International Journal of Mental Health

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Print ISSN: 0020-7411
Knowledge of early predictors which differentiate between various longitudinal smoking patterns might facilitate designing more effective interventions. Using data from 806 participants, we examined the association of three adolescent academic adjustment factors, Educational Aspirations and Expectations; Perception of School Achievement; and Trouble at School, to five trajectories of cigarette use covering 23 years from adolescence to adulthood. The five trajectory groups were: heavy/continuous smokers, late starters, quitter/decreasers, occasional smokers, and nonsmokers. Each academic factor predicted smoking trajectory group membership. Each academic factor was significantly associated with being a heavy/continuous smoker rather than a member of other trajectory groups. Behavioral academic factors also differentiated quitter/decreasers from late starters, occasional smokers, and nonsmokers. Adolescents manifesting academic maladjustment risk becoming early, chronic smokers. Prevention and intervention efforts targeting educational maladjustment may decrease cigarette smoking.
Adolescent pregnancy in Zambia contributed to 22.5% of the pregnancies seen at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka in 1979/80. Some of the psychosocial factors in teenage pregnancy are examined among 80 teenage unmarried adolescents appearing at the prenatal clinic of the University Teaching Hospital (40) and at a low-income prenatal clinic in Lusaka (40). Participants were matched with controls on the basis of age, education, and socioeconomic status. In-depth interviews were conducted in 1987, when the girls were in their second to fifth month of pregnancy. Analysis was conducted on sex socialization, knowledge of and attitudes toward contraception, socioeconomic factors, and family coherence as preventive aspects of teenage pregnancy. The reaction to the pregnancy and management of the pregnancy were also determined. The mean age of menarche was 13.2 and 13.5 years for the participants and controls, respectively, which is somewhat lower than reports among other African populations. A formal initiation ceremony was conducted for 3% of participants and 8% of controls. Participants had 2.4 sex partners, and controls had 0.5 sex partners. Motives for getting pregnant were: economic support (85%); being in love and hoping for marriage (67%); peer pressure (54%);l and three other reasons. Both groups were similar in their knowledge of, attitudes toward, and use of contraception. 28% of the pregnant girls reported knowing about "counting days," but only 1% knew how to do this. Only 6% had knowledge of contraception. About 75% came from low-income families. The average age of formal education was 6.2 years for participants and 6.8 years for controls. 68% were in school at the time of the pregnancy; 29% dropped out of school before the end of the pregnancy. 52% of the male partners were of low socioeconomic status. 61% of pregnant girls lived with both real parents. 6% reported wanting to become pregnant. 67% of male partners had a negative reaction to the pregnancy; 16% rejected the pregnancy. 63% of mothers agreed to care for the baby while their daughters returned to school. The control group appears to have had stronger responses to avoid sexual encounters. Traditional social control has been replaced by "ignorance and secrecy." There has been a breakdown in the means of acquiring information about healthy reproduction and about birth control.
PIP Infant mortality level has been used for decades to indicate the health and socioeconomic status of populations. Given the relative availability of necessary data, this indicator has proved most viable. As the more glaring aspects of underdevelopment fade into history in some countries, other health status indices should be considered. Childhood disability is proposed as 1 such indicator. Disability is neither subsumed by nor necessarily correlated with declining infant mortality, and may thus be used to help identify solutions for both short- and longterm problems. To employ this indicator, one needs to know how various types of disabilities are spread through populations as well as the correlated risk factors. Methodology must be developed which is capable of rapidly identifying cases and assessing risk factors. A 2-stage method, comprised of screening and clinical evaluation, is described.
PIP The median teen pregnancy rate in the US Virgin Islands during the 1960s was less than 6% of all live births/year. This percentage increased to a 1981 peak of 21.9%, and had remained constant ever since. 41% of the islands' youths have had sexual intercourse by age 14. While the sharp rise in teen pregnancy in the 1960s and 1970s may be attributed mainly to the cultural effects of massive immigration from countries with high rates of teen pregnancy, overall teen pregnancy and its continuance in the US Virgin Islands is symptomatic of its impoverished societies. Matriarchalism, interest in immediate gratification, punitive child-rearing practices, overcrowding, the absence of male role models, and a strong feeling of fatalism create anxiety in poorer youths. Early sexuality is adopted as a means of quelling this anxiety. It may be that this sexuality is somewhat sanctioned by the community at large and that this tacit approval is passed on from one generation to the next. With poverty at the root of adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, only its reduction will effect a commensurate reduction in unwanted teen pregnancy in the US Virgin Islands.
