Results of the investigation were derived using content and statistical analysis. Triangulation between three sources was used for validating the data. Findings – The exploratory case study strategy resulted in rich research data, which provided evidence of the changes taking place and integration happening, leading to improved performance. The action research approach proved a powerful tool where the uncertainty of outcomes makes it near impossible to make accurate forecasts. Another output of the research was the development of an “integrated customer orientation” (ICO) model. Research limitations/implications – The research in this paper used a single site action research investigation so should be interpreted within the specific company and industry context. There are implications for theory and practice in a number of areas of production and marketing as well as contributions to understanding about productivity improvement and organisational development. The investigation also fulfils the dual objectives of action research by contributing to both knowledge and practice. Originality/value – The paper describes a unique approach towards improving productivity, quality and service through the use of action research to implement changes, as well as providing the research evidence to evaluate both the process of implementation and results achieved.
 
Article
Purpose – The objective of this paper is to identify the features of an effective e-business performance measurement system, as well as the practices in organisations with distinctive e-business performance metrics. From this it was hoped to identify a set of best practice recommendations. Design/methodology/approach – A case study methodology is used to examine the performance measurement practices of 12 potentially exemplar organisations that have made efforts to develop distinctive performance metrics for e-business. Qualitative data are collected from interviews with key informants from each organisation, with supporting data generate from company documents. Findings – The study has uncovered a variety of approaches to e-business performance measurement, with no common framework apparent. Whilst the case organisations show significant differences in the level of success achieved in developing suitable measures, there is evidence of a common concern to link e-business performance to organisational objectives. However, there is a general unwillingness to embark on major overhauls of existing performance measurement systems. Research limitations/implications – The acknowledged weakness of case study research is that it can only investigate a limited number of situations. This raises the issue of the generalisability of the findings to a wider population. However, in the absence of empirical work in this area, the case organisations provided examples of superior practice in e-business performance measurement when compared to organisations more generally. Practical implications – This study identifies several gaps between the academic literature and current management practice, suggesting that researchers should consider the impact of theory on the process of organisational performance management. It also offers advice for organisations with respect to absorbing e-business measures into their current performance measurement systems. Originality/value – This paper offers empirical understanding of the application of performance metrics to e-business and identifies several inconsistencies between academic theory and real-world practice.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper seeks to provide information about the concept of “structural violence”; to explain this as a barrier to the development of productivity; and to inform about the Global Compact, a United Nations initiative designed to reduce structural violence. Design/methodology/approach – The concept of structural violence is explained and then the history and development of the Global Compact are outlined. From this lessons are drawn for policy-makers and industry leaders. Findings – Structural violence is often unintended; a consequence of political structures and cultural norms, part of the “dominant logic”. It must be addressed specifically and is best addressed on a partnership basis by all key stakeholders. The Global Compact is an enabling framework, which allows discussion, promotes research, and encourages action towards ending structural violence. Practical implications – At the policy level, the challenge is to probe the relationship between structural violence, dominant logic and business behaviour/impact and to create an enabling environment to go beyond isolated measures and “end of pipe” solutions to poverty, exclusion and pollution that, while providing relief and tackling symptoms, have yet to prove effective enough in generating inclusive, timely and sustainable prosperity. Originality/value – Shows the direct link between structural violence and productivity restriction. Suggests approaches that should help individuals, teams and organisations think about their own part in this phenomenon. Cites examples of changes in “dominant logic” that can help support such approaches.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare the impact of the quality of employee enablers (in this case measured by the quality of the communication relationship between local government employees and supervisors) with the ideal "high quality social capital network" on the quality of outputs (such as employees' level of ambiguity in relation to customers and/or their level of productivity). Design/methodology/approach - This research uses a concurrent nested mixed methods strategy - gaining the majority of the data from a cross-sectional, survey-based, self-report strategy and supporting these findings with qualitative data. Findings - The findings suggest that the quality of employee enablers did affect the quality of outputs and these conditions were ideal for achieving high quality service delivery. Employees experienced some level of dissatisfaction with communication frequency, mode, content and bi-direction and this significantly contributed to their experiencing some level of ambiguity in relation to customers, ethical issues and their supervisors. Research limitations/implications - The sample is limited to local government employees that provided front-line service to the public located within one state of Australia. Moreover, common methods bias is often cited as a problem of data obtained from self-report surveys. Practical implications - The implementation of NPM aimed to embed private sector practices within a public sector context so as to make the organisations more customer-focused - however, the findings appear to be contrary to this aim. Originality/value - The findings from this study provide another piece of evidence about the impact of recent reforms on the effectiveness of Australia's local government in providing the employee enablers to meet the needs of customers. As such, it provides a building-block for further studies to review the impact of changes resulting from the implementation of NPM.