An efficient embryogenesis and direct regeneration protocol for commercial sugarcane cultivar Co 0239 was optimized to obtain embryogenic callus and direct regeneration of plantlets from immature leaf discs. Callus induction was achieved on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4 D) in combination with kinetin, abscisic acid, proline, maltose, sucrose and coconut water. Medium containing 2, 4-D (4 mg/l), maltose (3 %), proline (500 mg/l), kinetin (1.5 mg/l) induced 80% embryogenic callus while MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.5 mg/l) , Lglutamine (100 mg /l), kinetin (2.5 mg/l), sucrose (3 %) and coconut water (10 %) enhanced 54% direct regeneration frequency from explants as compared to control. These optimized protocols for development of organogenic callus and regeneration of plantlet would be useful for conducting various gene transformation experiments in sugarcane.
Decalepis arayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandras.) Venter, which belongs to the family Apocynaceae popularly known as ‘Amruthpala’ by the native Kani tribe is a lithophytic, woody, laticiferous undershrub. The rapid pace of deforestation in the Western Ghats has decreased the number of Decalepis arayalpathra. Vegetative propagation and natural regeneration in this plant is also very difficult because of poor fruit set, seed germination and rooting on stem cuttings. Hence, it has been enlisted as a critically endangered species. As a step towards conservation, an improved and successful protocol for in vitro establishment and clonal propagation of Decalepis arayalpathra viz. Amruthpala was attempted at CIMAP- Lucknow. For effective root induction and greenhouse establishment of the plantlets, further studies on this plant was conducted with a phyllospheric bacterium Methylobacterium sp. VP103 which was isolated from the leaves of greenhouse/field established Decalepis arayalpathra KMA 05 clones and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The identified bacterium Methylobacterium sp. VP103 showed maximum pairwise similarity with Methylobacterium aminovorans. All shoot tip explants, when inoculated with this bacterium, produced greener and broader leaves as well as sturdier roots as compared to the control. The chemical profiling of the metabolites of this bacterium was also done through Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compound present with maximum area was an antibacterial compound Pyrrolo [1, 2-a] pyrazine-1, 4-dione, hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl). Another compound, 2,5-Piperazinedione, 3,6-bis (phenyl methyl ) which is reported as an antifungal compound was also observed. The compound, 1H-Purine-6-Amine,[(2-Fluorophenyl) Methyl] which is also known to play a good role in cell division and plant growth was also present. Thus, the role of this bacterium has been established as a potential biocontrol agent in promoting the growth of the plant and its survival in field conditions.
When resistant plants recognize cognate or matching elicitors, intracellular signal transduction pathways are activated that ultimately result in the derepression of a battery of genes called defence response genes. Besides alteration in several biochemical parameters leading to enhanced production of phytoalexins, deposition of callose, lignification etc., the pathogen attack is accompanied by production of several pathogenesis related (PR) proteins. However, only plant chitinases and β-1,3-glucanases have been extensively studied. Pathogenesis-related proteins including hydrolytic enzymes chitinases and β- 1,3-glucanases, have been known to be induced in plants upon infection with various pathogens. This in part is due to the immediate realization that these hydrolytic enzymes could degrade cell walls of certain fungi. These enzymes were shown to be induced in plants upon infection and some purified proteins were observed to have antifungal activity in vitro. Chitinases and glucanases have been purified and characterized from a number of plant sources. Expressions of gene encoding these enzymes have also been quantified from a variety of plant sources. Currently, there is an immense interest in delineating the molecular events from pathogen recognition to the expression of these genes. In an effort to enhance the disease resistance, PR-genes have been used to transform a variety of plant sources. There is considerable evidence showing positive correlation between the expression of PR-genes and disease resistance. The research work being carried out on the role of PR proteins in three important crop species, viz. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), rocket salad (Eruca sativa) and moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) in response to infection by fungal pathogens have been examined.
Sesuvium portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae) is a pioneer, psammophytic associate halophyte of subtropical, Mediterranean regions. It dominates coastal and warmer zones of the world. Apart from being utilized as a vegetable and forage by local people, it is also utilized for bioreclamation of saline soil in the arid and semiarid regions. Coastal soils has poor nitrogen content whereas halophytes which inhabit these areas have high protein content due to the ability to conserve nitrogen and recycle it through their body metabolism. In present investigation, Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) is used as a model system representing an associate halophyte with efficacy in Nitrogen utilization in saline conditions. The plant has adapted to nitrogen stress by evolving efficient nitrogen assimilating isoenzymes. Isoenzymes of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) are separated electrophoretically from the leaves and roots of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. Presence of Isozymes for nitrogen assimilating and distributing enzymes like GDH and AspAT indicates the physiological adaptation of plants growing in saline nitrogen deficient conditions. The same study would be extended to other important enzymes of Nitrogen metabolism to get an insight in efficacy of such halophytes to conserve available Nitrogen from saline soils and help in phytoremediation of saline soils.
Apple is the major fruit crop of the world and and is vegetatively propagated. Since vegetative propagation of apple through grafting or budding depends on availability of quality root stocks. Generally apple rootstocks are carriers of many viruses which have no control measures after they are infecting the plant. Hence in present study production of virus free clonal root stocks in apple through meristem culture was done. Apple faces many biotic stresses majorly viral diseases. In the present study protocol for micropropagation of apple root stock MM-106 was standardized using meristem as an explant. Different phytohormone combinations were tried to optimize the best combination for development of fast and efficient micropropagation protocol. Meristem was cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP alone and in combination with IBA, phloroglucinol and GA(3) for initial establishment, multiplication and rooting. Best initial establishment was observed on MS media supplemented with BAP (2 mg/l) + IBA (0.5 mg/l) + Phloroglucinol (100mg/l). Maximum number of shoots (13.0), length of shoots (9.67 cm), leaf length (3.47cm) and leaf number (15.3) was observed on MS media supplemented with BAP (1mg/l) + GA(3) (0.5 mg/l). Maximum number (16.3) and length of roots (10.20 cm) was observed on MS media supplemented with IBA (3 mg/l). Acclimatization of rooted plants was done on moist cotton for 10 - 12 days followed by vermiculite: cocopeat for four weeks. About 80% of plants survive after 6 months of transfer to the soil under polyhouse house conditions.
