International Journal of Poultry Science

Published by Asian Network for Scientific Information
Print ISSN: 1682-8356
Publications
A 3 x 4 factorial experiment with three protein levels (17.52, 16.24 and 15.22%) and four added synthetic lysine levels (0.0000, 0.0295, 0.0590 and 0.0884%) was conducted to determine the influence of adding synthetic lysine in er diets while maintaining a 0.75 Met+Cys/Lys ratio. In this experiment, a total of 1,440 Hy-Line W-36 hens (first phase of second cycle) were randomly divided into 480 cages with 3 birds per cage. Five adjoining cages consisted of a group and then the ninety-six groups were randomly assigned to 12 dietary treatments. The results showed there were no interactions (P > 0.05) between protein level and added synthetic lysine on feed intake, egg production, egg mass, egg weight or feed conversion. Protein effects were observed for feed intake (P 0.05) obtained among the four supplemental synthetic lysine levels, indicating the influences of adding synthetic lysine on performances was not significant (P > 0.05) for hens fed diets containing a low protein level up to 15.22% and with feed intake at approximate 100 g/hen/day.
 
The objective of the following study was to evaluate the microbial efficacy of a Precure™ (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) dip (3 vs. 30 seconds) treatment (pH = 1.5) for further processed broiler parts including wings, leg quarters and breast halves. Precure™ is listed as a solution of GRAS acids for use by FDA and is listed as a safe and suitable ingredient by USDA for use on poultry. This study was conducted in response to the request by several poultry companies for a means to increase the shelf-life of further processed broiler parts. Therefore, 60 post-chill broiler carcasses were obtained from a local USDA-inspected poultry processing facility and were transported on ice to MCA Services (Rogers, AR). Upon arrival at the laboratory, the carcasses were held under refrigerated conditions (40 to 42<SUP>o</SUP>F) for 24 hours to simulate transport to a further processing (cut-up) facility. After the 24-hour refrigerated hold period, the 60 carcasses were each manually cut into six pieces including two wings, two leg quarters and two breast halves. The cut-up parts were then randomly divided into three groups including a control and two treatment groups. Within each treatment group a pair of wings, a pair of leg quarters or a pair of breast halves served as an individual sample. Thus, there were 20 samples for each of the three carcass parts within each of the three treatment groups. The treatment groups included the control which received no further treatment, a group which was subjected to a 3-second room temperature dip in Precure™ (pH = 1.5) and a group which was subjected to a 30-second room temperature dip in Precure™ (pH = 1.5). Parts in both of the dip treatments were allowed to drain for 30 seconds after dipping. All samples (two wings, two leg quarters or two breast halves) were placed into sterile poultry rinse bags and were then held refrigerated at 40<SUP>o</SUP>F until microbiological evaluation was initiated (< 4 hours). The rinse fluid (100 mL Butterfield’s Phosphate Diluent) from the samples was evaluated for Aerobic Plate Count using Petrifilm™<SUP>3</SUP> in accordance with USDA/FSIS standard laboratory procedures. The lower detection level was 1 colony forming unit per mL. All dipped parts were also observed for organoleptic properties and no negative qualities were observed. The Aerobic Plate Counts for the control parts were 2.0 logs (wings), 2.4 logs (leg quarters) and 1.9 logs (breast halves). The group that was subjected to the 3-second Precure™ dip had Aerobic Plate Count values of 0.5 logs (wings), 0.3 logs (leg quarters) and 0.9 logs (breast halves). There was no recovery of Aerobic Plate Count from parts that were subjected to the 30-second dip in Precure™. Thus, the 3-second dip in Precure™ resulted in Aerobic Plate Count reductions of > 97% for wings, > 99% for leg quarters and > 89% for breast halves while the 30-second dip in Precure™ allowed for no recovery of organisms. Results from this study clearly demonstrate that the use of Precure™ (pH = 1.5) as a dip treatment (3 to 30 seconds) for poultry parts will significantly improve the microbiological properties of poultry parts without adversely affecting the sensory attributes. Thus, the commercially available Precure™ treatment provides the processor with a very economical means of controlling the microbiological properties, and possibly extending the shelf-life, of further processed poultry parts.
 
The recirculation of marinade used in commercial poultry injection applications can pose a microbiological concern if not handled properly. In an attempt to solve this problem, a spent sample (30 gallons) of a typical poultry marinade was collected after production from a USDA-inspected poultry facility and was shipped overnight to MCA Services (Rogers, AR) under refrigerated conditions. The solution was microbiologically evaluated for natural microflora and had an existing Aerobic Plate Count (using APC Petrifilm™<SUP>3</SUP>) of 5.5 logs per mL (colony forming units). Three trials were conducted with the Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 210 ultraviolet light system (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) using three different flow rates and corresponding solution turnover times to determine the optimum flow rate (and turnover time) for microbial control. The three flow rates were 10, 20 and 30 gallons per minute with corresponding solution turnover times of approximately 3, 1.5 and 1 minutes. As solution turnover rate decreased (from 3 minutes to 1 minute), the time necessary to achieve a 1 log microbial reduction (90% reduction) decreased from 9 minutes at a turnover rate of 3 minutes to 7.5 minutes at a turnover rate of 2 minutes and to approximately 5 minutes at a turnover rate of 1 minute. Regardless of flow rate or solution turnover time, the total bacterial count in the marinade solution was effectively reduced by approximately 1 log in less than 10 minutes of operational time with the Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 210 ultraviolet light system. These trials clearly demonstrate that the commercially available Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 210 ultraviolet light system (FDA regulated under 21 CFR 179.39) can provide the manufacturer with an effective means of controlling the microbial load in poultry marinade solutions at a very low cost. The data also suggest that as solution turnover rate decreases the time necessary to effectively reduce bacterial levels decreases but that this difference is not substantial in regards to actual time in minutes between normal operational flow rates of 10 to 30 gallons per minute.
 
The USDA has strict regulations regarding the incidence of Salmonella on post-chill poultry. The poultry industry is encouraged to use USDA-approved methods for controlling Salmonella and other potential pathogens on processed poultry. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of a post-chill Precure™ (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) treatment (pH = 1.5) on the levels of Salmonella on broiler carcasses. Precure™ is listed as a solution of GRAS acids for use by FDA and is listed as a safe and suitable ingredient by USDA for use on poultry. In this study, broiler carcasses (n=30) were obtained from a local USDA-inspected poultry processing facility and were transported on ice to MCA Services (Rogers, AR). Immediately upon arrival at the laboratory, all carcasses were individually inoculated with approximately 350 cells of Salmonella to assure that all carcasses in the study would be contaminated with Salmonella . The Salmonella culture was enumerated the day prior to the study to determine the approximate number of cells that would be inoculated onto the surface of each carcass. After inoculation, the carcasses were allowed to sit undisturbed for 30 minutes to allow for bacterial attachment. The 30 carcasses were then randomly divided into two groups. Fifteen of the carcasses were used as a control and were not treated. The remaining 15 carcasses were subjected to a room temperature 30-second dip in Precure™ (pH = 1.5) followed by a 30-second drip period. All carcasses were individually bagged in sterile poultry rinse bags and were held at 40<SUP>o</SUP>F for 4 hours. Carcasses were then subjected to a whole carcass rinse in accordance with USDA/FSIS standard laboratory procedures in Butterfield’s Phosphate Diluent. The resulting rinse fluid was microbiologically evaluated using Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™<SUP>3</SUP> for enumeration (colony forming units per mL) and the BAX<SUP>®4</SUP> System PCR assay for presence or absence of Salmonella . As would be expected, all carcasses (100%) were positive for Salmonella in the control group while in the Precure™-treated group only 40% of the carcasses were Salmonella positive. The average level of total organisms using Petrifilm™ was 2.6 logs for the control group and 1.3 logs for the Precure™-treated group (95% reduction). It should be noted that Petrifilm™ would not only recover the inoculated Salmonella culture but also any indigenous organisms that may have been present. Results from this study demonstrate that the commercially available Precure™ (pH = 1.5) solution can be used as a post-chill treatment to control the incidence and levels of Salmonella and other naturally occurring microorganisms on broiler carcasses.
 