Criticizes the Italian psychiatric reforms resulting in Law 180, which the author views as having "outlawed" mental illness and deprived patients of necessary care. Case vignettes of suicidal or helpless patients illustrate what the author views as the perverse effects of deinstitutionalization, restrictions on compulsory admissions, and the view of psychiatric treatment as merely a form of oppression. The attribution of individual responsibility to chronic psychiatric patients is deemed an abdication of social responsibility to the disabled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Considers the implications of the Italian psychiatric reform law, which mandates the deinstitutionalization of mental patients, in relation to the view that the pathogenic core of psychosis lies in rigidities in intrafamilial relations and the family's inability to tolerate its own death. It is suggested that the reform has generated a cultural tension that contains the potential for effecting innovations in the cultural references and in the working models used in psychiatry. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the positive and negative influences of British psychiatry on the care of the insane in the Cape Colony. The author makes some observations on the tension between psychiatric universalism and the need to create a psychiatry sensitive to African contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews and evaluates 9 studies dealing with migration and mental health among the peoples of the Caribbean. Some common problems in the literature are discussed including the failure to investigate systematically 3 important interrelationships between migration and mental illness (H. B. M. Murphy, 1965). There were no investigations of the lasting impact of the migration experience among this sample. Although many studies have pointed to an elevated incidence of schizophrenia among Caribbean immigrants, these findings may have been inflated with a certain proportion of false positives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses political, economic, and cultural changes in Spain in the past 25 yrs that have influenced health and mental health (MH) care reform. The situation of MH is described in 3 periods: the 1960s, in which the biomedical model predominated and the psychiatric hospital was the point of reference; the 1970s, which marked changes and new approaches to MH; and the 1980s, in which relevant legislation, preventive approaches, the family doctor, and outpatient care assumed fundamental roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied nuclear anxiety (NA), its link with young people's mental health, changes in its incidence in the past 10 yrs, and its political ramifications. The Monitoring the Future project surveyed 17,000–28,000 high school seniors each year from 1975 to 1984. Each of 5 questionnaires was given to 20% of all Ss (about 3,500 Ss). NA consists of at least 2 parts—concern (associated mainly with interest in social issues and influenced by the nuclear threat's status on the public agenda), and despair (related to mental health problems). Results are discussed in terms of trends in NA; differences among worry, concern, and despair; political correlates of concern and despair (perceptions of likelihood and magnitude of threat, political alienation, bellicosity, and religiosity); and other correlates of concern and despair (terrorizing, social class, and artifacts and hypotheses). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Considers that the wide variety of manifest and subclinical forms of schizophrenia among psychotic Ss and some of their relatives has made it impossible to develop a workable classification on the basis of the 2 or 3 phenotypes expected in simple patterns of inheritance. However, a successful search for a biological substrate of schizophrenia depends on the degree of genetic homogeneity among Ss and their relatives. A detailed analysis is made of research on chromosome anomalies, e.g., the aberrant XXX karyotype in female schizophrenics and Klinefelter's XXY syndrome in male psychotics. Data are compared from research on females with 2 Barr bodies (XXX) and males with 1 Barr (XXY), both gametic and mosaic variants. Of definite interest are studies of biological peculiarities of brain cells that are possible carriers of a schizophrenic genotype, using aborted embryos of women suffering from schizophrenic psychosis compared with those from normal women. Results show a far greater number of cells with chromosome breaks in the offspring of schizophrenics, and many fewer viable cells than in embryos from the controls. (29 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the 6th General Work Plan of the Venezuelan Government (1979–1983), which called for a range of interventions from the prenatal period to adulthood to enhance cognitive development. Policies, strategies, approaches and procedures were dictated by the Ministry of Intelligence. Descriptions are provided of the most salient projects, including family, learning to think, instrumental enrichment, intelligence, and chess projects. The projects resulted in substantial modifications in the educational system of Venezuela. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
