A practice-grounded and research-validated reinterpretation is presented of the ways in which values and ethics influence
administrative practices in schools. The basic proposition is that acquiring administrative sophistication is a function of
understanding the influence of personal values on the actions of individuals and the influence of values on organizational
and social practices. A values perspective is used to link theory and practice with the objective of promoting authentic leadership
and democracy in schools. The perennial challenges of leadership are discussed together with the special circumstances of
our times. The following are then proposed: the pursuit of personal sophistication, sensitivity to others, and the promotion
of reflective professional practice. Examples of findings from recent research that demonstrate the utility and relevance
of values and valuation processes as guides to educational leadership are presented. These findings are used to reinterpret
key values theories in ways that increase their relevance to school leadership practices. Specifically, the values typology
of Hodgkinson is reconceptualized and informed by the accumulated findings of research on administrative valuation processes
in schools conducted since 1988. This reconceptualization of theory also reflects efforts to integrate cognitive theory perspectives,
together with experiences working with groups of school administrators in Canada, Barbados, Sweden, Australia, and Russia.
This chapter is intended to enrich and expand scholarly reflection on democratic leadership theory. Leithwood and Duke (1999) make the claim, in their review of the literature on school leadership, that contemporary philosophy of educational administration has made no significant contribution to leadership theory. However, one can argue that contemporary philosophy has indeed implicated educational administration and the assumptions of enlightenment/modern philosophy that support its practice. The chapter begins with the question of the possibility of democratic leadership theory after the postmodern critique of democracy, epistemology and all meta-narratives (Maxcy, 1991). The question is posed whether democratic leadership theory is thereby defeated, or significantly chastened. It goes on to ask whether democratic theory may overcome its own contradictions through a self-consciously ironic pragmatism.
The next section of the paper explores the limits and constraints on leadership theory after Postmodernism. Leadership theory and its proponents have to agree to a continuous evaluation by a hermeneutic of suspicion, a continuous deconstruction of its treatment of power and authority. It has to respond to the unavoidable issues of racism, sexism, classism, and other oppressing ideologies.
The double meaning in 'leading cultures' is understood as a split between what school leaders do when they lead and the leadership function of different subcultures. This paper explores this notion of a split, and discusses transactions, encounters and the tacit knowledge that school leaders use when they execute leadership. Data from studies in Swedish schools are used to illustrate school leaders' work as processes of reciprocity and relatedness: an exploration of the archipelago of cultures and the art of leadership. It is simple and yet so complex.
America's schools have become increasingly diverse, both in terms of traditional multicultural markers (race, class, ethnicity) and the inclusion of students with disabilities. Preparing teachers to meet the needs of all students and to work actively to promote social justice and equity requires a careful analysis of how teachers are prepared to work with diverse learners. This paper examines multicultural education textbooks and those used in introductory special education classrooms in order to assess how each set of texts treats the others' issues. This analysis is followed by reports of conversations with teacher education leaders addressing how their teacher education programmes include issues of multicultural education and disability and the relationships and connections between those two areas. We conclude with recommendations for continuing the conversation regarding the multicultural- disability interface and urge the identification of common agendas for teacher education reform.
This article describes the efforts of a suburban school district-Newton, Massachusetts-to examine the role of racism in the underachievement of students of colour, and to engage in the process of becoming an anti-racist school community for the benefit of all. Written from the perspectives of a white male school superintendent and a black female consultant, both centrally involved in the change process, the article identifies several key elements used in a comprehensive effort to establish anti-racism as a core value in the district. Included is a description of the creation of a professional development course called 'Anti-racism and effective classroom practices for all', which provided a common language and conceptual framework for thinking about how to move from passively racist practices to actively antiracist ones. The lessons learned in this process are shared here in the spirit of encouraging others to act within their schools and communities.
