International Journal of Management and Social Sciences

Published by SPEAK Foundation and International Book House Pvt. Ltd.
Online ISSN: 2249-0191
Publications
Article
The term terrorism, its definition, its subject matter and its scope is thegreatest challenge to Social Science. Our study is focused in sociological,legal and international perspective. So far there has been no universallyacceptable definition. Therefore there is confusion as to who are theterrorists. Terrorists attempt to gain attention of the media, the publicand the decision makers of modern states, be they individuals ororganizations. They use violent means to achieve their objectives. Theymust be differentiated from the idealists who regard themselves asdedicated patriots or as the defender of the people's rights or religiousinstructions. Terrorism must also be differentiated from the acts ofviolence undertaken by the colonized people to advance the cause ofindependence of their country from their colonial powers. We havedrawn examples from the PLO, the Hammas, the Kashmiri ResistanceMovement, the struggle of the Iraqi and Afghani people to substantiateour arguments. We have also discussed some theories that cause ormotivate terrorists to undertake violent activities. In the end we havealso thrown some lights on the state sponsored terrorism.
 
Article
This study sought to assess the effect of diversity management on service delivery in the Nigeria aviation industry from a customers’ perspective due to the observed problem of increasing customer complaints and migration. The study was restricted to customers of the aviation industry in Abuja Nigeria who served as the population of the study. The study adopted the survey research design while multiple regression technique was used to analyze the primary data collected for the study through a structured questionnaire. From a purposefully selected sample of 384 respondents, the study found that age diversity and gender diversity both have a positive and significant effect on service delivery in the Nigerian Aviation Industry. The study therefore recommends that the management of the aviation companies should make concerted efforts towards optimally managing the diversity of their workforce with a good blend of male and female across the younger and older generations in order to maximize service delivery outcomes for the companies and boost performance ultimately.
 
Article
The study was motivated by the problem of high employee turnover rate in the Nigerian banking industry. The study sought therefore, to assess the effect of organizational climate on employee commitment in the Nigerian Banking sector. The study was restricted to employees of Nigerian Banks in the Abuja regional offices. The study adopted the survey research design, primary data was used for the study and collected electronically through a structured questionnaire coded into Google forms. Regression technique was used to analyze the data collected. From a purposively selected sample of 384 respondents. The study found that organisational commitment has a positive and significant effect on employee commitment in the Nigerian banking sector and recommends that collaborative work climate, open communication channels across the firm, and employee engagement in decision making in order to boost commitment of the employees in the organization.
 
Article
This study has been undertaken along 120 Km of coastal tract of Papua New Guinea. The study area lies in the Northern part of Papua New Guinea between the Hansa bay of Madang district and Broken Water bay of Sepik district. The study area is characterized by the sea wave erosion during the past five decades. Topographical map with the scale of 1:250000 is used as the base data set. The recent Landsat TM data set is used to find out the changes of coastal track in the study area after comparing with the topographical map during 1962 to 2010. After geo-rectification of the satellite image with GPS ground control points and topographical reference map, the shoreline is identified through visual image interpretation technology. The coastal processes are the major factors behind the shoreline shifting. The near shore, beach, backshore zones are dominated by one major process or a combination of process. The wave braking zone, breaking type and breaking energy are calculates using the standard equations. The result shows accelerated rate of erosion in the Broken water bay and Hansa bay coastal regions. Coastal track deposition is found in the south-east part of Broken water bay in the study area due to the huge sedimentation by Ramu river. The Broken water bay is under threat of encroaching sea, about 850 m at the northern part and 400 m at southern part during 1962 to 2010. Field observations of those areas also indicate severe damages in construction, natural and planted vegetation and pockets of beach erosion in several places in the study area.
 
Descriptive Statistics
Convergent Validity
Discriminant Validity
Test of Hypotheses Coefficients T Statistics P Values Decision
Article
Micro enterprises in Nigeria lack brand equity in terms of customers awareness for distinct Nigerian micro enterprises brands, trust in perceived quality for micro enterprises products, loyalty and brand associations which limits their ability to perform well despite use of digital marketing. This study sought to ascertain the effect of digital marketing on consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) of micro enterprises in Nigeria with social media marketing, email marketing, mobile marketing, web solutions marketing, search engine optimization and pay per click advertising as the independent variables of the study, while micro enterprises consumer-based brand equity was the dependent variable of the study. The study adopted survey research design with a sample of 400 respondents from a population of micro enterprises’ customers who were registered active internet users in the country. Factor Analysis using structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed in analyzing the primary data collected for the study from structured questionnaire in google forms electronic survey tool. The study found that social media and mobile marketing have positive but insignificant effect on the brand equity of micro enterprises while webs solutions has a negative but insignificant effect. Email, search engine optimization and pay-per-click on the other hand have positive significant effects on brand equity of micro enterprises in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that email, search engine optimization and pay-per-click usage can be continued, while social media, web solutions and mobile marketing should be improved to a point where their effects can be positive and significant.
 
Article
The study was motivated by the problem of poor performance of manufacturing firms in North Central Nigeria. The study therefore sought to assess the effect of place and price on performance of manufacturing firms in North Central Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design to test a sample of 398 respondents from a population of 74,219 management staff of manufacturing firms in North Central Nigeria. Primary data was used for the study and collected through the use of structured five-point Likert scale questionnaire instrument. Multiple regression technique was used to test the research hypotheses. The study found a negative and significant effect of place on performance of the firms as well as a positive and significant effect of price on performance of the manufacturing firms in North Central Nigeria. The study then recommended that the firms make all effort to improve their place (distribution) strategy through re-evaluation and modification of their place strategies. The study also recommends that the firms need continue with their pricing strategy since the effect is positive and significant Keywords: Price, Place, Performance, Manufacturing Firms, North Central Nigeria
 