States that behavior disorders in children were formerly almost always classified as "hereditary psychopathy." The encephalitis epidemic of 1919–1920 demonstrated that organic brain damage could cause serious psychiatric disturbances. Early childhood brain damage impairs the CNS while it is still developing. The neurological psychiatric sequelae are referred to as "encephalopathy" with the qualifying word prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal added to indicate when the injury was incurred. C. Wieck (1965) views hyperactivity secondary to perinatal brain damage as a special form of this focal organic mental syndrome. Its specific manifestations depend on the stage of development; it usually subsides after the 12th–24th yr. It is most prominent during the "stimulation" phase and is not linked to oligophrenia. Psychiatric characteristics of brain-damaged children are neither a typical nor an essential syndrome of epilepsy, bur occur also in the same or similar form without seizures. Mild to moderately severe brain injuries result in longer-lasting psychological effects and psychomotor unrest. Severe brain damage results in motivational disorder. Longitudinal studies of children with slight encephalopathy have shown that their IQs decreased with age compared with those of a control group. Brain-damaged children are much more susceptible to environmental influences than normal children and tend more frequently to develop neurotic reactions. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses collective responses by grassroots labor and community groups to layoffs and plant closings, arguing that protest actions of local committees of the unemployed against plant closings are viable and healthy responses to economic dislocation. An overview of current developments in such groups is provided, and 2 Pittsburgh area organizations that successfully combated unemployment among groups of workers are described. Obstacles to the success of structurally unemployed groups are identified. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied responses of 66 antinuclear activists on a self-administered questionnaire on nuclear issues to learn more about them as people and to understand their motivation and emotional life. In addition, about half of the Ss were interviewed, with a focus on political activism. Results are presented in terms of political efficacy, political powerlessness, level of nuclear threat, and emotional responses, among others. Ss who scored in the powerless direction reported significantly lower levels of antinuclear participation and total antinuclear activism. Ss relatively active in the movement tended to focus on small gains or on the intrinsic values of active involvement. The level of awareness of the nuclear threat is affected by defenses. Results are discussed in terms of the issues of psychic numbing and political activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
34 Greek adults with chronic schizophrenia, who had been psychiatric inpatients or had requested ambulatory psychiatric service, received care at a community mental health center (CMHC) that included medication maintenance, problem-solving, supportive psychotherapy, group social and recreational activities, and social-work intervention. 72 matched controls received routine care at an outpatient facility that focused mainly on prescription of medication. The average follow-up period was 54 mo. There were 1 initial and 2 subsequent assessments. Social adjustment was assessed by the Community Adjustment Scale that covered 12 dimensions of social adjustment, including compliance with aftercare, housing conditions, and the ability to be or live alone. Ss who received aftercare by the CMHC were better reintegrated into the community and functioned more effectively than those who were treated by standard outpatient services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the cost benefits of case-management services within the community mental health system, and identified major barriers to providing such services for discharged mentally ill patients. The study was conducted in a psychiatric facility in Upstate New York; Ss were 20 patients chosen from a residential unit, and 20 patients with similar characteristics were selected as controls. Comparison data were collected on (1) frequency and duration of rehospitalization, (2) cost-effectiveness of case-management services, and (3) use of community resources. A brief description is presented of the case-management model used. A major administrative problem was the lack of formal legitimization of the status of case manager. Also discussed are attitudinal and legal barriers to case management, fiscal constraints, and factors leading to readmission to the hospital. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews research on fears of children (C) and adolescents (As) concerning the future and nuclear war (NW) and their sense of futurelessness to see if C and As are more disillusioned about the future than ever before, or if their fears of NW have replaced equally intense worries of previous times. Data show that many C and As in advanced industrialized societies all over the world are worried about the threat of NW and their own personal future; C are more afraid than As; cultural differences exist in the prevalence and intensity of their fears; US C fear their parents' death more than NW, the reverse is true in the USSR and Western Europe; and C and As most worried about NW have higher self-esteem, are more optimistic about NW prevention, and are interested in political activism. Criticisms of research are noted, and based on a critical evaluation of existing theory, suggestions for future work are made. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied responses to nuclear threat of 60 British 17-yr-old adolescents on open-ended questions and scales measuring political trust (PT), personal political efficacy (PPE), and protest potential (PP), to uncover the relationship among coping, powerlessness, helplessness, and defense. 84% of the females and 78% of the males were cynical about the cultural system's responsiveness; and 81% of the females and 67% of the males had a low PPE. Over 50% expressed little PT; about 50% scored high on PP. Several sex differences are described. Four types of responses by sex were found: affective actor, deferring defender, powerless pessimist, and resistant rationalizer. Results indicate that adolescents are preoccupied with the issue of nuclear war, although there are various ways in which they minimize anxiety and prevent it from overwhelming them. An affective response was found to be a prerequisite for engaging in action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Surveyed adolescents (aged 10–19 yrs) in the US ( n = 2,695) and USSR ( n = 2,781) in 1986 and 1988 to examine the relationship between worry about nuclear war and optimism about the future. Sampling spanned a period in which relations between the 2 countries had improved. 1986 Ss from both countries indicated that they were very worried about nuclear war (54% for US Ss, 93% for USSR Ss). In 1988, worry was still high (46% for US Ss, 88% for USSR Ss). USSR Ss expressed a greater degree of worry about all problem items surveyed except not being able to find a satisfying job (in 1986 and 1988) and getting cancer (only in 1988). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews 3 studies by S. S. Kety, D. Rosenthal, P. H. Wender, F. Schulsinger, J. Weltner, and L. Ostergaard which investigated the respective roles of heredity and rearing in the etiology of schizophrenia, separating the factors by applying data of adoptions that had occurred years ago. Study I examined the incidence of schizophrenia in the biological and adoptive relatives of a selected 33 index cases (out of 5,483 adoptees) who were now schizophrenic adults. Study II investigated the biological parents, rather than the adoptees, using 76 cases of schizophrenic parents as an index. Study III, finally, examined 10 adoptive families of children who became schizophrenic adults. Usually low rates of schizophrenia were found among the index adoptees, suggesting the possibility that adoptive rearing protects vulnerable children against the hazards of being reared by a schizophrenic parent, reducing the rate of schizophrenia requiring hospitalization and the rate of diagnosed schizophrenia as well. However, all 3 studies indicate a significant contribution to schizophrenic disorders by hereditary factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and subsequently examines major epidemiological studies aimed at linking non-influenza prenatal infectious exposures with schizophrenia. Previous findings from the authors own investigations involving prenatal exposure to rubella and respiratory infections are also presented. Implications for the primary prevention of schizophrenia are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The 3-level scheme (i.e., municipal, county, and grassroots) established by Shanghai 30 yrs ago has brought care and social support to many mentally ill patients. Problems facing the system include a shortage of beds for those needing hospitalization and a failure to include in the treatment network patients' relatives and other social agencies. Steps are being taken to fill these gaps. With a shift away from the medical model of mental illness and improvement in Shanghai's economy and education level, public health education has gained in importance and emphasis. Since 1987, about 20 general hospitals and teaching hospitals have set up psychological counseling clinics or departments of psychological medicine and have offered liaison psychiatric services. There has also been increasing attention paid to mental health services for the elderly, children, and college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the psychosocial impact of a deliberately set fire, which destroyed a shantytown in South Africa, on 98 male and 109 female children (aged 2–17 yrs). Ss came from 71 families who had managed to rebuild their homes. 40% of Ss had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Problems increased when mothers were severely affected. In the youngest age group, boys were more symptomatic, but by adolescence this tendency was reversed. Ss demonstrated clear patterns of liking and disliking those responsible for the tragedy. Implications are offered for apartheid and for refugee assistance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines theoretical models and assumptions that have guided mental health personnel in South Africa in dealing with the effects of detention without trial. Psychological approaches to viewing political detention focus on among other things sensory deprivation, solitary confinement, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such individual-oriented approaches are criticized for masking more social and political perspectives. Alternative approaches view detention as a site of active resistance in an atmosphere of oppression and tyranny. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses issues in the diagnosis and treatment of depression in African patients, noting that the manifestations of depression in Africans are culture bound and reflect community beliefs. Somatic and psychotherapeutic techniques for such patients are described. Depression in African patients presents certain special characteristics, primarily somatization of symptoms, projection of guilt and suicidal ideas on the environment, and frequent complaints of bewitchment. It is useful to classify patients as severely, moderately, or mildly depressed. Severely depressed patients should receive ECT and antidepressant and phenothiazine medication. Moderately and mildly depressed patients should receive antidepressants, phenothiazines, or minor tranquilizers. (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The extent of mental health services for children in Africa is unknown, as is their effectiveness. A few pediatric hospitals maintain units for mentally subnormal children, but medical/psychiatric facilities for treatment of mentally ill children are extremely sparse. Personnel are also limited. Government support is nonexistent. Future policy recommendations are made emphasizing that where statistics are available at all, they indicate that childhood mental illness is more prevalent than infectious disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Surveyed the perspectives on the future and concern with nuclear threats of 2,444 children and adolescents (aged 11–19 yrs) in Norway. Ss ranked nuclear weapons as being of the greatest concern to them compared with 9 other future problems on a 1–20 point scale, with unemployment as a future threat ranked 2nd. Compared with boys, girls ranked nuclear weapons and unemployment as more important, and were more concerned about childrearing. The ranking of nuclear weapons 1st decreased with increasing age. Ss indicated in essays 5 categories of thought about the nuclear threat: optimism, active hope, pessimism, powerlessness, and repression. Five themes emerged: emotional reactions, long-term planning, politicians and democracy, aggression, and belief in forces for good. 75% of the Ss had negative attitudes in their written responses to queries about the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compared the effect of intensive inhospital (IH) treatment with that of incommunity (IC) treatment. Results indicate that in terms of overall adjustment and of other specific adjustments, IH treatment had a greater effect than a program of short term IC therapy. However, the IC treatment was effective for some patients, and both IH and IC treatments were relatively ineffective for other patients. A 2nd finding supports a process model rather than an abstinence model as a criterion of recovery: successful adjustment cannot be judged on the basis of abstinence alone. Results also argue for further efforts to identify the kinds of problems that can best be treated with a particular form of therapy. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
States that alcoholism, although it can destroy body and brain tissues, is a "disease" only in the sense that excessive eating, smoking, or sexual activity are. Alcohol is a stimulant only in very small doses. When taken in the usual amount it retards perception, disorganizes memory, and impairs higher skills. These effects are sought as an escape into a state of semi-autonomous forgetfulness. Animal experiments with alcohol are reviewed and their implications for human beings are discussed, with particular reference to the relationships between alcoholism and neuroses. The addict experiences a reduction of tension by partially dissolving inhibitions, and continues to gain relief by ingesting a drug that facilitates regression to need-fulfilling behavior. In treating an alcoholic the physician must treat the whole patient in this milieu; i.e., the "dis-eased" society that tends to condemn rather than rehabilitate. Addicts should in no case be encouraged to consider themselves victims of some "disease." Properly planned health-care facilities for preventing and treating the personal and cultural causes of drug addiction are urgently needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI), which was formed in 1979 in response to social problems resulting from deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill in the US. These problems include: lack of community resources for treatment and care, parents' rights to refuse treatment, family stress and burnout because of the burdens of family care, and a mental health profession that is ill-equipped to work with families. The following precepts, characteristics of NAMI, are discussed: (1) Mental illness is a disease of the brain. (2) The concept of self-help is the most appropriate approach to organizational action. (3) Consumer power and responsibility are basic to improved services. (4) Change will be achieved only through vigorous advocacy. Family advocacy for the mentally ill is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Summarizes the findings of 2 projects at Armero, Colombia, and Imbabura, Ecuador, that were developed after a volcanic eruption produced a mudslide that buried Armero, killing 80% of its 30,000 inhabitants. 200 Ss in tent camps and 100 Ss in primary care clinics were surveyed in Colombia, and 100 Ss were surveyed in Ecuador. 40 Ss in the Colombian tent sample were reinterviewed in 1988 and 113 in 1990. There was a high prevalence of emotional distress at the baseline surveys (55% to 40%) 3 to 4 times greater than the rates seen in ordinary clinical situations. This distress corresponded to well-defined psychiatric disorders, mostly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. The importance of relying on general health care workers to provide adequate mental health care to disaster victims is emphasized, and 3 models for planning service delivery are described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews research on the attitudes and fears of adolescents about the threat of nuclear war (NW). A questionnaire study (QS) by the present authors (1983, 1985) in Los Angeles and San Jose, California, and related studies are cited. QSs outside the US by T. Solantaus et al (1984, 1985) in Finland and F. G. Sommers et al (1985) in Canada and studies using the Goldenring-Doctor method by P. O. Holmberg and A. Bergström (1985) in Sweden, by E. Chivian et al (1985) in the USSR, and by Mikolajszak et al (1984) in Belgium are discussed. Evidence shows that many adolescents are significantly concerned about the threat of NW; worry about a nuclear holocaust might affect the adolescents' development; and anxiety and worry are bad for humans, including children and adolescents. It is concluded that appropriate levels of anxiety and activism can improve our ability to deal with the nuclear threat. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Questionnaire data from 2,060 high school juniors from rural schools showed that those who expected to leave the community had higher educational and career expectations, higher self-reported grades, and greater participation in community activities. Females showed a less traditional outlook than males, were less satisfied with the quality of rural life, and were less likely to remain in the community. Strategies to retain rural youth are discussed in terms of efforts to link education to life experience in the community. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes the Santo Nino healing method followed by many Filipinos and Filipino-Americans, in which prayer sessions are held to worship the baby Jesus. These sessions are led by a healer who goes into a trance and then behaves like a baby. The cases of a 21-yr-old Filipina woman who became disturbed after breaking up with her boyfriend and of a 28-yr-old Filipina woman with cancer, both of whom attended Santo Nino healing sessions, are described. In the latter case, the healer consistently advocated a theory of synergism between religious healing and modern medicine. The need for Western medical professionals to acknowledge indigenous health beliefs is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the mental health implications of the threat of annihilation by nuclear weapons, emphasizing that research in this area can help determine ways of encouraging people to become active and effective in opposing the nuclear arms race. Four psychological aspects of the threat of nuclear war, and unique characteristics of the nuclear threat are described. Humans react to the psychological stresses created by the acceleration of time, including the rapidly increasing destructiveness of nuclear weapons, either by trying to escape psychologically from the predicament altogether or by trying to cope with it in a realistic fashion. The goals of disarmers and the psychodynamics of working toward disarmament are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Summarizes a series of ongoing studies on the minor physical anomalies and hyperactivity in children. 82 hyperactive males and their siblings were surveyed for stigmata. The children's stigmata score had a significant positive relationship to reports of paternal hyperactivity. The present investigation supports the notion that minor anatomic anomalies are significant measures among behaviorally deviant children reflecting minor developmental defects of the CNS. The recognition of this group of children will not lessen the incidence of hyperactivity. However, it may serve to sharpen diagnostic efforts, alleviate unnecessary guilt feelings and thus potentially enable the identification of a specific drug-responsive subgroup. Follow-up data suggest that some adolescent offenders may have had restless, distractible symptoms similar to those of minimal brain dysfunction. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the influence of the political theorist A. Gramsci and the Italian reform leader F. Basaglia on the radical Italian psychiatric reform movement. Gramsci's concept of hegemony and his views on the role of intellectuals, the reform movement's criticism of positivistically oriented psychiatry, the margination and chronification of mental patients, and the deinstitutionalization of psychiatric staff are discussed. Policy issues affecting the future of the reform are also considered, including political and fiscal constraints, the shift of mental health professionals from the public to the private sector, and the social reintegration of the mentally ill. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied 177 female and 131 male undergraduates (aged 17–42 yrs) to assess differences among those endorsing 1 out of 8 nuclear threat attitudes (NTAs) in terms of nuclear-related thinking, worry, emotionality, life impact, war probability estimates, and opinion of media coverage and strategic policy issues. The eliminationist NTA was not selected. The percentages of Ss endorsing each of the 7 remaining NTAs are 12.3% deterrentist, 2% survivalist, 5.5% romanticist, 12% hedonist, 6.5% stoic, 20.8% disarmist, and 40.9% altruistic fatalist. Multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) found overall differences among groups, and was followed by an univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results show that there was considerable diversity in NTAs, heterogeneity in reported cognitive/emotional reactions to the threat of nuclear war, and a relationship between endorsed appraisal/coping systems and nuclear threat reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes innovations and trends in mental health care in southeast Asia, including establishment of general hospital psychiatric units, involvement of family members in treatment programs, use of paramedical personnel for basic mental health care, use of existing community helping resources, extension of therapeutic techniques to encompass traditional forms of treatment, and special programs for patients such as chronic schizophrenics, narcotics addicts, and the mentally retarded. Cultural aspects of mental health care delivery and issues related to epidemiology, social networks, identification of target groups, and psychopharmacological intervention are examined. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents a comprehensive review of biological, particularly genetic, studies of neurosis. Included are those dealing with neurosis as an undifferentiated whole, obsessive-compulsive and phobic neuroses, hysteria, anxiety neurosis and neurasthenia, and, in conclusion, genetic studies of neurotic tendencies among normal populations. (7l ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the psychological effects of floods and landslides that occurred in Puerto Rico in 1985 causing many deaths and considerable material damage and focuses on the methodological aspects considered in designing studies on the impact of disasters on the mental health of individuals. Studies investigate the stressors, responses, and moderators involved in disasters. Depending on whether a study is meant to help provide services to survivors or to explain the factors associated with the effect of the disaster, the studies may be descriptive or explanatory, respectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews the literature on bipolar vs. unipolar psychosis and positions of heredity and environment as disposing factors in affective illness. It is noted that mode of transmission of the genetic predisposition is not known, although means are available to distinguish between major gene and polygenic models. In either case the situation is probably complicated by genetic heterogeneity. Recent research indicates that manic-depressive disease, presented in 1/2 the cases as mania with or without depression and in the other 1/2 as purely depression, occurs equally in the 2 sexes and in people of normal personality. Genetically distinct from this is depressive disease, which never manifests as mania and occurs preferentially in females and in those with neurotic personality. Hypotheses relating to population dispersion, social ranking, outbreeding, and pair-bond disruption are discussed from an heuristic viewpoint. (81 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Asserts that a psychiatry of the environment should focus on aspects of physical and social surroundings for which there are empirical grounds to anticipate that they are likely to influence mental health. Two conceptual tools are regarded as particularly useful in studying the relationships between environmental variables and individual/community characteristics: social networks and associated social support, and stress. The role of urbanization in the etiology of disorders such as depression and anxiety is considered, with emphasis on chronic stress factors such as noise, air pollution, social stress/change, and density. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the Italian psychiatric reform law, which mandates the abolition of psychiatric institutions and the development of community-based services, in relation to the stages of its implementation, efforts to avoid the social exclusion of persons labeled mentally ill, and the resultant reduction in patient violence. The social and political implications of the reform are considered, and psychiatry's specific domain of action is described in terms of the analysis of patients' needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the cardinal signs and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with an emphasis on the most important key experience: loss of control over the representation of ideas, images, and/or emotions, or loss of volitional control of behavior. People complain of unbidden images and nightmares, of broken sleep and intolerable pangs of emotion following traumatic events. Compulsive reenactments of traumatic events are signs rather than symptoms, because the person is often unaware of the pattern that can be observed by the clinician. A case example is given to illustrate this. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Developed a classification of intellectual and other psychological impairments (CIPI) that was tested on 37 severely mentally ill patients and 96 long-stay residents. The instrument measures impairment of global intellectual and cognitive functioning, consciousness, sleep and wakefulness, attention, memory, thought and speech processes, reality testing, drives, volition, mood and affect, and psychomotor functions. The CIPI was judged valid and reliable for assessing what is needed in protection, supervision, and care, particularly for the most seriously impaired and disabled chronic mental patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes 2 client assessment approaches. The diagnostic system emphasizes categorization of clients according to their generic pathologies. This approach is unsuitable for use with problem-oriented systems, which are based on the documentation of individual characteristics and problems. The behavioral approach conceptualizes the client as possessing a unique system of behaviors, which is divided into subsystems covering various life areas (e.g., employment and marriage). Flexibility in the system permits adaptation to life changes; abrupt or drastic changes in one area, however, may result in adaptations that negatively affect other areas. The behavioral assessment approach is based on identifying problem areas and their interrelationships in the individual's behavior subsystems. This approach also relates well to problem-oriented systems. A computerized model for developing a standardized data base of client information is presented and discussed. Clients respond to structured questions designed to elicit information about their life subsystems using a cathode ray tube and a computer keyboard for direct communication with the computer. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the consequences of the Italian psychiatric reform and describes the findings of a study tour that examined the political and administrative context of the reform, the operation of diagnosis and treatment units in general hospitals, the types of community services being provided, the present situation of old mental hospitals, the expansion of private sector care, and the disposition of patients following discharge. Opposition to the reform is considered in relation to the shortcomings of the reform, political implications, and the lack of resources devoted to care. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Top-cited authors
Willem Kuyken
  • University of Oxford
Alain Leplège
  • Paris Diderot University
Shunichi Fukuhara
  • Kyoto University
Catherine Acquadro
John E Ware
  • John Ware Research Group