Cellulases are tremendously significant enzymes at both industrial and environmental level, as they perform a vital part in the earth’s carbon chain by causing breakdown of composite cellulose into simple sugar form. In this study, isolation of the cellulose degrading fungal strains was done from the soil samples collected from Banasthali Vidyapith. Fungal cultures formed hydrolysis zone on the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) agar plate after staining with 0.1% w/v Congo red dye hence, were recognized as cellulolytic fungi. Cellulolytic enzyme production was performed using submerged fermentation (SmF). Fungus exhibited relatively high cellulase activity (2.706 U/ml) after 72 h of incubation. Various culture elements for instance incubation time, carbon and nitrogen source, pH, temperature, inoculum size and agitation speed were optimized for the optimum enzyme production. The cellulase production was optimum after 72 h of incubation, when CMC and yeast extract were taken as source of carbon and nitrogen respectively at a concentration of 1.5% w/v, pH 7.0, temperature at 37 °C, inoculum size of 1.5% v/v having spore count 108 ml−1 and agitation speed of 100 rpm.
Lipase has high commercial value and attributes to various application ranges. A lipolytic fungus producing the extracellular lipase was isolated from a soil sample collected from the mustard oil processing industry. Based on 18 S rRNA sequencing, it was identified as Aspergillus eucalypticola strain CBS 122,712. In this report, the isolation, screening, identification, optimization of culture parameters, and oil stain removal application are reported. Various culture conditions were optimized and the maximum lipase activity was reported with ammonium nitrate (126.92 ± 0.03 IU/ml/min) at 25℃ after 5 days of incubation. As per our knowledge, this is the first report on optimization of culture parameters for lipase production by A. eucalypticola and crude protein lysate of A. eucalypticola in combination with detergent which can be used for lipidic stain removal and for laundry purposes.
Fenugreek [Trigonella foenum-graecum L.] is an annual herb and is largely cultivated in warm temperate and tropical regions. The analysis of genotypic as well as phenotypic correlations showed that the yield per plant had significant and positive association with plant height, primary branches per plant, secondary branches per plant, pod length, pods per axis, pods per plant, seeds per pod and test weight. The trait days to 50 per cent flowering showed significant negative correlation and days to 75 per cent maturity showed non-significant positive correlation with the yield per plant. Path co-efficient analysis revealed that high positive direct effects were exerted by traits like primary branches per plant, secondary branches per plant, pods per plant, seeds per pod and test weight. And plant height exerted moderate positive direct effect, on yield per plant. This suggests that these traits directly contribute towards yield per plant. So, importance is given for these traits during crop improvement programme to increase yield per plant.
Crop loss estimation was done under artificial condition by releasing known number of Helicoverpa armigera larvae in each treatment. The experimentation was conducted during kharif season on CSH-16 hybrid. Each treatment included separately with known number of larvae viz., 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. The stage of the larvae released was first instar during flowering, milk and both flowering and milk stages. Maximum grain yield of 101.50 g per earhead was recorded when single larvae per earhead was released and all other treatments differed significantly with each other. There was significant difference with respect to grain yield between flowering, milk and both flowering and milk stages which recorded 89.09, 91.39 and 68.39 g per earhead, respectively. Low grain yield per earhead was recorded when larvae were released at both stages i.e., flowering and milky stages as compared to larvae released once at each stage. Number of larvae released per earhead increased simultaneously reflected in reduction of grain yield.
The Enrichment Plantation of Akure Forest Reserve is one of the forests currently experiencing a17-year-long post-disturbance following deforestation and fragmentation in the country. To better understand the contribution of enrichment planting on forest regeneration and restoration, the Enrichment Plantation after 17 years of post-disturbance was examined. We studied the recruitment drive of aboveground and underbrush stands of an Enrichment plantation in a tropical forest. We assess the trees diversity, species compositions, species richness, and growth forms of the vegetations. A total of 3 (50 m × 50 m) plots were sampled with a total of 47 aboveground tree species and 45 underbrush stands from Enrichment plantation were identified. The result shows an increase in the diversity and an even distribution of the species of the aboveground forest trees, compared to the underbrush stands. Conversely, the aboveground forest trees have lower species richness as compared to the level of underbrush stands. The sapling density was significantly higher than the aboveground tree of the forest (one-way ANOVA: P < 0.05 and P = 0.000). The mean ± standard deviation of 2.41 ± 1.55 aboveground tree species was extremely low to what was obtained of tree sapling (17.55 ± 8.06) in the forest structure. It was also observed that the aboveground forest trees and underbrush stands are somewhat similar in species compositions, which implies that sapling recruitment is a key determinant of the tree species composition of the forest. It is then concluded that the method adopted for restoration encouraged species diversity in this successional forest among the aboveground trees species and underbrush.
The MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding small RNAs about 21 nucleotides in length, play an important role in physiological and biochemical processes. The evolutionary conservation or functional diversification of miRNA171 family members remains indescribable. In this study we used bioinformatics approach to show the phylogenetic relationship among miR171 precursor and mature sequences from three diverse fruit crops viz., papaya, citrus, grapes and model plant Arabidopsis. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that mature miR171 has the high conservation in their nucleotide sequences, whereas the precursor miR171 sequences evolved in a lineage specific manner. Mature miR171 are derived from multiple members of miR171 genes and regulate many aspects of plant development by modulating their target genes. Results of this study showed a lead for further in depth investigation of the functional characteristics of miRNAs in fruit crops.
The isolated Basidiomycete, Pleurotus pulmonarius, a tree mushroom was confirmed by amplification of 18S rRNA and found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive Green-19. This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Pleurotus pulmonarius in both shaking and static conditions in 1% glucose medium at pH 2- 3 range. The biodegradation was monitored by UV- Vis spectroscopy and GCMS analysis and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester- is the degradation product elected by GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy) analysis.