Article
Knowledge Management Approaches in Pakistani Universities: Faculty Perceptions Dr. Rehmat Shah* Dr. Asad Abbas Rizvi** Dr. Shab Seehar*** Abstract Knowledge management is defined as the process of developing, validating, presenting, sharing, and implementing knowledge. Knowledge management (KM) is a strategy for aiding organisations in identifying, choosing, organising, and disseminating the knowledge and skills necessary for tasks including strategic planning, dynamic learning, problem solving, and decision making. Educational institutions played a significant role in the development, management, and dissemination of information and knowledge among higher education institutions. The study's objectives were to learn about (1) faculty perspectives of existing knowledge management approaches, (2) the advantages of knowledge management practises, and (3) the current hurdles to adopting knowledge management practises effectively inPakistani universities. Participants in the study were all PhD supervisors who had been approved by all public and private institutions in Pakistan. During the interview process, researcher spoke with a total of 15 PhD supervisors. As a basis for qualitative data analysis, grounded theory was employed. Research revealed that Pakistani institutions have a poor understanding of knowledge management. However, despite the fact that universities in Pakistan were well aware of the benefits of knowledge management methods, they did not make any attempts to adopt them. Knowledge management approaches in Pakistan are afflicted by difficulties related to perspectives and ICTs due to a dearth of frameworks, coordination points, and budgetary concerns in the country's institutions. The findings indicated that knowledge management approaches are required in Pakistani universities. It was concluded in this research that knowledge management practices have not been completely included into the planned agendas of most institutions Knowledge management strategies, plans, and policy guidelines are recommended by the study for universities to create. Keywords: Knowledge, management, approaches, strategic planning, perceptions.
 
Article
ABSTRACT The continuous uses of technologies in the field of education and also in distance education are constantly influencing on educational and learning perspectives. MOOCs bring a new perspective to both traditional and non-traditional group of learners who are unable to use more traditional mode of education. Still in the infancy stage MOOCs can be used by professionals, in-services training, home study by older people and other disadvantaged groups. MOOCs have recognize the potential value in providing online education via MOOCs providers Coursera, Udemy, Udacity, and EdX. Ways in which MOOC strategies might improve accessibility, student engagement, and lifelong learning opportunities should continue to be explored. MOOCs also present major challenges related to instruction, assessment, and long-term administration and oversight. Further research and analysis regarding these challenges should be conducted to determine what solutions might exist. Such steps will help in making a quantitative change in our educational system and can steer the universities in a new direction by completely recasting distance education through integrating OER and MOOCs.
 
National Shift Component of Different Sectors of Bogra District It represented the amount by which employment of Bogra could have been grown (1991-2001) if it had grown at
National Share Component of Different Sectors
Total Regional Growth of Bogra District (1991-2001)
Article
Regional development involves an intervention with the existing pattern of economic or employment related activity of a region and requires knowledge about the region's structure and growth. Economically developed and integrated regions are essential for a country to prosper. But like many other third world developing countries, Bangladesh is facing the problem of unsustainable economic growth. Lack of organized development planning, unstable and insecure employment sectors create poverty prone underdeveloped and disintegrated regions in the country. In broader sense it works behind the reason of maintaining poor living standards of people in overall country. To address this problem each region's regional development has to be analyzed to boost up the economic sectors. Using different tools, components and index value a region's overall status and sustainability in terms of regional economy had been analyzed in this study. The technique quantified and produced index value evaluating the centrality, importance and accessibility of any given region on a particular basis. The research revealed economical as well as regional development of Bogra region and provided index value which would help to observe total regional growth and regional sustainability of a particular region.
 
Article
Inadequate water sanitation information utilization has resulted in increased occurrence of water borne diseases among rural households in recent times in Nigeria. Stakeholders in water and sanitation sectors introduced a set of recommended practices via information dissemination to people with the aim of reducing the incidence of diseases. The study therefore examined the level of water sanitation information utilization among rural households in Oyo state. A sequential multistage sampling technique was used in selecting two hundred and thirty (230) respondents for the study. Structured interview schedule was used to collect relevant data. Data were subjected to a mixed method data analysis: both descriptive (mean, frequency count, percentages, weighted mean score and standard deviation) and inferential statistical analysis (Chi-square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC)). The inferential statistical tools were used to test the hypotheses of the study. The findings of the study revealed a mean age of 41.2 years and the mean household size was 6, while average farm size was 2.3 acres. Rain water collection (89.1%) and protected dug well (87.8%) were the common sources of water supply in the study area. Sound health (99.6%) was the most widely mentioned benefit of the water sanitation practices. The use of covered containers (WMS =3.6) ranked first as the most utilized water sanitation information and Financial constraint (WMS = 2.2) ranked first as the major constraint to the utilization of water sanitation information. The PPMC results conducted at 5% level of significance showed that age, household size, educational status and annual income had significant relationships with level of information utilization. The Chi-square test conducted at 5% level of significance revealed significant relationships between sources of water supply (personal tap, public tap, borehole, protected dug well, rain water collection) and level of information utilization. The study concluded that the various water sanitation information were moderately utilized and recommended the provision of more water and sanitation facilities by the government, developmental institutions and Non-governmental Organisations to the rural households.
 
Article
This study examines the implication of migration on environmental development in Kubwa metropolis. The objectives of this research were to determination of the rate at which migration aided in the degradation of the environment and to also examine the possible effects of migration on the socio-economic life of the people of Kubwa metropolis among others. Copies of questionnaire were administered within the study area through purposeful sampling to obtain data for this research. The data was analysed using descriptive and necessary inferential statistics. The analysis has shown that migration of people lead to population increase within Kubwa metropolis and has an effect on environmental development ranging from housing,shanty areas to effect on socio-economic life of the people. On the basis of this, recommendations were made that; government should formulate a comprehensive planning policy that would aid in the provision of adequate infrastructure, population redistribution, slum eradication and sustainable land-uses.
 
