International Journal of Leadership Studies

Publications
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Regent University, 2004. Includes abstract. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 74-92).
 
Proposed mediational model
Main and mediating relationships of ethical leadership and leader effectiveness
Regression Results of Ethical Leadership Overall
Regression Results of Fairness, Role Clarification, and Power Sharing
The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and perceived leader effectiveness. The group prototype forms an ideal representation of the group’s identity, prescribing appropriate attitudes and behaviors. Ethical leaders are role models and thus are likely to be seen as the group prototype. In turn, prototypes are more trusted and effective. We investigated whether ethical leader behavior overall and different specific ethical leader behaviors (fairness, power sharing, and role clarification) influence prototypicality and, in turn, trust in the leader and leader effectiveness. This model was tested in a field study among 244 employees. Results showed that the relationship between overall ethical leader behavior and leader effectiveness is mediated by prototypicality and trust. For the separate dimensions of ethical leadership, we found full mediation by prototypicality and trust for the relationship between fairness and effectiveness and partial mediation for the relationship between role clarification and leader effectiveness. As expected, the relationship between power sharing and leader effectiveness was not significant.
 
In this paper, I introduce a model of authentic leadership that rests on a single explanatory concept— identity—which specifies three interrelated identity systems: the self-identity system, the leader-identity system, and the spiritual-identity system, which, in turn, are comprised of multiple subidentities that include cognitive, affective, and conative elements. I offer a construct definition of authentic leadership that is explicated in a theoretical model which draws from humanistic psychology, existential philosophy, and social identity as well as self-categorization theory, leader prototypicality, and spiritual leadership theory. The fundamental premise of this paper is that spirituality and spiritual identity are at the core of authentic leadership. While much work remains to be done in terms of sharpening construct definitions of authentic leadership and operationalizing it, in the opinion of this author, authentic leadership is an important and provocative concept that holds promise for multiparadigmatic and multimethodological theoretical and empirical research. The authentic self is the soul made visible. -Sarah Ban Breathnach For more then two decades, transactional/transformational leadership (hereafter referred to as TA/TF leadership) has been the poster child of the "new paradigm" theories (Beyer, 1999, p. 308) and has occupied center stage. Transformational leaders exhibit charismatic behaviors, arouse inspirational motivation, provide intellectual stimulation, and treat followers with individualized consideration (Bass & Avolio, 1994). They transform their followers' needs, values, and preferences; nurture aspirations toward reaching their full potential; and generate higher levels of performance compared to their transactional counterparts (Seltzer & Bass, 1990). Moreover, transforming leadership taps into deep levels of meaning as it changes both leaders and followers; it occurs when one or more persons engage with each other in such a way that leader and follower raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality (Burns, 1978).
 
Do you have a coach? Do you know someone who has a coach? If you answered "yes" to either of these questions, then you are somewhat familiar with the biggest buzz in personal and leadership development in the 21 st century since training exploded in the 20 th century. In 2003, The Economist estimated that organizations were already spending upwards of $1 billion worldwide providing coaches for their employees and expected the growth to double within 2 years ("Corporate Therapy"). A report by Shuit in 2005 estimated there were 40,000 coaches working throughout the world and suggested that the business of coaching in the United States alone had grown to $1 billion per year. If you have no idea what the big deal about coaching is, then here is a crash course on executive coaching that is sweeping the nation and the world. Historically, the term "coach," found in the English language, came from the early 1500s and referred to a type of four-wheeled, horse-drawn carriage. A coach assisted the travel of a person from one location to another. Over the centuries, a coach became an instructor or trainer for individuals: athletes, performers, and public speakers would all use a "coach" to improve their performance. In the 1980s and 1990s, the term coach added another significant meaning; it represented a new relationship between an individual who sought to change a behavior or attitude, reach a desired goal, or improve upon some aspect of their life with the professional help of a trained "coach." Executive coaching followed shortly with the added dimension of coaching a leader in an organization – ultimately seeking to understand the complexities of the executive's organizational culture, goals, and climate, and to combine these with the already complex nature of any human being's home life and relationships. Although one clear definition does not exist, it is generally agreed that executive coaching is a one-to-one interaction between a coach and an executive in a helping relationship offering experiential learning and dialogue that facilitates an executive's desire to reach specified goals and may affect individual self-, job-, and organization-related outcomes. Ultimately, beyond individual growth and results, the effects of executive coaching are intended to extend to improved organizational performance – hence the reason that organizations, across the United States, are funding this type of interaction that could potentially cost billions of dollars. Dingman/RESEARCH REVIEW 3 Why is Executive Coaching a Big Deal? Coaching had a bad wrap when it earnestly began in the 1980s. For many years, coaching had been used as a kind of discipline or "last effort" for underachieving executives in the corporate world. Although this is one purpose of coaching, today coaching covers a multitude of purposes. Carter (2001) presented a list of some of these purposes: 1. Coaching supports the induction or appointment of a senior person into a more senior, or different role. 2. Coaching accelerates the personal development of individuals defined as "high potential," or individuals from a minority group identified for affirmative action. 3. Coaching underpins the effective implementation of organization change, through supporting teams and individuals. 4. The coach is seen as a critical friend or independent sounding board to a senior individual. 5. Coaching supports senior individuals engaged in wider personal effectiveness programs, such as 360-degree appraisal or development centers. With leadership viewed as a source of competitive advantage in today's learning organizations shrouded in a culture of constant change, coaching is impacting executives in ways previously disregarded in areas of "soft skill" development.
 