Potassium is the major nutrient in soils but it varies from place to place based on physico-chemical properties of soil. Potassium exists in different inorganic forms in soil viz. water soluble, exchangeable and non-exchangeable (fixed). These fractions exist in dynamic equilibrium among them which govern the K nutrition in crops and are important for the growth of higher plants and microbes. Continuous use of organic and inorganic fertilizers largely affects the status and distribution of potassium fractions which are equally important contributors to soil fertility and crop productivity. Ongoing long-term fertilizer experiment was started in the year 1995. Amongst the different K fractions, non exchangeable K was found dominant in soil. For sustainability, organic manures like FYM are important in maintaining the nutrient management under intensive cropping system.
Pithophora oedogonia (Mont.) Wittrock (1877), the filamentous green alga was studied by several workers, and contradictory reports exist on spore formation and spore germination in this alga (cf. Agrawal and Sarma, 1983 & Agrawal and Chaudhary, 1988). The present study aims at evaluating the impact of the herbicide 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) on the sporulation and akinete germination with a view to evolving strategy for the control of this algal weed causing nuisance in natural water bodies. The study revealed that 2, 4-D at concentrations ranging from 0.1-20 ppm in BBM nutrient solution or agarized medium, the initiation of sporulation showed progressive delay with concomitant decrease in the germination of akinetes. 2, 4-D at and above 30 ppm conc. proved lethal to the alga inhibiting spore formation and germination of the akinetes already developed.
Trend of Zn contamination, analyzed in the Spinacea oleracea from different field sites during 2006-2008 was in accordance of summer > winter > rain. Based on available analytical data, Zn was estimated high in vegetable of agricultural areas and low in the urban sites. Uncontrolled, unscientific applications of Zn in agricultural activity could be the reasons for increased Zn concentration in the undertaken vegetable. Soil threshold for Zn through excessive use of insecticide and fertilizers could be an important factor affecting Zn content in vegetable. Zn finally enters in vegetable by absorbing them from contaminated environment as well as from deposits on different parts exposed to air. Zn availability from above sources effect the edible parts of the vegetable and food hygiene.
Cancer is a major health problem and the second leading cause of death in the world. Modern therapies for cancer may not be accessible to patients from developing countries due to unavailability, cost, and adverse effects. Medicinal plants as alternative medicine thus become the choice of treatment given their therapeutic properties, including in Algeria, where plant based traditional medicine is frequently used to treat several cancers. To examine the use of medicinal plants as treatment for cancer by the Algerian population, the present study conducted an ethnobotanical survey. This study identified eight plant species used to treat different types of cancer including lung, blood, breast, ovarian, uterine, otorhinolaryngologic (ORL), prostate and liver cancer. The most important species used to treat these cancers were: Ephedra alata, Anabasis articulata, Taraxacum officinale and Calligonum comosum, with Anabasis articulata and Calligonum comosum being reported for the first time to treat different types of cancers. Leaves were the most commonly used part of the plant, while decoction was the main method of preparation, and oral administration was the main mode of intake. Findings from the present study suggest that the local population from different regions in Algeria maintain full knowledge about medicinal plants used for cancer treatment, particularly lung cancer. These findings highlight the need to document and preserve the traditional medicine in managing cancer. This may give more insight into future pharmacological investigations on the identified plants to determine their efficacy and safety, which would inform wider scale treatment, thereby increasing global utility.
Melilotus alba Desr., a leguminous weed, grows as a competitor in wheat fields in the district of Shahjahanpur (U.P.). In order to ascertain whether allelopathy is, in any way responsible for the growth of wheat, an attempt was made to evaluate the allelopathic effects of roots and shoots of Metilotus alba. The different concentrations of root and shoot extracts of M. alba were tested on the seed germination and seedling establishment of wheat var. (RR 21). It was observed that the seed germination was more affected by the root extracts than shoot extracts and the seedling establishment was also inhibited by root extracts. In the present investigation, a decrease in the percentage of seed germination and seedling establishment was recorded with the increasing concentration of aqueous extracts.
Pedigree method was adopted for development for Vallabh Basmati-22 and Vallabh Basmati-23, the varieties of specialty rice. The slow growing segregants of a cross P1121xType3 were selected on the basis of disease resistance and grain quality. As a consequence of evaluation of such selections in following generations the improved varieties of Basmati rice were developed. Introgression of genes for dwarfism and resistance against blast and blight diseases was evaluated in artificial epiphytotic condition followed by confirmation using respective molecular markers.
Selection of hybrids for yield is a complex procedure as it is a function of several related traits as well as their interaction with the environment. Stability in performance serves as a guiding tool for selecting high yielding maize hybrids and thus help to mitigate food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. This research was carried out to determine the performance and stability of 24 maize hybrids on the field of Teaching and Research farm of Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria during wet and dry season of 2018 along with the wet season of 2019. The trial was laid out in randomized complete block design in three replications. Data were collected on eight quantitative traits. Stability analysis according to grouping techniques, AMMI model, and GGE bi-plot were used. Genotype by environmental effect was significant (p < 0.01) for all measured traits except plant height, and also ear height. According to grouping techniques; ten hybrids were in group I (high grain-yield with low CV); three hybrids in group II (high yield with large CV); four hybrids in group III (low grain-yield with low CV); four hybrids in group IV (low grain-yield with large CV). AMMI biplot revealed that hybrids LW1701-7, LW1701-13, and LW1701-15 were high yielding, stable and adapted to raining season of 2019. However, hybrids LW1701-2, and LW1701-8 were found best in over all analysis. Biplot analysis showed that hybrids LW1701-2 and LW1701-8 are the ideal genotypes. Based on the three techniques, hybrid LWI701-2 is the most desirable genotype. Therefore, breeding programme to improve maize yield, stability, and, adaptability in South-West Nigeria should adopt hybrid LWI701-2.