Article
This study critically interrogated the financial autonomy given to local government in Nigeria both in the past and in the present Administration of President Mohammadu Buhari, GCFR. The main objective of the study is to examine and ascertain whether the financial autonomy granted to the local government council is a "Myth" or "reality'' the study relied heavily on secondary data from in-depth desk review of books, journals, magazines, government documents, internet publications, newspapers etc. also, the study made use of primary data from personal interactions and interviews of some key stakeholders in the local government service such as the chairman, Head of Service (HOS), Head of Personnel Management (HPM), treasurer and supervisory councilors. The major findings of the study reveals that autonomy to local government in Nigeria whether administrative or financial in nature is a "Myth", a "mirage", a "shifting sand" and not actualizable in "practice and reality". The reason is because the Governors, through the instrumentalities of the state government have devised means and strategies to enforce all kinds of administrative, Judicial, Legislative and financial controls over the local government councils in their domain. Consequently, based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that for the local government councils in Nigeria to become vehicle for efficient and effective services delivery at the grassroots and rural areas; there should be constitutional amendment as is the case in all the federal system of government in the world today, for local governments in Nigeria to be the creation of the state government and subordinate to them. This is necessary to make the local government accountable to the state government who will have the sole authority to organize structure, monitor and manage the councils to become result-oriented and efficient in services delivery as envisioned by the founding fathers and the 1976 Local Government Reforms.
 
Article
Although there is an extensive research examining the mainstream tradition of ritual performance in India, the non-literate tradition is still mostly an explored area. Dandanata is mostly prevalent in rural pockets of Puri, Ganjam, Bolangir, Boudh, Sonepur, Sambalpur, Phulbani and Dhenkanal districts of Odisha. It is a festival that dates back to 4th century A.D. The rural agricultural communities of Odisha perform Dandanata once in a year starting at the beginning of April (i.e. from pratipada of Chaitra) for over a period of 13th days or somewhere it is 21 days ordeal that culminates on the day of MahavisuvaSankrantilocally called as panasankranti. The performance Dandanataconsists of Dhuli(Sand) danda, Pani (water) danda, Agni (fire) danda and Theatrical performance.A typical village life is full blown in the Dhulidanda and Theatrical performance of Suanga (dual) danda. It visualizes the duty (work), rest, recreation and other day to day happening of family. The paper tries to visualize the life of village from an anthropological understanding.
 
Double logarithmic relationship between standard length and body weight using pooled data over the study period. 
Generalized relationship between standard length and body weight of C. cachius using pooled data over the study period. 
Article
How to cite this article: F Yeasmin, ZF Ahmed, MG Ara, MS Mia and MK Fatema (2015). Length-weight relationships and growth pattern of a danionin fish species Chela cachius (Hamilton, 1822) of a perennial lake in Bangladesh. ABSTRACT The present research established monthly relationships between standard length and body weight with the construction of generalized relationships of pooled data over a calendar year, and monthly growth pattern of neon hatchet fish Chela cachius (Hamilton, 1822) (Cyprinidae: Danioninae) collected from a perennial lake in Bangladesh. Twelve monthly samples totaling 1200 specimens were used to conduct this study. The standard length and body weight ranged from 25 to 64 mm and from 0.19 to 3.22 g respectively. The parameter values of a and b of the cubic equation describing the relationships between standard length and body weight in the form of W = aL b varied monthly. The highest a value was calculated in September (0.00015), the lowest was in February (0.00001). The b value ranged between 2.15 to 3.20, which highest in February and lowest in September. The coefficient of determination (r 2) ranged from 0.704 to 0.938. The results revealed that all length-weight relationships were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.839, P < 0.001). Confidence interval of b values at 95% confidence level revealed that growth pattern in February, June, October, November and December was isometric while growth pattern in other months was allometric. The generalized growth pattern of C. cachius population was isometric because the confidence limits of b value of the length-weight relationship at 95% of confidence level included 3 (2.98-3.11). The generalized length-weight relationships constructed for C. cachius was BW = 0.00001SL 3.05 in the perennial lake under the study.
 
Monthly variation of condition factor of male, female and combined M. lamarrei according to CF BW. 
Collection record of freshwater prawn M. lamarrei from L-shaped pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. 
Sex-wise monthly variation of condition factor of M. lamarrei according to CF BW 
Article
The condition factor of a small indigenous freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium lamarrei (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) was studied to evaluate the health status of the species sample over a calendar year. A total of 1018 specimens (485 males and 533 females prawn) were used in this study, where condition factor for male, female and combined prawn varied with months. In case of male, the highest condition index was found in June (1.141) and lowest was found in August (0.886), and for female, the highest condition index was obtained in May (1.221), and the lowest was in July (0.947). In the combined sex, the highest condition index was determined in June (1.235), and lowest value was in September (0.966). The study suggested that both male and female individuals of the prawn population M. lamarrei were fatty in May and June; on the other hand, they appeared in lean condition in July and August over a calendar year.
 
Article
Political-economy as an approach and theory gives a better and clearer insight of human society in relations with different social structures that functions its effective running. The class analysis in the society and its effects brought about the social responsibility of the state, and the underlying forces and motives behind government policies, actions and inactions of phenomenon of the COVID 19 pandemic and the attendant mystery that surrounds it in Nigeria. The COVID 19 pandemic has exposed the structural and deep systemic weakness, specifically Nigerian political economy and security challenges. The attendant revelation showed how there could be unequal relations between the leaders and citizens in the distribution of palliative measures within the polity during the rampaging period ofcovid19 pandemic. Measures to combat the rate of the spread saw the society being locked down; hence many sectors of the economy could not function except for essential ones. Consequently many people were deprived of their means of livelihood. The paper therefore examined the political economy of COVID 19 and the attendant security challenges in Nigeria. The study concluded based on the findings that there has been a problem from the Nigerian leaders to separate politics from economics, considering political bankruptcy in Nigeria and direct interference of investible capital out of the society. This had played fundamental roles of restricting the possibilities of growth and development both in Nigeria and indeed Africa.
 