The possibility of the presence of Listeria in marinade solutions poses a threat to the safety of injected poultry products. Thus, a sample (25 gallons) of a fresh poultry marinade was collected from a USDA-inspected poultry processing facility and was shipped overnight to MCA Services (Rogers, AR) under refrigerated conditions. Upon arrival at the laboratory, the marinade was inoculated with an overnight culture of Listeria innocua to a level of 3.4 logs per mL (colony forming units). The inoculated marinade was then passed through a Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 210 ultraviolet light system (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) for 10 minutes (flow rate = 10.6 gallons per minute and turnover time = 2.4 minutes). Samples were collected after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 minutes of ultraviolet light exposure which corresponded to 0, 0.9, 1.7, 2.6, 3.4 and 4.3 calculated passes through the system. Samples of the marinade were plated on Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™<SUP>3</SUP> to determine reductions in the inoculum over time. After 2 minutes of ultraviolet light exposure (approximately 1 pass through the ultraviolet light system), the level of Listeria innocua was reduced by 2 logs, at 8 minutes of exposure (3.4 passes) the level was reduced by 2.9 logs and at 10 minutes (4.3 passes) Listeria innocua could not be recovered from the poultry marinade solution. Thus, in 10 minutes of ultraviolet light exposure, levels of Listeria innocua in poultry marinade decreased from an initial level of 3.4 logs per mL to < 1.0 log (the lower detection level) per mL resulting in a > 99.5% reduction in the original level of inoculum. In conclusion, the commercially available Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 210 ultraviolet light system (FDA regulated under 21 CFR 179.39) is an extremely effective and low cost tool for controlling and eliminating Listeria innocua in commercial poultry marinades.
 
Growth of the Listeria monocytogenes LMG10470 ( L. monocytogenes ) pathogen were prevented by partially purified plantaricin UG1 within almost 2-3 days in uncooked and cooked poultry meat and dry mortadella samples of chicken and turkey. Inoculation of the experimental samples of cooked and uncooked meat and dry mortadella of chicken and turkey by the Lactobacillus plantarum UG1 Lact. plantarum UG1) cells producing the bacteriocin plantaricin UG1 resulted in inactivation of the all experimental L. monocytogenes cells within almost 3-4 days. By further storage of the treated samples, a slight resurgence of L. monocytogenes growth was observed in almost all poultry samples treated with plantaricin UG1, but was not observed in all poultry samples of cooked and uncooked meat and mortadella samples of chicken and turkey inoculated with the Lact. plantarum UG1 cells producing plantaricin UG1
 
Western blot analysis of serum samples taken from birds administered ts-11 and F-strain at 10 wk and 45 wk of age, respectively (A). SDS-PAGE profile of ts-11 and F-strain whole cell lysates (B) and (C). Rectangles indicate the excised bands. Lane 1: Molecular weight standards in kDa; Lane 2: ts-11; Lane 3: F-strain. 2005). However, with the increased use of MG vaccines Tibor Pechan (Life Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, and the ability of mycoplasma to alter the expression of Mississippi State University) for mass spectrometry major surface membrane proteins, more sensitive and analysis. rapid DNA-based detection methods have been developed (Feberwee et al., 2005; Ferguson et al., 2005; Garcia et al., 2005; Hong et al., 2005; Mardassi et al., 2005). In conclusion, this study identified cytosolic proteins that are differentially expressed between ts-11 and F-strain MG. The development of antibody reagents specific for these proteins could be useful in differentiating the two vaccine strains in the laboratory with Western blotting. However, for monitoring large flocks it would be more desirable to identify immunodominant surface proteins for the development of rapid serologic-based tests. The complete genome of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain R has been sequenced (Papazisi et al., 2003), and
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in layer chickens. The live MG vaccine strains that are available for use in layer chickens include F, ts-11 and 6/85. The MG vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 are safer than F and they have little or no potential of spreading from bird to bird. However, ts-11 and 6/85 appear to be less efficacious than F-strain. Results from studies suggest that the use of MG vaccine strain F in replacement flocks over a period of time results in the displacement of the original field strain. Also, reports of MG breaks in layer flocks previously vaccinated with ts-11 or 6/85 have resulted in revaccination of these flocks with F. The continued use of F-strain in displacement and revaccination regimens necessitates the development of more rapid and sensitive field tests that will differentiate between wild-type and vaccine strains of MG. In the present study, ts-11 and F-strain whole cell extracts were analyzed by Western blotting and proteomic methodologies. Differentially expressed protein bands were excised, in-gel digested with trypsin, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The proteins were identified as internal proteins and were predicted to be involved in such cellular processes as carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperone activity, transcription, and translation. The results of this study suggest that proteomics may aid in the characterization of proteins that could contribute to the development and improvement of current MG diagnostic tests.
 
The inhibition of Clostridium perfringens LMG 11264 ( Cl. perfringens ) by the bacteriocin plantaricin UG1 in vitro (brain heart infusion broth and cooked meat broth) and in meat samples (cooked meat, uncooked meat & dry mortadella) of poultry (chicken and turkey) and beef was studied. The inhibitory activity of plantaricin UG1 was apparently more in liquid systems (BHI broth & cooked meat broth) than in meat samples. The viable cells of Cl. perfringens were increased from 10<sup>5</sup> cfu/gm to 10<sup>7</sup> - 10<sup>9</sup> cfu/gm in almost all controls, but where decreased from 10<sup>5</sup> cfu/gm to zero in the bacteriocin treated samples of cooked and uncooked chicken, turkey and beef within one week. Addition of partially purified plantaricin UG1 to mortadella samples of chicken, turkey and beef resulted in decline of viable cell counts of Cl. perfringens form 10<sup>5</sup> cfu/gm to zero within two weeks. The inactivation power of plantaricin UG1 against Cl. perfringens endospores was shown in distilled water.
 
Experiments were performed to determine whether Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) are susceptible to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) Kudu 113 strain. In the experimental trials, a total 119, six weeks old Japanese quails were administered varying doses of the virus, ranging from 0.1 ml to 0.3 ml intramuscularly (im) and per os (po). The uninfected control quails were not administered the virus and were reared separately. Depression, weakness, incoordination, anorexia, ruffled feathers and paralysis of legs and wings were noted in some of the infected quails. At necropsy, some of the infected quails also had haemorrhagic enteritis and congested lungs, liver, heart and spleen and muscles of breast, thighs and legs. There was a rise in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titre in all the infected quails, following administration of NDV Kudu 113 strain either im or po. The highest mean HI antibody titre of log<sub>2</sub> 10.56± 0.29 was obtained on day seven post infection (pi) in the group that was administered 0.3 ml of the virus im. Similarly, the highest mean HI antibody titre of log<sub>2</sub> 9.89±0.48 was obtained on day seven pi in quails that were administered 0.3 ml of the virus po. On the other hand, the control quails were negative to HI antibody test. This study demonstrated that Japanese quails are susceptible to NDV Kudu 113 strain.
 
Subcutaneous emphysema in 13 week old pullet with ballooning of lateral
A known but rare condition of poultry and its management is being reported. The condition can be easily managed when notice early and treatment instituted on time. Simple use of needle puncture was able to relieve the condition a normalcy was achieved within a week.
 
A study was conducted to determine if increasing dietary lysine would improve body weight gain and feed efficiency (FE) of male broilers from 14 to 30 d when fed diets containing high proportion of feed fines. A 2x5 factorial treatment arrangement was achieved by feeding diets containing two concentrations of total lysine (1.00 and 1.15% of the diet) with five levels of feed fines (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% of the diet). Feed fines represented a blend of fines created and scalped during manufacturing, and intact pellets ground with a hammermill. Subsequently, proportions of pellets and fines were blended to obtain desired levels of feed fines. Eight grower cages of 5 male broiler chicks were fed each dietary treatment from 14 to 30 d. Body weight gain was depressed for birds fed 1.00% lysine when the diet contained in excess of 20% fines. Birds fed 1.15% lysine diets containing 20% fines did not significantly differ in weight gain from birds fed the same lysine concentration regardless of fines level. At fines levels greater than 20%, feeding 1.15% lysine resulted in a significant improvement (P=0.0324) in FE at each level of fines. Birds fed 1.00% lysine at the lowest level of fines displayed a significantly greater average feed intake (P=0.05) than any other treatment. Lack of a feed intake response at increasing levels of fines suggests that birds received a growth benefit independent of feed intake. Results demonstrated that increasing dietary lysine concentrations may compensate for inferior performance obtained with diets of poor pellet quality.
 