Influence of four concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50 mg/kg soil) of three heavy metals viz. zinc, nickel and cadmium on the total chlorophyll content, total nitrogen content and grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. 2425) was recorded. The effect of heavy metals on these parameters varied with the level of concentration. Zinc and nickel stimulate the total chlorophyll content, total nitrogen content and grain yield at lower concentration (5, 10 mg/kg soil), however, with a further increase in zinc and nickel concentration, decrease in all the parameters was observed. Zinc was found to be more beneficial than nickel at lower concentration. Cadmium led to continuous decrease in all parameters with an increasing concentration.
Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) is a pathogen caused serious yield losses in cereals, which may become even more important due to its intrinsic adaptation and global warming. As a perennial species in Triticeae, Elymus shandongensis contains genes resistant to BYDV. The 27 molecular markers linked to BYDV resistance genes developed from Triticeae species were characterized. The 25 loci were polymorphic, and 2 loci were monomorphic in this study. The number of alleles ranged from 1 to 6. The effective number of alleles (Ne) of each primer ranged from 1 to 1.932 (mean= 1.624). The Shannon's information index (I) of each primer ranged from 0 to 0.662 (mean= 0.499), and the unbiased genetic diversity (He) ranged from 0 to 0.481 (mean= 0.353). The population from the Lingshan island (PL) showed a lower level of genetic variation (P =80.25%, I =0.477, and He =0.338), whereas the population from the surrounding areas of the Laoshan reservoir (PS†) had a higher level of genetic diversity (P =90.12%, I =0.520, and He =0.368). Four private alleles were found in PL and 1 private allele was found in PS†. The results indicated the 27 markers could be used in future genetic study of E. shandongensis that might be useful in a context of wheat breeding, germplasms conservation, finding useful resistant genotype to BYDV and adaptive evolution at resistance loci to virus in natural populations.
The wheat genotype, HD 2967 is a popular wheat variety both in North West Plain Zone and North East Plain Zone due to its high yield potential, disease resistance and grain quality parameters. It has been proposed to study the yield attributing traits associated with this genotype. HD 2967 has 98 days of heading, 143 days of maturity, 102 cm plant height, 105 productive tillers per meter along with a 1000-grain weight of 36g. HD 2967 was found superior, for traits like stomatal conductance (gs) and water use efficiency (WUE). The Assimilation rate (A) was also significantly higher than other genotypes. Traits associated with sink strength, like number of tillers, grain filling percentage per spike (91.7%), grain number per spike (59) and grain weight per spike (2.22) were also found at par with other high yielding varieties. Beside phenological and physiological characterization, anatomical features have also been studied. As anatomical traits are reported as reliable indicators of plant’s adaptive behavior to various environmental vagaries. Microscopic examination of culm transvers section revealed that HD 2967 has well developed sclerenchyma along with multilayered parenchymatous tissue, containing patches of chlorenchyma in-between. Chlorenchyma is a special type of parenchymatous tissue that contains chloroplast and contributes to enhanced photosynthetic efficiency of plant. HD 2967 also exhibited higher number of vascular bundles (48-50) which could be a major yield contributing trait as the efficiency of conductive tissue relay on lateral vascular bundles for the continuous supply of food and water. Higher value of the ratio between culm diameter to culm cavity provides better lodging resistance potential to HD 2967. Hence, an optimum combination of these physiological and anatomical traits is contributing for wider adaptability and higher yield in HD 2967.
Evaluation of RIL Population Derived from Traditional and Modern Cultivar of Wheat (C 518/2* PBW 343) for Yield Potential under Drought Stress Conditions
Present study was carried out to assess the yield potential of C518 and their potential utility in context of drought tolerance when introgressed in to a modern day wheat variety (PBW 343). These two cultivars (PBW 343 and C 518) belongs to distinct adaptation groups, offer several morpho-physiological and biochemical contrasts. C518 is tall and adapted to low input rainfed conditions whereas PBW 343 is semi-dwarf and input responsive. 175 recombinant inbred lines (C 518/2* PBW 343) along with parents and checks were evaluated for drought tolerance in account of yield potential under irrigated and rainfed environments during 2013 to 2014. Water stress was created by withholding irrigation. Different drought tolerance indices viz., stress susceptibility index, relative drought index, mean productivity, stress tolerance index, geometric mean productivity, yield stability index, drought resistance index were evaluated based on grain yield under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Out of 175 inbred lines, seven lines recorded higher grain yield under irrigated as well as rainfed environments. STI, DRI and MP showed highly significant positive correlation with yield in both stress and nonstress environments and with other drought tolerance indices. Thus application of these indices could be appropriate while screening the varieties for drought tolerance and on the basis of theses indices, the inbred lines 108, 84, 80 and 32 were found tolerance lines with high yield under both environments better than the parents...
Dry bold unhusked seeds of paddy variety ADT (R ) 47 were exposed to gamma rays (150 gy, 200 gy, 250 gy, 300 gy, and 350 gy) and with EMS (80 mM, 100 mM, 120 mM, 140 mM and 160 mM). The M4 generation comprising 652 mutants derived through pedigree selection was raised during rabi 2014. The analysis of variance for seven quantitative traits revealed that the mean sum of squares due to mutant genotypes were highly significant for all the characters studied indicating genetic variability among the mutants. Genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV) were moderate for number of productive tillers and single plant yield. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance were observed in no of productive tillers per plant and single plant yield and high heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance were recorded in the traits viz., panicle weight and 100 grain weight indicated that genetic improvement could be done by simple phenotypic selection. High heritability coupled with low genetic advance were recorded in the traits viz., days to fifty percent flowering, plant height, panicle length indicated that the traits could be exploited by heterosis breeding.
Permitted synthetic food colours and additives have become a part of food stuffs to enhance taste and flavor. Ponceau-4R has been tested for its cytotoxicity in Vicia faba and the chromosomal aberrations observed at metaphase were chromatid separation, scattered metaphase, breakage and extrusion of chromosomes which is an indication of the mutagenic risk potential of this dye, especially at higher concentration. Thus it can lead to certain cytogenetic effects on human being also.