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a statistically reliable and valid model of lean manufacturing (LM) implementation drivers for the Indian ceramic industry through an empirical study. Design/methodology/approach – The research methodology is based on the empirical study of the Indian ceramic industry through a questionnaire specifically developed for the study through literature review and discussions held with practitioners. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques have been used to propose and validate the model. SPSS and AMOS statistical tools have been used for the statistical analysis of the data. Findings – The study identified 12 drivers for the LM implementation in Indian ceramic industry. Further, these 12 drivers have been categorized into internal, policy and external drivers (ED). Structural model affirms that ED are positively related to policy drivers (PD) and PD are positively related to internal drivers. Research limitations/implications – This study provides casual relationships among the various drivers, which can be leveraged by the managers for the easy and effective implementation of LM in their organizations. It is expected that the model will help the decision makers during LM implementation in taking informed decisions in prioritizing and sequencing the implementation strategy. The results of the research may apply to other industries as well, but this needs to be validated by collecting data and analysing its results. Practical implications – The results provide insights into motivating factors that should be focused on while taking lean decisions. The correlation results among drivers will enable the policy makers in government and industry to strategically leverage the resources for the successful implementation of LM in the industry. Originality/value – This research empirically develops a model of drivers for LM implementation. The novelty of the study is the causal relationship among the drivers which can be used for decision making to implement lean easily and effectively. Moreover, the categorization of the drivers into internal, external and policy categories and driving/driven relationship among these categories provides the top management an incisive insight into broad improvement areas.
 
Impact matrix – Simplicity Rule impaction on demand chain characteristics  
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to exploit site-based research evidence from a range of value streams so as to prioritise the industrial engineering (IE) foci necessary to move towards the goal of a seamless demand chain. Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 40 real-world value streams have been audited to produce codified scores assessing the usage of 12 Simplicity Rules leading to streamlined material flow. The rules are partitioned into “local” (Internal) and “holistic” (External) actions. Exploratory statistics are used to explore the different uptake of these two groups. Research limitations/implications – The sample is neither random nor fully representative of all supply chain scenarios. This paper confirms, via site based research, the validity of first actioning the improvements necessary to enable “our process” to deliver efficiently and effectively, in response to internal demands. Practical implications – Expending effort into effective engineering of “our process(es)” as first priority offers a double advantage compared to starting at the systems level. Such a strategy generates both competence and confidence. Once this level is achieved the business is in a good position for upgrading the external interfaces. Originality/value – This paper shows that modern industrial engineering concepts transpose into two groups of Simplicity Rules, which can move a business forward towards the seamless demand chain goal. The rich field data confirm a logical industrial engineering sequence when enhancing demand chain performance.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present supply chain metrics and to propose a fuzzy-based performance evaluation method for lean supply chain. Design/methodology/approach – To understand the overall performance of cost competitive supply chain the paper investigates the alignment of market strategy and position of the supply chain. Since lean is applicable in many supply chains, the authors propose a set of metrics to evaluate supply chain performance. Moreover, the paper uses a fuzzy model to evaluate the performance of cost competitive supply chains. Fuzzy is an appropriate model method when uncertainty is present. It also allows modelling of a significant number of performance metrics across multiple supply chain elements and processes. Competitive strategy can be achieved by using a different weight calculation for different supply chain situations. Findings – Research provides optimal metrics for lean supply chains. The proposed method can measure the performance of lean supply chains using a fuzzy approach and competitive strategies. Research limitations/implications – The metrics which have been selected to measure the performance of lean supply chains is particularly applicable for high volume, low-price products. Practical implications – By identifying optimal performance metrics and applying performance evaluation methods, managers can predict the overall supply chain performance under lean strategy. By identifying performance for each metric they can also categorize the existing performance and optimise them accordingly. Originality/value – This study provides a performance evaluation method for supply chain managers to assess the effects of lean tools and competitive strategies.