Variation within treatments on final body weight of male turkeys at 140 days of age* *different letters per row indicate significant differences, p<0.05.
An experiment over five grow-out phases was conducted with male B.U.T. Big 6 turkeys from day fourteen to 140. Four dietary treatments differing in protein concentration and amino acid supply were employed. Treatment 1 represented current feeding practice with relatively high protein concentrations of 265 g/kg in phase two (3-5 weeks) feed which then was gradually reduced to 161g/kg in P-VI feed (18-22 weeks). In treatment 2 dietary protein was reduced by ten percent but all essential amino acids were balanced according to the amino acid profile of treatment 1. Diets fed in treatment 3 had also a ten percent reduced protein concentration but only Lys, Met+Cys, Thr, and Trp were balanced in feed formulation resulting in lower Arg, Val, Ile, and Leu concentrations compared to treatments 1 and 2. In treatment 4 crude protein was reduced by 20% but essential amino acids were balanced as in treatment 2. Results suggested that low protein diets with a protein reduction up to ten percent can be fed without adverse effects on animal performance and carcass traits provided the whole range of essential amino acids is balanced. It was concluded that Arg, Val, Ile, and Leu are important for optimum growth and should therefore be considered in diets containing 10% less crude protein. It was further concluded that in low protein diets providing sufficient amounts of essential amino acids the ratio between sum of all essential amino acids should not be higher than 48% of protein.
 
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed form on lysine and dietary energy levels necessary for maximum body weight gain (BWG) and feed efficiency (FE) of male broilers from 14 to 30 d and to determine if birds realize a benefit in productive energy from consuming pelleted diets. A 2 x 3 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement was achieved by feeding diets in two forms (mash and steam-conditioned pellets) with three levels of digestible lysine (0.85, 0.95 and 1.05 % of the diet) and two dietary energy levels (3050 and 3200 kcal ME/kg). Male broiler chicks were provided a nutritionally adequate diet (3100 kcal ME/kg and 22.7% CP) from 0-13 d. Four pens of 32 birds were fed each dietary treatment. Mean body weight and feed consumption were obtained at 14 and 30 d. Average feed intake (AFI) was used to calculate lysine conversion ratio and calories consumed per bird. Pellet-fed birds consumed significantly less digestible lysine (P=0.0061) to achieve the same amount of BWG as the mash-fed birds. Pellet-fed birds exhibited a linear increase in BWG (P=0.0188) with increasing lysine concentrations, while mash-fed birds did not display a growth response at digestible lysine levels greater than 0.85%. Birds fed 3200 kcal ME/kg diets had greater BWG (P=0.006) than those fed 3050 kcal diets. No feed form x dietary energy level interaction was observed for any parameter. Feed form had no effect on AFI (P=0.3784). These findings suggest that improved BWG obtained with pelleted diets may be the result of reduced energy expenditure during meal consumption, indicating that feed form may influence perceived nutrient needs.
 
One experiment in wire-floored batteries and two experiments in litter-floor pens were conducted to evaluate the effects of addition of alpha-galactosidase enzyme to typical corn-soybean meal based diets for broilers. In two experiments, Avizyme 1502 was fed in conjunction with the alpha-galactosidase enzyme. In formulating test diets, soybean meal was assigned an ME value beginning at 2440 ME kcal/kg and increased on the assumption that the addition of the enzyme would increase the ME of soybean meal by 10, 20, or 30%. In two experiments, the level of supplemental poultry oil remained constant with increases in apparent ME, while in the third the level of supplemental poultry oil was reduced as the assumed ME level of soybean meal was increased. Male chicks of a commercial broiler strain were used in all experiments. Overall, the results of the three experiments suggest little if any improvement in metabolizable energy of SBM as a result of the addition of an exogenous alpha-galactosidase enzyme, as indicated by evaluation of body weight gain, feed utilization, calorie conversion, or mortality. No improvements in the above parameters were noted when Avizyme 1502 was added to the diet, alone or in combination with the alpha-galactosidase enzyme. At the present time, it does not appear that diets based on corn and SBM of average quality would benefit from supplementation with these enzymes.
 
†
Coccidiosis is caused by parasites of the genus Eimeria, belonging to phylum Apicomplexa. EmTFP250 is a high molecular mass, asexual stage antigen from Eimeria maxima (EM) strongly associated with maternal immunity in newly hatched chickens. Cloning and sequence analysis predict the antigen to be a novel member of the Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein (TRAP) family. Three novel attenuated Salmonella enteritidis strains (ΔSE) expressing TRAP oligopeptides in association with a potential immune-enhancing CD 154 sequence, on the outer membrane protein lamB, were developed. Broiler chicks were grouped based on treatment and 10^8 cfu/chick of vectors expressing one of three sequences, or vehicle alone, was orally administered to each group. At 21 d of age, all groups were challenged with 10^4 sporulated oocysts/chick orally. Mortality at 5d post-challenge was markedly different (p<0.05) in chickens vaccinated with TRAP Upstream (US). To further evaluate the efficacy of TRAP US as a potential vaccine candidate, a similar study was conducted. Broilers were orally vaccinated with 10^8 cfu/chick vehicle with TRAP US and CD 154 or sham vaccinated with saline. Coccidia challenge was performed with 10^5 sporulated oocysts/chick at 22 d of age. Immunized chickens showed remarkable improvement in weight gain (p<0.05) and had reduced mortality (p = 0.055) when compared to non-immunized controls. These two studies underscore the potential of EmTFP250 as a potential candidate for a recombinant vaccine targeting coccidiosis in chickens.
 
A study was conducted to determine the minimum crude protein content of finisher diets based on corn and soybean meal supplemented with commercially available amino acids for male Large White turkeys. Diets were formulated to contain a minimum of 105% of NRC (1994) recommended levels of Met, Lys, TSAA, Thr, and Trp for diets fed 16 to 20 wk of age; no other essential amino acids were specified. The crude protein content of the diets ranged from 75 to 100% of the recommended level of 16.5%. When diets were formulated to contain at least the minimum recommended levels of Met, TSAA, Lys, Thr, reducing the crude protein content of the diet to less than 85% resulted in a significant reduction in weight at 20 wk or body weight gain from 16 to 20 wk. Addition of Ile and Val to diets formulated to contain 80 or 85% of the recommended crude protein level had no significant effect on body weight or weight gain, indicating that a deficiency of these amino acids per se was not responsible for the reduction in performance on diets with low levels of crude protein. Feed conversion was more variable and was not significantly influenced by dietary crude protein.
 
Avian influenza (AI) outbreaks due to H9N2 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) occurred in poultry industry in Iran, in 1998 and caused serious economic losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings of the chickens experimentally inoculated with A/Chicken/Tehran/ZMT-173/99 (H9N2) influenza virus, isolated from the kidney of the broiler chickens with 40% mortality. Two groups of 30-day-old, forty Mycoplasma gallisepticum positive (Mg+) and forty negative (Mg-) commercial broiler chickens were used. Each group subdivided into 10-membered two experimental and two control subgroups. One experimental subgroup inoculated intravenously (IV) and the other both IV and oculonasally (ON) with 10<SUP>7.5</SUP> ELD50. Clinically, depression, crouching, huddling, ruffled feathers, coughing, sneezing, and sometimes gasping were observed. Mortality rate was 10% in each Mg+ experimental subgroup. The gross lesions in dead birds included exudative (fibrinous) casts in tracheal bifurcation, pulmonary congestion, thickened air sacs, swollen kidney with urate deposition, enlarged congested and hemorrhagic bursa of fabricious and thymus, petechial hemorrhages in epicardial fat and general congestion in the carcasses. The visceral organs were congested and edematous. Fibrinous tracheal casts in bifurcation were only observed in a chicken inoculated via both IV and ON routs. Histopathologic examination revealed extensive pulmonary hyperemia with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in lamina propria of bronchi and lungs, mild lymphocytolysis and atrophy of lymphoid follicles of the bursa of fabricious. Severe congestion, depletion of lymphocyte population and focal necrosis were seen in thymus lobules. Severe congestion, urate deposition and nonsuppurative focal interstitial nephritis was the predominant histological lesions. The results of the present study suggest renal lesions and tracheal casts are the principal causes of mortality and simultaneous inoculation play an important role in formation of tracheal casts. Also, immunosuppression due to depletion of lymphoid organs as well as concurrent infections such as M. gallisepticum might increase the pathogenic potential of H9N2 subtype to chicken.
 
