International Journal of Phytoremediation

Published by Taylor & Francis
Online ISSN: 1549-7879
Publications
Article
Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effects of soil moisture content, planting density, plant age, and the growth of multiple generations on the bioconcentration of weathered p,p'-DDE by the plant Cucurbita pepo. As soil moisture content increased from 7.4% to 29.9% (by weight), rates of contaminant accumulation by plant roots were increased by more than a factor of 2. Higher planting density also led to higher uptake, as the root bioconcentration factor (BCF, dry-weight ratio of contaminant concentration in the tissue to that in the soil) increased by 15-fold as the number of plants per pot was raised from 1 to 3. Concentrations of the compound in plant roots were inversely related to plant age, with root BCF declining by approximately a factor of 3 as plants aged from 14 to 28 d. Finally, no change in the bioavailability of the compound was observed in successive generations of plants grown in the same contaminated soil. The results suggest that phytoremediation is influenced by a number of factors and that the cleanup of contaminated soil can be enhanced by an understanding of environmental and other conditions affecting plant growth and bioconcentration.
 
Article
Poplar plants (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) growing under hydroponic conditions were exposed to 50 mg L−1 of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) for 24 h. The expression of genes potentially involved in the metabolism of toxic explosives was analyzed by reverse-transcriptase (RT) real-time PCR. Genes under study were selected by reference to corresponding genes that were previously shown to be upregulated in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) (Ekman et al., 200314. Ekman , D. R. , Lorenz , W. W. , Przybyla , A. E. , Wolfe , N. L. and Dean , J. F.D. 2003. SAGE analysis of transcriptome responses in Arabidopsis roots exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. Plant Physiol., 133: 1397–1406. [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]View all references. Plant Physiol., 133, 1397–1406). The target genes investigated include several genes encoding for enzymes known to be involved in the detoxification of xenobiotic pollutants, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), cytochrome P-450s (CYPs), NADPH-dependent reductases, and peroxidases. Starting from A. thaliana TNT-inducible genes, corresponding Populus sequences were retrieved from the JGI Poplar Genome Project database and were used to design gene-specific primers. 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was used as an internal standard and recorded gene expression levels were normalized by reference to nonexposed plants. In three separate experiments, five genes were found to be significantly amplified in leaf tissues by exposure to RDX, including GST (9.7 fold), CYP (1.6 fold), reductases (1.6–1.7 fold), and peroxidase (1.7 fold). In root tissues, only a single GST gene was found to be significantly amplified by exposure to RDX (2.0 fold). These results show, for the first time, that the exposure of poplar plants to RDX results in the induction of several genes that are potentially involved in explosive detoxification.
 
Article
The results of a pilot-scale phytoremediation study are reported in this paper. Small plots of trees established on a closed municipal waste landfill site were irrigated with recovered groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The plots were managed to minimize the leaching of irrigation water, and leaching was quantified by the use of bromide tracer. Results indicated that the dioxane (2.5 microg/L) was effectively removed, probably via phytovolatilization, and that a full-scale phytoremediation system could be used. A system is now in place at the site in which the recovered groundwater can be treated using two different approaches. A physical treatment system (PTS) will be used during the winter months, and a 12 ha phytoremediation system (stands of coniferous trees) will be used during the growing season. The PTS removes VOCs using an air-stripper, and destroys dioxane using a photo-catalytic oxidation process. Treated water will be routed to the local sewer system. The phytoremediation system, located on the landfill, will be irrigated with effluent from the PTS air-stripper containing dioxane. Seasonal use of the phytoremediation system will reduce reliance on the photo-catalytic oxidation process that is extremely energy consumptive and expensive to operate.
 
Article
Coniferous and deciduous tree stands totaling 14 ha were recently planted on a closed landfill, and when mature, the stands are expected to be part of a natural treatment system for recovered groundwater. The trees would be irrigated at the rate of 189 L/min year-round with water containing 1,4-dioxane (< 10 mg/L), a compound that would be taken up and phytovolatilized by the trees. The water is moderately saline and contains elevated levels of manganese. This paper describes a concurrent series of preliminary studies, performed prior to the full-scale planting, to assess the feasibility of the phytoremediation system. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to identify tree species that can take up 1,4-dioxane and are tolerant of the water. Estimates were made of the area of the tree stand necessary to transpire the irrigation water plus precipitation. The landfill matrix was characterized in terms of its percolation rate and water holding capacity and based on those results salinity-modeling studies were carried out to estimate the fate and leaching potential of the various inorganic species that would accumulate in the root-zone of the trees. A pilot study, currently in progress on the landfill, suggested that the landfill cap is a suitable matrix for the establishment of large trees, and that the stands could be irrigated without the production of excess drainage.
 
Article
Phytoremediation at contaminated sites is often complicated by the presence of more than one chemical However, the effects of common co-contaminants such as ethylene glycol on the phytoremediation of other chemicals, e.g., 1,4-dioxane, is not well understood. Field studies with DN34 poplar trees revealed a 28% decline in growth rate in response to 10 g/L ethylene glycol in the groundwater, thus indicating a significant and deleterious effect on tree viability, and likely, the plants' utility for phytoremediation. Thorough investigations using Arabidopsis thaliana, with its small size and rapid life cycle, indicated significant growth reduction at 10 g/L and complete inhibition of germination at 40 g/L ethylene glycol Ethylene glycol was almost as severe a stressor as the well characterized osmotic inhibitor, sorbitoL Watering potted trees with 10 g/L ethylene glycol reduced their growth by more than 50%, and similar results were observed in hydroponically grown poplar and willow trees. Under hydroponic conditions, 60 g/L ethylene glycol inhibited the phytovolatilization of l,4-dioxane by more than 80%, and all trees evapo-transpired 1,4-dioxane less efficiently than water. In fact, this efficiency differed between trees and the difference became more pronounced in the presence of ethylene glycol.
 
Article
Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria especially with the resistance to multiple heavy metals are helpful to phytoremediation. Further development of PGP bacteria is very necessary because of the extreme diversity of plants, soils, and heavy metal pollution. A Burkholderia sp. strain, numbered LD-11, was isolated, which showed resistances to multiple heavy metals and antibiotics. It can produce indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and siderophores. Inoculation with the LD-11 improved germination of seeds of the investigated vegetable plants in the presence of Cu, promoted elongation of roots and hypocotyledonary axes, enhanced the dry weights of the plants grown in the soils polluted with Cu and/or Pb, and increased activity of the soil urease and the rhizobacteria diversity. Inoculation with the LD-11 significantly enhanced Cu and/or Pb accumulation especially in the roots of the plants grown in the polluted soils. Notably, LD-11 could produce siderophores in the presence of Cu. Conclusively, the PGP effects and concurrent heavy metal accumulation in the plant tissues results from combined effects of the above-mentioned multiple factors. Cu is an important element that represses production of the siderophore by the bacteria. Phytoremediation by synergistic use of the investigated plants and the bacterial strain LD-11 is a phytoextraction process.
 