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of product substitutability on sales performance of integrated and decentralised supply chains. The authors model supply chain performance effects by applying a Cournot equation to a combination of different industry configurations. The study aims to extend existing equilibria models in different supply chains by including the effects of product substitutability on supply chain performance. By extending existing equilibria models, the authors explore the relationship between the degree of product substitutability, chain structure and chain performance when some actors of the supply chain behave as Stackelberg leaders in a duopoly. Design/methodology/approach – The paper models a supply chain performance by applying a Cournot equation to different supply chain structures in a duopoly. Findings – The findings indicate that, for each specific-supply chain structures in different market configurations, when product substitutability reaches a certain threshold decentralised supply chains outperform integrated chains, in disagreement with common belief in current existing literature. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited to the application of differential equations in a competitive market configured as a duopoly. Future studies might extend the same model to a competitive market characterised by more than two actors. The findings imply that current tendency of lean implementations through integrated supply chains does not always favour supply chain performance. Practical implications – The paper includes implications for the development of a stronger differentiation strategy based on consumer value when markets are characterised by high-product substitutability. Originality/value – These findings highlight the importance of differentiation and consumer-value generation in markets that follow Nash equilibria as opposed to the current focus on price competition.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to explore key work domains that impact worker job satisfaction and organizational commitment, which in turn impact long-term worker productivity and performance. Design/methodology/approach – The paper utilizes factor analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, and basic descriptive statistics (Pearson Correlations, standard deviations, means) to explore the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment and 17 unique work domains. Findings – Survey data confirm 17 statistically valid and reliable work domains that are relevant to understanding worker job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Additionally, OLS regression results produce highly explanatory models of worker motivation and job satisfaction. Research limitations/implications – The main limitation of the research is the lack of generalizability of the findings – that it represents data from just one organization, not a sampling of organizations. While the statistical results are highly significant and demonstrate a high level of validity and reliability in the measures, research findings can only tentatively be applied to other organizations. Practical implications – In an increasingly competitive global market, more and more organizations have to ask the difficult question, “How can we get more out of our employees?” However, although there are diverse “quick-fix” methods of achieving rather short-term gains in worker productivity and performance, long-term and enduring improvement requires a strengthening and spreading of core organizational values and beliefs that help to create a high engagement and achievement organizational culture. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is the development of 17 unique and highly statistically reliable and valid work domains relevant to organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Additionally, the new “passion” domain is found to be particularly predictive of worker job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
 
Article
This paper describes the organizational processes of knowledge acquisition, sharing, retention and utilisation as it affected the internal and external communication of knowledge about performance in an English police force. The research was gathered in three workshops for internal personnel, external stakeholders and chief officers, using Journey Making, a computer-assisted method of developing shared understanding. The research concluded that there are multiple audiences for the communication of knowledge about police performance, impeded by the requirement to publish performance data. However, the intelligence-led policing model could lead to a more focused means of communication with various stakeholder groups. Although technology investment was a preferred means of communicating knowledge about performance, without addressing cultural barriers, an investment in technology may not yield the appropriate changes in behaviour. Consequently, technology needs to be integrated with working practices in order to reduce organizational reliance on informal methods of communication.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate an initial set of formative indicators to measure the level of efforts on sustainable use of water by companies from different sectors to eventually generate an index with a ranking of such companies. Design/methodology/approach – The authors started with unstructured data from an open-ended survey conducted by the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) on over 300 global companies. Using data from 158 of the companies in that survey from 27 different two-digit UK SIC codes, the authors devised the indicators, translated these into questions requiring response on a seven-point Likert scale, and then coded the companies’ response in the CDP survey for the questionnaire. Findings – First, all the questions were valid in that responses could be provided. Second, in open-ended surveys like CDP's survey, companies provided information only on selected dimensions and not on others. Third, across sectors, companies are putting more effort on usage efficiency relative to where the water comes from or where it goes after use. Research limitations/implications – The questions still require field-testing for validation and user acceptance. Practical implications – The proposed questions could become part of a survey for companies to self-assess or to disclose information on the sustainable use of water. An index created using disclosed data would motivate companies to make more effort towards sustainable use of water. Originality/value – The authors believe this to be the first effort towards formulating a sustainability index of companies’ use of water.
 
Four indicators for comparing countries' public sector performance
Article
Purpose of this paper: A number of studies and indicators have ranked European countries in terms of the performance of their public sectors. This paper demonstrates there are important conceptual problems with such rankings and comparisons. Design/methodology/approach: Using the existing indicators, the paper first shows how European countries' public sectors are ranked. It then goes on to show how conceptual problems with these indicators may lead to incorrect conclusions. Findings: Countries' public sector performance cannot be summarised using a single indicator because of our inability to define 'the public sector' and the disagreement on what it means for public sectors to perform. Practical implications: Despite increasing demand and supply in policy circles for international public sector indicators, the existing ones are unreliable. What is original/value of paper? This paper extends the assessment of international public sector indicators beyond a mere technical evaluation.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of performance measurement (PM) within construction research and development (R&D) activities to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach – A comprehensive literature review is used as the methodology of this paper where it will look into two main areas. First, the paper discusses R&D work in construction industry with particular reference to its role, main contributors, and the issues which hinders its successfulness. From this section the paper arrives at a definition for construction R&D and the scope of the study. The second section of the paper defines PM and identifies the importance of it in general. Finally, the paper justifies how the issues within construction R&D could be minimised by implementing PM system. Findings – The paper justifies the implementation of PM within construction R&D and identifies how PM could enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of construction R&D through: identifying requirements of the parties involved within the research process; defining clear aims and objectives; evaluation of the successfulness of activates/confirmation of milestones; providing information for the research funders regarding the utilisation of resources; improving the communication and coordination of the parties involved; and providing feedback for future improvements of the research work. Originality/value – The paper reveals the impact and influence of PM towards the construction R&D activities.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a measure that links the causes and consequences of disruptions in freight transport operations. Such a measure is needed to quantify the scale of impact and identify the root causes of disruptions. Design/methodology/approach – In order to develop this measure, an inductive approach was adopted, using four primary case studies to test the measure in an industrial environment. The case studies are from the fast moving consumer goods sector with primary and secondary distribution networks included. The “Extra Distance” measure has been evaluated against established generic criteria that define the quality of any performance measure. Findings – The research indicates good compliance with the criteria used to evaluate the “Extra Distance” measure. The measure is also found to be useful for practitioners who are able to directly relate the measure to their distribution network operations. Research limitations/implications – Further research should see the “Extra Distance” measure further tested in other freight transport operations and industrial sectors. Practical implications – The measure is directly related to a number of causes of uncertainty which helps freight transport managers to quickly identify potential solutions. The “Extra Distance” measure can be used to quantify the effects of disruptions which can occur in road freight transport networks generate unnecessary cost within distribution networks, potentially eroding profit margins which are known to be very low in the road freight transport industry. Originality/value – This paper presents a novel approach to the assessment of the impact caused by uncertainty within freight transport operations.
 
Article
This study examines long- and short-term performance of SMEs as driven by the attributes of strategy, leadership, culture, and organizational capability. Data were collected from 194 SME manufacturing firms in the United Kingdom. Factors analyzed include strategy (long- or short-term), leadership style, orientation (internal or external), performance, creativity, departmental cooperation, cultural style, and organizational capability. Analysis revealed that short- and long-term performance are driven by distinctly different attributes. Attributes perceived as internally oriented are associated with improved short-term performance; whereas externally oriented attributes are associated with improved long-term performance. Strong leadership and culture styles (regardless of style itself) are associated with improved long-term performance. Suggests that managers should consider leadership and culture to ensure these are aligned with their overall strategic plan. (TNM)
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to present the viewpoints from a number of leading practitioners and academics on the subject “Can Six Sigma be effectively deployed in small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs)?”. Design/methodology/approach – A number of academics and practitioners were interviewed by the author to collate their opinions and views on the above subject. Findings – The results of the study clearly indicate that Six Sigma is equally applicable to both large corporations and small companies. In fact, the results are quicker and much more visible in smaller companies than in larger corporations. Originality/value – This paper provides an excellent resource for those people who believe that Six Sigma is primarily meant for large companies. It also makes an attempt to remove one of the common myths of Six Sigma.