Leadership scholars and practitioners have emphasized the important connection between ethics and leadership over the years. This connection is emphasized even more within the field of servant leadership. While the servant leadership models proposed over the past two decades have advanced our understanding of servant leadership and its application, there is an increasingly obvious need for a common vocabulary and framework for engaging the ethical dimensions of leadership that can be used to facilitate further research into the antecedents and philosophical foundations of servant leadership. In this paper, the authors (a) provide an overview of virtues and servant leadership, (b) propose a model of character and virtues that frames ethical discussion and answers a void in the servant leadership literature, and (c) demonstrate how this model relates to several prominent servant leadership models.
 
Trance-Think. 
The constructive cycle of critical thinking. 
Critical thinking is a crucial prerequisite for responsible human performance not only in organizations, but also in every area of life. Yet, this quality is often downplayed, which is reflected in high numbers of disgruntled working adults. Dissatisfied workforce members are often only partly aware of the reasons for their dissatisfaction, which may be linked to sparse critical thinking about their purpose in life. Critical thinking enables a broader perspective and the ability to rise beyond standardized thought patterns. This ability leads to creative breakthroughs regarding directions and activities that fulfill personal and societal needs of longitudinal meaning, motivation, performance improvement, and general wellbeing. As a think-piece for the second decade of the 21st century, this article provides an overview of some important factors that prevent critical thinking, captured in the telling acronym "TRANCE," and some important actions that enhance critical thinking, represented in the equally divulging term "THINK." The article also discusses the specific parts of TRANCE that are addressed as one begins practicing specific elements of THINK. One of the advantages of having been exposed to multiple cultures is that you can see how people in one place take things for granted or settle for limitations that are entirely unacceptable in another. Intrigued by this notion, I engaged in deeper contemplation on the topic of critical thinking. I became aware of the fact that many people dwell in miserable situations because they have never learned to critically evaluate their options and the possible solutions that could improve the quality of their lives. Nevertheless, critical thinking has become a survival skill in the rapidly changing world of today. This article reviews the essence of critical thinking from a personal development perspective, assuming that personal development lies at the core of any other development. After a brief literature review, I will present some important impediments and supporting factors of critical thinking. I will end with a brief overview of the constructive cycle that can be established when critical thinking becomes embedded in one's performance.
 
The purpose of this study was to describe the journey of an educational leader in several different contexts. An intrinsic case study was used to examine the development and evolution of this leader as he moved from school principal to deputy superintendent for Bronx small schools to deputy superintendent for one of 10 New York City restructured school regions. Theories of charismatic and constructivist leadership proved effective in describing the style of this particular leader. It was suggested that the effects of context change on leadership practices need to be incorporated into current leadership theory. This study describes the journey of Mr. N, whom we first met as a school principal and who assumed the position of Chief Executive Officer of School Reform for the New York City Department of Education in 2004, the principal change agent for over 1,200 schools and over 1,000,000 children. Our original study of leader-school relations had its origin in interviews and visits with the principal of a unique alternative school. When the principal took on the position of deputy superintendent for Bronx small schools, we wanted to see how he transposed his site-based learning community beliefs to a larger context and how the new small schools functioned with this leadership. Within a year of Mr. N's promotion, Chancellor Klein of the newly formed Department of Education turned the system upside down. The principal landed right side up as the deputy superintendent for a region of 112 schools, many of them failing. Less than 9 months later, this educator's reform initiatives in the Bronx propelled him to an appointment on the central leadership team of the New York City Department of Education. Rather than continuing to focus primarily on the relations between the deputy superintendent and the small school reform, our original intention, we decided to examine and analyze the journey of this leader from principal to principle change agent.
 
This study analyzed whether alternative work arrangements, positioning followers physically and/or contractually in different ways relative to their leaders, their colleagues, and their companies, influence follower perceptions related to leader–follower relations and leader behaviors. Freelancing and telecommuting work arrangements were used in the study representing contractual and physical positioning, respectively. Univariate general linear model (GLM) analyses were conducted based on the followers' perceptions data coming from 135 sales representatives from the pharmaceutical sector. The study revealed that alternative work arrangements influence perceived leader–follower relations in sharing confidential information dimension but do not influence perceptions of followers related to their leaders' behaviors. As organizations increasingly utilize alternative work arrangements, questions arise concerning the influence of those arrangements on some follower–related outcomes. By positioning followers physically and/or contractually in different ways relative to their leaders, colleagues, offices, and companies, different work arrangements may lead to varying follower perceptions of leader– follower relations and leader behavior. The advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) have helped establish alternative work arrangements and have increased the effectiveness of distant working arrangements. Thus, it has become challenging to lead people when they are distant, mobile, and independent. The main research purpose in this study was to analyze whether different work arrangements influence follower's perceptions related to leader–follower relations and leader behavior. Although how and how often a leader communicates together with loyalty and commitment expectations may be influenced by work arrangements of followers, the main concern in this study is follower perceptions resulting from being different from the standard employed ones. For example, telecommuting followers may perceive infrequent face-to-face interactions as a sign of less paternalistic leader behavior, or freelance ones may have less reciprocal expectations.
 