Protoplasts isolated from arugula leaves show the appearance of hydrophobic regions in the surface when cell volume is increased as detected using by Merocyanine 540 (MC540). The analysis of the equilibrium of the dye species indicates that MC540 monomers and dimers distribution varies at each osmotic stage. It is suggested that this is a consequence of the changes produced in the surface packing at the membrane level, due to the affinity of this dye with lipid environments, which could be important for the interaction of enzymes and other solutes produced by plants during hydric stress.
Evaluation of Pyramided Rice Genotypes Derived from Cross Between CSR-30 and IRBB- 60 Basmati Variety against Bacterial Leaf Blight
Bacterial leaf blight (BB) disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the most severe diseases effecting Basmati rice production in India. CSR-30 is widely grown in Haryana and is extremely popular amongst rice farmers and consumers because of its salt tolerance, aroma, high yield, medium slender grains and excellent cooking and eating qualities. CSR-30 lacks tolerance to BB. The present investigation was therefore planned to introgress BB resistance genes (xa5, xa13 & Xa21) from IRBB-60 to CSR-30. The pyramided BC3 F1 genotypes were evaluated for BB incidence under artificial field inoculation. Scoring of inoculated plant was done 14 days after inoculation. The triple and double resistance genes pyramided genotypes provided enhanced resistance as expressed by smaller mean lesion length in comparison to genotypes with individual genes.
Decrease in phycocyanin absorption and fluorescence emission intensity is observed when intact phycobilisomes are exposed to high temperatures in the range 30-50 degrees C in case of Synechococcus 6301. The shift in the peak position of both fluorescence and absorption spectra clearly indicates the structural alterations in pigment proteins interaction. Low temperature (77K) fluorescence emission spectra clearly demonstrate that the energy transfer from phycocyanin to allophycocyanin is main target for high temperature stress in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6301 and there by affects PS-II photochemistry.
Exposure of Synechococcus spheroplasts to high temperature caused the changes in both absorption and fluorescence emission properties of phycobiliproteins. High temperature stress caused the decrease in phycocyanin absorption at 622 nm and increase in the fluorescence intensity by 50%. In addition it induced a red shift in the peak position. This red shift indicated the alterations in the energy transfer with in the phycobilisomes. Fluorescence excitation spectra also supported the above proportion by showing large increase at 667 nm in excitation spectra.
The present study deals with the somatic embryogenesis of rice (var. Swarna / MTU-7029), where a comparative characterization of the calli were made, using dehusked, sterilized whole seeds, obtained from kinetin primed and nonprimed one. For callus induction 30gl-1 sucrose + 1gL-1 casein hydrolysate and 30gL-1 maltose + 1gL-1 casein hydrolysate were added in MS medium separately which was supplemented with 2 mgL-1 2,4-D. In the regeneration medium (MSR1 to 6) different concentration of BAP, kinetin and NAA (2:0:1, 3:0:1, 4:0:1, 2:3:1, 3:2:1 and 4:1:1 mgL-1) were used respectively. For regeneration of roots half strength MS basal medium was used supplemented with IBA 1mgL-1, sucrose 2% (w/v) and 0.8% (w/v) agar. Different concentrations (2.5 and 5 ppm) of the kinetin used for priming before using the seeds for inoculation in the culture medium, showed promising results regarding the total callus induction percentage, total embryogenic calli percentage, fresh and dry weights, proline content, nitrate reductase and superoxide dismutase activities in respect to non primed one. 2.5ppm (T2) kinetin primed seeds showed best result than 5ppm(T3) kinetin primed seeds. Among the entire regenerated medium, MSR6 showed highest regeneration (%), number of shoots regenerated per calli and recovery of plantlets from 50 tubes in all the treatments. The plantlets recovered from inoculated primed seeds calli have more number of roots in respect to non- primed one. Plantlets obtained from primed and non-primed control seeds were hardened in polyhouse and studied in detail upto the formation of panicle. On the basis of the above data T2 was found better than control.
Field screening of new fungicide molecules against soybean rust and pod blight was done during kharif growing season 2014 and 2015 at Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad. Seven treatments were tested under natural epiphytotic conditions for rust and pod blight severity. The pooled analysis over two years revealed that among the treatments imposed, spraying with Trifloxystrobin+Tebuconazole 75WG @0.7g/L recorded minimum per cent disease index of 25.5 and 15.1 for rust and pod blight respectively followed by 32.6 and 18.1 PDI in case of Trifloxystrobin+Tebuconazole 75WG @0.6g/L against rust and pod blight respectively. The positive check Hexaconazole @ 1ml/L recorded disease severity of 29.1 and 26.8 respectively. The maximum severity was recorded in untreated control (78.50 PDI Rust and 40.9 PDI Pod blight). The reduction in PDI, increase in seed yield and B:C ratio was observed in above treatments. Thus, two sprays with Trifloxystrobin + Tebuconazole 75WG @0.7g/L be recommended in management of rust and pod blight diseases in northern Karnataka.
Monodopsis subterranea, a unicellular yellow-green freshwater microalga, is widely known for its ability to produce high amount of therapeutically beneficial ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentanoic acid (EPA; C20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17). Currently, no genomic information is available on M. subterranea despite its nutraceutical and commercial applications. Analysis on fatty acid methyl esters from M. subterranea strain CCALA 830 demonstrated accumulation of 28% EPA. In order to obtain better understanding of EPA biosynthesis and to identify genes involved in the process of lipid metabolism and accumulation in this alga, de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly was performed using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. A total of 35,954 transcripts were obtained through final transcriptome assembly with an average transcript length of 769.36 bp. BLAST similarity searches for assembled transcripts were performed followed by annotation using Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology identifiers. Transcripts involved in lipid biosynthesis including various fatty acid desaturases and elongases involved in PUFAs biosynthesis were identified during the study. In addition, sequences for several transcription factors and a number of simple sequence repeats were also ascertained which can be used as powerful genetic markers for further genetic analysis. This study would provide a useful resource for future research on M. subterranea genome.
Paulownia is a fast-growing deciduous tree belonging to the family Paulowniaceae. It is cultivated for obtaining solid wood production in short time. The rapid progress of transgenic biotechnology has significantly enhanced development and production of different genetically modified plants including Paulownia. This study compared morphological and physiological variations of transgenic different Paulownia species (Paulownia tomentosa and Paulownia hybrid 9501) expressing two different thionin genes compared to non-transgenic lines. The morphological parameters were not affected by thionin gene transformation. Further, significant difference between the transgenic and non-transgenic lines of both Paulownia species was not observed. The estimated physiological parameters included chlorophyll content, total soluble sugars, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and total proteins. Some of these parameters showed significant difference between the transgenic and non-transgenic lines of the two different Paulownia species. Whereas the other parameters like phenolics and flavonoids did not show significant difference. ISSR molecular marker showed polymorphism percentage between the transgenic and non-transgenic Paulownia lines (i.e. 41.01% in P. tomentosa and 46.86% in P. hybrid 9501).
Rise in temperature causes heat stress which is a major global risk that limits plant growth, metabolism and productivity. Plants possess various strategies and have numerous mechanisms at various levels like morphological, biochemical, physiological levels to withstand high temperature conditions. At molecular level, in Arabidopsis thaliana class A HSFs specifically AtHsfA1b, AtHsfA1d, AtHsfA7a act as activators of transcription reported to have a positive feedback during heat stress which helps in thermo-tolerance. Hence, this study was carried out to understand the role of transcription factor HsfA7a gene for the ability of sustaining heat stress by A. thaliana. Two ecotypes of A. thaliana, Col-0 (wild Columbia type) and HsfA7a knockout mutant were used for the study. Various morphological, biochemical and physiological parameters were analysed to evaluate the performance of the plants under stress. For treatment, 38 °C temperature (heat stress) for 24 h followed by a recovery of 24 h was used which were compared with plants grown under normal conditions. Consequently, it was found that heat stress and recovery both had significant effects on both the ecotypes whereas wild type was found to perform better under heat stress compared to the mutant. Thus, it can be concluded that HsfA7a gene is playing a key role in thermo-tolerance in A. thaliana, similar to other class A HSFs.
This work investigated the effects of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and proline contents related to yield in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.), Marvdasht and Zagros (sensitive and tolerant to terminal season drought, respectively) grown in pots under well watered and waterstressed starting from anthesis until maturity. Results showed that, water stress resulted in marked increase in the ABA content of both cultivars. However, the absolute of ABA concentration in tolerant cultivar was more than sensitive cultivars. Water stress caused to elevate the leaf proline content of the drought-tolerant that, seemingly led to alleviate the deleterious effect of water stress whereas, a slightly increment in proline levels observed at the end of grain development in drought sensitive cv. The protective effect of both ABA and proline was more pronounced in Zagros cv. that exhibited higher grain yield under water deficit stress conditions.
The research aimed to assess the variability in some selected physicochemical properties of soil along a toposequence in Aba-midan sub water shed. Soil samples were collected by completely randomized factorial design from two different depths, 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm at each topographic unit. A total of 18 samples were collected, air-dried, crushed and sieved in a 2 mm sieve before laboratory analysis. Mean and coefficient of variation were statistically calculated. The composite sample of surface and sub surface results also showed a significant difference among the selected physicochemical properties of higher, middle and lower slope soils. Highest sand content (43%) was observed on the upper slope and the lowest (29.33%) was recorded in the middle slope. Whereas the average clay fraction of the upper, middle and lower slopes were 41.16, 55.66 and 49.33%, respectively. Likewise, Total nitroge (0.21%), Organic matter (4.07%), available Phosphorus (0.86ppm) and Cation exchange capacity (22.03 cmol(+)/ kg) were observed at higher slope as compare with middle and lower slopes. The deterioration in some chemical properties of lower slope as compared to other slopes were supposed to be due to continuous cultivation for longer period of time and that removed the soil organic matter and other plant nutrients. This study results concluded that increasing extent of continuous and intensive cultivation with minimum conservation practices and erosion due to slope effect can further deteriorate soil properties.
The human influences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have deleterious impacts resulting in significant changes in land and resource sustainability. Ecological restoration is the process of overcoming damage caused by humans to the diversity and dynamics of an ecosystem. This can be done more successfully using artificial interventions if they mimic and accelerate the natural processes. A holistic approach is required to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic activities such as mining operations on the natural habitats. Purnapani, a valley situated in Sundargarh district of Odisha had an abandoned open cast limestone and dolomite quarry; without any restoration efforts for the last about 40 years. In order to initiate an effective restoration effort, community analysis was conducted to generate a base line status of the degraded abandoned site. Two sites were selected viz., a 40 years old abandoned overburden dump and a nearby stabilized area as a reference site. The analysis of community structure revealed a general decrease in species richness with an increase in disturbance. Species composition markedly varied among both the sites. Invasive plants like Chromalaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob., Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Ludwigia octovalvis L. sp. were the dominant taxa to invade the over-burdened site. Also, it was evident that Margalef and Menhinick indices along with rank-abundance curve were the useful indicators for detecting and quantifying the extent of damage to the disturbed site.
Utilization of Okra is now widely allied with the hindrance of diseases like cancer, goiter and cardiovascular disorder due to its antioxidant components. Leaves of okra have the tendency to reduce oxygen free radicals. Although poor germination and slower growth of open-pollinated crop as compared to hybrid variety open up the tremendous scope in terms of using various seed enhancement technique. The present investigation was undertaken in order to know the effect of pre-sowing invigorating seed treatments through priming on various antioxidant and germination enzymes including chlorophyll and protein content in open pollinated (MIS077) and Hybrid (Bhindi No. 10) variety of Okra. The different pre-sowing invigouration seed treatments showed the differential response for all the evaluated enzymes together with protein and chlorophyll content. The result obtained revealed that priming of okra seed was very encouraging in terms of antioxidant and germination enzyme activity and showed significant enhancement in the Catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutage, amylase and protease activity. The total protein and chlorophyll content in the leaves have been enhanced. Amongst, the treatments evaluated, the effect of [email protected]% was superior to PGR’s and bio-control agents. A performance of open pollinated variety seemed better than the hybrid control with this treatment. However, in the PGR group higher dose of kinetin (@10 ppm) showed increased effect followed by GA3 @100 ppm and IAA @ 100 ppm. Conclusively priming of okra seeds with vermiwash @ 50% concentration has been found the better option over the use of PGR or bio-control agents for enhancing enzymatic and photosynthetic efficiency of okra leaves which is cost effective and easy to handle and may be opted by the resource poor farmers at the village level.
Okra [Abelmoschus esculenta (L.) Moench] of all the 30 genotypes were sown during the zaid season at Horticulture Research Centre, Department of Horticulture, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, developed and maintained for using conventional agronomically practices to keep the crop in good condition. Study of molecular in landrace collections was carried out during 2013. All genotypes were screened with eight RAPD primers in order to determine genetic diversity and genetic relationships. A total of 27 bands were detected using 8 polymorphic RAPD primers out of which 18 bands were polymorphic and 9 were monomorphic bands thus generating 61.57% of polymorphism with an average of 3.375 bands per primer, Maximum numbers of bands was obtained by primer OPA-1 (seven alleles). PIC value ranged from 0.75 (OPA- 4) to 0.998 (OPA-2) with average of 0.913. Thus, this indicated that RAPD primer OPA-2 used in the study was most polymorphic, Resolving power (Rp) varied from a lower value of 0.066 (OPA-2) to a higher value of 1.773 (OPA-5) with average of 1.166. The gene diversity was varied from 1.00 to 0.43 values. Cluster analysis clearly showed the genetic diversity among the genotypes under study.
Priming of seeds resulted in increased dry matter production at vegetative stage due to continuous gain in plant height, number of branches and fruits and highest yield at reproductive stage, faster growth, and better establishment of seedlings. Seed priming is a physiological seed treatment which brings about qualitative improvement in the seed that persists even after treatment is removed and breaks dormancy. Seed vigour is a complex character governed by many factors and requires indexing of many components. Out of several methods of seed priming, hydro-priming and halo-priming are more prominent. Diverse germplasm seeds of 15 okra genotypes when halo-primed with KNO3 recorded more than 65.33 % (IC282288, IC411698) seed germination over check (30.00%). Seeds haloprimed with CaCl2 showed positive effect in faster and uniform germination in genotypes IC332232 (58.67%) and IC411698 (78.67%). Seed priming enhanced the synchronous germination and speed of germination in the genotypes IC411698 (1.67) and IC89936 (2.03). The higher ratio of polymorphic phenotypic markers might be due to quantitative nature of most phenotypic markers, such as plant height, seed weight, etc, in which more genes are responsible. Dendrogram based on phenotypic marker data successfully distinguished in all 15 okra genotypes from one another. Dissimilar values among the 15 okra genotypes ranged from 0.56 to 1.51. However, the clusters did not associate with geographic origins of okra genotypes.
A multi pesticide residues analysis was carried out for farmgate samples (20) of okra fruits from four market places of Meerut region namely Daurala, Lawer, Kesarganj and Partapur markets. 40, 45, 30, 35, 50 and 25% samples were > MRL and 30, 40, 35, 45, 35 and 45% samples were recorded < their respective MRL values from Lawer market; 65, 55, 45, 40, 70 and 55% samples contained > MRL and 25, 30, 40, 45, 20 and 25% samples had residues < MRL values from Kesarganj and Partapur markets, 35, 30, 40, 30, 40 and 35% from Kesarganj market and 45, 40, 30, 40, 40 and 40% samples from Partapur market, residues > MRL and 50, 45, 45, 45, 40 and 30% and 40, 40, 45, 45, 35 and 40% samples, respectively contained residues < MRL values of monocrotophos (0.20), chlorpyriphos (0.20), dimethoate (2.00), cypermethrin (0.20), endosulfan (2.00) and imidacloprid (0.05ppm), respectively. So the okra fruits samples with residues above MRL are not safe for human consumption.
Okra or lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), also known as bhindi in India, belongs to the family Malvaceae. Broadening the genetic base through induced mutations is a supplementary tool that can lead to the development of genetic variability. The present experiment was undertaken to generate a broad genetic variability by determining mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays, EMS and their combinations in 526 lines of okra. The research was conducted in two generations namely M1 and M2 during 2014–2016 kharif season (May–September) at Experimental Farm, Department of Vegetable Science, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur (Himachal Pradesh). The parent material, selfed seeds of P-8variety were irradiated with 65, 75 and 85 kR doses of gamma rays and 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6% concentrations of EMS. The seeds along with control were space planted for raising M1 generation. Each M1 plant was harvested separately and desirable M1 individual plant progeny rows were laid in augmented design for raising M2 generation. The effectiveness and efficiency of the mutagen used was assessed from the data on biological damage in M1 generation. In M1 generation, results showed a dose dependent retardation in biological parameters like seed germination and plant survival; 75kR and 1.4% was depicted as LD50 values for both gamma rays and EMS, respectively. In M2 generation, 1.2% EMS had highest effectiveness (0.0431) and efficiency (2.02). The mutants with short internodal length, more number of nodes per plant, dwarf plant height, branched and high yield were isolated in M2 generation.
Study of morphological and molecular diversity in landrace collections was carried out during February, 2016. Germplasm collections of all the 50 diverse genotypes of okra were analysed at morphological and molecular level. Analysis of variance with respect to all ten traits of all genotypes revealed that mean sum of squares is highly significant for different characters. The phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV) were higher than those of genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV). 30 SSR primers in order to determine genetic diversity, resolving power, marker index, PIC value and genetic relationships. Similarity value for all the 50 genotypes of okra ranged from 0.573 to 0.984. The lowest similarity was displayed by VRO-6 and PK highest. Out of these samples analyzed, genotypes FB-10 and Azad Bbhindi-1 displayed the greatest genetic similarity, with a similarity coefficient value of 0.0.984. All genotypes were distributed into nine distinct clusters. Cluster analysis clearly showed the genetic diversity among the genotypes under study. Cluster-3 includes 8 genotypes this cluster have maximum genotypes. The maximum diversity expressed genotypes may be exploited by effective crossing between these genotypes to obtain desirable segregates for further selection of superior lines in early stages of crop growth itself by exploiting the genetic distance from molecular marker data which helps to identify genotypes for mapping populations and also to identify molecular markers linked to desirable traits by marker assisted selection (MAS). The present study reveals that PCR based techniques as SSR is effective, promising and informative for estimating the extent of genetic diversity as well as determine the pattern of genetic relationships between different genotypes of A. esculentus, with polymorphism levels sufficient to establish informative fingerprints with relatively fewer primer sets. These genotypes were found to be quite distinct and it can be used for its desirable characteristics for further breeding programmes.
Field experiments were carried out to assess the bio-efficacy of liquid formulation of Pseudomonas putida (IIHR Pp-2) 1% A.S. for the management of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). P. putida was applied as seed treatment (20 ml kg⁻¹) and in soil after enrichment in farm yard manure (FYM) at different doses of 2.5 lit and 5 lit in 5 tons of FYM. The results revealed that seed treatment with P. putida at 20 ml kg⁻¹ followed by soil application of 5 tons ha⁻¹ of FYM enriched with 5 lit P. putida was significantly effective in reducing the population of M. incognita (61.02 to 61.95%) and disease incidence of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (77.9-78.5%). It also increased the yield of okra by 24.77 to 29.61%. The study clearly indicated the potential of P. putida IIHR Pp-2 and demonstrated its appropriate delivery mechanism through enrichment in FYM for managing nematode disease complex and reaping maximum yield in okra under field condition.
The quantitative analysis of total phenolics extracted from the leaves of 22 varieties of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) indicated that the amount of total phenolics were relatively low in susceptible varieties than the resistant and hybrid varieties. The qualitative analysis of total phenolics using TLC indicated the tentative presence of ortho and para coumaric acids in some varieties of Okra. To know the identity of the compounds, okra samples were analysed by HPLC and were compared with the standards like caffeic acid, o-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, pcoumaric acid and ferulic acid. The chromatograms showed that the peak number with significant area percent varied from 3 to 8. It was concluded that the resistant varieties have all the four compound at peak no 1-4 whereas the hybrid varieties lack the compound at peak no 4. The susceptible varieties also showed difference of pattern but none of them showed the presence of all four compounds. Thus all the four compound are necessary to provide resistance to the okra germplasm.
Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench] is tall annual dicotyledonous crop thought to be African in origin. Okra is rich in valuable nutrients, nearly half of which are soluble fiber in the form of gums and pectins which help in lowering serum cholesterol, reducing the risk of heart diseases and other half are insoluble fibre which help in keeping the intestinal track clean and healthy. India is the largest producer of okra in the world with an area of 5,33,000 hectares, 6,346,000 mt production and productivity 11.9 mt/ha.(NHB-2014).
The present study has been carried out to study genotoxic effect induced by cadmium, lead and their mixture in wistar rats. Sixty colony bred albino wistar strain rats of both sexes were divided uniformly into five different groups. Group I received only deionised water and served as control while, group II, III and IV were orally gavaged with cadmium chloride @100PPM; lead acetate @500PPM; and mixture of cadmium chloride @100PPM & lead acetate @500PPM respectively, for 28 days. Group V was kept as a positive control for genotoxicity study which was given cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg body weight i.p. 24 hours prior to terminal sacrifice). All the three treatment groups showed increase in chromosomal aberrations as compared to negative control. Cadmium and lead when administered alone were equally genotoxic to that of mixture of both metals at the given dose level while their genotoxic potential was less than the known positive compound cyclophosphamide.
Present study was conducted in Abies pindrow forests of Uttarakhand of Western Himalayas with the aim to analyse the diversity of plant species. The altitudinal range of the different sites varied between 2200-3300 m above mean sea level (msl). The analysis of species revealed that the generic spectrum belonged to 73 families, comprising of 204 genera with 315 species of trees, shrubs and herbs which highlights the rich species diversity of higher plants in the Abies pindrow forests of the Western Himalaya in India. Maximum number of species belonged to family Asteraceae (29 species), followed by Poaceae (23 species), Rosaceae (21 species), Lamiaceae (17 species), Orchidaceae (15 species), Ranunculaceae (13 species), Apiaceae (12 species), Caprifoliaceae (11 species) and Polygonaceae (10 species) whereas other families had less than 10 species. Most of the forests in the present study were pure Abies pindrow forests. Tree species primarily belonged to family Pinaceae, shrubs to Rosaceae, Berberidaceae and Caprifoliaceae whereas; herbaceous flora primarily belonged to Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Orchidaceae, Ranunculaceae, Polypodiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Poaceae and Cyperacae. A total of 198 species were present out of which 5 were trees, 50 shrubs and 143 were herbaceous species. The herbaceous species comprised of 103 herbs, 4 climbers, 21 ferns, 11 grasses and 4 sedges.
Total of fifteen elicitors tested alone/or in combination for induction of defense related enzymes in pea against U. viciae-fabae (Pers.) J. Schrot results in significant induction of total phenols, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in all the treatment as compare to control. Salicylic acid, Pseudomonas fluorescens, salicylic acid + Pseudomonas fluorescens were found most effective in induction of total phenols and peroxidase at 72 hrs after spray of elicitors. Polyphenol oxidase induction was found significantly high in oxalic acid, Pseudomonas fluorescens + Trichoderma harzianum and chitosan + Pseudomonas fluorescens at 72 hrs after spray of elicitors. Among all the treatments, maximum induction of Phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was found in oxalic acid, Trichoderma harzianum + Pseudomonas fluorescens and isonicotinic acid + Trichoderma harzianum after 48hrs of spray of elicitors. Effect of different elicitors on percent disease index (PDI) 20 days after inoculation with uredospores of U. viciae-fabae showed least PDI in salicylic acid, Trichoderma harzianum + Pseudomonas fluorescens and chitosan + Pseudomonas fluorescens treated plants.