Historically, departmental structure by subject has been the taken-for-granted and unquestioned organizational model for secondary schools. This paper explores the relationship between organizational structures in secondary schools and the implementation of legislated change initiatives, and examines the role of individuals in positions of responsibility (PORs) in the implementation of two legislated curriculum innovations: curriculum integration and performance based assessment. Data were collected over a 10-year period from one descriptive and three longitudinal studies, and reanalysed to examine the role of PORs in implementing the provincially legislated changes. The implication of the findings is that the implementation of subject-based or whole school innovations is problematic for individuals in a traditional subject structure. Consequently, this research raises the question of the purpose of secondary school organizational structure.
This essay describes the pedagogical foundations of Ernesto 'Che' Guevara's revolutionary praxis, situating Che within a redemptive model of educational leadership. Guevarian leadership is articulated within an historical materialist framework in an attempt to present a model of educational leadership that can address the resistance to and transformation of global capitalist social relations and the IMF/World Bank consortia of finance capital.
Committed in a general way to the idea of teaching and teacher education for social justice, the nine co-authors of this paper embarked upon a multi-year collaborative research and professional development project that came to be known as 'Seeking Social Justice'. The project was designed to allow group members (all faculty in the same department) to examine their own understandings of social justice issues as part of the process of helping their students do the same as well as to encourage students to work for social change and effectively meet the needs of the increasingly diverse K-12 school population. In this article the authors discuss the framework for the project and the first two years of collaborative work. They suggest that their work together provides a 'proof of possibility' for faculty groups attempting to emphasize or infuse social justice into pre-service teacher education despite profound differences in politics, disciplines and perspectives. They argue that part of what made this possible was a commitment to extended and repeated conversations that evolved over time into a culture of careful listening. This led to deeper and richer understandings of participants' own biases as well as understandings of where colleagues were coming from on particular issues. The article suggests that it was these deeper understandings, and not consensus, that allowed the group to take action-designing and implementing new administrative policies and practices, establishing social justice as the centrepiece of the curriculum, and beginning to look critically and publicly at their own pedagogy as teacher educators.
The use of biographical narrative as a device for constructing leadership models for schools is scrutinized here. It is argued that the historic figure of Che Guevara is not appropriate as a model for school leadership. Two claims are made: that narrative biographies which stress certain modernist characteristics of historic figures emphasizing older ideological beliefs may be inappropriate for contemporary cultural contexts; and, critical pedagogical agendas ought to open themselves to practical critique if they are to successfully impact educational reforms in the future.
In assessing educational leadership dimensions for 2020, one must consider the effects of technology and automation in education, important influences of changes in society, and progress in developing and understanding administrators' personal/professional needs. Conscience, creative imagination, and interpersonal skill development are essential leadership qualities. (MLH)
The Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards are ambiguous and empirically insupportable. "Professional consensus" does not equal epistemology. Administrators licensed for practice in the 21st century will resemble secular Jesuits following an ideological agenda that exceeds the science left behind in the pragmatic pursuit of standards and benchmarks. (Contains 36 references.) (MLH)
Cites evidence that questions the conclusion in Skrla and others article that Texas test-based accountability system has improved educational equity and social justice for racial minority students. (PKP)
This article addresses risk and its minimization as a powerful rationality for driving leadership practices in contemporary schools. It explores risk‐consciousness as ‘a moral climate of politics’ (Giddens 200215.
Giddens , A. 2002. Runaway world: How globalisation is reshaping our lives, London: Profile Books. View all references) and as a management imperative that impacts on any contemporary organization, including schools. The impact of risk‐consciousness on the work that school leaders do is explored, with particular attention to some of the negative effects of this on schools as sites of learning. The article raises questions about the implications of all this for staff development in general and the needs of school principals in particular.
Incl. abstract, bib. This article deals with the possibilities of participatory action research in quality enhancement projects at the level of university departments. The projects, carried out between 2002 and 2004, were aimed at developing leadership and management, fluency and division of academic work, well-being, and the health of academic staff. Four departments at the Universities of Joensuu and Helsinki participated in the project. In the spring of 2004, staff members from the departments were interviewed in order to evaluate the development process. In this article, we shall analyse and evaluate the application of participatory action research used in the projects carried out at the University of Joensuu.
The public profiling of schools as ‘effective schools’,1 1. The state Department of Education uses the term ‘effective schools’ to refer to schools that produce high pass rates for grade 12 students (university entry certificate). This study identifies problems with this stance and redefines school effectiveness suggesting that schools which draw well aligned strategic plans to enhance the quality of teaching and learning leads to the production of good quality learners. Effective schools are those that set up measurable and attainable goals that are aligned to organizational effectiveness and performance measurement of all aspects that have an impact on teaching and learning. View all notes based on Grade 12 results, has resulted in a jingoistic race by many public schools to get their names on the ‘public notice board’ of effectiveness recognition. Besides creating a skewed perception of school effectiveness, this public profiling of schools as effective organizations, conceptualised within an inadequate criterion (Grade 12 results), has not only stirred public controversy (when the national Minister of Education threatened to close down the least effective school), but has also been widely identified as a problem by researchers. The research conducted by Jansen (19989.
Jansen , J. "How policy creates inequalities." Invited address – CHR1/IDASA Symposium, Cape Town (1998) View all references) discovered that besides contravening social justice legislation by beating facts into learners’ minds (corporal punishment), most of these schools publicly branded as the most effective also subscribe to rigid authoritarian management and leadership practices, sometimes ignorant of legislation and policy imperatives. This paper presents a critical analysis of unplanned human resources (HR) practices and management styles observed in two of these ‘effective schools’ where school principals and five educators per school were interviewed. The two schools studied are public high schools based in Durban at the Umlazi District. These schools offer education from grade 8 to grade 12 to the predominantly disadvantaged working class communities. The research findings reveal that the management of these schools is based largely on rigid practices that are devoid of strategic planning and consented investment, with respect to human capital development as aligned with human resources strategy and the broader Skills Development Act 97 of 1998 and other related labour legislation. The Skills Development Act of 1998–is the South African labour relations legislation that specifically claims space for skills‐based training programmes in the education, training and development landscape. Under this Act, organisations are compelled to provide continuous training and Re‐skilling of employees. These findings also reveal that critical policy and legislation on labour relations (Skills Development Act no. 97 of 1998 and Employment Equity Act) are not only contravened, but there are no state‐led systems and processes in place to rectify the situation, cascade policy to staffroom level and reinforce school compliance with government policy and legislation. Educators are not treated as knowledge workers, but as mere civil servants, with limited professional development rights. This paper also draws parallels between these schools and best practices in human resources strategy in the corporate domain. The conclusions of the study clearly reveal that: Educators in public schools work and live under total ignorance of human resources legislation There is discontinuity in state policy reinforcement between public and private employers
Meeting the needs of the school community in the Australian context in current times has become a complex task, due to substantial school restructuring over the last three decades. More and more, schools are required to engage, and be accountable for developing programs that address the needs of the school community, while satisfying accountability structures of the central office. This article provides an analysis of the dominant and, at times, competing discourses of school-based management in Australia over the last three decades, couched within the neo-corporate bureaucratic paradigm in which educational leaders are currently operating. It suggests that it is within this complex space that inter-institutional networks and alliances have not only become necessary but, in some cases, have flourished. One particular Education Alliance is examined here as a representative of the possible local solutions being sought by schools. Finally, this article foregrounds education alliances and networks as a possible fourth discourse of devolution.
Incl. abstract, bibl. This paper outlines the subjective constructions and interpretations of six Israeli women principals in mid-career of their experiences of burnout as they were inductively reflected in their life stories. Based on an inductive analysis of the women principals' life story interviews, the study revealed that women principals seem to interpret the concept of burnout in a different way from the common 'androgynous' definitions and constructions that have predominance in educational management. In particular, the women principals constructed their own burnout as a relative, non-polar phenomenon, and refused to perceive it as an absolute and total experience in their mid-career. They incorporated burnout and counter-burnout components in the life stories. The implications of utilizing their unique perceptions and attitudes to the study of burnout are discussed alongside broader implications for the study of the emotions in educational leadership.
The study was aimed at shedding light on burn-out among Arab school principals in Israel by investigating its relationship to the principals' professional identity and their interpersonal relationships with their teachers. The sample consisted of 88 Israeli Arab school principals, a group of professionals whose burn-out was investigated for the first time in this study, and of 517 of their teachers. The principals were selected randomly from the total population of Arab school principals. The study instruments comprised three questionnaires that had been used in previous studies, where they had been tested for reliability. The results indicate a relatively low degree of burn-out experienced by the Arab school principals in general, and in comparison with school principals in the Jewish educational sector in particular. The variance in burn-out was explained to a statistically significant degree by professional identity and by a number of gaps between the principals' perceptions of actual and desired interpersonal relationships. The results are discussed with regard to psycho-sociological and cultural aspects.
Incl. bibl., abstract. It is no coincidence, that disengagement from school by young adolescents has intensified at precisely the same time as there has been a hardening of educational policy regimes that have made schools less hospitable places for students and teachers. There can be little doubt from research evidence that as conditions conducive of learning in schools deteriorate through emphasis on accountability, standards, measurement, and high stakes testing, that increasing numbers of students of colour, from urban, working class, and minority backgrounds are making active choices that school is not for them. When students feel that their lives, experiences, cultures, and aspirations are ignored, trivialized, or denigrated, they develop a hostility to the institution of schooling. They feel that schooling is simply not worth the emotional and psychological investment necessary to warrant their serious involvement. This paper argues that producing the circumstances necessary to turn this situation around requires invoking a radically different kind of ethos and educational leadership-one that encourages and promotes the speaking into existence of authentic forms of student voice.
Reforming schools is a challenging aspect of contemporary education. The role of leadership within reform agendas is critical. This article presents a case study of one school that has been highly successful in the implementation of this reform. The processes employed by the school at various levels demonstrate the ways in which effective leadership enabled successful reform to be embraced by the school teams. In this school a model of devolved leadership enabled the reform to be successful at multiple levels of school implementation. This successful model has implications for school reform and funding models. Yes Yes
Incl. bibl., abstract In Spain, the presence of women in decision-making positions and in positions of power is not proportional to the total number of women within the field of education. Women have encountered personal and professional barriers in their advancement to the principalship; however, significant and substantive changes to school policy are revealed when examining the experiences of those who achieve principal status. This article discusses the findings from a one-year qualitative multi-case study of women principals' roles in educational leadership and their creation of policy for educational change. Using in-depth interviews, observations, and field notes, the study focused on eight women working as principals and how the school community perceived their work, which lead to change within their schools. Despite the difficulties the principals encountered, this study found the women's experiences to be positive in several areas: school change; self-renewal and growth; relational and social networks with faculty; students and school community; and democratic and participatory styles of leadership as successful ingredients of their work.
Bourdieu … makes it possible to explain how the actions of principals are always contextual, since their interests vary with issue, location, time, school mix, composition of staff and so on. This 'identity' perspective points at a different kind of research about principal practice: to understand the game and its logic requires an analysis of the situated everyday rather than abstractions that claim truth in all instances and places. (Thomson 2001a: 14)
Incl. abstract, bib. Decision makers are faced daily with making important and pervasive decisions. This is especially significant in higher education, where decisions about academics will have considerable impact on the next generation of leaders. In place of rational decisions about the substance of learning and instruction, academic administrators make incremental decisions, and rationalize the technologies used to produce those decisions. Administrative decision makers have become information managers. Technology information and decisions drive academic decisions. Information technology is right at the center of educational administration. Administrators give careful consideration to technology, which plays a significant role in the decisions that are being made. This fosters incremental decision making much more than rational decision making. Decisions lead to actions and actions to results and information, which itself leads to other decisions. Decisions are supported and yet limited by technology. A college's future seems to be tied to technology, and decisions are tied to technology's output. The challenge for academic decision makers is to form a comprehensive strategy for the use and impact of technology on decisions.
This paper is the synthesis of a study performed in educational centres in Uruguay whose focal point of research is processes of organizational self-evaluation, the logics that guide the records and their ties with the change processes promoted at these centres.Our examination of multiple case studies considers seven early childhood, primary and secondary education centres, both publicly and privately owned. Performed between 2009 and 2011, the use of the PRODESO Scale, interviews, focused discussions, document analysis, surveys and the researcher’s diary have enabled us to gather relevant information on aspects related to the instrumental, methodological and contextual domain of the self-evaluation performed.The results identify structural, operative and cultural conditions that either make possible or limit the usefulness of self-evaluation as an instrument of change. They also yield a classification of domains (instrumental, methodological and contextual) that may be useful for studying organizational realities and organizing intervention processes, as well as yielding several references on school leaders.
The movement of public services into direct competition with their private enterprise counterparts is a common feature of public sector policy throughout the developed world. The publicly funded provision of school education has not been exempt from this trend. The creation of a competitive climate is placing public school leaders and teachers under pressure to improve performance in an environment where parents-as-consumers choose the schools to which they send their children. Drawing on data from two recent studies involving principals, a description is given of some of the difficult ethical situations encountered in schools and the professional values that are put under stress as a result of the new competitive climate. Some implications are outlined for the design of professional development programmes for school principals and teachers.
Incl. abstract, bibl. This paper discusses the process of post-independance teacher education reform in the southern African country of Namibia. These reforms are based on the view that teachers are critical agents in the creation and development of changes in schooling rather than government servants who merely 'deliver' an approved curriculum. These reforms in the educational system are seen as contributing to a societal reconstruction in which there is greater equity and social justice for all Namibians. The paper discusses the role of 'critical practitioner inquiry' in supporting a shift in Namibia's schools toward more learner-centred and democratic practices. The role of critical practitioner inquiry in preservice and inservice teacher education and in professional development for teacher educators is examined . The tensions and contradictions associated with the reforms are also explored, including the potential dangers of relying on external aid and outside consultants. Finally, the reforms are discussed in relation to current globalization trends.
Liberatory education is part of the continuing tradition that advocates equity and justice in school children's lives. The international scene seems bold and exciting, as new democratic societies are being created. U.S. democracy has become confused with capitalist ideologies. School leaders must develop a public voice for democratic education. (MLH)
Incl. abstract, bibl. To what extent does school-based management (SBM) influence teachers' commitment? Using a longitudinal research design, this study reveals that SBM positively affects teachers' commitment to the teaching profession and to students' academic achievements and negatively affects their commitment to the school and to students' social well being. At the same time the findings show that teachers' autonomy on the job remained unchanged after SBM was introduced in schools. It is argued that SBM is perceived by teachers as a potential to increase their professional autonomy. However, based on the assumptions of the exchange perspective, the findings show that teachers increase their commitment towards issues that potentially may benefit them most. The study concludes that more time is needed before the impact of SBM on teacher commitment may be fully understood. However, it is argued that high demands for teacher effectiveness have to be followed by sufficient benefits and professional autonomy if SBM is to promote commitment rather than teacher burnout.
This study explores concepts of learning used by leaders, focusing on learning for leadership through day-to-day workplace experiences. The participants were drawn from the senior management team within a school, the chair of governors of the school and the local authority school improvement advisor. Concept mapping was used as a participatory research method. Maps were created by the participants and linkages discussed. The maps indicated that learning for leadership from experience was multifaceted. The language used to describe concepts of learning reflected generic and everyday concepts, rather than the language of pedagogy or concepts used in professional training/the literature. The study alerts us to the difficulties in embedding concepts used in formal training in the everyday life of educational professionals. It also highlights the use of concept mapping as a technique for exploring workplace learning.
This article explores how organizational cultures shape workplace learning for those learning to be educational leaders. The discussion is illustrated with the data from an ethnographic case study which explored the workplace learning of five school leaders. The findings suggest that workplace boundaries were constructed in response to perceptions of threat from the external environment and perceptions of risk in terms of school performance and that this had a significant impact on both what and how learning was taking place. These findings raise questions about how learners are able to develop creativity and innovation through workplace learning in a restrictive environment and the purpose of workplace learning when it is placed as a central feature of national leadership programmes.
Incl. bibl., abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which the introduction of school-based management (SBM) has affected schools' culture of consumption and the inequalities between schools with different socio-economic backgrounds. An analysis of financial reports from 31 SBM schools over four years reveals that schools have increased rather than decreased their expenditure on building maintenance. At the same time, schools' expenses on educational activities and programmes were slightly reduced. Moreover, it is evident that the funds secured by low socio-economic status schools for pedagogical activities and programmes are insufficient to bridge the gap between them and high socio-economic status schools unless a compensating formula is employed. Based on the findings obtained, it is concluded that educational systems should adopt a needs-based funding formula to ensure that schools are treated fairly and that the financial autonomy granted to schools through SBM enhances their pedagogical potential rather than broadening the inequalities between schools operating in different settings and serving children of different socio-economic backgrounds.
In this paper, contemporary literature on strategy in education is examined in an integrative and analytical manner. To achieve this, an empirical investigation on strategy in education was undertaken. As the goal is to understand and propose specific research directions, the findings are both descriptive and analytical. Initially, peer reviewed journal articles that had been published relating to strategy in education were identified. Such a list provides a valuable insight into contributions to this area of research and serves as the foundation for the paper's other purposes. The second purpose was to analyse strategy in education publications over time (1980-2005), to see how the topic has evolved. Third, an integrative analysis of works on strategy in education allowed an identification of needs for future research. The over-riding purpose of this paper was to ensure that there was an understanding of the contributions and their limitations, so that research on strategy in education can progress with an appreciation of the past. (Contains 2 figures and 5 tables.)
Democracy rightly holds a critical significance in any context in which relatively small elites have subjugated majorities. When a democracy has been established in a societal context that encompasses minority subgroups along with a dominant majority, minority groups are in danger. Democracy is not equity, nor any guarantee of equity. (MLH)
This article delineates the distinctiveness of democratic leadership in comparison with distributed leadership. The impetus for the exercise arises from the escalating interest in distributed leadership within the field of leadership and organizational studies. More particularly, this article addresses the danger that the idea of democratic leadership may be eclipsed or colonized by discourses on distributed leadership. A view of democracy is developed in which particular attention is given to critical theoretical roots in Marx's notion of alienation and the pervasive power of Weberian instrumental rationality. The article builds on theoretical modelling by the author (Woods 200372.
Woods , PA . (2003). Building on Weber to Understand Governance: Exploring the links between identity, democracy and ‘inner distance’. Sociology, 37(1): 143–163. View all references) of a type of governance (organic governance) in which democratic rationalities are an infusing and challenging feature. Two of the rationalities give to democratic agency its distinctiveness – namely, decisional and ethical rationality. The latter is discussed more fully, as it tends to be given least explicit attention in much literature on democracy. Essential to democracy is the recognition – and, today, the reassertion – that advancing truth is worthwhile, social and possible. Ethical rationality, linked in with the other democratic rationalities, requires, inter alia, creative spaces in a dynamic organizational structure that allows for movement between tighter and looser structural frameworks; a recombination of creative human capacities which overcomes the tension between instrumentally‐rational and affective capacities; and open boundaries of participation. Implications for understanding democratic leadership are highlighted in the discussion.
This article examines the roles of deputy principals (assistant principals, deputy heads) in secondary schools and thus contributes to an under-researched area often overlooked in discussions about school leadership. Typically, these discussions have focussed on the principalship alone. Data were collected from deputy principals in one large government education system in Australia using a specially designed questionnaire, comprising closed and open items. Respondents reported high pressure in the role, and an increase in recent times in the number of hours worked and in the variety and diversity of the role. Noteworthy is the fact that the majority were satisfied with their role as a deputy principal, with about 40% intending to seek promotion to the principalship. ‘Lifestyle decisions’ were the overwhelming deterrent to seeking promotion. The level of satisfaction with their role related to how well the notion of team among school administration team members was developed and the alignment in their roles between what deputy principals saw as their real role with their ideal role. The closer the real and ideal roles were aligned, the higher the level of satisfaction. Deputy principals identified strong interpersonal/people skills, inspiring and visioning change, delegation and empowerment and being a good manager as key skills for their role. Professional development areas of need for them included financial management and leadership skills.
The aim of this paper is to illustrate how principal subjectivities are constructed by particular normalizing processes that occur through the disciplinary power of grants and submission writing. An increasing part of the principal's job, under moves towards self-governing schools, is a reliance of grants and submissions in order to obtain funding. This paper uses case studies of two school principals who are concerned about the increasing time and energy spent on these funding applications. Foucault's notions of governmentality and disciplinary power are used to theorize the constitution of these principals as subjects through the mechanisms of grants and submissions. This paper therefore contributes to much needed theory building around principals' work under school-based management. Yes Yes
This paper examines principals’ descriptions of the implementation of an urban professional development school (PDS) network through the lens of a distributed leadership framework, in order to explore the role of the principal and its relationship to the goals of a PDS and its major stakeholders. By analysing semi-structured interviews with PDS principals, participant observation field notes and PDS School Action Plans through a distributed leadership lens, the authors seek to understand how principals describe the development and emergence of distributive leadership in a PDS network, and how descriptions of their PDS work connect to the development of various dimensions of their leadership. Based on data analysis, the authors propose three categories of emergent leadership interrelationships: frameworks, relationships and practice. These provide the basis for a deeper understanding of the critical aspects of leadership that PDS can facilitate in school leaders’ development and impact. The authors propose that principals construct meaning about their own leadership development and ability to enable effective school change by connecting their knowledge and understanding of what leadership entails and how it is shared with others. Research on the principal’s role in an urban PDS provides insights into how additional PDS roles provide new perspectives and opportunities for converting the principal into a change agent.
This study focuses on leadership development as a collaborative practice in the context of a school improvement project aimed at increasing the students’ competence in approaching factual texts in and across disciplines. Although numerous studies from surveys and self-reported data have examined what types of leadership development school leaders participate in, little attention has been paid to studying leadership development as practice. Here, leadership development involves social interaction, often in informal and inter-professional settings over time. The present study seeks to capture leadership development as practice by expanding the unit of analysis from individual responses and reports to interactions in a project team who worked over a two-year period. The analytic focus is on interactions in the boundary zone among representatives from the local educational authority in the municipality, principals from three schools, and a university. Cultural-historical activity theory constitutes the theoretical framework for the analysis. The study demonstrates how the participants struggled to identify the purposes of the project, as well as how to reach them. Thus, coming to terms with ill-defined purposes of collaboration (objects) seems to be a prerequisite for leadership development on an interdisciplinary school improvement team.
This paper examines how emotional literacy works as a ‘new humanist’ knowledge object, with particular emphasis on its capacity to shape pedagogical processes and their outcomes. It does so in three parts. First, it explores the dimensions of emotional literacy as a knowledge object, showing how the take-up of EQ may be understood to represent the triumph of self-stylisation-as-substance. Second, it indicates how it is located in a larger pedagogical agenda focused on human development and change. Finally, it considers the risks of endorsing and adopting this new knowledge object unproblematically into the work of universities and schools.
Incl. abstract, bibl. Educational research has contributed a great deal to current understanding of effective school-based management. Through this research, practitioners have been given guidance on what constitutes effective teams. However, educational research has yet to provide comparable guidance in the areas of team evaluation and self-review. There is a paucity of research available to practitioners on how management teams can monitor and self-evaluate their progress, goals, and outcomes over time. The purpose of the current study was to propose an evaluation tool - a values inquiry checklist - that could be used by teams to self-evaluate important aspects of team functioning such as transparency in decision-making and accountability. The checklist was developed from evaluation research on values inquiry and is intended to be an unobtrusive and adaptable evaluation tool for school management teams.
In this study, we examine the impact of a study abroad experience on a group of students in an educational leadership doctoral programme. The researchers sought to measure the impact this experience had on diversity awareness of six pre-service school leaders. By using a qualitative exit interview and the quantitative Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale both pre-post to measure diversity awareness and shifts, the researchers were able to explore shifts in perceptions over time. It was found that every student experienced shifts in not only how they viewed diversity but also how they defined diversity.
Leadership capacity-building is a key factor in sustainable school improvement, and the leadership contribution of students is an integral part of an authentic distributed conception of school leadership. Thus it is important to understand the factors which influence high school students' motivations to engage in formal and informal leadership in their school. A sample of 167 Australian public school Grade 11 students (average age 16.6 years) completed a selfreport survey of their perceptions and motivations. Students holding formal leadership roles reported more positive views of their school and peers. Girls not holding a formal leadership position reported higher levels of leadership motivation than boys. Students who were members of formal extracurricular clubs or teams did not report higher levels of school identification or leadership motivation. Students' perceptions of the quality of relationships between their peers and between teachers and students predicted their sense of membership or identification with their school. In turn, students' sense of identification, and not their level of achievement motivation, predicted their willingness to contribute and engage in leadership in their school. The implications of these findings for school leadership and culture and teachers' behaviour are considered. Yes Yes
The biological basis for differences between the sexes has become increasingly clear in recent years. The nature-nurture debate has made way for the view that the individual is a product of the interaction between genes and environment. For the world of school leadership this means that instead of arguing about them, we should acknowledge the differences between female and male leadership and turn the differences to our advantage with respect to the effectiveness of school leadership. This is becoming all the more necessary now that the principal's job is progressively becoming more complicated. Men and women working together have a wider range of alternative strategies at their disposal than either acting alone, creating a case for mixed teams. A mix of masculine and feminine elements in school management leads to a broader repertoire of behaviour and consequently to more flexible action.
This article reports further findings from the 'Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning' project, based on a close examination of some of the interview narratives with an Australian principal. Positioning analysis is used as an empirically-grounded means of making sense of who this Australian principal is and what she does as a leader to improve her school's focus on leadership for learning. The complexities of the principal's leadership practices are opened up for scrutiny through an analytic focus on the production of the principal's narrative identity formation in her storytelling practices. The findings underscore that engaging in leadership for learning is complex and varied. In this instance, the process began with the principal's main focus on constructing management strength and only slowly moved to a distributed model of pedagogical leadership for learning. The article demonstrates that treating interview narratives in this way can be seen as an additional site of professional practice, not just reflection on practice, in that interviews contain courses of questioning and methods of accounting that allow storytellers to generate educational knowledge. Yes Yes
Leaders possess certain intelligences. They are linguistically gifted; they can tell good stories and usually can write well. They have strong interpersonal skills, have a good intrapersonal sense of their abilities, and can help others address existential questions and feel engaged in meaningful quests. However, intelligence is no guarantor of responsible or ethical leadership. (MLH)
In our nation’s schools, there is an ‘othered’ nature of space—the fact that spaces are not discourse-neutral and serve to entrap individuals in certain representations, roles, contracts, hierarchies and other hegemonic processes. This paper focuses on research on the use of photo-elicitation, critical geography and metaphor as tools of representation, analysis and reflection of problems of practice and spatialized practices in schools. Participants were students in a graduate educational leadership courses. Preliminary analysis has given insights into how students in leadership preparation programmes begin to develop their identities as future educational leaders and how they interpret problems of schooling. Providing students with the opportunity to critically examine how spaces in and around schools convey messages about taken-for-granted leadership practices and expectations for the role empowers them. Pre-service leaders can develop their own identities and become leaders engaged in creating more socially just schools that serve the needs of all students.
Incl. abstract, bib. The characteristics of the emerging and existing teaching force are explored in relation to supervision Key trends that exacerbate teacher shortages include out-of-field teaching, increases in student population, critical subject-area shortages, attrition, and retirement. This paper calls for a high-stakes form of supervision as a long-term solution to working with the constantly changing nature of the teaching force.
This article is concerned with the nature of novice teaching principals' interactions in Queensland rural communities. Stories selected from case accounts are used to provide insights into the teaching principals' interrelationship with the community. The article concludes with a discussion of some implications for practice suggested by these insights into the experience of rural teaching principals in the context of their communities. Yes Yes