OLA-TEQ Pearson Correlations by Employment Status
As evidenced by LaFasto and Larson's (2001) work with over 6,000 team members and leaders, interest in teams continues to capture the attention of both leadership scholars and practitioners. Subsequently, research into what leadership behaviors contribute to team effectiveness becomes relevant for those at the crossroads of theory and practice. Utilizing the Organizational Leadership Assessment (Laub, 1999) as a measure of servant leadership and the Team Effectiveness Questionnaire (Larson & LaFasto, 2001) as a measure of team effectiveness, this paper presents a multiple regression model that is able to explain a significant percentage of the variance in the effectiveness of teams. The essential servant leadership variables identified were (a) providing accountability, (b) supporting and resourcing, (c) engaging in honest self-evaluation, (d) fostering collaboration, (e) communicating with clarity, and (f) valuing and appreciating. Interest in the theory and practice of teams has grown dramatically in recent years as evidenced by LaFasto and Larson's (2001) research with over 6,000 team members and leaders. This emergence of teams may be traced, in part, back to societal shifts which occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. One student of the impact of these shifts on organizational life was Robert K. Greenleaf. Writing in the 1970s, Greenleaf (1977) noted that in light of the revolution of expectation among young people, one who presides over a successful business "will need to evolve from being the chief into the builder of the team" (p. 85). It is arguable that such societal and organizational observations are even more relevant today as leaders seek to answer the question of how to lead organizations in the increasingly decentralized and team-based structures that are a growing mark of systems in the 21st century.
 
Despite increasing research on corporate entrepreneurship, a review of the literature shows that little has been developed to improve the cognitive processes of middle managers engaged in entrepreneurial activity. One existing framework explains sustained corporate entrepreneurial activity on the basis of whether outcomes of such entrepreneurial behavior either meet or exceed the expectations set by managers before undertaking the activity. However, there is a gap in our understanding of what can be done for managers prior to that critical moment of approving or declining further entrepreneurial projects. The purpose of this paper is to address that gap in the literature by applying social cognitive theory (specifically the self-leadership concept) as a framework for middle managers to enhance their perceptions of the benefits of taking part in further corporate entrepreneurial activity. Although there are many similarities in the general entrepreneurship process between startups, small businesses, and large corporations; there are also many significant differences, especially regarding the political factors and personal motivations inherent to larger organizations (Morris & Kuratko, 2002). Because of complex organizational policies and structures coupled with complicated information filtering between upper and lower management, the source and determinant for entrepreneurial change on a daily basis in larger organizations tends to be the middle manager.
 
This study uses a developmental perspective to study transformational leadership in the Indian context. It focuses on significant life experiences that have shaped leaders who have successfully transformed organizations. The personal experiences shared by leaders offer valuable insights on the role of family and childhood experiences that have had a sustained impact on their lives. The paper suggests that leaders do not emerge as a consequence of events or incidents but a journey of distinctive life experiences and processes. It concludes with a framework that weaves the antecedents of leadership that have enabled leaders to accomplish professional growth and success. Leadership research on transformational leadership has focused on the content and impact of leaders. The emphasis has been on qualities and dispositions of leaders; how they influence change in organizations and how they inspire followers to increase their performance, motivation, and morale. The literature on leadership has been replete with the persona of transformational leaders. However, it is equally important to recognize how these leaders became who they are. With few exceptions, relatively less research has focused on the predictors of leadership. It would be pertinent to examine whether life experience or a genetic predisposition stimulates leadership. Is it incremental changes and day-to-day events that shape transformational leaders? Could specific events or crises be the driving force for leadership development? What is central to the life of a leader that makes him or her charismatic and inspiring? This paper uses a developmental approach to explain transformational leadership. Before examining the life experiences and changes that contribute to leadership development, it is appropriate to present a framework that differentiates transformational leaders.
 
This article suggests that servant leadership, as a model, is more global than Western in nature. Support for this premise comes from the use of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program's (GLOBE) humane orientation construct and how this occurs in the cultural concepts from African (Ubuntu, Harambee); East Asian (Taoist, Confucianism); Mediterranean (Jewish); and Indian (Hindu) value systems. By illustrating that servant leadership is appropriate in various global cultures, this article recommends that not only is servant leadership a global leadership style but that servant leadership should be included in leadership development programs in Africa, Asia, and the Mediterranean as a means of producing humane leaders. Servant leadership, as coined by Greenleaf (1970) and later developed by Page and Wong (2000); Farling, Stone, and Winston (1999); Sendjay and Sarros (2002); Sendjaya (2003); Russell and Stone (2002); Patterson (2003); and Winston (2003), has been met with a common rejection of the idea when presented to non-U.S. audiences simply because it is a Western construct developed in the West for the West (anecdotal evidence from the primary author's experience). The purpose of this article is to present the non-Western aspect of the notion of servant leadership as it has been currently developed. The value of this article lies in its presentation of a foundation upon which developing nations in South America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe might base their leadership development programs. The confidence in this foundation comes from the extant use of the GLOBE study's determination of the humane orientation construct and the near universal acceptance of this construct in the 62 countries included in the GLOBE study.
 
Previous studies exploring how leaders make successful promotion transitions overlooked the turn from mid-level to functional management. Little research exists that describes this transition from the experience of successful executives. The goal of the present study was to examine the essential structure of managerial role transition. This article discusses the transition strategies of successful executives from multiple countries who work in a Fortune 20 global technology corporation. Drawing upon previously untested models and conducting qualitative research the writer argues that leader effectiveness in making the transition into executive management requires shifts in four domains: cognitive, relational, behavioral, and role perspective. Within and pertaining to each transitional domain, transitional leaders combine four approaches: releasing, learning, adapting, and adjusting. The researcher provides a testable theory and model of managerial role transition.
 
Most cross-cultural leadership research has been conducted and based upon various dimensions of culture (Hofstede, 2001; House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004; A. Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 2002). We argue that an understanding of cultural differences and cultural dimensions in a general sense is not enough on its own to achieve cross-cultural leadership effectiveness. This study aims to investigate the importance of, and the implementation of, cultural intelligence (CQ) as a key component of cross-cultural leadership capabilities within the context of Western–Chinese cultural differences. Derived from information and insights gathered through a series of in-depth interviews with 32 Western expatriate managers (among them are 26 Australian expatriates) and 19 local Chinese managers who represent top-and middle-level executives working in Australian businesses operating in China, this study confirms that expatriate leaders' CQ can positively impact their cross-cultural leadership effectiveness. Given the large and increasing interest in doing business in China among Western firms, the further development of this study will highlight its pragmatic value. We intend to design a consulting model based upon the key findings, thereby providing an effective application tool to assist Western leaders to enhance their cross-cultural leadership effectiveness. This century is the era of globalization of the world economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been playing a significant role in this process. China has become the world's third largest trading economy and the fastest growing one (Zhang, 2005) since its accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on December 11, 2001. As a result, China has been considered to be one of the most attractive destinations for FDI. Australian investment is an active one among this large scale FDI in China. Due to the strong complementary commercial relationship between the two countries, Australian investment in China has grown rapidly and expanded considerably over recent years. This rapid growth brings great opportunities, yet it also creates challenges. One of most difficult challenges is to maximize expatriate leadership effectiveness in the cross-cultural situation of Australian investment businesses in China.
 
The impact of relationships and uncertainty on a leader's support/resistance to SMTs.
Although research has indicated that self-managing teams can help organizations improve their performance, middle managers instructed to facilitate the introduction of these teams sometimes resist the change effort. One of the key reasons why these managers resist the introduction of self-managing teams is confusion surrounding the role of the manager after the teams have been empowered. This confusion stems from the fact that the manager has responsibility for a team that is expected, to a large degree, to lead itself. Since resistance by middle managers is one of the main factors resulting in self-managed team failures, it is important to learn more about the reasons why these managers support or resist the team initiative. This paper looks at the impact of uncertainty and intraorganizational relationships on middle managers' decision to support or resist the introduction of self-managing teams. It also suggests ways in which organizations might work with managers to help them develop greater openness and support for this team innovation. Team empowerment is growing in importance since highly empowered teams have demonstrated the capability of performing better than less empowered teams (Kirkman & Rosen, 1999). Although self-managing teams are widely recognized to be of value to organizations, organizational leaders (particularly middle managers) instructed to facilitate the introduction of these teams sometimes feel threatened and, as a result, resist their creation (Sims & Manz, 1995). Some of the reasons why middle managers tend to resist creating self-managing work teams include uncertainty surrounding job security, anxiety about adopting new roles, mistrust of senior executive intentions, and doubts about the ability of the empowered teams to assume new responsibilities (Vanfleet & Smith, 1993). While a substantial amount of work on empowerment has been done in the management literature (O'Creevy, 1998), relatively little research has focused on resistance by middle managers. Since resistance by managers may result in the failure of efforts to create self-managing teams and lead to poor team performance which, in the long run, can lower firm performance; it is important for researchers and practitioners alike to understand this phenomenon better.
 
This study investigated the extent to which behaviors in a team and structure of a team influence the willingness of team members to share in leadership. The results indicated that empowering team behaviors related positively with shared leadership. Horizontal team structure had limited effects on shared leadership. The development of shared leadership in a management team depends largely on increasing the perception of empowering behaviors that team members experience. Implications for the practice of shared leadership, as well as ideas for future research, are discussed. Historically, organizations have been arranged and led hierarchically (Halal, 1994; Hatch, 1997). In these institutions, the individual at the "top" of the organization is a central figure who sets the vision for the company, communicates organizational policy, and enforces institutional control (Bass, 1990; Hatch, 1997). In many cases today, top management teams (TMTs), rather than CEOs alone, guide organizations. In this arrangement, members share the responsibility in leading, rely on others for social support, and benefit from the physical assistance of others when faced with significant challenges. Since shared leadership is an increasingly powerful leadership approach within TMTs, it is important to identify what specific factors may contribute to team members being willing to take on leadership responsibilities. Shared leadership refers to the state or quality of mutual influence in which team members disperse the leadership role throughout the group, participate in the decision-making process, fulfill tasks traditionally reserved for a hierarchical leader, and, when appropriate, offer guidance to others to achieve group goals (Caramanica & Rosenbecker, suggested that the process of sharing leadership within a team develops as a result of many factors. This current study investigated two possible components contributing to shared leadership: team behaviors that encourage individual empowerment and team structure that is horizontal in nature. Team behaviors denote the attitudes and actions expressed by members of the team, in a collective fashion, toward other members of the team, while team structure refers to the structures and framework of authority that exists among members of a team.
 
Global leadership development has received increased attention in recent years both from practitioners and researchers. Drawing from adult learning theories, specifically, constructive development, intercultural sensitivity, and global mindset, this article proposes a model for developing global leaders. While developmental activities are challenging for most individuals, I propose that training individuals in how to develop psychological capital will aid and facilitate their development into global leaders.
 
Leadership categorization and relational demography theory suggest that ethnicity has a major impact on how people work together and perceive leaders. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between leader ethnicity (Hispanic) and perceptions of leader behaviors. The results indicated that Hispanic leaders were perceived as equivalent, in terms of leadership, to Euro-American leaders despite a significant difference in ethnic identity scores between Hispanic and Euro-American students. However, the mean perceived effectiveness ratings for leaders whose leadership style matches their followers' leadership prototype were significantly higher than those in the mismatch condition. Implications for both managers and researchers are discussed.
 
This paper summarizes the authors' findings on organizational leadership in Russia through the GLOBE cross-cultural research program and further develops an interpretation of empirical data on Russian business leadership. The authors discuss factors of effective leadership rooted in the country's history, highlight relative scores on universal leadership attributes, interpret culture-contingent leaders' characteristics, and summarize the influence of culture on effective leadership in a transitional society. Among the important applications of contemporary leadership theories is the articulation of organizational leadership in diverse societies. Leadership is defined by universal as well as country-specific/culture-specific characteristics. While much has been done on leadership attributes and behaviors in industrialized countries, it is clear that in countries in transition to democracy and the free market leaders follow their own customs to encourage, motivate, and enable others to contribute to the success of the organizations of which they are members. In the last decade, scholars have discussed Russian culture and its impact on business and management practices (Elenkov, 1997; Grachev, 2001; Michailova, 2000; Naumov, 1996; Naumov & Puffer, 2000; Puffer, 1992). In particular, they have analyzed the profile of the Russian business leader and compared the values and behaviors of Russian to American entrepreneurs (Kats de Vries, 2000; Hisrich & Grachev, 2001). However, these findings were neither placed into a larger international comparative framework nor linked to universal leadership attributes for comparative purposes. This paper presents findings on organizational leadership in Russia from the large-scale cross-cultural research program, Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE), conducted in 62 counties. The program is based on a culturally endorsed implicit leadership theory (CLT) that focuses on beliefs about effective leaders shared by members of an organization or society (House, 1997, 1999, 2004). GLOBE findings position Russia in a cluster framework (Bakacsi, Takacs, Karacsonyi, & Imrek, 2002) and summarize its cultural profile (Grachev, 2004) and its CLT leadership profile in a cross-cultural context.
 
This study aimed to identify the relationship of adversity quotient and emotional quotient amongst public elementary school heads. The study employed a descriptive-correlation research design with the online survey as primary data collection tool. The respondents came from the 25 elementary schools in a Schools Division Office in Central Luzon. 25 elementary school heads participated in the online survey using universal sampling technique. Adapted questionnaires were used to gather data. For the statistical treatment of the study, mean was used for the responses of the school heads; for the relationship, the study used Pearson-r. This paper concluded that the school heads' Adversity Quotient (AQ) score falls within "above average," which indicates above normal capacity for challenges, difficulties, setbacks, and demands. In terms of emotional quotient, all factors involved in emotional intelligence like self-awareness, managing emotions, motivating oneself, empathy, and social skill all "apply" to school heads. In addition, there exists a significant relationship between adversity quotient and emotional quotient of public elementary school heads. Based on the aforementioned results, the researcher provided some important recommendations for the study.
 
Henry L. Thompson’s (2010) The Stress Effect provides a unique exploration of the impact of stress on leaders’ decision-making, viewing the leader through the lenses of cognition, emotion, and stress management, and providing practical insight on how to cope with and avoid stress. Thompson’s submission provides a well-grounded understanding with useful anecdotes and examples, as well as a practical primer for stress resilience.
 
Item Descriptions, Factor Loadings of Sample One 
This research develops and validates an abbreviated version of the thirty-five item Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire (RSLQ), as developed by Houghton & Neck (2002). Using six major dimensions from the RSLQ, and a sample of undergraduate students, we used an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to identify three factors believed to embody the RSLQ. The EFA produced a nine-item scale. This shortened survey was administered to a United States government agency workforce. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using these nine items to validate our proposed Abbreviated Self-Leadership Questionnaire (ASLQ). Our analyses suggest that the nine-item ALSQ is a reliable and valid measure that inherits the nomological network of associations from the original version of the RSLQ.
 
A model of explanatory style and leadership effectiveness.
Commanders and Paired Military Actions
The present study applies explanatory style theory and the content analysis of verbatim explanation (CAVE) technique toward examining the leadership behaviors and effectiveness of key Civil War generals. The results of our study suggest that relatively optimistic explanatory styles may lead to aggressiveness and risk taking while relatively pessimistic explanatory styles may lead to passivity and risk aversion. Our findings also suggest that a pessimistic explanatory style could be related to leadership effectiveness in some situations as mediated by aggression and risk taking. In short, pessimism may result in greater leadership effectiveness by reducing excessive aggression and risk taking.
 
This paper is about leadership, culture, and theory development. We argue that development of leadership theories in other cultures has to account for philosophical assumptions and frames of reference underpinning those cultures. Specifically, we point out that leadership theory in China has to account for notions of Chinese philosophy. We start our argument by making a case for studying management and leadership from a Chinese perspective. Then we review Western perspectives of management and leadership and introduce the concept of culture to indicate that the notions of management and leadership may have different meanings in different cultures. After this, we present two Chinese approaches to management – socio-behavioral and philosophical approaches – and present several notions of Chinese philosophy. Finally, we illustrate how these notions can be used in interpreting leadership in Asia. Implications and discussion are also presented.
 
Very little is understood about the applicability of the concept of leadership in the Arab Gulf States in general, and the Sultanate of Oman in particular. This article considers the unique context of Oman to produce an interpretation of leadership which stands outside mainstream leadership epistemologies. Thus, there is no explicit model or theory which could be usefully tested in the Omani context. As the article explains, the cultural and institutional dominance of political leadership in the Sultanate extends to organisational behaviour. This very rich and embedded context thus provides a considerable challenge to Western based interpretations of, and normative approaches to leadership. This article is intended to provide a basis for how leadership may be developed and adapted in the Arab Gulf region in particular and in diverse managerial environments in general.
 
State of Missouri framework for mentoring and leadership development. 
This article describes a relationship between two universities that has resulted in a project to help disadvantaged principals in economically repressed areas of South Africa. More than 15 years ago, in the midst of a deeply divided society, the University of Missouri System made a momentous decision to support a Black university in Bellville, a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa called the University of the Western Cape (UWC). This support was important because UWC has prepared many of the Black leaders in South Africa, individuals who participated in the dismantling of the apartheid system. While the United States was disinvesting in South Africa, the University of Missouri stood firm in its support of the University of the Western Cape. From its inception, the partnership has sponsored numerous faculty exchanges and shared resources and ideas. In this article we will discuss the development of a leadership academy for school principals in South Africa. Through this writing we share with the readers the problems and concerns of developing such a relationship. After 4 years of building relationships to support the project and piloting leadership activities, funding was finally secured to sustain the project in the summer of 2005. This funding will give the writers an opportunity to gather primary data on the effects of professional development and/or training for principals as it relates to student achievement. Since there is very little data in the literature regarding the connection between the training of school principals and student achievement, this is a significant project for leadership both in the United States and South Africa.
 
Inspection, maintenance, and repair (IMR) operations in the North Sea are performed from specialized vessels. The article contributes to the understanding of leadership as being too complex to be described as the strategies and behaviors of only one person. These leaders work in concert to be facilitating and contributing to flexibility and adaptation thus initiating collaboration between teams and individuals through interaction processes. This unique leadership model allows for and generates openness, transparency and the practice of basic values like respect and helpfulness. The challenge for the leaders in subsea operations, however, is to create or contribute to the creation of an overarching collective identity to facilitate the transformation of the organization from a diversified and more fragmented organization consisting of several individual sub teams to an executive force of one overarching team supervised by one leader. A " sharedness " of mindset is developed through a set of collective communication. With shared mental models, there is a better chance of creating a collective flow of work. Openness and a short distance between leaders and subordinates also affect the ability of the organization to discover mistakes and rectify them earlier than otherwise possible. The challenge is as ever both individual and organizational: The ability to work together towards goal achievement. The paper introduces elements building a foundation for successful leading of complex multi-team operations. Our story began with an IMR (Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair) vessel reaching its destination at a subsea installation (known as a template) in the North Sea. Once there, it was held stationary using dynamic positioning (DP) technology. Specialists performed the subsea operations using robots, called Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), which were attached to the vessel by umbilical cords. A complex set of teams and individuals moved into action under the coordination of a Shift Supervisor – a multi-team system (Mathieu et al., 2001). The Shift Supervisor acted as the conductor of the operation and was required to stay in the control room for the duration of his 12-hour shift. He was in constant contact with the bridge, the subsea operations team, the Client Representative on the vessel, and a variety of specialists. When the ROV pilot closed one of the valves on the template, the Shift Supervisor checked the task plan and directed the pilot on how much pressure to apply. The Shift
 
The Three Facets and 21 Capacities of Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Consciousness of Context Being aware of the environment in which leaders and followers work Environmental awareness Thinking intentionally about the environment of a leadership situation 
Sample Items from EILS-I 
Demographic Characteristics of Participants (N = 566) 
EIL Measure -Formal Leadership Roles 
The authors investigate the differences between college students’ self-reported emotionally intelligent leadership (EIL) behaviors based on levels of involvement in student organizations and holding formal leadership roles. When students reported on their levels of consciousness of self, consciousness of others, and consciousness of context (the three facets of EIL), a number of findings reflect significantly higher levels of EIL for those students involved in four or more organizations and holding formal leadership roles as compared to students with less involvement. These results are shared in the context of past research and lead to implications for practice and research.
 
Competing Values Leadership: Transformational and Transactional Roles  
Transformational and Transactional Roles
Traits associated with CVF Roles
Demographics of Respondents
The Competing Values Framework (CVF) is useful for differentiating leadership roles (Quinn, 1988), as well as grouping these roles and personality traits (Belasen & Frank, 2008) into an organizing schema. This paper expands the CVF’s utility by proposing distinctions between men and women, particularly with respect to transformational and transactional leadership. Using LISREL path analysis, findings show that being a woman manager influenced the conscientiousness personality trait, which, in turn, influenced the CVF role strengths of monitor, coordinator, and producer – three roles associated with transactional leadership. Explanations for the failure of our findings to support the proposition that women would display stronger scores in transformational roles are provided. We conclude the study with a discussion of the Catch-22 women face as they try to get past the invisible glass barrier and provide implications for leadership development. Suggestions for future research are also included.
 
Conceptual framework of unethical behavior of leaders.
The perfect storm dimensions. 
Unethical behavior of leaders has consequences for leaders themselves, followers, and their respective organizations. After defining relevant terms including ethics, morality, and ethical and unethical leadership, a conceptual framework for the unethical behavior of leaders is proposed, which includes the three “perfect storm” dimensions of leaders, followers, and situational context. Additionally, the mediating variable termed “critical incident” suggests that unethical leadership behavior is precipitated by a catalyzing thought, condition, intention, or event. With specific examples illustrating the conceptual framework dimensions and salient characteristics of each, the paper then concludes with a discussion of the implications of unethical leadership behavior, with attention given to further research foci.
 
The Construct of Relational Distance. 
Napier & Ferris’ Model of Dyadic Distance . 
Antonakis & Atwater’s Model of Leader Distance . 
Work relationships, and thus, the experiences of work itself, are affected by perceptions of “distance.” Distance influences leader-follower relationships, which in turn have been shown to impact many organizational outcomes (Bass, 1990; Lowe, Kroeck, & Sivasubramaniam, 1996; Northhouse, 2001). In this study, a literature review across five different scholarly fields provides theoretical arguments for three related dimensions of relational distance. Relational distance is the perception that distance between leaders and followers occurs in three interrelated dimensions: structural, status, and psychological. The dimensionality of relational distance is contextualized with quotes from employees experiencing various types of distance. The multidimensionality of relational distance reveals a fertile ground for future leadership research.
 
Impassioned leadership study model. 
The elements that procreate impassioned leadership. 
Jesus Christ's Most Listed Positive and Negative Qualities
Mohandas Gandhi's Most Listed Positive and Negative Qualities
Mother Teresa's Most Listed Positive and Negative Qualities
This paper discusses team-based findings collected from leadership courses in higher education and pertaining to leaders from various disciplines, time frames, and backgrounds. Biographies of these leaders were reviewed, after which students listed the positive and negative traits of each leader. Subsequently, the author of this paper applied the phenomenological approach in order to find common themes among these remarkable individuals and draw an overall conclusion. Some similar qualities detected were confidence, hard work, risk taking, and communication skills. Yet, the greatest common factor among these leaders was the passion they displayed toward realizing their purpose. This passion was not only the core of their drive but also the overarching quality in achieving their purpose. The greatest difference among these leaders was found in the goals they set out to achieve with their skills.
 
Bu çalışmanın amacı, COVID-19 salgınının yarattığı krizden dolayı birçok ülkede faaliyetleri etkilenen McDonald's restoran zincirinin Türkiye iş biriminin bu süreçten nasıl etkilendiğini ve dönüşümcü liderliğin rolünü ortaya çıkarmak ile çalışanların lidere karşı duydukları memnuniyet düzeylerini belirlemektir. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi'nin 65836846-044 sayı ve 05.11.2020 tarihli Etik Kurul Onayı ile araştırma izni alınarak bu çalışmaya başlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada 27 Nisan ile 5 Mayıs 2020 tarihleri arasında Türkiye genelin deki McDonald's restoranlarında çalışan 1086 kişi üzerinde yapılan anket çalışması verileri kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular çalışanların liderlerine güvendiklerini ve bu durumdan memnun olduklarını göstermektedir. Bu çalışmanın sonucunda, dönüşümcü liderliğin işletmelerde yaşanılan krizleri yönetme konusunda etkili olduğu, ayrıca çalışanlara güven ve memnuniyet verdiği ortaya çıkmıştır. Abstract The aim of this study is to determine how McDonald's, whose activities were restricted in many countries due to the crisis caused by the COVID-19 outbreak, was affected by this process and the level of satisfaction of the employees towards the leader. With the approval of the Ethics Committee of Istanbul Commerce University with the number 65836846-044 and date 05.11.2020, this study was initiated. In this study, a survey conducted on 1086 people working in Turkey McDonald's stores between 27 April and 5 May 2020 data were used. Findings show that employees trust their leaders and are satisfied with this situation. As a result of this study, it has b een revealed that transformational leadership is effective in managing the crises in businesses and also gives trust and satisfaction to the employees.
 
Presenteeism happens when employees are at work, but their cognitive energy is not devoted to their work. This study investigated the extent to which supervisor behavior is associated with employee presenteeism. It also investigated the efficacy of a measure of job-stress-related presenteeism. Australian employees completed a questionnaire asking how often they experience job-stress-related presenteeism and about their supervisors’ behaviors. Results supported the hypothesis that supervisor behavior is associated with employees’ presenteeism. Negative supervisor behaviors were more strongly correlated with presenteeism than positive supervisor behaviors. These results suggest presenteeism is subject to supervisor influence. In addition, results indicate that the measure of job-stress-related presenteeism pilot-tested in this study has good internal-consistency reliability and validity.
 
Hierarchy of the resulting categories Supporting category 1: Work Context 
This study evaluates the hardships that are experienced when engaging in leadership activities. It explores how especially middle managers employ self-leadership and express self-compassion when facing work-related hardship events. The empirical data consists of seven interviews of middle managers, which were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The study shows how middle managers generate leniency in leadership by beginning with emotional distress and ending with restored peace of mind. The results identify the self-leadership strategies employed to endure the experienced hardships. Work context and principles of acting regulate the formation of leniency in leadership. The outcome is featured by putting one's mind to rest and learning from the experience. The means to lead oneself and to be kind to oneself interconnect in leniency in leadership, which is theorized as the interface of self-leadership strategies and self-compassion as a special form of self-directive behavior. Insecurity has increased in the labor market due to factors such as global competition, economic crisis, downsizing, and changes in work. For example Caughron and Mumford (2012) observe that those remaining at work must take on a greater burden. Moreover, the nature of work is becoming more intensive and temporary, creating a " survival game " atmosphere. Any successful phenomenon in work life, contrasted to the overall challenges, seems especially interesting in this situation. For example, research in the fields of positive psychology and positive organizational behavior (POB) has revealed the sources of employee well-being at work and successful work processes. According to Froman (2010), applying the principles of positive
 
This study explores the leadership qualities of Mahatma Gandhi in relation to six behavioral dimensions of the Servant Leadership Behaviour Scale (SLBS) model of servant leadership, proposed by Sendjaya, Sarros and Santora (2008), and highlights the importance of servant leadership qualities like service, self- sacrificial love, spirituality, integrity, simplicity, emphasizing follower needs, and modelling. It is a literary investigation of the life and leadership qualities of Gandhi, based on various books, personal correspondence, and statements including the autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi—The Story of My Experiments with the Truth—by using the model of SLBS. This research study demonstrates that Mahatma Gandhi personified the Servant Leadership Behaviour Scale model and illustrates the Indian contribution to servant leadership. It elucidates the need to include the concept of servant leadership in the curriculum of business schools and advocates the practice of servant leadership in different leadership positions.
 
In this article, drawing on leader categorization theory, we examined the influencing processes of team leaders’ humor on their teams’ performance. Using a time-lagged study, including 244 leaders and 815 followers in a manufacturing firm in Northern China, we found that leaders’ humor is positively related to subordinates’ perceptions of transformational leadership, which in turn, has a positive effect on the team’s performance. In addition, we found that the relationship conflict between a team leader and his or her team members moderates the positive, indirect effect of leader humor on team performance through subordinates’ transformational leadership perceptions. When the relationship conflict between the leader and his or her team members is high, leader’s humor becomes more relevant to subordinates’ perceptions of leader’s transformational leadership, and therefore exerts a stronger positive influence on team performance. The model developed in this study furthered the current understandings on leader humor and its usefulness in practical settings.
 
Top-cited authors
Lucia Crevani
  • Malardalen University
Johann Packendorff
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Monica Lindgren
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Jeffery D. Houghton
  • West Virginia University
David Dawley
  • West Virginia University