(A) The map of Thailand showing Tak province. (B) The Mae sod district where the Padaeng zinc mine and Padae village are located. Source: Wikipedia Contributors (2008). 
Cd and Zn concentrations in the shoots of 36 plant species. 
Plant species together with metal concentrations in soil around their root, their shoot, their root (mg/kg dry weight), and their translocation factors, extraction coefficients, and bioaccumulation factors (Continued)
Article
Significant cadmium (Cd) contamination In soil and rice has been discovered in Mae Sot, Tak province, Thailand where the rice-based agricultural systems are established in the vicinity of a zinc mine. The prolonged consumption of Cd contaminated rice has potential risks to public health and health impacts of Cd exposed populations in Mae Sot have been demonstrated. The Thai government has prohibited rice cultivation in the area as an effort to prevent further exposure. Phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove contaminants from soil, is a potential option to manage Cd-contaminated areas. However, successful phytoextraction depends on first identifying effective hyperaccumulator plants appropriate for local climatic conditions. Five sampling sites at Padaeng Zinc mine, Tak province were selected to collect plant and soil samples. Total Cd and Zn concentrations in sediments or soils were approximately 596 and 20,673 mg kg(-1) in tailing pond area, 543 and 20,272 mg kg(-1) in open pit area, 894 and 31,319 mg kg(-1) in stockpile area, 1458 and 57,012 mg kg(-1) in forest area and 64 and 2733 mg kg(-1) in Cd contaminated rice field. Among a total of 36 plant species from 16 families, four species (Chromolaena odoratum, Gynura pseudochina, Impatiens violaeflora and Justicia procumbens) could be considered as Cd hyperaccumulators since their shoot Cd concentrations exceeded 100 mg Cd kg(-1) dry mass and they showed a translocation factor >1. Only Justicia procumbens could be considered as a Zn hyperaccumulator (Zn concentration in its shoot more than 10,000 mg Zn kg(-1) dry mass with the translocation factor >1).
 
Total amount of s PM and w PM accumulated on leaves of 13 plant species. Data are mean ± SE, n = 8 or 12 (two or three years with four replicates in each). Bars report the same data as the last column of Table 1 except that total amount of PM is specified for w PM and s PM. 1 Letters above bars refer to total PM. Bars marked 
Amount of epicuticular waxes on leaves of 13 plant species. Data are mean ± SE, n = 8 or 12 (two or three vegetation seasons with four replicates in each). 1 Bars marked with different letters are significantly different 
Correlations between amount of waxes on foliage and (A) mass of in-wax PM of diameter 2.5–10 μ m in all 13 plant species and (B) between amount of waxes on foliage and total in-wax PM in Corylus colurna. 
Article
Particulate matter (PM) as an air pollutant can be harmful for human health through allergic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Although the main focus is on decreasing air pollution, after PM has been emitted to the atmosphere, one ofthe realistic options to decrease it's concentrations in urbanized area will be phytoremediation. This study compared the capacity to capture PM from air of seven tree species commonly cultivated in Poland (Catalpa bignonioides Walter, Corylus colurna L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., Ginkgo biloba L., Platanus x hispanica Mill. ex Muenchh., Quercus rubra L., Tilia tomentosa Moench 'Brabant') and six shrub species (Acer tataricum subsp, ginnala (Maxim.) Wesm., Sambucus nigra L., Sorbaria sorbifolia (L) A.Br., Spiraea japonica L.f., Syringe meyeri C.K. Schneid. 'Palibin', Viburnum lantana L.). Significant differences were found between species in mass of total PM accumulation for two PM categories and three size fractions determined and in amount of waxes. A positive correlation was found between in-wax PM of diameter 2.5-10 microm and amount of waxes, but not between amount of waxes and amount of total PM or of any size fraction.
 
Article
In this study, three separate experiments were carried out to explore the potential of Epipremnum plants for Co-60 and Cs-137 uptake and rhizofiltration from solutions. Experiment I was carried out to screen the effects of different concentration (0-10 mM) of stable Co and Cs salts on some physiological components of the Epipremnum over 20 d. Data from the experiment showed that 1 mM of either Co or Cs had no adverse effects on the chlorophyll, soluble sugar, and protein of Epipremnum. Over 20 d at a high concentration (10 mM), some effects of Co or Cs were detectable but were not inhibitory. Experiment H showed an increase in the concentration ratios (CRs) of carrier-free Co-60 and Cs-137 relative to their concentration in the solution. Transport indexes (TIs) of Co-60 only increased with increasing its concentration in the solution. CRs increased with time and more than 50% of Co-60 and Cs-137 was detected at 5 d. Based on the data obtained from experiments I and II, both stable Co and Cs were used as carriers for Co-60 and Cs-137 to study their uptake and translocation in Experiment III. It was found that the Epipremnum plant had bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 10.69 and 2.26 for Co and Cs, respectively. However, TI was 13.8 for Co and 35.6 for Cs. The accumulation of Co-60 and Cs-137 in the roots of Epipremnum might offer a method for Co-60 and Cs-137 rhizofiltration.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential for aquatic plants and their associated microbes to bioremediate wetland sites contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The transformation of TNT was studied using both wild and axenically grown isolates of Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot feather). Differences in TNT transformation rates and nitroaromatic metabolites were observed between different plants. The wild isolates, containing a consortium of associated microorganisms, transformed TNT into 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-A-DNT) via 2- and 4-hydroxylamino-dinitrotoluene, which were detected as intermediates. The wild M. aquaticum also converted the metabolites, 2-A-DNT and 4-A-DNT, into low levels of 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT). The axenically grown plants, containing no cultureable microorganisms, also transformed TNT into 2-A-DNT and 4-A-DNT, but at a much lower rate than that observed for the wild isolates. Unlike the wild plants, axenically grown M. aquaticum could not transform either 2-A-DNT or 4-A-DNT into 2,4-DAT over the incubation period. The differences in the performance between these plants could indicate that plant-associated microorganisms assisted in the overall transformation of TNT. For each plant, unidentifiable metabolites were observed and the soluble monoamino-derivatives present in the wild and axenic medium accounted for 14 and 7% of the initial TNT concentration, respectively. Thus, the majority of nitroaromatic derivatives remained associated with the plant tissues. Furthermore, only 7 and 3% of the initial TNT concentration were extracted as monoamino-derivatives from the tissues of the wild and axenically grown plants, respectively.
 
Article
The fungus Fusarium oxysporum was isolated and identified from the aquatic plant M. aquaticum. The capability of this fungus to transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in liquid cultures was investigated TNT was added to shake flask cultures and transformed into 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-A-DNT), and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hydroxylamino-dinitrotoluene derivatives, which could be detected as intermediate metabolites. Transformation of TNT, 2-A-DNT, and 4-A-DNT was observed by whole cultures and with isolated mycelium. Cell-free protein extracts from the extracellular, soluble, and membrane-bound fractions were prepared from this fungus and tested for TNT-reducing activity. The concentrated extracellular culture medium was unable to transform TNT; however, low levels of TNT transformation were observed by the membrane fraction in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate in an argon atmosphere. A concentrated extract of soluble enzymes also transformed TNT, but to a lesser extent. When TNT toxicity was studied with this fungus, a 50% decrease in the growth of F. oxysporum mycelium was observed when exposed to 20 mg/L TNT.
 
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) appear to be highly associated with arsenic (As) uptake in host plants because arsenate (As(V)) and phosphorus (P) share the same transporter, whereby AMF can enhance P uptake. A short-term experiment was conducted for low- (0 to 0.05 mM As) and high-affinity (0 to 2.5 mM As) uptake systems, to investigate the AMF role on As uptake mechanism in plants, which may explain As uptake kinetics in upland rice cultivar: Zhonghan 221. When concentration of As ranged from 0 to 0.05 mM, Funneliformis geosporum (Fg) significantly decreased arsenite (As(III)) and monomethylarsonicacid (MMA) uptake when (p<0.05) compared to non-mycorrhizal (NM) treatment, since the major route for (As(III)) in rice roots - rice silicon transporter Lsi1 would be influenced by Fg inoculation at high As concentrations. Fg can also reduce As(V) uptake significantly (p<0.05) under both uptake systems relative to NM treatment, whereas, Funneliformis mosseae (Fm) increased As(V) and MMA uptake in rice roots, with MMA uptake rate generally lower than As(III) and As(V). Using suitable AMF species inoculation with rice, As uptake and accumulation in rice grains can be reduced and the risk to human health, once consumed, can be minimized.
 