 
Article
Purpose – The research aim is to identify and evaluate “value” and “effectiveness” in the system of temporary staffing in one NHS Trust. Temporary staffing, known as Bank and Agency (B & A) staffing, is an increasing proportion of NHS expenditure (Bank staff are already contracted with the Trust and work extra shifts, while Agency staff are independently employed through the agency, costing more per shift). The system is reviewed in terms of quality, delivery and cost in relation to customers. The study assesses if unnecessary complexity, and poor standards significantly impact on effective performance. Design/methodology/approach – A diagnostic action research field based approach is taken with qualitative and quantitative analysis of the current system. This includes, cross-functional mapping, stakeholder value analysis and historical data collection. The theoretical perspective includes system theory, stakeholder theory and value. Findings – Research results indicate that the requirement for temporary staffing is predictable (previously thought to be unpredictable). Consequently, agency staffing can more readily be replaced with bank nurses. This could improve the outcomes of quality in service, delivery and reduce Trust expenditure. Research limitations/implications – Research results could be idiosyncratic and contextual therefore a comparative study is underway to determine validity. Indications are NHS expenditure on temporary staffing, particularly agency nurses, could be reduced while increasing effectiveness of the service. Originality/value – This research analyses working practice and value relationships within the temporary staffing system. A potential future state system is developed, that indicates improved value, quality, delivery, a win for patients, wards and Welsh NHS secondary care Trust, having wider NHS applications. Yes Yes
 
Lean thinking for conventional organisations  
Tornado JIPT structure
Article
Purpose – The lean enterprise model has been adopted in a wide range of industries beyond its origins in the motor industry. To achieve this there has been a considerable extension of the lean concept outside high-volume repetitive manufacture. The purpose of this paper is to present an in-depth study of the application of lean within the British Royal Air Force. It offers a number of new insights which have implications for the future development and adoption of lean in service contexts, and the public sector in particular. Design/methodology/approach – To illustrate the issues of application of lean outside automotive, this paper considers the adoption of the lean concept by the Tornado joint integrated project team within the UK Ministry of Defence. A review of methods of application of lean used within Tornado are studied. The paper considers how the fundamental principles of lean apply in this environment and how, considering these principles, methods of implementation should be modified. Findings – This paper finds that the five lean fundamental principles apply in Tornado but they need to considered specifically within the public service context particularly the pull principle. Hence the authors offer three propositions relating to the use of the lean principles of value, waste, flow and pull in the public sector, and one for perfection only relating to military organisations. Originality/value – This paper makes an important contribution by demonstrating that lean can be successfully applied, in a public service context, with only modest modifications to its core principles, principally about how customer demand (pull) is managed. The implication of this finding demonstrates that to be adopted successfully, lean must be adapted to its context and the lean principles need to be reviewed too.
 
Article
Purpose – The aim of this article is to identify gaps in research and to set up a research agenda that investigates how gender attributes and different sets of skills contribute to logistics performance. The article focuses on humanitarian logistics and outlines the areas in which gender issues impact on the effectiveness of the provision of aid following a disaster. Design/methodology/approach – A topical literature review on gender, humanitarian logistics, and logistics performance is used to unearth existing gaps in research. Findings – Two main research gaps are of particular interest for humanitarian logistics in the light of gender: sex segregation in logistics, and the relation between gender and logistics skills; and the mitigation of gender disadvantages of beneficiaries. Here, a gendered access to aid can impact negatively on aid effectiveness. Originality/value – Literature is scant both on gender issues in logistics and on humanitarian logistics. The paper contributes to both areas, while evaluating the impact of gender on logistics performance.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the scope of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) strategy and to explore its successful deployment in the Indian healthcare sector. Design/methodology/approach – The research reported in this paper is based on a case study carried out using the LSS DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Control) approach and its application in improving the registration process in the Health Information Department (HID) of a Medical College hospital in India. Findings – The study describes improvements in the HID through the power of LSS. Cycle time of the process was reduced from three to 1.5 minutes and the SD was reduced to 21.2 from 61 seconds. The project has shown a 94 per cent reduction in patients’ average waiting time. The study also reported a 91 per cent reduction in queue length and 48 per cent reduction in percentage of scheduled utilization of staff for the process. Research limitations/implications – The paper is based on a single case study executed in a hospital and hence there is limitation in generalizing the specific results from the study. But the approach adopted and the learning from this study can be generalized. The study is of use to healthcare practitioners seeking to implement or develop LSS further in their organizations. Originality/value – Although LSS being extremely successful in the last two decades, the application of LSS to the healthcare industry in general and HID in particular has been limited. This study illustrates how its application can improve the performance of the process and thus productivity in the department.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to cite resistance to change as a significant reason why productivity initiatives fail. Therefore, effectively managing and overcoming resistance to change is a critical factor for the successful outcome of any intervention. This paper explores current knowledge of resistance to change and seeks to review the literature and so understand what methods can be used to manage change initiatives. Design/methodology/approach – An extensive literature review has identified theories, frameworks and methodologies to successfully manage and overcome resistance to organisational change. Findings – Managing and overcoming opposition to change starts by assessing the types of resistance; and this classification will form the basis for the development of an implementation strategy to reduce resistance. This includes creating readiness and urgency for change, creating a vision for change, having employees participate in the change effort, training and coaching employees, effectively communicating the change, creating and planning for quick wins and refreezing the organisation. Research limitations/implications – The tools and techniques presented in this paper need to be adapted to the organisation's specificities as well as to the contextual situation. Practical implications – The work has developed materials to-date that could be used by practitioners that are engaged with productivity improvement interventions. Social implications – Resistance and its wider implications to any change intervention has organisational and social impacts. Therefore this work brings insightful information to support change in its wider application. Originality/value – Today's competitive, uncertain and fast-paced economic environment requires organisations to change in order to maintain or develop their competitive advantage. This paper combines numerous theories, frameworks and methodologies to successfully manage and overcome resistance in order gain acceptance and meet the desired needs.
 
Article
Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to explore cross-national differences in job satisfactions and its determinants over time (1989-2005), which, in turn, impact long-term worker productivity and performance. Design/methodology/approach – Utilizing non-panel longitudinal data from the International Social Survey Program on Work Orientations I, II, and III for 1989, 1997 and 2005, various bivariate and multivariate descriptive statistics and ordinary least squared regression analysis are used to explore the relationship between job satisfaction and its key determinants cross-nationally in six countries (West Germany, Great Britain, the USA, Hungary, Norway and Israel). Findings – For all countries, findings clearly show that intrinsic rewards explain the most variance in the respondents' job satisfaction, followed by work relations with management. In contrast, public service motivation-fit (PSM-fit) and work relations with co-workers are found to play a less prominent role in shaping job satisfaction. Additionally, findings show that the above-mentioned determinants of job satisfaction vary by country. Additionally, apart from age, which is found to be a significant antecedent of job satisfaction for 1989, 1997 and 2005 waves, the significance of the personal antecedents tends to vary with each wave. Research limitations/implications – The primary limitations to this research relate to the use of a pre-existing dataset. The measurement of the study variables, particularly job satisfaction and public service motivation (PSM), is constrained by the limited single-item measurement scales used in the surveys. Additionally, the measurement scale of PSM could be more rigorous. Data collected from self-completed survey such as this can also suffer from common method variance; the respondents may have a distorted perception of their organizational conditions. Despite these limitations, this research supports the descriptive literature and empirical studies that look at job satisfaction, PSM, workplace rewards, and interpersonal dynamics. Practical implications – In an increasingly competitive global market, more and more organizations have to ask the difficult question, “How can we get more out of our employees?” However, though there are diverse “quick-fix” methods to achieving rather short-term gains in worker productivity and performance, long-term and enduring improvement requires a strengthening and spreading of core organizational values and beliefs that increase overall worker satisfaction to help create a high engagement and achievement organizational culture. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is in looking at cross-national differences in worker satisfaction and its determinants cross-nationally over a 16-year period. Additionally, the paper develops and justifies the use of a new construct, PSM-fit, as an important component to understanding job satisfaction.
 
Article
Purpose – The global manufacturing industry is becoming more competitive. Munjal Showa, a shock absorber manufacturer in India, is using indigenous development of lean machines by incorporating concepts of lean manufacturing and low-cost automation techniques to increase their competitiveness. This new approach has helped the company to reduce cost of manufacturing and to increase productivity by reducing cycle time and down time. The purpose of this paper is to offer an in depth study of how at Munjal Showa Ltd lean machines are being developed and manufactured. This paper explores how a cumbersome machine was transformed into a lean machine. Design/methodology/approach – This paper explores how a cumbersome machine was transformed into a lean machine. Findings – This new approach has helped the company to reduce cost of manufacturing and to increase productivity by reducing cycle time and down time. Research limitations/implications – The paper discusses the process of converting one cumbersome machine to a lean machine. Practical implications – Creativity before capital. In lean, team brainstorming of ideas and solutions is emphasized instead of spending large sums of money on capital expenditures Social implications – The cockpit model eases pressure of incumbents on the shop floor. Originality/value – The concepts espoused in the paper has increased productivity by 3.45 times and reduced costs.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the current use being made of the sustainability message within business improvement activity and project justification within individual businesses. Design/methodology/approach – This is a reflective paper that looks at an illustrative case study against the wider perspectives of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) implementation, market orientation and business improvement initiatives in general. Findings – The piece discusses the gains derived from the LSS projects and identifies gaps in potential benefits in particular the paper questions how well any potential marketing messages were exploited by the organisation. The findings critically evaluates the impact that marketing function involvement could have in helping to promote the wider productivity message and its contribution to the wider corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy for the organisation. The document also suggests how the company could leverage internally focused projects to adopt a companywide marketing orientation and use such leverage to support future LSS project selection and justification. Research limitations/implications – The observations are limited to a single case study, although tempered by the authors’ wider experience. Further empirical research is required to validate the observations and conclusions. Practical implications – The proposed approach to future improvement initiatives can help to increase the wider productivity message and assist organisations to exploit their internal projects in external communications and wider CSR strategy. Originality/value – The paper proposes an approach that can be used to widen organisational involvement in improvement initiatives allowing future project justification to be less internally cost focused, more holistic with a focus on customer voice.
 
Article
Purpose To investigate the impact of performance measurement in strategic planning process. Design/methodology/approach A large scale survey was conducted online with Warwick Business School alumni. The questionnaire was based on the Strategic Development Process model by Dyson. The questionnaire was designed to map the current practice of strategic planning and to determine its most influential factors on the effectiveness of the process. All questions were close ended and a seven‐point Likert scale used. The independent variables were grouped into four meaningful factors by factor analysis (Varimax, coefficient of rotation 0.4). The factors produced were used to build regression models (stepwise) for the five assessments of strategic planning process. Regression models were developed for the totality of the responses, comparing SMEs and large organizations and comparing organizations operating in slowly and rapidly changing environments. Findings The results indicate that performance measurement stands as one of the four main factors characterising the current practice of strategic planning. This research has determined that complexity coming from organizational size and rate of change in the sector creates variation in the impact of performance measurement in strategic planning. Large organizations and organizations operating in rapidly changing environments make greater use of performance measurement. Research limitations/implications This research is based on subjective data, therefore the conclusions do not concern the impact of strategic planning process' elements on the organizational performance achievements, but on the success/effectiveness of the strategic planning process itself. Practical implications This research raises a series of questions about the use and potential impact of performance measurement, especially in the categories of organizations that are not significantly influenced by its utilisation. It contributes to the field of performance measurement impact. Originality/value This research fills in the gap literature concerning the lack of large scale surveys on strategic development processes and performance measurement. It also contributes in the literature of this field by providing empirical evidences on the impact of performance measurement upon the strategic planning process.
 
Top-cited authors
Jiju Antony
  • Heriot-Watt University
Mette Verner
  • Danish School of Media and Journalism
Valdemar Smith
  • Aarhus University
Nina Smith
  • Aarhus University
Anitha Jagannathan