Article
The first novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 is a highly contagious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the ongoing outbreak as a global public health emergency. COVID-19 is a disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus. „CO‟ stands for corona, „VI‟ for virus, and „D‟ for disease. Formerly, this disease was referred to as „2019 novel coronavirus‟ or „2019-nCoV.‟ The COVID-19 virus is a new virus linked to the same family of viruses as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and some types of common cold
 
Article
This research aims to study the challenges and remedies of Work From Home (WFH) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many organizations around the globe are forced to let employees work from home, but very limited studies have highlighted the challenges of this working method. The research used a qualitative method through gathering data via six interviews from organizations in Malaysia. The research highlighted challenges of WFH in several themes, including lack of motivation, less socializing, pay cuts, a slew of distractions, low communication, and safety issues. The study limitations included pandemic restrictions, which could be overcome by using video conferencing software. Future research is recommended to test the relationships of the challenges with the performance.
 
Article
p>In 1968 social movements sparked rhetorical discourses which occurred in many nations and on hundreds of colleges and in communities across the United States. These rhetorical discourses ultimately changed the direction of human events. Sometimes these points of ideological protests shared views on specific issues, especially demonstrations against the Vietnam War, but each conflict was also its own local conflict. There is no evidence that any specific group organized the protests, or that speakers motivated demonstrations, or that the rhetoric of one protest caused other protests. Yet, the protests were not just spontaneous fires that happened to occur in the same year. So, how is it that so many protesters shared the desire for change and shared rhetoric, but each protest was sparked by local issues? Answering that question provides insight into how the rhetoric of social movements occurred in 1968. Many scholars call for the study of the social movements of the 1960s. Jensen (1996) argues, “The events of the 1960s dramatically increased the interest in studying social movements and forced rhetorical scholars to reconsider their methods for studying public discourse” (p. 28). To Lucas (2006), “Words became weapons in the cultural conflict that divided America” (x). Schippa (2001) wrote, “Many accounts identify the 1960s as a turning point. For better or for worse, there was a confluence of changing rhetorical practices, expanding rhetorical theories, and opportunities for rhetorical criticism. The cultural clashes of the 1960s were felt perhaps most acutely on college campuses. The sufficiency of deliberative argument and public address can be said to have been called into question, whether one was an antiwar activist who hated LBJ's war in Vietnam or a pro-establishment stalwart trying to make sense of the rhetoric of protest and demonstration. Years later, scholars would characterize war itself as rhetorical. What counted as rhetorical practice was up for grabs”(p. 261). First, this paper will frame the protest movement of 1968. Then, we will search for the common factors that shaped the protests of 1968, focusing on the role of music. This analysis will provide insight into how music became a rhetorical force in a significant social movement of the 20th Century.
 
Article
The paper conducts an empirical examination of the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic growth taking real domestic product (RGDP) as a proxy for growth in the Nigerian economy, using Granger causality test and Simple Linear Regression. The data used were mainly sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin of the year 2009.The results have revealed evidence of causality between the two variables running unidirectionally (one-way) from FDI to growth. However the Granger causality test employed in examining the relationship is not without the limitation of providing only the explanation of growth by the two periods lagged values of FDI, that is what necessitates the use of Simple Linear Regression to investigate the nature of the relationship between FDI and Economic Growth in Nigeria. However, to avoid having into spurious regression results, augmented Dickey Fuller unit root test was conducted and the variables were found stationary at level which suggests that the regression results are not spurious. Based on the findings of the paper, it is recommended that government stabilization measures be geared towards attracting FDI by providing an investment friendly environment bereft of political and macroeconomic instability as that would help propel growth. KEYWORDS: Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth Granger Causality
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to: a) analyze the impact of service quality on client satisfaction; b) identify travel behavior and c) assess the attributes that are more important and more satisfaction-oriented from the client point of view. These objectives are designed to provide health and wellness tourism units with a better understanding of the market; help them match supply to the needs, wishes and attitudes of their target markets and draw up improved plans for developing their potential. The empirical data, collected in five Portuguese hot springs units, was evaluated using a modified SERVQUAL scale. Attributes designated as more pleasing, and those receiving more emphasis, were assessed through the Importance- Performance-Analysis model. Travel behavior was assessed by means of a purposemade questionnaire. In terms of service quality, we confirmed that aspects relating to attendance (“ability of the employee to perform accurately and dependably”, “employee's willingness to help the customer and provide prompt service”, “capacity to provide individualized attention”) were more satisfying for users of these units. Through the IPA, we established that the attributes of “quality / price ratio”; “quality of complementary services (lodging and leisure)”; and “geographic location (quality of transport and accessibility)” offered were of less interest to clients. Implications for Portugal were discussed.
 
1. Conceptual framework Independent variables Dependent variables
2. Age bracket of respondents
3. Marital status
Article
This study focuses on relationship between credit risk management and loan portfolio in commercial banks of Rwanda; a case of Urwego Opportunity Bank in the years of 2012-2016. This study was guided with the following research objectives: to examine the influence of credit risk management on loan portfolio; to analyze the management of loan portfolio and to determine the relationship between credit risk management and loan portfolio in UOB from 2012 to 2016. In this study, purposive and stratified sampling technique were used in selecting 15 respondents out of 77 target population staff of credit department of UOB. Under this, a triangulation was adopted where weakness of the other tools was addressed by the other data tools. Data analysis was done by using Descriptive statistical tools (SPSS) version 21. This study found that the lending policies are highly implemented with mean of 3.13; 3.08 shown that lending decision is well made. And 2.64 indicated that the recovery techniques are effectively applied; the overall mean of 3.03 shown that loan risk monitoring is performed. Above all effort has been made to achieve better credit risk management in UOB and it has shown a positive relationship with loan portfolio management although the ratio of NPL has not decreased. This is because in 2016, the UOB has granted loan in corn farming in Kirehe, Kayonza and Bugesera districts and unfortunately climate change due to excess of draught, from August 2016, has led to crop failure Prompting the borrowers not to pay. This study recommended that financial institutions specifically Urwego Opportunity Bank, should add agriculture insurance in loan requirements to minimize agriculture loan risks.
 