Two-way ANOVA of shoot biomass, shoot Sr concentration and shoot Sr content at maturity to cultivars and Sr levels. 
Article
The main objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation and distribution of strontium (Sr) in 26 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), husk oat (Avena sativa L) and naked oat (Avena nuda), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for their potential use in phytoremediation.Sr levels had no effect on the accumulation of shoot biomass at tillering or at maturity. Mean shoot Sr concentration of naked oat and barley at tillering was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of wheat; Neimengkeyimai-1, a naked oat cultivar, had the highest Sr concentrations. At maturity, of four naked oat cultivars, Neimengkeyimai-1 had the highest Sr content at all measured Sr levels. Leaves had the highest Sr concentrations, followed by roots and straw, and then grain with the lowest. Mean enrichment coefficients from soil to shoots ranged from 0.521 to 1.343; the percentage of stable Sr removed from the soil to the shoots at harvest time was more than 1.4% after 120 days. Neimengkeyimai-1 could be used as a model for further research to find more effective cultivars; and naked oat plants could be selected for phytoremediation to clean up contaminated soil.
 
Article
Sesbania grandiflora (L.) pers (Fabaceae) and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) (Brassicaceae) were genetically engineered to constitutively express the rabbit cytochrome p450 2E1 enzyme aiming at increasing their activity toward trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) removal Successful generation of Sesbania and Arabidopsis transgenic plants was verified using p450 2E1 specific PCR and confirmed by western blot analysis. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis revealed that small cuttings of Sesbania and third generation (F3) Arabidopsis transgenic plants exposed to TCE and DDT in small hydroponics' vessels accumulated more TCE and DDT compared to plants transformed with the empty vector. Furthermore, both transgenic plants were more effective in breaking down TCE and DDT with a 2-fold increase in TCE metabolism. Two independent Arabidopsis lines showed that DDT was metabolized about 4-fold higher than that detected in non transformed plants. Similarly, S. grandiflora cuttings removed 51 to 90% of the added DDT compared with only 3% removal in controls transformed with the null vector. Notably, stability of rabbit cytochrome p450 2E1 was confirmed using third generation Arabidopsis plants that displayed higher potential for the removal of two important pollutants, TCE and DDT compared with the controls.
 
Article
High concentrations of 35Cl and the radioisotope 36Cl (produced naturally by cosmic radiation and anthropogenically by U fission and the use of neutron sources) can be problematic in soil, but are potentially amenable to phytoremediation if appropriate plants can be found. Here, results are reported that might aid the selection of plants with unusually high or low uptake of 36Cl A residual maximum likelihood analysis was used to estimate, from 13 experiments, relative 36Cl uptake by 106 species across the angiosperm phylogeny. Nested analysis of variance, coded using a recent angiosperm phylogeny, showed that there were significant inter-species differences in 36Cl uptake and that species behavior was not independent; but linked through theirphylogeny. Eudicots had significantly higher 36Cl uptake than Monocots and related clades and, in particular the Orders Caryophyllales, Apiales, and Cucurbitales had high uptake while the Poales, Lillales, Brassicales, and Fabales had low uptake. Overall, 35% of the inter-taxa variation in 36Cl was attributed to the taxonomic ranks of Order and above, a significant phylogenetic effect compared with other elements for which similar analyses have been published. The implications of these findings for selecting plants for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with 35/36Cl are discussed.
 
Article
Groundwater contamination by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) presents a health risk as a potential carcinogen and pollutant that is capable of depleting the ozone layer. Although use of poplar trees in a phytoremediation capacity has proven to be cost effective for cleaning contaminated sites, minimizing leaf emission of volatile contaminants remains a pressing issue. We hypothesized that recently fixed carbon plays a key role in CCl4 metabolism in planta yielding nonvolatile trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and that the extent of this metabolism can be altered by heightening plant defenses. Labeling intact leaves with (11)CO2 (t 1/2 20.4 m) can test this hypothesis, because the extremely short half-life of the tracer reflects only those processes involving recently fixed carbon. Using radio-HPLC analysis, we observed [(11)C]TCA from leaf extract from poplar clones (OP-367) whose roots were exposed to a saturated solution of CCl4 (520 ppm). Autoradiography of [(11)C]photosynthate showed increased leaf export and partitioning to the apex within 24 h of CCl4 exposure, suggesting that changes in plant metabolism and partitioning of recently fixed carbon occur rapidly. Additionally, leaf CCl4 emissions were highest in the morning, when carbon pools are low, suggesting a link between contaminant metabolism and leaf carbon utilization. Further, treatment with methyljasmonate, a plant hormone implicated in defense signal transduction, reduced leaf CCl4 emissions two-fold due to the increased formation of TCA.
 
Article
Green capping is one of the popular methods to re-vegetate abandoned ash ponds of coal based thermal power plants thereby lowering the risk of contamination to the surrounding environment. It has innumerable advantages such as prevention of dust emission, checking soil erosion, stabilizing the surface areas of ash, preventing potential ground water contamination, and finally, adding native vegetation cover, which is very vital in the long term. During the early nineties and later, various reclamation projects were carried out on fly ash dumps, but until date, there have not been any initiatives to assess the alterations in physicochemical and biological properties of fly ash resulting from implementation of these reclamation projects. In the present study, three abandoned ash ponds, located in India, that were reclaimed during 1998-2003 are investigated. Marked alterations in nutritional status, microbial population, and microbial activities have been observed in reclaimed ash ponds.
 
Location map and aerial view of the studied area. (Figure available in color online.) 
Physicochemical characterization of the studied area based on 6 representative sites
Rhizosphere soil concentration versus shoot concentration of Zn (A) and Pb (B) in four selected plant species growing in the study area: ( ◦ ) = Thlaspi caerulescens , ( . . . . . . ) = Jasione montana ;( . . ) = , Rumex acetosa; ( × ) = Festuca rubra ; ( × ) = Plantago lanceolata; and ( . . . ) = Pteridium aquilinum . 
Total (aqua regia digested) and phytoavailable (CaCl 2 extractable) metal (Cd, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in rhizosphere soils collected from the Pb-Zn abandoned mine
Article
Plants growing on metalliferous soils from abandoned mines are unique because of their ability to cope with high metal levels in soil. In this study, we characterized plants and soils from an abandoned Pb-Zn mine in the Basque Country (northern Spain). Soil in this area proved to be deficient in major macronutrients and to contain toxic levels of Cd, Pb, and Zn. Spontaneously growing native plants (belonging to 31 species, 28 genera, and 15 families) were botanically identified. Plant shoots and rhizosphere soil were sampled at several sites in the mine, and analyzed for Pb, Zn and Cd concentration. Zinc showed the highest concentrations in shoots, followed by Pb and Cd. Highest Zn concentrations in shoots were found in the Zn-Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (mean = 18,254 mg Zn kg(-1) DW). Different metal tolerance and accumulation patterns were observed among the studied plant species, thus offering a wide germplasm assortment for the suitable selection of phytoremediation technologies. This study highlights the importance of preserving metalliferous environments as they shelter a unique and highly valuable metallicolous biodiversity.
 