Effect of methionine source and level and interaction between Mets and MetL on performance of broilers 0-18 d
There is still a debate about the possible difference in the relative bioefficacy between DL-Met and DL-HMB as a source of methionine activity for broilers. This experiment was conducted to determine if the interaction between Arg and Met is influenced by methionine sources (MetS) and methionine level (MetL) in diets for male broilers. A 3 x 2 x 5 factorial arrangement experimental design included three total Arg levels (1.25, 1.35 and 1.45), two Met sources (DL-Met and DL-HMB) and five equimolar levels of supplemental Met (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20%) for a total of 30 treatments. Each treatment was fed to 6 replicate pens of 6 male broilers in electrically heated battery brooders from 1-18 days of age. Chickens fed the 1.25% Arg level showed a significantly higher body weight compared to other treatment groups. The FCR and FE were significantly affected by the different levels of Arg in diets. However, FI was not significantly affected by dietary Arg levels. There was no interaction between Arg-MetS and Arg-MetL or any three-way interactions. There was no significant difference between the two Met sources on the performance of broilers. Body weight and FI were not significantly affected by MetL, but an increase of MetL in basal diet significantly improved FCR and FE. The interaction between MetS and MetL had no significant effect on the performance of broilers. These results indicate that the 1.25% total Arg level was sufficient to provide optimum body weight in broiler starter diets. Both MetS had the same relative effectiveness on the performance of broilers when supplemented with equimolar amounts in diets.
 
Two floor pen trials were conducted to determine the digestible sulfur amino acid (SAA) requirement of male turkeys for the periods of 83 to 92 days and 106 to 116 days. The experiments were designed using 48 pens allowing eight treatments of six replicate pens using a randomized block design. For the 83 to 92 day period, 192 toms were sorted by weight and assigned a treatment. Digestible SAA levels ranged from 3.5 to 5.9 g/kg of diet. For the 106 to 116 day period, 144 toms were sorted by weight and assigned a treatment. Digestible SAA levels ranged from 3.0 to 5.0 g/kg of diet. These levels were obtained by titrating synthetic methionine into a low protein diet. The other synthetic amino acids were added back to the low protein diet at levels sufficient to provide growth similar to a positive control diet. The positive controls for the periods were standard corn, soybean meal, and meat meal diets based on NRC (1994) recommendations. Performance parameters measured for the trial were body weight gain and feed conversion. Parts yield of birds on the second trial were also taken with no significant differences between SAA levels found. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by splined regression analysis. The digestible SAA requirements for body weight gain and feed conversion of male turkeys are 3.9 and 4.0 g/kg for the 83 to 92 day period and 3.7 and 3.4 g/kg for the 106 to 116 day period, respectively.
 
Two floor pen trials were conducted using turkey toms in order to determine the digestible lysine requirement for the 72 to 83 and 84 to 95 day feeding periods. Prior to the studies, birds were fed a typical corn, soybean meal (SBM) and porkmeal based diet. At the beginning of each trial, birds were weighed and sorted into 48 floor pens in a curtain-sided building. Dietary treatments for the first experiment included eight levels of digestible lysine ranging from 0.54 to 0.75% and from 0.44 to 0.65% in the second experiment. A positive control treatment was added at the expense of three replicates of the highest lysine level. The lysine deficient basal diet was corn, SBM, and porkmeal based with intact crude protein levels of 14.3% in the first experiment and 13.2% in the second experiment. The positive control diet was also corn, SBM and pork meal based and was formulated on a total AA basis to meet or exceed nutrient requirements set by the NRC (1994). Lysine-HCL (98.5%) was used for the titration and glutamic acid was titrated inversely to keep nitrogen levels similar. The experiments were set up as randomized complete blocks and the trial periods lasted for eleven days. Segmented regression analysis determined the digestible lysine requirement for the 72 to 83 day period to be 0.68 and 0.67% for growth and feed conversion, respectively. For the 84 to 95 day period, the digestible lysine requirement was determined to be 0.53% for optimum bodyweight gain and 0.54% for feed conversion.
 
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Crude Protein (CP), lysine and amino acid balance in male broiler diets on performance (weight gain and feed conversion, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio). Five test diet series were used: 1) the 23% CP diet; 2) the 21% CP diet; 3) the 21% CP diet plus additional amino acids (21.68% total CP) to provide at least as much of the essential amino acids as present in the 23% CP diet; 4) the 19% CP diet and 5) the 19% CP diet plus additional amino acids (20.31% total CP) to provide at least as much of the essential amino acids as present in the 23% CP diet. For each of the five test diets series, additional Lys was added to provide total Lys levels of 1.10, 1.15, 1.20, 1.25, 1.30, 1.35 and 1.40%. This resulted in a total of 35 final experimental treatments in a 5 x 7 factorial arrangement. Each treatment was fed to 6 replicate pens of 6 male broilers in electrically heated battery brooders from 1-18 days of age. Birds fed the low-protein diets (21%) supplemented with EAAs (21.68% total CP) showed significantly the highest BW and best FCR and FE. There were no significant differences in BW between birds fed control diet (23%) and 19% CP or 19% plus EAAs (20.31% total CP) and 21% CP. FC and PER were significantly affected by dietary protein levels. FCR and FE were significantly improved and BW increased significantly by increasing dietary lysine levels up to 1.25%. An interactions of CP with or without EAAs with dietary lysine level were significant for BW. FCR, FE, FC and PER not significantly influenced by interaction. Thus, our results suggest that maximum body weight could be obtained with a 21% low-CP plus EAA supplementation which was the same as that of the chicks fed high protein diet (23% CP). Optimum dietary lysine level for performance was affected by dietary protein level and amino acid balance.
 
Turkey pen trial reports (1993-2003) from several countries were analyzed statistically to determine effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii yeast outer cell wall mannan oligosccharide (MOS; Bio-Mos®, Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, Kentucky USA) supplemented diets versus negative control (nCON) or antibiotic-supplemented positive control (pCON) diets. Criteria for selecting studies were: 1) pen trial, 2) written report, 3) MOS fed for entire study period, 4) negative and/or positive control, 5) antibiotic stated (for positive control), 6) replication and 7) gender, final age and body weight (BWT) given. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality (MORT) were used when reported. Typical MOS supplemental levels were 0.10% continuous, or 0.10 and 0.05% or 0.20, 0.10 and 0.05% in step-down programs. Results were averaged "by treatments" (all comparisons) and "by trials" (comparisons averaged by trial before analysis) using Paired T-test to compare nCON and pCON means with corresponding MOS means. Slightly different answers but similar patterns emerged by these methods. Considering averages by trials, MOS diets gave the following relative changes compared to nCON diets: BWT, +2.09% (P = 0.010); FCR, -1.47% (P = 0.172); and MORT, -25.13% (P = 0.016). Relative changes in live performance using MOS diets compared to pCON diets were: BWT, -0.56% (P = 0.157); FCR, -0.26% (P = 0.502); and MORT, -15.53% (P = 0.202). The MOS diets significantly improved BWT and MORT compared to nCON diets. The mortality-lowering effect of supplemental MOS was its strongest attribute. The MOS diets gave statistically similar live performance to pCON diets.
 
Global broiler chicken pen trial reports (1993-2003) were analyzed statistically to determine effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii yeast outer cell wall mannan oligosaccharide (MOS; Bio-Mos®, Alltech, Nicholasville, Kentucky USA) supplemented diets versus negative control (nCON) or antibiotic-supplemented positive control (pCON) diets. Criteria for selecting studies were: 1) pen trial, 2) written report, 3) MOS fed for entire study period, 4) negative and/or positive control, 5) antibiotic stated (for positive control), 6) replication and 7) age, body weight (BWT) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) given. Mortality (MORT) was used when reported. Results were averaged "by treatments" (all comparisons) and "by trials" (comparisons averaged by trial before analysis) using Paired T-test to compare nCON and pCON means with corresponding MOS means. Slightly different answers but similar patterns emerged by these methods. Considering results averaged by trials, MOS diets gave the following relative improvements compared to nCON diets: BWT, +1.61%; FCR, -1.99% and MORT, -21.4 (all significant at P = 0.020). Relative improvements using MOS feeds compared to the pCON diets were: BWT, -0.36% and FCR, -0.11% (P = 0.473; nonsignificant differences). The MOS diets significantly (P = 0.008) lowered mortality (-18.10%) relative to pCON diets, indicating a strong beneficial effect. The MOS diets produced BWT and FCR comparable to those of pCON diets but significantly lowered MORT compared to antibiotic diets. Currently recommended optimal MOS levels of addition for broiler chicken feeds are: 0.2%, 0 to 7 days; 0.1%, 7 to 21 days and 0.05%, 21 to 42 days (or market).
 