Article
There exists empirical evidence that thematic thinking through the mediation of innovativeness impacts employee performance. We, in an explorative manner, went further to understand the underlying mechanism which promotes innovative work-related behavior. We collected data from individuals at R&D assignments of various organizations where new ideas and products are developed. A total of 295 survey forms were collected, and the analysis was done using the PROCESS Macro for SPSS in order to test the mediation model. The results revealed that thematic thinking was positively linked to open-mindedness and innovative work behavior; also open-mindedness mediated the relationship between thematic thinking and innovative work behavior. This study has explored, tested, and empirically proved a novel relation in the local context of R&D related individuals (managers) working in diverse fields. The current research extends thematic thinking in the domain of cognition, innovation, and workplace behavior. It concludes that managerial decision making is elemental in performing innovatively. Practical and managerial implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed to enrich the domain of thematic similarity further.
 
Article
Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian Economy as it employs around 41.49 percent of the total workforce. The agriculture sector contributes around 17 percent of the total GDP. Here, in the Monsoon Session of the Lok Sabha the three bills recently tabled in the parliament, which introduced major changes to the agriculture sector. These bills seek to provide a new ecosystem by offer freedom of choice to the farmers related to production and trade their produce outside the government mandis i.e., APMC (Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee). This will be helpful to achieve the "One Nation-One Market" concept. But these bills face opposition in some states like Punjab, Haryana, UP, etc. on several issues related to the ending of MSP (Minimum Support Price) on essential food items, promotion of contract farming, increasing the involvement of private investors which leads to the upper hand of agri-businesses and big retailers in negotiations, removal of a middleman (Arhatiya) which leads to black marketing, more exploitation of poor farmers as well as consumers, closing of APMCs, penalize farmers for stubble burning and release the power from subsidies, etc. This article deals with how to overcome these shortcomings and gives an analytical view of the Farm Bills 2020.
 
Article
In 2022 the Gulf State of Qatar will host the 22nd FIFA World Cup. This tournament follows on from a series of sporting mega events where the principle of legacy is embedded within its delivery and purpose. While claims for creating legacies are widespread, understanding how legacy is actually defined and perceived is an area of research in its infancy, being commonly misunderstood and currently without consensus agreement. This study explores the scholarly analysis into legacy development as a research theme. An interpretative approach is adopted which explores and catalogues legacy definitions within academic literature and segments applied terminology through a definition category framework. Comparative analysis is then conducted with the defined objectives of a current legacy focused mega event (2022 Qatar World Cup). The research findings lead to the creation of a new legacy definition for the event and to add to the limited examples already existing within the literature.
 
microfinance scale by region
Article
In this article we will try to assess commercialization and mission drift in SSA and MENA regions. According to the literature on microfinance, commercialization as represented by competition, profitability and regulation can affect loan size. After reviewing litterature facts we will address the problem empirically, with the obvious consideration that research in this field are unfortunately few. Using data from mixmarket of 49 MFIs for the two regions (including 19 from SSA and 30 from the MENA region), we use the average outstanding loan balance/GNI as dependent variable and proxy of outreach. An Unbalanced panel data model for the period 2000-2013 was used to explain the effect of some independents variables on our dependant variable.
 
Article
There are so many challenges faced by the retail outlets. Major portion of Indian retail industry is driven by big giants like Bharti, Reliance, Future Group, Tata, Birla etc. The study will include understanding the major and minor challenges faced by the retailers like competition, less skilled human resource, government policies , tax, kiryana stores etc. A research is conducted to investigate the major and minor challenges faced by the retail outlets.A structured questionnaire with 16 questions was used to collect the primary data from 30 managers of Delhi/NCR to know their perception about different challenges faced by Indian retailoutlets.
 
Descriptive Analysis: A Sample Coding
Normality Test
Article
It is important to teach students programming at an early age so that they do not have difficulty in understanding the programming logic when they reach the age of undergraduate education. Scratch, a visual two-dimensional programming tool, has been developed to accomplish this purpose. There are studies in the literature related to Scratch on problem-solving skills, but they are not directed at the steps of problem solving. In order to find a proper solution to a problem, it is necessary to carry out each problem-solving step in an appropriate way. Based on this need, the aim of this study is to investigate how teaching programming through Scratch affects the problem-solving skills of 5th and 6th grade middle school students and to identify the steps that students go through to solve ill-structured problems. It is also intended that these steps guide teachers in terms of the pedagogies for teaching coding. This study utilized an explanatory design, one of the mixed method research designs. In the quantitative stage of the study, a one-group pretest-posttest model, one of the simple experimental models, was used. In the qualitative stage, a case study model was used as the research design. A total of 226 5th and 6th grade students, including 109 males and 117 females, constituted the sample of the study. The data were collected using a problem-solving skills scale and interview questions. A statistically significant difference was found between the mean scores of the first and second measurements of the problem-solving skills scale according to the Wilcoxon signed-rank test result. According to the results, when teaching programming through Scratch, it is recommended to have students design games, as an alternative method, for them to develop problem-solving skills. The solution of a problem is facilitated when students construct a game in their minds in accordance with real-life conditions and design and detail it in accordance with computational expressions.
 
Article
The emergence of the market for derivatives products, most notably forwards, futures and options, can be traced back to the willingness of the risk-averse economic agents to guard themselves against uncertainties arising out of fluctuation in asset praises. The main Objective of the study is to know the changes in the value of futures of selected banks (ICICI, HDFC, Axis, Canara and Indusind Banks). Secondary sources of the data is used for the study. The scope of the study is limited to "derivatives" with special reference to Changes in Future price movements in Banking Sector and the interconnected stock exchange (N.S.E) have been takes as a representative sample for the study. The findings of the study is the market price of ICICI is having low volatility, so the futures of investors to enjoy the more profits. The derivatives market is newly started in India and it is not known by every investor, so SEBI has to take steps to create awareness among the investors about the derivative segment.
 