Location of the study area ‘CMC mining site’ in Cyprus Island (Freegk.com, 1995–2002). (Figure available in color online.) 
Potential candidate plant species for phytostabilization
Article
The Cupper Mining Company (CMC)'s site located in Lefke-Gemikonagi, Northern Cyprus has been a continuous source of highly dangerous contamination for the surrounding environment, the Lefke region, and the neighboring ecosystems and settlements. Rehabilitation and reuse possibilities of the CMC site due to its vital importance have kept its place in the agenda of Northern Cyprus. Phytostabilization appears to be a convenient and less expensive method that can immediately be used for reducing the negative impacts of the mining site on the region. The main purpose of this study is to identify potential candidate plant species, adapted to grow on polluted sites, for revegetation in the CMC site. Within this context, the method of the study can be summarized as follows: literature review for examining potential candidate plant species for pyhtostabilization in arid and semiarid regions, especially the ones suitable both for the existing ecological and present conditions of Cyprus; identification of native and/or cultural plant species survived in the heavily polluted mining site, and definition of a number of candidate plant species for the study site. The result of sampling revealed that 23 plant species thrive well in the contaminated site. As a result of the literature review and considering drought, metal, salt tolerant features of semiarid environment in the region, 5 tree, 4 shrub, and 23 herbaceous plant species were proposed for starting revegetation with the purpose of phytostabilization on the CMC mining site.
 
Article
Batch experiments were performed to study biomass growth rate, nutrient removal and carbon dioxide bio-fixation of the marine microalgae Chlorella stigmatophora. Four different cultures at different salinities were tested: wastewater (WW), synthetic wastewater (SWW), seawater (SW) and diluted seawater (DSW). Experimental results showed that Chlorella stigmatophora grew satisfactorily in all culture media, except in SWW where inhibition occurred. In all cases, biomass experimental data were fitted to the Verlhust Logistic model (R2 > 0.982, p < or = 0.05). Maximum biomass productivity (P(bmax)) and CO2 biofixation (P(vCO2)) were reached in the WW medium, 1.146g SSL(-1)day(-1) and 2.324g CO2L(-1)day(-1) respectively. The order of maximum specific growth rates (micro max) was WW >DSW>SW. In order to compare nitrogen and phosphorous removal kinetics, an estimation of the time required to reach the most restrictive concentration of total N and P in effluents as defined in the Directive 98/1565/CE (10 mg sigmaNL(-1) (T10(N)) and 1 mg sigmaPL(-1) (T1(p)) was performed. In the WW test T10(N) and T1(p) needed were of 45.15 and 32.27 hours respectively and at the end of the experimental the removal was in both 100%.
 
Article
A biotechnological approach was applied to reduce phenol content in olive mill wastewaters by transgenic tobacco plants. The cDNA laccase of poxC gene from Pleurotus ostreatus, carrying its own signal peptide for extracellular secretion, was transferred into the Nicotiana tabacum genome. Transgenic tobacco plants were obtained and the recombinant enzyme was secreted into the rhizosphere by the plant root apparatus, confirming the ability of the plant machinery to recognize the fungal POXC peptide signal leader appropriately as secretory tag. Total laccase activity assayed by ABTS in transgenic lines increased sharply compared to control plants. Moreover, plants cultivated in a hydroponic solution with the addition of olive mill wastewaters were able to reduce the total phenol content up to 70%.
 
Article
The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.
 
Article
Hexavalent chromium is a contaminant highly mobile in the environment that is toxic for plants at low concentrations. In this work, the physiological response of Convolvulus arvensis and Medicago truncatula plants to Cr(VI) treatments was compared. C. arvensis is a potential Cr hyperaccumulator well adapted to semiarid conditions that biotransform Cr(VI) to the less toxic Cr(III). M. truncatula is a model plant well adapted to semiarid conditions with a well studied genetic response to heavy metal stress. The results demonstrated that C. arvensis is more tolerant to Cr toxicity and has a higher Cr translocation to the leaves. The inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy results showed that C. arvensis plants treated with 10 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) accumulated 1512, 210, and 131 mg Cr kg(-1) in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. While M. truncatula plants treated with the same Cr(VI) concentration accumulated 1081, 331, and 44 (mg Cr kg(-1)) in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Enzymatic assays demonstrated that Cr(VI) decreased ascorbate peroxidase activity and increased catalase activity in M. truncatula, while an opposite response was found in C. arvensis. The x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that both plant species reduced Cr(VI) to the less toxic Cr(III).
 
Article
The influence of Juncus maritimus, Phragmites australis, and Triglochin striata on hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms (HD) in Lima River estuary (NW Portugal) was investigated through a year-long plant life cycle. Sediments un-colonized and colonized (rhizosediments) by those salt marsh plants were sampled for HD, total cell counts (TCC), and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) assessment. Generally, TCC seemed to be markedly thriving by the presence of roots, but without significant (p > 0.05) differences among rhizosediments. Nevertheless, plants seemed to have a distinct influence on HD abundance, particularly during the flowering season, with higher HD abundance in the rhizosediments of the fibrous roots plants (J. maritimus < P. australis < T. striata). Our data suggest that different plants have distinct influence on the dynamics of HD populations within its own rhizosphere, particularly during the flowering season, suggesting a period of higher rhizoremediation activity. Additionally, during the vegetative period, plants with fibrous and dense root system tend to retain hydrocarbons around their belowground tissues more efficiently than plants with adventitious root system. Overall results indicate that fibrous root plants have a higher potential to promote hydrocarbons degradation, and that seasonality should be taken into account when designing long-term rhizoremediation strategies in estuarine areas.
 
Madín Dam for water treatment in the State of México.
Coleus blumei
Article
In this study, the capacity of an ornamental species (Coleus blumei) to extract and accumulate aluminum was evaluated. The analyzed parameters were amount of soluble aluminum, radical growth, tolerance rate, bioaccumulation factor, and tissues aluminum concentration. The main limiting factor for aluminum accumulation is the availability of the metal. However, Coleus blumei can grow and accumulate up to 1445.7 mg kg(-1) of aluminum dry base. This plant can play an important role in the treatment of polluted water with metals, since it can grow in conditions with a pH of around 4.8. The aluminum tolerance rate showed for this plant ranged between 18.8% and 25%. Therefore, this species behaves as a non-accumulator, even though the bioaccumulation factor was 3098.5 L kg(-1).
 
Proportions of different Cr chemical forms in roots (a) and shoots (b) of L. hexandra exposed to different Cr levels. F1, water-soluble Cr; F2, pectate and protein integrated Cr; F3, undissolved chromium phosphate; F4, chromium oxalate; F5, the residue. 
Oxalate concentration in roots and leaves of L. hexandra exposed to different Cr levels. Spots with different letters are significantly different among treatment (LSD, p < 0.05). 
Effects of oxalate on root length and tolerance index of L. hexandra exposed to different Cr levels. Double asterisks denote that differences are statistically significant at p < 0.01 level. (t-test). 
Effects of oxalate on root (a), shoot (b) and total (c) biomass of L. hexandra exposed to different Cr levels. An asterisk and double asterisks denote that differences are statistically significant at p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 level. (t-test). 
Article
This study examined the relationship between oxalic acid and Cr tolerance in an accumulating plant Leersia hexandra Swartz. The plants grown in hydroponics were exposed to Cr at 0, 5, 30, and 60 mg/L (without oxalate), and 0, 40, and 80 mg/L concentrations of Cr (with 70 mg/L oxalate or without oxalate). The results showed that more than 50% of Cr in shoots was found in HCl-extracted fraction (chromium oxalate) when the plants were exposed to Cr. Cr supply significantly increased oxalate concentration in shoots of L. hexandra (p < 0.05), but did not increase oxalate concentration in roots. Under 80 mg/L Cr stress, electrolyte leakages from roots and shoots with oxalate treatment were both significantly lower than those without oxalate treatment (p < 0.05), indicating exogenous oxalate supply alleviated Cr-induced membrane damage. Oxalate added to growth solution ameliorated reduction of biomass and inhibition of root growth induced by Cr, which demonstrated that application of oxalate helped L. hexandra tolerate Cr stress. However, oxalate supply did not affect the Cr concentrations both in roots and shoots of L. hexandra. These results suggest that oxalic acid may act as an important chelator and takes part in detoxifying chromium in internal process of L. hexandra.
 
Article
In this study, Solanum nigrum L. was used in-situ for Cdphytoremediation in Cd polluted soil on Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation area (SZIA) in 2008. The performance of the plant over the whole growth stage was assessed. Results showed, during the whole experimental stage, the aboveground biomass of single Solanum nigrum L. grew by a factor of 190, from 1.6 +/- 0.4 g to 300.3 +/- 30.2 g with 141.2 times extracted Cd increase from 0.025 +/- 0.001 to 3.53 +/- 0.16 mg. Both the distribution of biomass and amount of extracted Cd in the above-ground part of the plant changed according to the growth of the plant. Particularly, the percentage of biomass and extracted Cd in the stem increased from 20% to 80% and from 11% to 69%, respectively. The bioconcentration factor and transfer factor both varied significantly during the growth of the plant and the lowest values were measured at the flowering stage (0.94 +/- 0.31 and 3.48 +/- 1.14 respectively). The results in this paper provide reference values for the future research on the application of Solanum nigrum L. in phytoremediation and on chemical or/and agricultural strategies for phytoextraction efficiency enhancement.
 
Article
The effect of bulk and engineered nanoparticle (NP) Ag, Au, Cu, Si, and C at 250 and 750 mg/L on zucchini biomass, transpiration, and element content was determined. The pH of bulk and NP solutions prior to plant growth frequently differed. Nanoparticle Cu solution pH was significantly higher than bulk Cu, whereas for Ag and C, the NPs had significantly lower pH. Plants were unaffected by Au, regardless of particle size or concentration. NP Ag reduced plant biomass and transpiration by 49-91% compared to equivalent bulk Ag. NP Si at 750 mg/L reduced plant growth and transpiration by 30-51% relative to bulk Si. Bulk and NP Cu were phytotoxic but much of the effect was alleviated by humic acid. The shoot Ag and Cu content did not differ based on particle size or concentration. The accumulation of bulk Au was greater than the NP, but humic acid increased the accumulation of NP and bulk Au by 5.6-fold and 80%, respectively. The uptake of NP Si was 5.6-6.5-fold greater than observed with the bulk element. These findings show that the NPs may have unique phytotoxicity or accumulation patterns and that solution properties can significantly impact particle fate and effects.
 
Article
Soil heavy metal pollution resulting from human activities is causing major concern due to its potential risk. In this study, four crop species with different cultivars were planted in 2 levels (heavily and slightly) of heavy metal contaminated soils, and the accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the edible parts of the crops were investigated. Metal concentrations in sesame seeds grown in both soils exceeded both the Chinese Food Hygiene Standard (CFHS) and Codex Alimentarius Commission Standard (CACS), while the metal concentrations in all pepper cultivars in the slightly contaminated soil were below the CFHS and CACS. Other crops were generally in between in both soils. Among the tested crops, the order of soil-plant transfer factor (TF) was: sesame > green soybean > cowpea > pepper. Additionally, old fruit of cowpea contained larger amounts of metals than young fruit. It suggests that sesame should not be planted in the metal contaminated area, while pepper cultivar "Chaobianjiao No.1" may be an alternative to be grown in the slightly contaminated soil. There were differences in individual human susceptibilities to metals. Therefore, a comprehensive risk assessment should consider the frequency, amount and species consumed by human besides metal concentrations in crops.
 
Effect of Cr on (A) total chlorophyll (mg g −1 fw), (B) carotenoid (mg g −1 fw) and (C) protein (mg g −1 fw) in the fronds of A. capillus-veneris and M. punctatum. The data presented are means of four replicates ±SD. Significant change are denoted by different alphabets (DMRT, p < 0.05). 
Physico-chemical properties of soil 
Effect of Cr on (A) MDA (µmol g −1 fw), (B) cysteine (µg g −1 fw), (C) NPSH (mmol g −1 fw) and (D) ascorbic acid (mmol g −1 fw) in the fronds of A. capillus-veneris and M. punctatum. The data presented are means of four replicates ±SD. Significant change are denoted by different alphabets (DMRT, p < 0.05). 
Article
Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 microg g(-1) dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1 kg soil. In both the ferns, Cr accumulation increased with increase in metal concentration and maximum accumulation of 800.5 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1457.4 microg g(-1) (roots) in M. punctatum and 660.8 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1259.6 microg g(-1) (roots) in A. capillus-veneris was recorded. The increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in A. capillus-veneris was less pronounced than M. punctatum under Cr exposure as compared to their respective controls. In view of less decrease in chlorophyll content and antioxidants along with higher accumulation of Cr in the fronds M. punctatum, is indicative of its higher tolerance towards Cr. However, bioaccumulation factor (concentration of Cr in fronds/concentration of Cr in the soil) of both the ferns was recorded > 1 which qualifies the plants as potential Cr hyperaccumulator and suitable for phytoremediaton.
 
Brassica juncea plants grown on control (0% peat addition) and peat-treated WFS substrates (10% peat addition) at the end of the plant growth experiment. 
Accumulation of Ni ( μ g) in shoots of B. juncea plants grown on peat-treated WFS substrates at the end of the plant growth experiment. Control substrates contain no peat (0%). Bars denote ± 1 SD from the mean of 5 replicates. Means with different letters are significantly different at α = 0,05 (Tukey-s Test). DW = dry weight. 
Nickel mass in shoots of B. juncea plants grown of peat-treated WFS substrates as a function of shoot dry weight. DW = dry weight. (Color figure available online). 
Selected geochemical characteristics of the waste foundry sand
Article
We investigated the potential of peat additions to improve plant growth and fertility and to reduce plant metal uptake in waste foundry sands (WFS) landfills. The WFS contains 78211 mg kg(-1) and 371 mg kg(-1) concentrations of Cr and Ni, respectively, and varied metal concentrations. The experiment investigated the growth of Brassica juncea plants on fertilized WFS mixed with peat at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% (w/w). The highest peat treatment allowed substantial plant growth and increased Ni mass in shoots, which was positively correlated to shoot biomass increments. On a concentration basis, peat additions did not increase shoot Ni values, thus suggesting that plants grown on peat-treated WFS may not increase risks to human and ecological receptors. Chromium was below detection levels in shoots for all peat treatments. Peat-treated substrates also promoted increased CEC values and higher water holding capacity, therefore improving the WFS agronomical properties. These results indicate that peat can be used as an amendment to assist in the phytoremediation of WFS landfill areas. However, there was evidence for increased mobilization of Cr and Ni in the substrate solution which can pose a threat to local groundwater.
 
Article
The objective of this research was to screen and search for suitable plant species to phytoextract mercury-contaminated soil. Our effort focused on using some of the known metal-accumulating wild-type plants since no natural plant species with mercury-hyperaccumulat ing properties has yet been identified. Three plant species were evaluated for their uptake efficiency for mercury: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata). Four sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of these three plant species: a pot study with potting mix where mercury was provided daily as HgCl2 solution; experiments with freshly mercury-spiked soil; and a study with aged soils contaminated with different mercury sources (HgCl2, Hg(NO3)2, and HgS). Homemade sunlit chambers were also used to study foliar uptake of Hg from ambient air. Among the three plant species, Chinese brake fern showed the least stress symptoms resulting from mercury exposure and had the highest mercury accumulation. Our results indicate that Chinese brake fern may be a potential candidate for mercury phytoextraction. We found that mercury contamination is biologically available for plant uptake and accumulation, even if the original and predominating mercury form is HgS, and also after multiple phytoremediation cycles.
 
Effect of different Ni concentrations on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll in L. gibba. Values represent mean ± S.E. (n = 3). Different letters indicate significant differences at p < 0.01.  
Nickel accumulation, total soluble protein, proline, and MDA contents in Lemna gibba upon Ni exposure.
CAT, GR, and GST activities in L. gibba upon Ni exposure. Values represent mean ± S.E. (n = 3). Different letters indicate significant differences at p < 0.01.  
Article
In this study, an experiment was carried out to study the process of stress adaptation in Lemna gibba grown under nickel stress (0-20 mg Ni L(-1)). The results showed that Ni concentrations in plants increased with increasing Ni supply levels and reached a maximum of 142.82 mg.kg1 DW at 0.5 mg x L(-1) Ni treatments. The level of photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Chi b, and total Chl) and soluble proteins increased upon exposure to high Ni concentrations. At the same time, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with increasing Ni concentration. These results suggested an alleviation of stress that was presumably the results of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) which generally increased linearly with increasing Ni levels. In addition, the proline content in L. gibba increased with increasing nickel levels. Our present work concluded that Lemna gibba has a high level of nickel tolerance and accumulation. We also found that moderate nickel treatment (0.05-5 mg x L(-1)) alleviated oxidative stress in plants, while the addition of higher amounts of nickel (10-20 mg x L(-1)) could cause an increasing generation of ROS, which was effectively scavenged by the antioxidative system. Therefore, L. gibba may be used as a phytoremediator in moderately polluted aquatic ecosystems.
 
Article
In many of the world's semi-arid and arid regions, the increase in demand for good quality water associated with the gradual and irreversible salinisation of the soil and water have raised the development of techniques that facilitate the safe use of brackish and saline waters for agronomic purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the salinity reduction of experimental saline solutions through the ions uptake capability of purslane (Portulaca oleracea), as well as its biomass accumulation. The hydroponic system used contained three different nutrient solutions composed of fixed concentrations of macro and micronutrients to which three different concentrations of sodium chloride had been added. Two conditions were tested, clipped and intact plants. It was observed that despite there being a notable removal of magnesium and elevated biomass accumulation, especially in the intact plants, purslane did not present the expected removal quantity of sodium and chloride. We confirmed that in the research conditions of the present study, purslane is a saline-tolerant species but accumulation of sodium and chloride was not shown as previously described in the literature.
 
Article
Grevillea exul var exul (Proteaceae), a tree species native to serpentine soils in New Caledonia, is a reported manganese accumulator. Since the metal tolerance of this species remains unknown, its growth and metal accumulation were studied for seven heavy metals under controlled conditions. Brassica juncea, a popular species for metal phytoremediation, was used as a reference. G. exul seedlings were more tolerant to Cr, Zn, Ni, and Cu than B. juncea. There were no differences in Hg, and Cd tolerance between both species. B. juncea seedlings concentrated more Cd, Hg, and Cr in their shoot than G. exul seedlings, while Ni, Zn, and Mn levels were similar for both species. Comparison then focused on tolerance at toxic doses of Ni and Mn using older individuals of both species. No growth inhibition for G. exul plants was observed, whereas the growth of B. juncea was significantly inhibited at the higher metal concentrations. Shoot Mn and Ni concentrations were again lower in G. exul plants as compared to B. juncea, suggesting a mechanism of partial Ni and Mn exclusion in G. exul. In a subsequent study, 1-year-old G. exul plants favored Ni accumulation in roots while Mn accumulated preferentially in shoots.
 
Article
Abstract The work investigates on the potential of ten mangrove species for absorption, accumulation and partitioning of trace metal(loid)s in individual plant tissues (leaves, bark and root/pneumatophore) at two study sites of Indian Sundarban Wetland. The metal(loid) concentration in host sediments and their geochemical characteristics were also considered. Mangrove sediments showed unique potential in many-fold increase for most metal(loid)s than plant tissues due to their inherent physicochemical properties. The ranges of concentration of trace metal(loid)s for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in plant tissue were 0.006- 0.31, 0.02- 2.97, 0.10- 4.80, 0.13- 6.49, 4.46- 48.30, 9.2- 938.1, 0.02- 0.13, 9.8- 1726, 11- 5.41, 0.04 - 7.64, 3.81- 52.20 µg g (-1)respectively. The bio-concentration factor (BCF) showed its maximum value (15.5) in Excoecaria agallocha for Cd, suggesting that it can be considered as a high-efficient plant for heavy metal bioaccumulation. Among all metals, Cd and Zn were highly bioaccumulated in E. agallocha (2.97 and 52.2 µg g (-1)respectively. Our findings suggest that the species may be classified as efficient metal trap for Cd in aerial parts, as indicated by higher metal accumulation in the leaves combined with BCF and translocation factor (TF) values.
 
Article
Two hydroponic experiments were conducted to evaluate factors affecting plant arsenic (As) hyperaccumulation. In the first experiment; two As hyperaccumulators (Pteris vittata and P. cretica mayii) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg L(-1) arsenite (AsIII) and monomethyl arsenic acid (MMA) for 4 wk. Total As concentrations in plants (fronds and roots) and solution were determined In the second experiment P. vittata and Nephrolepis exaltata (a non-As hyperaccumulator) were exposed to 5 mgL(-1) arsenate (AsV) and 20 mgL(-1) AsIIIfor 1 and 15 d. Total As and AsIII concentrations in plants were determined Compared to P. cretica mayii, P. vittata was more efficient in arsenic accumulation (1075-1666 vs. 249-627mg kg(-1) As in the fronds) partially because it is more efficient in As translocation. As translocation factor (As concentration ratio in fronds to roots) was 3.0-5.6 for P. vittata compared to 0.1 to 4.8 for P. cretica. Compared to N. exaltata, P. vittata was significantly more efficient in arsenic accumulation (38-542 vs. 4.8-71 mg kg(-1) As in thefronds) as well asAs translocation (1.3-5.6 vs. 0.2-0.5). In addition, P. vittata was much more efficient in As reduction from AsV to AsIII (83-84 vs. 13-24% AsIII in the fronds). Little As reduction occurred after 1-d exposure to AsV in both species indicates that As reduction was not instantaneous even in an As hyperaccumulator. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that both As translocation and As reduction are important for plant As hyperaccumulation.
 
Shoot dry weight (SDW) [ A ], root dry weight (RDW) [ B ] and leaf area [ C ] of jack-bean and sorghum plants as a function of Cd dose in the nutrient solution. ∗ Statistical significance at 
Shoot [A] and root [B] Cd concentration in jack-bean and sorghum plants as a function of Cd dose in the nutrient solution. 
Shoot [A] and root [B] Cd accumulations in jack-bean and sorghum plants as a function of Cd dose in the nutrient solution. 
Shoot Cd translocation in jack-bean and sorghum plants as a function of Cd dose in the nutrient solution. ∗ Statistical 
Article
Among the technologies used to recuperate cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils, phytoextraction are particularly important, where the selection of suitable plants is critical to the success of the soil remediation. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the responses of jack-bean and sorghum to Cd supply and to quantify Cd accumulation by these species grown in hydroponic culture. The plants were subjected to 0, 15, 30, or 60 μmol Cd L(-1) in the nutrient solution, and gas exchange, plant growth and Cd accumulation were measured at 25 days after starting Cd treatments. The Cd supply severely reduced growth of shoots and roots in both species. In jack-bean, Cd decreased photosynthesis by 56-86%, stomatal conductance by 59-85% and transpiration by 48-80%. The concentrations and amounts of Cd accumulated in the plant tissues were proportional to the metal supply in the nutrient solution. Sorghum was more tolerant than jack-bean to Cd toxicity, but the latter showed a greater metal concentration and accumulation in the shoot. Therefore, jack-bean would be more suitable than sorghum for use in Cd phytoremediation programs based on phytoextraction.
 
Average (n = 4) frond and root dry weights (g/plant) of Chinese brake fern after growing for 10 days under hydroponic condition with the treatments of phosphate and arsenate 
Effects of arsenate and phosphate on average (n = 4) pH values of nutrient solution during 5-day's exposure 
Article
Interactive effects of arsenate (As (V)) and phosphate (Pi) were investigated under hydroponic culture. Arsenic concentrations in fronds and roots of Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) significantly (p<0.05) increased with increasing As (V), but decreased (p<0.05) with increasing Pi in nutrient solution. Phosphate uptake was significantly (p<0.05) inhibited by 1000 μmol L⁻¹ As (V). Under 100 μmol L⁻¹ As (V), frond phosphorus (P) increased at 100 and 1000 μmol L⁻¹ Pi, and root P increased at 250 μmol L⁻¹ Pi exposures. Arsenic and P concentrations in fronds and roots of Chinese brake fern were negatively correlated (p<0.05). Arsenate treatments enhanced As and P transport to fronds, while increasing Pi inhibited their transportation, with highest frond P and As (%) obtained under 100 μmol L⁻¹ treatment. pH values in nutrient solution increased with increasing exposure time, but decreased with increasing Pi levels. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents (dry weight) in nutrient solution decreased with increasing Pi levels, both for treatments with and without As (V). Arsenate at 1000 μmol L⁻¹ significantly (p<0.05) increased DOC contents, especially for treatment without Pi. Six organic acids were detected in root exudates of Chinese brake fern, with oxalic and malic acids being most dominant.
 
Article
The cadmium (Cd) tolerance and metal-accumulation characteristics of 29 species (18 families) of weed were studied by using outdoor pot-culture experiments. The results of this screening showed that Bidens pilosa and Kalimeris integrifolia (both Asteraceae) expressed some properties that are characteristic of Cd hyperaccumulators. In 10 mg/kg Cd-spiked soil, they accumulated a good deal of Cd in shoots (28 and 25 mg/kg DW, respectively) with high Cd enrichment factors (EFs; concentration in plant/soil). Cd accumulations in shoots were greater than those in roots (translocation factor (TF) >1, concentration in shoot/root) and the shoot biomasses did not decreased significantly compared to the unspiked control. The other weed species showed little accumulation of Cd, Pb, Cu, or Zn. In a concentration-gradient experiment, the Cd accumulation potentials of B. pilosa and K. integrifolia were examined further. Cd concentrations in leaves of B. pilosa growing in soils spiked with 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg Cd were up to 145, 160, and 192 mg/kg, respectively, and the Cd content in stems in the 100 mg/kg Cd-spiked soil was 115 mg/kg, all greater than the 100 mg/kg notional criterion for Cd hyperaccumulation. The Cd EFs and TFs were all greater than 1. The shoot biomasses did not decrease significantly compared to the controls. B. pilosa was thus shown to have some characteristics of a true Cd hyperaccumulator plant.
 
Article
Soils from the alluvial flats of the Turia River, Valencia, Spain, which were highly contaminated by decades of industrial activity, were surveyed for native plant species that could be candidates useful in phytoremediation. Concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) in soils reached 25,000 mg Kg(-1) Pb, 12,000 mg Kg(-1) Zn, 70 mg Kg(-1) Cd, and 13500 mg Kg(-1) As. The predominant vegetation was collected and species identified. Soil samples and the corresponding plant shoots were analyzed to determine the amount of As accumulated by the various plant species. Several were able to tolerate more than 1000 mg Kg(-1) As in the soil. Bassia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) survive in soil with 8375 mg Kg(-1) As. Arsenic accumulation in shoots of the various plant species investigated ranged from 0.1 to 107 mg Kg(-1) dw. Bassia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae), Inula viscosa (Asteraceae), Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae), and Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) had the highest values for As accumulation.
 
Guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) ativity and total protein concentrations as influenced by inoculation with Glomus intraradices and Cd addition (20 μ mol L − 1 ). Control : grown in the absence of Cd and G. intraradices , 
Shoot nutrient concentrations and contents and root nutrient concentrations as influenced by inoculation with Glomus intraradices and Cd addition (20 µmol L −1 )
Nutrient translocation index as influenced by inoculation with Glomus intraradices and Cd addition (20 µmol L −1 )
Article
In order to investigate the cadmium (Cd) accumulation patterns and possible alleviation of Cd stress by mycorrhization, sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in the presence or absence of Cd (20 micromol L(-1)) and inoculated or not inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices. No visual symptoms of Cd phytotoxicity were observed; nevertheless, in non-mycorrhizal plants the presence of Cd decreased plant growth. The addition of Cd had no significant effect on either mycorrhizal colonization or the amount of extra-radical mycelia that was produced by the AMF. Cd accumulated mainly in roots; only 22% of the total Cd absorbed was translocated to the shoots, where it accumulated to an average of 228 mg Cd kg(-1). Although the shoot-to-root ratio of Cd was similar in both the AMF inoculated and non-inoculated plants, the total absorbed Cd was 23% higher in mycorrhizal plants. Cd concentration in AMF extra-radical mycelium was 728 microg g(-1) dry weight. Despite the greater absorption of Cd, mycorrhizal plants showed higher photosynthetic pigment concentrations and shoot P contents. Cd also influenced mineral nutrition, leading to decreased Ca and Cu shoot concentrations; N, Fe and Cu shoot contents; and increased S and K shoot concentrations. Cd induced guaiacol peroxidase activity in roots in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, but this increase was much more accentuated in non-mycorrhizal roots. In conclusion, sunflower plants associated with G. intraradices were less sensitive to Cd stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal sunflowers showed enhanced Cd accumulation and some tolerance to excessive Cd concentrations in plant tissues.
 
Article
The present investigation reports the results of the Cd accumulated by five Populus at six Cd supply levels (0, 0.5, 2, 6, 25, 60 mg/kg) in soils. For all tested Populus species, Cd accumulated by the leaves, stems, and roots linearly increased with increasing Cd supply levels, the higher concentration Cd treatments significantly promoted the Cd accumulation. P. hopeiensis, and P. tomentosa always performed the stronger ability of Cd accumulation than other three Populus species under different Cd supply treatments, and P. nira var. thevestina and P. leucoides had the poorer accumulation ability. Cd in soil was more intensively absorbed in the leaves and stems for all 5 Populus species, was not retained in roots and was transferred to aboveground plant tissues.
 