A retrospective study was conducted to determine the causes of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in Zimbabwe for the period 1999-2005. Records of meat inspection available at the single ostrich abattoir in Zimbabwe were used in this study. The number of ostriches slaughtered for the whole study period was 55 957. The total number of ostriches slaughtered decreased by 84.8% from 1999-2005. The average age and weight at slaughter were 11 months and 110 kg respectively. The liver was the most frequently condemned organ, mainly due to fatty degeneration, parasitic infestations, cysts, cirrhosis and melanosis. The second most condemned organ was the lung, mainly due to congestion. Traumatic lesions were the main macroscopic findings associated with wing and neck condemnations, while abscessation and pericarditis were mainly associated with gizzard and heart condemnations respectively. Septicaemia was the only cause of whole carcass condemnations and resulted in the condemnation of 0.005% of the slaughtered ostriches. Only a year effect was noted on liver condemnations, which peaked during 2004 and 2005 mainly involving months from May to August. The rest of the condemnations showed neither a month or year effect. No zoonotic causes of condemnations were recorded. Optimal management practices on the farm and observation of proper methods during transportation and slaughtering are some of the ways that may be used to reduce incidences of condemnations.
 
cecal_tonsil, 3DPI. Edema, hyperemia, hemorrhage, necrosis of lymphoid cells and lymphoid depletion (H and E, ×200) Discussion The results of this study confirm the systemic spread of highly pathogenic influenza virus A/duck/Viet nam/12/2005 in turkeys. This virus affects organs particularly lungs, brain and spleen and the infection is not limited to intestinal tract or respiratory tract. Since infected poultry is the source of virus for mammalians, humans and birds, early detection and control of this disease in poultry is mandatory to avoid expansion of the virus in the environment and reduce the risk of viral transmission to human and other mammals (Horimoto and kawaoka, 2001). It had been generally considered that avian influenza viruses characterized as highly pathogenic in chickens did not cause clinical disease or death in ducks or wild aquatic bird (Swayne, 1997; Suarez, 2000) but in turkey cause clinical signs and deaths. Specific histopathologic description for experimental studies vary with individual viruses as a results of variations in inoculums doses, species and strain of bird, rout of inoculation and passage history of the virus. Basically, the histological lesion consists of multi organ necrosis and/or inflammation. The most consistent and severely affected organs were lung, brain, pancreas and cecal tonsils. Earlier studies showed that the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses that were fatal in chicken could replicate in the intestinal tract without showing signs of disease i n ducks. Systemic replication of AIV in chickens and turkeys largely defined by the presence of multiple basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin cleavage site. Despite this molecular conformity among H5 and H7 HPAI viruses, considerable variation has been observed in the pathogenicity and transmissibility of these viruses i n different avian species, even within the avian order Galliformes. For example, the A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (H5N9) influenza virus is moderately pathogenic for chickens and quail, highly pathogenic in turkeys and apathogenic in pheasants, pigeons and ducks. Because of the differences in virulence of AIV demonstrated in domesticated avian species, it is important to consider possible ramifications of interspecies transmission of influenza viruses when different poultry species are  
The aim of present study was to identify the clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings in turkeys experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/duck/Vietnam/12/2005 (H5N1). Specific pathogens free of white turkeys having 6 weeks old were inoculated with 0.1 mL of the virus with 10<sup>5</sup> EID<sub>50</sub>. Death was event at 3 DPI. Gross lesions observed after necropsy were splenomegaly, pulmonary edema, severe congestion in lungs, hyperemia in brain as well as cecal-tonsil and congestion in skeletal muscle. Histopathological finding were multi organ necrosis and/or inflammation. The most consistent and severely affected organs were spleen, lungs, brain, pancreas and cecal-tonsil. It would be worth to mention that the lungs and spleen were most affected organs, among the others grossly and histopathologically, However to our knowledge, this is the first description of histopathological finding of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Duck/Vietnam/12/2005 (H5N1) in turkey.
 
There were 308 HPAI cases in wild birds, most of them in Germany and 13 HPAI outbreaks in poultry, with clear spatial and temporal infectious patterns. Grebes, swans, ducks, chickens and turkeys got most frequently infected. The United Kingdom, Czech Republic and Germany hosted many viral incursions.
 
A study was conducted to estimate the demand for egg and poultry meat for India in 2020. Income elasticities were calculated separately for urban and rural areas using National Sample Survey (NSS) data and were used to project demand for each of the five income groups within urban and rural areas. The results revealed a relatively strong growth for egg and poultry meat both in the urban and rural areas in the next two decades. Egg consumption was found to grow at a much faster pace than poultry meat with the rise in income and nearly triples by 2020. Similarly, average per capita poultry meat consumption was found to increase from 0.69 to 1.28 kilograms during the same period. Overall, the study reports the total egg consumption to increase from 34 billion in 2000 to 106 billion in 2020 and total poultry meat consumption to increase from 687 million kilograms to 1,674 million kilograms during the same time period.
 
This study estimates the demand for chicken meat for Mexico in 2025. Expenditure elasticities are calculated separately for ten income groups using national household survey data for the period 1984 to 2002. The results reveal that lower income groups will increase their chicken meat consumption in the future at a much higher rate than the upper income groups with the rise in income. Overall, the total chicken meat consumption is projected to increase by 70 percent in the next two decades. This translates into average annual growth of 3.5 percent which is much smaller than the current annual production growth of more than 8 percent. Based on these projections, it is very likely that Mexico will remain as either a small importer or self-sufficient in chicken meat in the future.
 
A trial was conducted to observe potential changes in turkey poults reared to 21 d by feeding diets with naturally occurring mycotoxins. Two sources of corn, one each with Aflatoxin (AFL) and Deoxynevalenol (DON), were obtained. Treatments (T) were: 1) clean corn (C), 2) AFL (A), 3) DON (D) and 4) ½A+½D (AD). A marker (celite, 1.5%) was added for 21 d AMEn determination. A basal ration with ingredients except corn was mixed. The basal and corn were mixed for T feeds. Feed was pelleted and crumbled. Male poults were placed into 24 pens in petersyme batteries (7 birds/pen; 6 pens/T). Feed consumption, by pen and BW were determined by wk. At 21 d, birds were euthanized. Heart (H), spleen (S), gizzard (G), liver (L) and bursa of fabricious (B) were weighed and Breast Muscle (BM) collected for color analysis. Light microscopic analysis of H&E stained L, B and S were performed to assess histopathological changes. One bird per pen was injected IV with 7% SRBC on d 7 and 14. Serum Albumin (SA) and Antibody Production (AB) were determined at 11, 14, 18 and 21 d (1 bird/pen). Data were analyzed using GLM (p<0.05). The D feed had 1.7 ppm DON, A had 97 ppb AFL and AD had an even mixture. Poults fed D and AD gained less to 21 d than C or A (456, 454 v 486, 502±12 g). D fed birds had the lowest feed consumption versus C, A, or AD (648 v 691, 701, 677±16 g). Poults fed AD had the highest feed:gain versus C, A and D (1.50 v 1.42, 1.45, 1.44±0.02). The AMEn (kcal/kg) at 21 d was increased for D (2,894) fed poults while for A (2,696) fed poults it was reduced versus C (2,767; AD = 2,758±29). Relative (R) S weight of D (0.11) fed birds was reduced versus A (0.14) but not C or AD (0.12, 0.13±0.006 g/g). The RL weight of birds fed A (2.26) and AD (2.52) were reduced versus C (2.68±0.07g/g). The A fed birds had reduced SA (by OD). Mortality, RH, RB and RG weights, G score and BM colors were not affected. There were no differences in AB. The L of the A fed birds had hepatic parenchyma with diffuse degenerative changes. The hepatocytic nuclei were swollen and had condensed nucleoli. Some hepatic cords had hepatocyte necrosis. There was some sinusoidal congestion with dilatation/congestion of few central veins. These lesions were suggestive of aflatoxin toxicity. The effects of AFL and DON in this study were reflective of what has been reported in the literature. Feeding naturally occurring mycotoxins to poults can be used as a model to study interventions.
 
The injection of marinade into fresh poultry products can result in a buildup of pathogens in the marinade solution due to recirculation of the marinade through the pump and holding tank. Therefore, poultry processors are constantly searching for new ways to sanitize the recirculated marinade to eliminate the possibility of pathogens being injected into fresh poultry products. In an effort to solve this potential hazard, a fresh sample (20 gallons) of a typical poultry injection marinade was collected from a USDA-inspected commercial poultry processing facility and was shipped overnight, under refrigerated conditions, to MCA Services (Rogers, AR). Upon arrival at the laboratory, the marinade was inoculated with an overnight cocktail of Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria innocua to a level of 6.3 logs per mL (colony forming units). The inoculated marinade was then passed through a Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 210 ultraviolet light system (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) for 56 minutes (flow rate = 20 gallons per minute and turnover time = 1 minute). Samples were collected after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 40, 48 and 56 passes through the ultraviolet light system. Marinade samples were plated on Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™<SUP>3</SUP> to determine microbial reductions by time and number of passes. Typical linear reductions were as follows: 2.5 logs at 2 passes (2 minutes), 3.5 logs at 16 passes (16 minutes), 4.7 logs at 40 passes (40 minutes) and 6.3 logs at 56 passes (56 minutes). Thus, in less than 60 minutes, the ultraviolet light system completely eliminated (> 99.9999%) all Salmonella and Listeria from the marinade. In conclusion, the commercially available Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 210 ultraviolet light system (FDA regulated under 21 CFR 179.39) offers the poultry industry a very effective, reliable and inexpensive means for controlling or eliminating spoilage organisms and pathogens of concern in poultry marinades.
 
Threonine is considered to be the third limiting amino acid for broiler chicks fed low protein corn-soybean meal diets. Very limited information is available on the requirement of the threonine for broilers. The aim of this study was to determine the threonine requirements of broiler chickens from 22-42 days of age. Seventy five Ross 308 one-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into five dietary treatment groups of similar mean weight, comprising 15 birds each. They were fed a basal starting diet containing 23% CP, 3200 ME kcal/kg, 0.81% threonine and 1.24% lysine for first 3 weeks. Chicks were randomly assigned to five treatments involving 0.70, 0.75, 0.80, 0.85 and 0.90% of total threonine for 21 days (between 22-42 days). Results indicated that a linear response to dietary threonine for final body weight, body weight gain and threonine intake occurred in experiment but other live performance parameters were not impacted by dietary threonine. Our results suggest that the current NRC recommendation of 0.74% threonine for 3-6 week old broilers is adequate to support comparable growth performance.
 
Due to the recirculation process used in poultry injection procedures, the potential hazard of a buildup of naturally occurring organisms and potential pathogens in recirculated marinade poses a concern to the poultry industry. Thus, a study was designed to investigate the possibility of alleviating this problem. A typical poultry marinade (40 gallons) was formulated in the laboratory in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions using chicken powder, sodium chloride and sodium phosphate dissolved in potable water. A sample of the marinade solution was collected and microbiologically evaluated using Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™<SUP>3</SUP> to determine an initial bacterial count. The marinade solution was then allowed to circulate in a Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 220 ultraviolet light system (Safe Foods Corporation, N. Little Rock, AR) for 1 minute (flow rate = 40 gallons per minute and solution turnover time = 1 minute) to determine microbial reductions in the naturally occurring microflora. The initial microbial count of the marinade was 3.6 logs per mL (colony forming units). After 1 minute of ultraviolet light treatment, the level of naturally occurring microflora was reduced to 1 log representing a 99.7% reduction. The marinade solution was then inoculated with an overnight culture of Listeria innocua to achieve a total level of bacteria in the marinade of 5.0 logs per mL. The inoculated marinade was then treated with the Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 220 ultraviolet light system for a period of 30 minutes. A sample of the marinade solution was collected every minute during the 30-minute test period and was plated on Aerobic Plate Count Petrifilm™<SUP>3</SUP> to determine bacterial reductions over time. After only 1 minute (1 pass through the system), the total level of organisms in the marinade solution was reduced by 1.5 logs, after 5 minutes (5 passes) by > 3 logs, and by 9 minutes (9 passes) by > 4 logs indicating no recovery of organisms (the lower detection level was 1 log per mL). There was no recovery of organisms at any further treatment time. Thus, in less than 10 minutes of ultraviolet light treatment, the Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 220 ultraviolet light system was capable of achieving a 4 log reduction in total organisms (primarily Listeria innocua ) in the poultry marinade solution. This represents a 99.99% reduction. In conclusion, the commercially available Fresh Light <SUP>®</SUP> 220 ultraviolet light system (FDA regulated under 21 CFR 179.39) provides the processor with a very cost effective means of controlling and eliminating the incidence and levels of Listeria innocua in poultry marinades.
 
An experiment was conducted using 300 growing Ross 308 broilers from 23 to 40 days of age. Six dietary treatments were formulated. A basal diet contained 1.48% Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) was used as a control diet (diet 1). Diets 2 and 3 contained 50% and 25% of the DCP of diet 1 (0.74 and 0.37%, respectively), while diet 4 was formulated without DCP. Diets 3 and 4 were fed without or with supplemented phytase enzyme (500 U/kg). Every dietary treatment was fed to 5 replicates (10 chicks each). The results showed no significant differences between birds fed diets containing 1.48 % DCP or 0.74% DCP on BWG, FI and FCR. Reducing dietary DCP level to 0.37% slightly decreased BWG compared with birds fed 0.74% DCP with inferior value of FCR. When DCP was removed from the diet BWG significantly (p<0.01) decreased and FCR recorded worth value. Addition of 500 U phytase/kg to diet 3 of 0.37% DCP significantly enhanced BWG (p<0.01), feed intake and FCR (p<0.05). Addition of phytase to the diet of no DCP did improve neither BWG nor FCR. Decreasing dietary DCP did not significantly affect length, weights and width of tibia either with or without phytase supplementation. However, birds fed the highest level of dietary DCP showed the highest values of tibia weight and length among the different groups. Tibia breaking strength (kgf) significantly (p<0.001) decreased as dietary DCP level decreased. Addition of phytase significantly (p<0.001) improved tibia breaking strength and tibia ash %. Addition of phytase to diet of low DCP did increase tibia Ca and P to reach values comparable with those of the control diet. Decreasing dietary DCP showed significant (p<0.001) decrease in the excreted Ca and P. Addition of phytase to diets of low or no DCP also decreased (p<0.001) the excreted Ca and P. This means that phytase increased the utilization of dietary Ca and P. The excreted Ca and P decreased by 41.22% and 55.26%, respectively, when birds were fed diet of no DCP compared to those fed the control diet. Also, addition of phytase enzyme to diets of low or no DCP decreased the excreted percentage of Ca and P. It could be concluded that reducing dietary P level and using phytase enzyme could be used to limit quantity of P excreted from broilers. This reduce such impact in environmental pollution.
 
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different feed restriction regimes during the starter stage (14-21 days) on productivity and carcass characteristics of male and female Ross 308 chickens. A 3 (feeding levels: ad-libitum intake , 50% ad-libitum intake and 75% ad-libitum intake) x 2 (male and female chickens) factorial arrangement in a complete randomized design was used. Feed restriction affected (p<0.05) live weight of chickens at the age of 21 days and male chickens were heavier (p<0.05) than females at the same age. Chickens on 75% ad libitum feeding attained complete compensation in live weight at 42 days of age while those on 50% ad libitum feeding did not. However, male chickens attained higher (p<0.05) live weights than female chickens at 42 days of age. It is suggested that 75% ad libitum restriction feeding during the starter stage from 14 up to 21 days of age may offer some economic advantage over ad-libitum feeding regimen, mainly by enhancing feed utilization. It may, therefore, be a useful nutritional strategy to reduce the cost of commercial starter grain based-diets.
 
The study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary energy level and tanniniferous Acacia karroo leaf meal level of supplementation at finisher stage on performance and carcass characteristics of male and female Ross 308 broiler chickens. Three hundred and sixty, 21 days old male and female broiler chickens were assigned to twelve treatments with three replications of ten birds in a 2 (sex) x 3 (dietary energy level) x 3 (tanniniferous Acacia karroo leaf meal level) factorial, complete randomized design. Supplementation with Acacia karroo leaf meal had no effect on diet intake, digestibility and live weight of broiler chickens. However, supplementation with 9 and 12 g of Acacia karroo leaf meal per kg DM feed reduced fat pad weights in male broiler chickens by 26 and 29% points, respectively. Similarly, supplementation with 9 and 12 g of Acacia karroo leaf meal per kg DM feed reduced fat pad weights in female chickens by 26% points. These reductions were achieved without any significant reduction in feed intake and digestibility. However, the physiological explanation for this effect is not clear and it, thus, merits further investigation.
 
The effects of sex, level and period of feed restriction during the starter period on productivity and carcass characteristics of Ross 308 broiler chickens were evaluated. A 2 (male and female chickens) x 3 (feeding levels: Ad-libitum , 75% and 50% of ad libitum ) x 3 (restriction periods of 5, 7 and 9 days) factorial arrangement in a complete randomized design was used. The effects of interactions were not included in the results because earlier analyses including all the interactions showed that they were not important. Level and period of feed restriction during the starter stage had an effect (P<0.05) on live weight of the chickens at 21 days of age. Chickens on 75% ad libitum feeding attained complete live weight compensation with those on Ad-libitum feeding at the age of 42 days. However, chickens on 50% ad libitum feeding did not ‘catch-up’ with those on ad libitum feeding. Differences due to the period of feed restriction during the starter stage were maintained up to the age of 42 days. Male chickens had higher (P<0.05) live weights at 42 days of age. Abdominal fat pad was not affected (P>0.05) by level and period of feed restriction and sex of chickens at 42 days of age.
 
A 5 x 2 factorial arrangement of five protein levels with and without Peptiva was conducted to evaluate the effect of Peptiva on performance, egg composition, egg solids, and egg quality of commercial Leghorns. Hy-line W-36 hens (n=1200, 98 weeks old) were randomly divided into 10 dietary treatments (8 replicates of 15 hens per treatment). The experiment lasted 12 weeks. Protein had a significant effect on feed consumption, egg weight, egg production, egg mass, egg specific gravity, egg albumen solids, and percent egg components. As dietary protein increased from 13.53 to 15.62%, egg production, feed consumption and egg weight increased by 6.14%, 8.2% and 5.18% respectively. Feed consumption of hens fed the diets supplemented with Peptiva was significantly lower than that of hens fed the diets without Peptiva. Peptiva supplementation also significantly increased egg production of hens during week 98 and numerically higher in week 99, 103, 105, 106, 107, 109 and overall egg production. There was also a significant effect of peptiva on egg mass and feed conversion during first week but the significant effects were lost after second week.Peptiva significantly decreased feed intake without causing any adverse effects on egg weight and egg production. eptiva might be more beneficial for young hens. More research is needed with oung hens to evaluate performance and profits of commercial layers at different egg and ingredient prices.
 
A total of 240 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens were fed 5 experimental diets in this experiment to determine dietary Ca requirement. Limestone was added to the basal diet containing 2800 kcal of ME/kg and 16.5% CP to produce 2.60, 3.00, 3.40, 3.80, and 4.20% Ca contents. This experiment lasted from 46 to 62 week of age. Increasing dietary Ca from 0.28 to 0.42% had a quadratic effect on egg production, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion, and egg shell weight. With increasing dietary Ca bone strength linearly increased. Based on quadratic regression, dietary Ca requirements for maximum egg production and egg mass, and the best feed conversion were 3.52, 3.54, and 3.62%, respectively. Dietary Ca requirement for white laying hens from 46 to 62 weeks of age was 3.56% in the diet or 4.0 g Ca per hen daily with the average ambient temperature of 21.65<SUP>o</SUP>C.
 
Poor management practices may result in poultry having inadequate drinking water for prolonged periods and consequently adverse haematological effects. The effects of water deprivation for up to 48 hours on osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, plasma osmolarity and erythrocyte indices was investigated in eighteen, female Guinea fowl. Six birds had drinking water ad libitum and the other 12 were deprived of drinking water for up to 48 hours. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility was determined in serially diluted phosphate buffered saline. Deprivation of drinking water significantly (p < 0.05, ANOVA) decreased body mass (-7.9 ± 2.4% and -12.8 ± 3.2%, after 24 and 48 hours, respectively) but did not (p > 0.05) affect erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Water deprivation significantly (p < 0.05) increased plasma osmolarity and PCV but decreased the MCV. However, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the osmolarities, PCVs and MCVs of the birds deprived of drinking water for 24 hours compared to those deprived for 48 hours.
 
In order to investigate the effects of locally grown red pepper on egg-yolk colour and egg production in laying hens, twelve diets based on white corn and wheat grain were supplemented by various amounts of red pepper and artificial colouring pigments, and offered to 96 layer hens for 13 weeks from the beginning of the laying circle. The characteristics of egg production and egg-yolk colour were examined under the influence of dietary treatments. The present results showed that egg weight, daily feed intake and egg yield did not significantly differ between the experimental diets, indicating that red chilli can be used as an alternative feed ingredient in layer diet with no significant alterations in the bird performance. Furthermore, the highest colour pigmentation were obtained from the diets ( wheat + yellow corn) with 3.0 and 4.0% red chilli added whereas the lowest colour pigmentation was obtained from the diets (white corn + no wheat) with no chilli or artificial pigments. The most preferred colour pigmentation by the customer was obtained from the diets of 25% yellow corn and 32.4% wheat to which 0.5% red chilli added. Increasing amount of the red chilli in the yellow corn and wheat based diets resulted in an increasing reddish colour pigmentation of egg-yolk. On the other hand, we could not measure the colour of pigmentation by RCF scale of the diets containing only white corn (around 55%) in which the amount of the red chilli ranged from 2.0 to 4.0%. The addition of 0.30 and 0.25% artificial pigments to the diets of white corn and the diets of yellow corn + wheat resulted in optimum colour pigmentation. Although we did not test the interaction effects between the artificial pigments and red chilli on the egg-yolk colour pigmentation, the results suggested that an appropriate combination of artificial and natural colour pigments can be used to obtain optimum egg-yolk colour pigmentation. In short, the red chilli of 4th harvest, which is not suitable for human consumption, did not adversely alter the laying performance, and additionally the use of red chilli as a potential natural colour pigment caused to an optimum egg-yolk colour, especially at the rate of 0.5% in the layer diet.
 
The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers were investigated in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels (Low = 15.6, Moderate = 21.1, High = 26.7<SUP>o</SUP>C) of temperatures from d 21-56 d of age and 3 levels (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) of light intensities from 8-56 d of age at 50% RH. Five hundred and forty Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 males and 30 females chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum . Birds were provided a four phase-feeding program (starter: 1 to 14 d, grower: 15-28 d, finisher: 29-42 d and withdrawal: 43-56 d). At 56 d of age, both feed intake and birds’ weight were recorded for the growth performance. Also, 20 (10 males and 10 females) birds from each chamber were processed to determine weights and yields. Broilers subjected to high ambient temperature of 26.7<SUP>o</SUP>C had significantly (P < 0.05) lower BW, BWG, FI, carcass weight and pectoralis major and minor weights along with a significant (P < 0.05) increased in FCR when compared with low and moderate ambient temperatures broilers. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were not statistically affected by temperature, light intensity or their interaction, suggesting an absence of stress. These results indicate that exposure of modern heavy weight broilers to high ambient temperature of 26.7<SUP>o</SUP>C in comparison with low and moderate ambient temperatures has a negative effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics, suggesting that they need to be grown under lower ambient temperature than previously reported.
 
The goal of this project is to identify the genes encoding M. gallisepticum F-strain surface proteins recognized by specific antibody reagents to characterize the individual role of each gene product in host colonization. Here we report the characterization of a 70-kDa surface protein recognized by monoclonal antibody 6F10. The surface protein was gel isolated and digested with trypsin for evaluation with mass spectrometry. The results showed that 19 out of the 21 tryptic peptides matched with proteins of the vlhA lipoprotein family. We suggest that monoclonal antibody 6F10 is specific for the predominantly expressed vlhA protein (formerly pMGA) of the F-strain of M. gallisepticum.
 
The effect of early heat stress either solely or plus feed restriction on the physiological response, antibody titer and hepatic 70-kda heat shock protein expression (HSP 70) of two body weight lines (high and low) Japanese quail chicks were investigated. Chicks of each line were divided into three groups; (1)control, (2) exposure to 39±1°C for six hour (h), form 5 to 21 day of age (DOA) on each of three consecutive d/week (HS) and (3) HS concurrent with 70% feed restriction (HSFR). The results showed that quail chicks of either HS or HSFR exhibited significantly higher respiration rate (RR) compared with the control. While, the rectal temperature (RT) was reduced at 21 DOA, in the HSFR group. The plasma concentrations of total protein, globulin, total lipid, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose were decreased due to HS or HSFR episode. Likewise, the level of both calcium and phosphorus at 21 DOA. However, at 42 DOA, the HS chicks did not significantly differ from the control. The activities of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were increased (p&≤0.05) in treated groups (HS and HSFR) at 21 DOA. Either HS or HSFR showed low Newcastle disease antibody titer and a decrease in relative lymphoid organ weights. Unlike the antibody titer, the H/L ratio was increased in the HS chicks. After heat exposure, HSP 70 density of the high body weight line was immediate and pronounced. The combination of heat stress and feed restriction (HSFR) induced even higher response. While in the low body weight line neither the control nor the heat stress treatment showed any response. Chicks of either HS or HSFR had significantly lower live body weight (LBW) and body weight gain (BWG) and poorer fed conversion ratio (FCR) than the control ones. However, during the recovery period (21 to 42 DOA) the HSFR group was the best (p<0.01) for BWG and FCR. The high line body weight chicks showed significantly higher plasma level of total protein, albumin, globulin and cholesterol at 21 and 42 DOA than the low line. Similarly, higher antibody titers against NDV and productive performance traits throughout the experimental period.
 
In this study selected biochemical (cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides, calcium, inorganic phosphorus) and haematological parameters (erythrocytes and leucocytes count, heamatocrit) in blood of turkeys, BIG 6 breed, after probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M-74 administration added to the feed mixture and drinking water during 12 weeks of feeding were analyzed. Animals were divided into three groups: control and two experimental groups P1 and P2. Preparation with Enterococcus faecium M-74 5.10<sup>9</sup> CFU (colonies forming units) in amount of 300g/1000kg (0.03%) to the feed mixture of P1 group was supplemented. Animals in group P2 received probiotic preparation from the drinking water (structured doses from 2.10<sub>8</sub> to 30.10<sub>8</sub> daily for animal according to age and live weight).The lowest concentration of total lipids in control group 4.79 ± 0.30mmol/L was found as compared with values 4.91 ± 0.34mmol/L in P1 group and 5.34 ± 0.48mmol/L in the P2 group. The highest average concentration of triglycerides in the control group 3.38 ± 0.09mmol/L was observed. In the experimental groups the concentration of this parameter was significantly lower (2.74 ± 0.10mmol/L in P1 group and 2.75 ± 0.21mmol/L in P2 group). The lowest average concentration of cholesterol 3.73 ± 0.11mmol/L was detected in control group, followed by 3.77 ± 0.19mmol/L in P1 and 3.78 ± 0.29mmol/L in P2 group. The highest values of calcium and inorganic phosphorus were found in control group (2.44 ± 0.03mmol/L and 1.81 ± 0.09mmol/L). Slightly higher values without significant differences in both experimental groups were found. In the case of haematological parameters any significant differences were found in erythrocytes and leucocytes count and haematocrit.
 
At the present study, a comparison was done between the natural mating and the A.I. in Mazandran native hen. 100 females and 10 males were randomly selected from the native hen flock, one male was determined per each ten females. First the natural mating was done between the flock. Each female’s egg was determined using trap nest and each individual female and males chicken&apos;s number was counted at the end of the test. The male were removed from the boxes for insemination and then the males were ready for collecting the semen. The abdominal rubbing of the males were done by using the Burous method and the resulting semen were immediately diluted using the low fat milk and 0.1cc of semen was inseminated to each female and the insemination was reported after each six days. The egg collecting stage and the stages following the same as the natural mating. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference between the fertility and hatchability traits of these two models (p>0.36). Yet the A.I. helped to mate the males and females having no mating will and thus the hatchability percentage increased. On the other hand, the male<SUP>&apos;</SUP>s keeping cost decreased.
 
A study of six farms each randomly selected from each of five local government areas of Abak agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom State, Southeastern Nigeria, was conducted to assess on-farm prevalence and management of poultry coccidiosis. The study, which involved scrutiny of farm and clinical records, distribution of structured and pre-tested questionnaires to elicit relevant data, showed that in the previous 12 months, 3,327 (29.36%) birds out of 11,333 encountered in the 30 farms suffered from coccidiosis. Overall mortality rate was 2.63%. The highest prevalence rates were recorded in the rainy season (12.7%), among birds managed in deep litter (26.69%), birds 1-5 weeks old (18.75%), layers (22.29%) and Harco strain (26.42%). Sixty percent of the farms consulted veterinarians for diagnosis and treatment especially at first incidence while 34.94% indulged in self-diagnosis. Good sanitary and hygiene practices were being employed in 50% of the farms as the major preventive measure. Combined administration of anticoccidial drugs and removal of litter (43.33%) ranked highest as control measure. Continued veterinary education and extension services are needed in the area to update the knowledge of the farmers especially on the benefits of vaccination, dangers of self-diagnosis and adoption of an integrated approach involving good hygienic practices and use of both drugs and vaccines in disease prevention.
 
In broiler chickens we tested the hypothesis that dietary fats rich in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) would diminish abdominal fat deposition as do fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Broiler chickens were fed on diets containing either tallow, which is rich in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA), soybean oil, which is rich in PUFA, or krabok oil, which is rich in MCT. Krabok oil was isolated from the seeds of a tree ( Irvingia malayana ) grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas. Growth performance was not significantly affected by the type of dietary fat. Possibly, the production of krabok oil for use in broiler rations may become economically relevant. The diets containing either soybean oil or krabok oil showed a significantly higher apparent fat digestibility than did the diet containing tallow. In keeping with earlier investigations, dietary soybean oil versus tallow significantly lowered abdominal fat deposition, the lowering being 21%. The feeding of krabok oil instead of tallow did not affect the weight of abdominal fat, which would lead to rejection of our hypothesis.
 
The study investigated the effects of photoperiod and nutrient density on the performance and abdominal fat of broilers. Treatments consisted of a factorial arrangement of two diets containing 3200kcal/kg ME and 23% Protein and 2800kcal/kg ME and 18% Protein administered to broilers under either 12hour light per day, 8hour light per day or 6 hour light per day for 8 weeks. Results at market age showed that no significant interactions existed between nutrient density and photoperiod for feed intake, body weight gain and feed gain ratio (P > 0.05, P > 0.01). Also no significant interactions existed between factors for protein retention, fat utilization, available fibre, abdominal fat and cost to benefit ratio (P > 0.05, P > 0.01). Broilers subjected to low nutrient density diets experienced reduction in body weight gain and poorer feed to gain ratio (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). There was significant reduction in feed intake and abdominal fat of broilers exposed to only 6 hours of light per day as against the usual 12 hours of light per day (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). It was concluded that no meaningful interactions existed between nutrient density and photoperiod with respect to broilers performance. However, reducing photoperiod to 6 hours per day could be used as a tool for reducing abdominal fat hence, reducing sudden death syndrome and upgrading carcass quality of broilers.
 
Counts of bacterial groups in processed cracked and un-cracked eggs
Cracked eggs are eggs with cracks on the surfaces of egg shells. The procedure in developed countries is usually to divert eggs with cracks, chips or breaks (which encourage bacteria to pass through the shell) away from the human food supply. But in developing countries such as Nigeria, they are sorted and sold at about half the prices of whole un-cracked eggs. The presence of cracks on egg shells was found to significantly (P < 0.05) increase the load of bacterial groups such as salmonellae, pseudomonads, staphylococci and coliforms examined. No organisms were isolated from un-cracked egg samples at purchase. Salmonellae were not detected in samples of cracked on days one and two; neither were they found in the un-cracked eggs throughout the experiment. A total of 17 bacterial isolates belonging to 13 genera were identified from the samples. Bacillus licheniformis and Micrococcus spp were only isolated from the shells while Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhii, Serratia spp., Shigella spp, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus feacalis were isolated from cracked eggs alone. Aeromonas, Alcaligenes Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus were found on both eggs and the shells of samples examined. No organisms were isolated from cakes baked with both cracked and un-cracked egg samples. Steaming for 20 to 30 minutes was effective in removing pseudomonads and staphylococci but not coliforms while steaming for 30 minutes totally removed salmonellae from un-cracked egg samples. It was observed that frying did not remove any of the groups of bacteria examined from the egg samples. Based on the findings in this study, the use of cracked eggs for baking purposes alone is recommended.
 
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Park Waldroup
  • University of Arkansas
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Sandro Cerrate
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