Article
Pakistan came into being as a truly democratic Islamic state,she was once a state with strong economy, stable government and policies. The golden principles of peace, liberty, and justice were preserved in its basic idea which led to the creation of an independent state. But regrettably the coming generation failed to implement the vision of forefathers. The garden full of flowers is now become bunch of thorn, which requires cleansing and reformation. The current menace of extremism predicates on weak institutions, unstable political system, social injustices and economic turmoil. To counter all, there is a need to have strategies in every sphere of life. The current research article argues that ideological, political, social and economic reforms are immediately required as nation"s response to take Pakistan out of the current fiasco and resort to basic principles of justice, equality, and freedom as enshrined in all religions and more so in Islam.
 
Article
The study was conducted to know the contribution of water chestnut (Trapa natans) in the aquaculture of Bangladesh. The study were also performed to know the general biology of the plant, propagation process, growth performance, culture system, problems, harvesting system, per decimal (dec) production etc. Data were collected from four upazilas under four districts for eight months from April to November 2017. Traditional culture system was included in this research work that was practiced by the farmers in our country. During the study some food items were made with water chestnut flour, such as cake, halua, morobba and raw water chestnut was used to make different types of curry. Chemical analysis showed that the moisture content were 96.67%, 90.35%; lipid were 1.20%, 1.65%; protein were 0.30%, 0.94%; carbohydrate were 0.50%, 5.38%; ash were 0.18%, 0.64% and fiber were 1.15%, 1.05%, respectively for green and red water chestnut. The marketing channels from farmers to consumers were passed through a number of intermediaries such as local water chestnut traders (paikers), wholesalers and retailers. The cost-benefit ratio was varied from one farmer to another because of their culture systems, economic capability, labor cost, disease, ownership of land etc. The production cost was BDT 80/dec and benefit was BDT 220/dec in one case, however for other farmer the production cost was BDT 100/dec and benefit was BDT 506.25 for second cases. Improved traditional culture system was used for second cases so farmers got high profit. If these culture systems are expanded throughout the country especially in flood plain region, farmers will get extra benefit from their land. In Bangladesh, agricultural crops frequently damaged due to flood. If water chestnut in these flood affected land is cultured, farmers will recover their investment and get extra benefit.
 
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of temperature variation on food intake and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758). Nile tilapia with an average weight of 13.52 ± 0.23 g was used in this study. Three hundred (300) juveniles were randomly selected and stored in 15 aquariums of 50 L capacity. Five (5) treatments were tested in triplicate. Thermostats were used to maintain temperatures at 20, 23, 26, 29 and 32°C respectively. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The juveniles were weighted each two weeks and growth parameters were calculated. Juveniles were fed twice a day at (8:30 am and 3:30 pm) with commercial feed containing 32% protein. Water quality parameters were measured daily and readjusted whenever necessary. The results of this study showed a significant growth difference in fish reared at 29 and 32°C compared to those reared at 20 and 23°C.The feed conversion rate increases with temperature. The feed conversion rate is obtained with the batch raised at 29°C. No significant difference was observed between the feed conversion rate of treatments raised in waters at 29 and 32°C. With respect to survival rates, statistical analyses showed no significant difference between the different treatments. In conclusion, water temperatures at or above 29°C seem to be more appropriate for Oreochromis niloticus. The juveniles at 33°C were very eager during feeding while the others were less active. In conclusion, water temperatures ranging from 29-32 °C seem to be the most efficient for the culture of Oreochromis niloticus.
 
Article
The world in which we live consists roughly of mostly right handed individuals. This is the reason why most of the tools, facilities and equipment are designed for right handed people which make left handed of a disadvantage. Hence, this study essentially investigated the lived experiences of left handed students from the College of Teacher Education in Cagayan State University. It made use of qualitative method of research with 205 respondents who were identified using purposive sampling. The instrument used in the study is a structured interview that elicited the exceptional experiences of left handed students with respect to the structural conditions of the University. Responses were analyzed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results show that left handed students feel great as a person because they are unique individuals and there only a few of them in the world. Also, left handed students experience challenges living in a right handed academic world yet they are able to adapt with these challenges through varied strategies. Indeed, left handed students are flexible for they can fit in a world intended for right handed people.
 
Article
A virtual learning platform is an online-based podium that provides digital solutions to learners and academicians to improve their learning experience. Virtual learning is a system that provides educators a digital-based options for producing interactive lessons. Since the early days of the COVID19 pandemic, Universities throughout the world took rapid initiatives to ensure students` learning continuity and secure the well-being of their learners. (Alsoud & Harasis, 2021) Virtual learning is a form of learning that uses technology. A learning system based on dignified teaching, with the help of digital resources is known as virtual learning. This study aims To find out the impact of virtual learning on student`s academic achievements during COVID-19 outbreak. The recent research study was carried to explain the existing conditions of the learners` views and concepts. M.Phil and Ph.D. scholars that were confined to "The Faculty of Education, University of Sindh". Descriptive Survey design was used to collect data from the respondents, from which 200 respondent`s feedback was recorded and elaborated with the proper and timely usage of tool (Questionnaire). The data was collected by the researcher himself by visiting institution. A five point Likert scale was used to collect the data and hypotheses was tested using regressions Analysis in SPSS 23.
 
Correlation between Classroom Achievement Test, Social Adjustment, Emotional 
Gender Difference on English Achievement Test, Science Achievement Test, Social Science Achievement Test, Social Adjustment, Emotional Adjustment, Educational Adjustmentand Achievement Motivation Test (ACMT) 
Article
School adjustment is the process of adapting to the role of being a student and to various aspects of the school environment. Failure to adjust can lead to mental health issues and school refusal or school dropout and may require schoolcounselling. The present study focuses on school adjustment, motivation and academic achievement among school students face many adjustments in school. From year to year, there are changes in teachers, classrooms, school and class rules and procedures, performance expectations, the difficulty of the work, and peers. Their successes in negotiating these challenges predict academic achievement. If a child is well adjusted to his environment, then he or she will be motivated to excel in the activities assigned during school, and it leads to academic achievement. Academic achievement is greatly based upon adjusting abilities of children. An individual is not born adjusted, it is his or her capabilities that make his or her adjusted in any environment. Maladjustment leads to devastating lifelong impacts on the child’s personality. It is very important to study and find out favorable and unfavorable situations which affects child’s adjustment, motivation and gradually it leads to academic achievement. As school is the foundation of our life, it should be strong enough to construct an empire in the future.
 