Article
The overexpression of either gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) or glutathione synthetase (GS) in Brassica juncea transgenics was shown previously to result in higher accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs), as well as enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulation. The present study was aimed at analyzing the effects of gamma-ECS or GS overexpression on tolerance to and accumulation of other metal/loids supplied individually in agar medium (seedlings) or in hydroponics (mature plants). Also, as pollution in nature generally consists of mixtures of metals, glutamylcysteine synthetase (ECS) and GS seedlings were tested on combinations of metals. Compared to wild-type plants, ECS and GS transgenics exhibited a significantly higher capacity to tolerate and accumulate a variety of metal/loids (particularly As, Cd, and Cr) as well as mixed-metal combinations (As, Cd, Zn/As, Pb, and Zn). This enhanced metal tolerance and accumulation of the ECS and GS transgenics may be attributable to enhanced production of PCs, sustained by a greater availability of GSH as substrate, as suggested by their higher concentrations of GSH, PC2, PC3, and PC4 as compared to wild-type plants. Overexpression of GS and gamma-ECS may represent a promising strategy for the development of plants with an enhanced phytoremediation capacity for mixtures of metals.
 
The Cd concentrations change in the soil solutions of (a) Star cluster, (b) French marigold, (c) Impatiens, (d) Garden verbena, and (e) Scarlet sage. The value are means ± standard deviation (n = 3).  
Overall removal of Cd by the shoots, roots, and total plant of Star cluster, French marigold, Impatiens, Garden verbena, and Scarlet sage grown in the different Cd-treated soils for 35 days 
The correlation coefficient between Cd concentrations of soil extracted by 0.05 M EDTA, 0.005 M DTPA, and 0.01 M CaCl 2 and Cd concentration in shoot of plants in the different Cd concentrations soils
Article
Many studies have been conducted on phytoextraction; however, non-native hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for the natural environment of Taiwan in many cases. Drawing upon previous results, the growth and heavy metal accumulation in artificially cadmium-contaminated soils were compared for five local garden flower species. The treatments included a control (CK), 9.73 +/- 0.05 mg kg(-1) (Cd-10), and 17.6 +/- 0.8 mg kg(-1) (Cd-20). All plants were harvested at 35 days after transplanting and analyzed for Cd content. Cd accumulation in the shoot of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.) grown in Cd-20 treatment were 66.3 +/- 6.5 and 100 +/- 11 mg kg(-1), which equated to a removal of 0.80 +/- 0.11 and 0.60 +/- 0.37 mg Cd plant(-1), respectively. The maximum Cd accumulation of Impatiens reached the threshold value (100 mg kg(-1)) characteristic of a Cd hyperaccumulator and its bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were greater than one. Impatiens therefore has the potential to hyperaccumulate Cd from Cd-contaminated soils. With the exception of Garden verbena, significant relationships were found between Cd concentrations in soil extracted by 0.05 M EDTA, 0.005 M DTPA, and 0.01 M CaCl2 and the concentration of Cd in the shoots of the tested garden flowers.
 
Mean B concentrations in roots and leaves of E. macroclada, VR, and AS together with soil concentrations.
Correlation relationships between B and heavy metals in soils of the Keban mining area
Article
Boron (B) concentrations were investigated in both shoots and roots of Euphorbia macroclada, Verbascum cheiranthifolium, and Astragalus gummifer grown in soil of the Keban, Turkey, Lead-zinc-copper-fluoride mining area, which has an arid climate. Soil B concentrations were also investigated. Plants and their associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Total B concentrations of soils in the study area were very low (mean: 4.97 mg kg(-1)) as compared with those in surface soils in other countries. Boron concentrations of plant organs were several times higher than those in their associated soils. The mean values of B concentrations in roots of E. macroclada, V. cheiranthifolium, and A. gummifer were 25, 70, and 69 mg kg(-1), respectively, while those in shoots were 75, 115, and 77 mg kg(-1), respectively. Results indicate that roots and shoots of plants grown in soils with low B concentrations can be used both as biomonitors for environmental contamination and biogeochemical indicators for B.
 
Geographic location of Almadén and the sampling site. Almadén is located in the central part of the Iberian Peninsula, 300 km southwest of Madrid, Spain. 
Pot experiment using a vermiculite-perlite (2:1 v/v) substrate spiked with soluble mercury. Total and CaCl 2 -extractable Hg concentration of the substrates
Hg concentration ( μ g g –1 d.w.) in shoot tissues of the plants grown in a vermiculite–perlite substrate 
Shoot Hg concentration ( μ g g –1 d.w.) of the four plant species used in the experiments with Almadén 
Article
High-biomass crops can be considered as an alternative to hyperaccumulator plants to phytoremediate soils contaminated by heavy metals. In order to assess their practical capability for the absorption and accumulation of Hg in shoots, barley, white lupine, lentil, and chickpea were tested in pot experiments using several growth substrates. In the first experimental series, plants were grown in a mixture of vermiculite and perlite spiked with 8.35 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg. The mercury concentration of the plants' aerial tissues ranged from 1.51 to 5.13 microg g(-1) d.w. with lentil and lupine showing the highest values. In a second experiment carried out using a Hg-polluted soil (32.16 microg g(-1) d.w.) collected from a historical mining area (Almadén, Spain), the crop plants tested only reached shoot Hg concentration up to 1.13 microg g(-1) d.w. In the third experimental series, the Almadén soil was spiked with 1 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg; as a result, mercury concentrations in the plant shoots increased approximately 6 times for lupine, 5 times for chickpea, and 3.5 times for barley and lentil, with respect to those obtained with the original soil without Hg added. This marked difference was attributed to the low availability of Hg in the original Almadin soil and its subsequent increase in the Hg-spiked soil. The low mercury accumulation yields obtained for all plants do not make a successful decontamination of the Almadén soils possible byphytoremediation using crop plants. However, since the crops tested can effectively decrease the plant-available Hg level in this soil, their use could, to some extent, reduce the environmental risk of Hg pollution in the area.
 
Article
In the present study, Pteris cretica 'Albo-Lineata' (PC), Pteris fauriei (PF), Humata tyermanii Moore (HT), and Pteris ensiformis Burm (PE), were selected to explore additional plant materials for the phytoremediation of As and Sb co-contamination. To some extent, the addition of As and Sb enhanced the growth of HT, PE, and PF. Conversely, the addition of As and Sb negatively affected the growth of PC and was accompanied with the accumulation of high levels of As and Sb in the roots. The highest concentration of Sb was recorded as 6405 mg kg(-1) in the roots of PC, and that for As was 337 mg kg(-1) in the rhizome of PF. To some degree, As and Sb stimulated the uptake of each other in these ferns. Arsenic was mainly stored in the cytoplasmic supernatant (CS) fraction, followed by the cell wall (CW) fraction. In contrast, Sb was mainly found in the CW fraction and, to a lesser extent, in the CS fraction, suggesting that the cell wall and cytosol play different roles in As and Sb accumulation by fern plants. This study demonstrated that these fern plants show a good application potential in the phytoremediation of As and Sb co-contaminated environments.
 
Top-cited authors
Alan J M Baker
  • University of Melbourne
A. I. Doronila
  • University of Melbourne
Roger D. Reeves
  • None (retired)
Nicholas M. Dickinson
  • Lincoln University New Zealand
Jaco Vangronsveld
  • Hasselt University