shows that the Ecuadorean university with the biggest number of Communication teachers on the scientific academic networks is the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, with 17, 16 and 14profiles on 
Article
This article is a quantitative review of the mechanisms of dissemination and impact of the scientific academic networks used by academics at university schools and faculties of Communication in Ecuador who are categorized by the state as level A or B. This review firstly identifies those teachers who have profiles and actively the Academia.edu, ResearchGate.net and Google Scholarnetworks.We then take the total number of followers of these networks and the citations attributed to the teachers in this study as a mechanism for measuring dissemination and the impact created by these scientific academic networks. The universities that figure most prominently in this study are the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, the Escuela Politécnica del Litoral and the Universidad Central del Ecuador; the conclusion is that the use and following of profiles is still intermittent and embryonic.
 
Article
Today, e-banking is used as a strategic tool by the global banking sector to attract and retain customers. E-banking is a generic term for delivery of banking services and products through electronic channels, such as the telephone, the internet, the cell phone, etc. The concept and scope of E-banking facilitates an effective payment and accounting system thereby enhancing the speed of delivery of banking services considerably. The present paper is concerned with the various ways of doing banking electronically. The present article throws light on the customer aspect of e banking services and the customer satisfaction level. It also gives a comparative study of customer's perception of e banking services offered from Public sector and Private sector banks. Introduction Indian banking sectors are largely depends on information technology owing that to meet the global competition with the help of understanding the consumers perception. Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. A motivated person is ready to act. How the motivated person actually acts is influenced by his or her perception of the situation. Perception depends not only upon the physical stimuli, but also on the stimuli's relation to the surroundings field and on the condition within the individual. People's behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. Perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen which is influenced by the individual, the object and the situation. Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets the information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. In simple terms, perception is why the same universe is viewed differently by different people. Perception process consists of three stages: Selection, Organization and Interpretation. Selection is the first stage in the perception process in which the stimuli is selected through the senses: sight, sound, smell, taste and touch. Organization is the second stage in which the stimuli (information) are mentally arranged so that a sense can be formed of the stimuli or it can be understood. Interpretation is the third stage in the perception process in which the meaning is attached to the stimuli. Interpretations are subjective and are based on values, needs, beliefs, experiences, expectations, involvement, self-concept and other personal factors. With aspects the present article highlights the perception of customers towards e-banking in Kangepuram district of Tamil Nadu.
 
Services account Receipt
Services Payment Source: (BB)
Test for Equality of Means between Series Test for Equality of Means Between Series
Evidence of GMM Model Estimation
Article
Current account balance has played a role to enhance economic growth in Bangladesh. The major concentration of this study is to analyze the current account components of the balance of payment (BOP). This paper deals with quarterly base data from 2012Q3 to 2019Q4. The Generalized Method of Movement (GMM) technique has been implied to measuring the current account impact on economic growth. Four models have been developed where the estimated models deal with the current account balance (CAB) as the key variable. The result of model-1 represents that the current account has a negative relationship with economic growth in consideration of merchandise goods export and import. Model-2 to 4 represents that the current account has a positive impact on economic growth in Bangladesh. The sufficient current account is expected towards the purpose of financial and economic development where trade balance and service account have a significant role.
 
Article
Accounting has been described as the language of business as it provides information for taking business decisions. The recognition of this role of accounting has engendered accounting practice regulatory bodies (local and international) to be critically involved in accounting standard setting, review and amendment; and monitoring of practitioners to guarantee ethical practice (i.e., practice acceptable as to rules, standards of the profession). The object is to meet the information needs of diverse stakeholders in the entity. Studies however showed that a firm’s rising share price may not necessarily be indicative of good corporate governance (i.e., mechanisms, processes and relations by which a company is directed) but rather a reflection of creative accounting practice (i.e., accounting practices that may follow the letter of the rules but certainly deviates from the spirit of those rules) with the result that users of accounting information are more often than not misled in their economic decision effort. And considering the vulnerability of investors to risk through creative accounting practice the objectives of this paper are to sensitize prospective investors on critical factor consideration for taking investment decision(s); and establish the validity of accounting information as basis for decision making. It considered the concept of creative accounting; its empirical review; reasons for it; and ways by which it can be curtailed.
 
Article
Understanding the tangible and intangible benefits contributions to business development is vital for sustainable future success of the organization. Resource accounting tools can quantify the benefits of investment by accounting and valuation methods, optimizing business performance through human capital building strategy responding to changing business needs. Enterprise progresses with a focus on waste elimination and the customer’s needs in all parts of its operations, manufacturing, and administration; emphasis to lean structures and processes, flexibility of response, and methods and techniques to continually seize new opportunities arise to become LEAN. VSM is for understanding the current organization and begin directing resources to high-leverage areas, re-evaluates the purpose to lean benefit the future state of the organization.
 
Article
The research examines the effect of fair value accounting on biological assets in Nigeria. Data were employed from Okomu Nigeria Plc annual report and analyzed using Simple Percentages and Multiple Regression. Hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study finds that market value of building has significant effect on the biological assets of Nigerian Agricultural sector. The study also finds that market value of machine and equipment influences biological assets of Nigerian agricultural companies. Lastly, the study finds that current market price of motor vehicle and tractor has significant effect on biological assets of Nigerian agricultural firms. The study recommends that there is need for agricultural firms to adopt the fair value accounting system in other to keep proper records of its biological assets.
 
Article
This study “Alternative funding practices of Sailaja Acharya Memorial Polytechnic (SAMP) explores the approach in practice in the institution even exploring its sustainability and replicability. In so doing the evidences clearly indicate the challenges with the existing practices in the institutions even though the institution has made reliable strategic interventions to overcome them. There are no valid grounds for applying such alternative financing model for its replication in Nepalese context. For carrying out qualitative research, researcher employed case study research design.
 
Article
ABSRACT The study aimed to investigate the effects of flipped vocabulary learning on vocabulary students 'achievement and explore the students' attitudes towards flipped learning after experimenting such approach. Total of fifty students participated in the study; twenty-five students involved in the flipped learning approach as the experimental group and twenty-five students were taught in the non-flipped learning environment as a control group. During the intervention, students in the experimental group were exposed to practice materials such as video clips (fill in vocabulary logs), PDF file and chatting via Whatsapp Application before face-to-face activities in the classroom; while during the classroom, the students did exercises on the practice materials in pairs/groups. To measure students' performance, a vocabulary pre-test and post-test was administrated, and an independent t-test for post-test was used to compare the control group and the experimental group's performance. Moreover, to assess the experimental group's attitude toward their learning experience through flipped learning approach, an attitude survey questionnaire was distributed.The findings indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in vocabulary learning and they had a positive attitude toward the flipped learning approach.
 
Article
ABSRACT The study aimed to investigate the effects of flipped vocabulary learning on vocabulary students 'achievement and explore the students' attitudes towards flipped learning after experimenting such approach. Total of fifty students participated in the study; twenty-five students involved in the flipped learning approach as the experimental group and twenty-five students were taught in the non-flipped learning environment as a control group. During the intervention, students in the experimental group were exposed to practice materials such as video clips (fill in vocabulary logs), PDF file and chatting via Whatsapp Application before face-to-face activities in the classroom; while during the classroom, the students did exercises on the practice materials in pairs/groups. To measure students' performance, a vocabulary pre-test and post-test was administrated, and an independent t-test for post-test was used to compare the control group and the experimental group's performance. Moreover, to assess the experimental group's attitude toward their learning experience through flipped learning approach, an attitude survey questionnaire was distributed.The findings indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in vocabulary learning and they had a positive attitude toward the flipped learning approach.
 
Innovation implementation model (Klein & Sorra, 1996).
Conceptual framework (Pretesting). 
Revised commercialization activities implementation framework. 
Article
This study aims to explore issues of commercialization activities of research results among academic researchers who work in biotechnology-related researches in Malaysian Research Universities. Accordingly, the conceptual framework based on the 'Innovation Implementation' model has been assessed for its applicability in describing the phenomenon under study. Through interviews, elements as specifi ed in the 'Innovation Implementation' model were found in this case study. Signifi cant patt erns and themes were also identifi ed that suggest local industries, funding for research, development and commercialization as well as leadership, political interference, researcher's att itude, transition management and legal perspectives are considered as the contextual factors that aff ect the commercialization activities of research results. Finally, the revised framework of commercialization-activities implementation based on the fi ndings from qualitative analysis was recommended.
 
Article
Chicago Sözleşmeleri, Uluslararası Sivil Havacılığın esaslarını evrensel düzeyde düzenleyen ve Uluslararası Hava Hukukunun cari kurallarını belirleyen temel bir metindir. Chicago Sözleşmeleri, hava hukukunu uluslararası rejim haline dönüştürmüştür ve 4 ayrı sözleşmeden oluşmaktadır. Bu sözleşmelerinden Chicago Sözleşmesi olarak da anılan “Uluslararası Sivil Havacılık Sözleşmesi”, bu sözleşme grubu içerisinde “ana sözleşme” olarak kabul edilmektedir. Uluslararası havacılık kuralları, bu sözleşme ile belirlenmektedir. Havacılık sektörü son yıllarda hızla gelişme göstermeye devam etmektedir ve uluslararası ticaret içerisinde önemli bir paya sahiptir. Çalışmanın ikinci kısmında, tarihsel süreç içerisinde uluslararası ticarette korumacılık ve serbestleşmeden bahsedilmiş, Gümrük Tarifeleri ve Ticaret Genel Anlaşması(GATT)`nın önemine ve temel ilkelerine ve Dünya Ticaret Örgütü (DTÖ)`ne değinilmiştir. Çalışmanın üçüncü kısmında, uluslararası havacılık kuralları kapsamında Chicago Sözleşmeleri`nin temel taşını oluşturan Paris Sözleşmesi`ne, Chicago Sözleşmeleri`ne ve yürürlüğe konduğu tarihten itibaren sözleşmelerde meydana gelen değişikliklere yer verilmiştir. Bu çalışma esasında keşfedici bir çalışma olduğundan, çalışma kapsamında Uluslararası Sivil Havacılık Sözleşmesi`nin temel düzenlemeleri incelenmiştir. Sözleşmenin ilgili maddeleri devletin hava sahasında egemenliği, devletin hava sahasında yükümlülükleri, hava sahasının hukuki statüsü, sivil ve devlet uçakları, sivil havacılığın suiistimali ve tahditler (sınırlamalar) olmak üzere altı grup altında değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışma bulguların bir özeti ve sözleşmenin temel düzenlemelerinin uluslararası ticaret yönünden değerlendirmesi ile sona ermektedir.
 
Article
The issues of adaptive performance among the employees in MNCs had and have become much more relevant to explore, therefore the mindset of the employees and the readiness to changes obviously can provide an interesting insight on the behavior and cultural aspects of international business firms. It is pertinent that in the business arena of India, the Japanese firms are playing significant role. Therefore, the exploration and testing of research tools in the context of Japanese Business establishment is meaningful exercise for furthering research. We reconstructed the questionnaire by combining the existing scales for assessing the employees Mindsets, employee's readiness to change, and adaptive performance of the employees in the selected MNC located in India.
 
Article
This paper focuses on the Two Component Mixture of Additive Uniform Exponential Distribution which is an extension of additive uniform exponential distribution proposed by venkata subbarao uppu (2010). The various distributional properties like, mean, variance, moment generating function, recurrence relation of moments, skewness, kurtosis, etc., are discussed. Some inferential aspects of this distribution are presented
 
Top-cited authors
Alfredo De Massis
  • Lancaster University
Emanuele Pizzurno
  • Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC
Lucio Cassia
  • University of Bergamo
Muhamad Azahar Abas
  • University of Malaysia, Kelantan
Seow Ta Wee
  • Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia