International Journal of Impotence Research

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Online ISSN: 0955-9930
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Participant evaluation flowchart
Disclosure of participants included and excluded from the study. Reasons for drop-outs in groups. Follow-up of the groups.
Multivariable logistic regression analysis at baseline/3rd month (n = 90).
  • Deniz KulaksizDeniz Kulaksiz
  • Tuncay ToprakTuncay Toprak
  • Eda TokatEda Tokat
  • [...]
  • Ayhan VeritAyhan Verit
Smoking has negative reproductive consequences. This study investigated the effect of smoking cessation on the main semen parameters. We included 90 participants who applied to our infertility clinic and smoked at least 20 cigarettes a day for at least 1 year. Of the 90 participants, 48 were in the study group and 42 were in the control group. Semen analysis was performed before and at least 3 months after quitting smoking in the study group. Semen analysis was repeated at baseline and at least 3 months later in the control group. Semen parameters such as volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, morphology, and motility were evaluated according to the World Health Organization criteria. Patient characteristics as well as the duration of the smoking period, the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the time elapsed since smoking cessation were recorded. The mean age of the participants was 34.69 ± 5.3 years, and the duration of infertility was 34.12 ± 12.1 months (n = 90). The number of cigarettes smoked per day was 30.14 ± 6.69, and the smoking time was 8.31 ± 3.53 years. The average time to quit smoking was 104.2 ± 11.51 days (n = 48). A significant increase in semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm count was observed 3 months after smoking cessation (2.48 ± 0.79 ml vs. 2.90 ± 0.77 ml, p = 0.002; 18.45 × 106/ml ± 8.56 vs. 22.64 × 106/ml ± 11.69, p = 0.001; 45.04 ± 24.38 × 106 vs. 65.1 ± 34.9 × 106, p < 0.001, respectively). This study showed that smoking cessation had a positive effect on sperm concentration, semen volume, and total sperm count. Although smoking cessation contributed positively to sperm motility and morphology, the difference was not statistically significant.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited hemoglobin disorder characterized by the occlusion of small blood vessels by sickle-shaped red blood cells. SCD is associated with a number of complications, including ischemic priapism. While SCD accounts for at least one-third of all priapism cases, no definitive treatment strategy has been established to specifically treat patients with SC priapism. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy and safety of contemporary treatment modalities for acute and stuttering ischemic priapism associated with SCD. The primary outcome measures were defined as resolution of acute priapism (detumescence) and complete response of stuttering priapism, while the primary harm outcome was as sexual dysfunction. The protocol for the review has been registered (PROSPERO Nr: CRD42020182001), and a systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane controlled trials databases was performed. Three trials with 41 observational studies met the criteria for inclusion in this review. None of the trials assessed detumescence, as a primary outcome. All of the trials reported a complete response of stuttering priapism; however, the certainty of the evidence was low. It is clear that assessing the effectiveness of specific interventions for priapism in SCD, well-designed, adequately-powered, multicenter trials are strongly required.
EDITS and QoLSPP score by domain as a percentage of the highest possible score
Box and whisker plot demonstrating 5th percentile, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and 95th percentile values. Shaded boxes represent interquartile range with the line representing the median value. Dot represents outliers. X represents mean values.
Men with erectile dysfunction (ED) have high patient satisfaction after placement of inflatable penile prostheses (IPP). The impact on satisfaction and quality of life has never been studied in men who have sex with men (MSM). This study sought to assess the satisfaction rates and quality of life of MSM after placement of IPP for ED. This study was a multi-institutional, retrospective study that enrolled adult men who self-identified as MSM and underwent IPP placement. Two questionnaires were administered at one time point post-operatively, the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS), and the Quality of Life and Sexuality with Penile Prosthesis (QoLSPP) questionnaire. Results of these questionnaires were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Forty-nine MSM were assessed retrospectively with median age of 62 years with average follow-up of 15.2 months. Median EDITS score was 93.2/100 (range, 70.5–100). Median overall QoLSPP score was 72/80 (58–79), with median scores of 22/25 (16–25), 19/20 (13–20), 18/20 (12–20), and 14/15 (9–15), for the functional, personal, relational, and social domains respectively. Overall, MSM report high satisfaction rates and quality of life after IPP placement. A better understanding of the needs and demands of this patient population may lead to improved patient satisfaction and quality of life.
Local polynomial regression models showing the probability of reporting ED + PE over the analysed time frame
Green line represents men with ≤40 years of age; the orange line depicts men with 41–60 years; the purple line represents men with >60 years of age.
Concomitant sexual disorders have progressively shown increased prevalence in men at first outpatient presentation. We sought to i) estimate the prevalence of unreported premature ejaculation (PE) in a homogenous cohort of 1258 men seeking first medical help for erectile dysfunction (ED) as their primary compliant; ii) compare the baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of men with only ED(ED-only) compared to those with ED and PE(ED + PE); and, iii) investigate the likelihood of detecting PE among men self-reporting only ED over a 16-year period at a single tertiary-referral centre. Descriptive statistics compared sociodemographic and clinical characteristics between ED-only patients and those with unreported concomitant primary/secondary PE(ED + PE). Logistic regression models predicted the risk of having ED + PE at baseline. Local polynomial regression models graphically explored the probability of reporting PE among ED men with ≤40 vs. 41–60 vs. >60 years over the analysed timeframe. Of all, 932 (74.1%) were ED-only and 326 (25.9%) ED + PE patients, respectively. ED + PE patients were younger, presented with fewer comorbidities, and lower rates of severe ED (all p ≤ 0.04). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (OR:0.98) and low sexual desire/interest (OR:1.54) were independently associated with ED + PE at first clinical assessment (all p = 0.03). The likelihood of detecting unreported concomitant primary/secondary PE among patients complaining of only ED at first presentation worrisomely increased among younger and middle-aged men over the last 16 years.
Neuroanatomy of the penis
a Right lateral view and b dorsofrontal view showing both right- and left-sided nerve distribution. At 1- or 2-cm proximal to the corona, the dorsal nerve of the penis divides into branches that enter the glans, creating a three-dimensional neural network extending toward the epithelial surface. (Source: Yang and Bradley [17]. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley & Sons Ltd).
Marking of the glans epithelium
The glans surface is marked to define four quadrants; the circumcoronal line represents the proximal border of the excision to spare the coronal compartment of the glans.
Coverage of glans with split skin graft
The glans epithelium is excised with preservation of the glans corona followed by coverage of the denuded glans using a split skin graft.
Postoperative appearance
Follow up shows excellent graft take with preservation of the glans corona and sulcus.
The aim of this study is to describe the outcomes for a modified glans-resurfacing technique for benign and malignant penile conditions in which the uninvolved glans corona is preserved in order to maintain glans erogenous sensation. A total of 13 patients underwent coronal-sparing glans resurfacing (CSGR), with follow-up every 3 months for ≥2 years. Positive surgical margin and local recurrence (LR) rates were evaluated. Surgical complications and cosmetic outcomes were also recorded. Patients were asked to complete the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire starting 12 months after the surgery. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age and follow-up periods were 63 (53–68) years and 29 (14–38) months, respectively. Eight patients were diagnosed with primary penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), three had refractory lichen sclerosus, and two had penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). No surgical complications were recorded. All patients had a complete graft take and reported satisfactory cosmetic results with preserved erogenous sensation. Two cancer patients developed LR which was managed with further penile preserving surgery. The median (IQR) postoperative IIEF-5 value was 20 (17–23). This modified coronal-sparing technique was suitable for glans lesions that spare the coronal ridge and coronal sulcus. Preservation of the coronal ridge helps maintain sexual function and provides excellent cosmetic outcomes.
The Peyronie’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ) is a 15-question self-reported questionnaire that evaluates the severity and physical and psychosexual issues of Peyronie’s disease (PD) symptoms in three scales: “psychological and physical symptoms,” “penile pain,” and “symptom bother.” Previous studies validated the PDQ US version and confirmed its test–retest reliability and responsiveness. The aim is to translate and validate the Spanish version of the PDQ to be used in the clinical practice and in PD research studies in Spain. A non-interventional, observational study with 160 PD patients was conducted. Patients included from four healthcare centers in Spain and completed the PDQ in two study visits separated for a period of 4–7 days from March 2018 to June 2019. Patients received no type of treatment or intervention. Different statistical tests were applied to the data in order to validate the structural and construct of the PDQ, as well as its internal reliability, temporal stability reliability, reliability between observers, and test–retest reliability. Cronbach’s alpha over 0.9 showed good internal consistency. We found an ICC agreement of 0.82 (test–retest) for the three scales of the Spanish version of the PDQ, which demonstrates good reliability. When comparing Visit 1 and Visit 2 questionnaires mean scores, the PDQ showed non-significant differences, as expected because no intervention or treatment was administered to the patients between visits. Translation and validation of the PDQ for the Spanish population makes available a valid, useful, and reliable tool to properly evaluate quality of life of men suffering PD.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major global health burden commonly observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although renal transplantation improves the problem in some patients, it persists in ≈20–50% of recipients. Studies regarding the effects of kidney transplantation on ED present contradictory findings. We performed a systematic review to summarise the effects of kidney transplantation on ED. A systematic literature search was performed across PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus databases in April 2020. We included all prospective studies that investigated the pre and posttransplant international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) scores in recipients with ED. Data search in PubMed and Google Scholar produced 1326 articles; eight were systematically reviewed with a total of 448 subjects. Meta-analysis of IIEF-5 scores showed significant improvements between pre and post transplantation. Our findings confirm that renal transplantation improves erectile function. Furthermore, transplantation also increases testosterone level. However, the evidence is limited because of the small number of studies. Further studies are required to investigate the effects of renal transplantation on erectile function.
Peyronie’s disease affects penile mechanics, but published research lacks biomechanical characterization of affected tunica albuginea. This work aims to establish mechanical testing methodology and characterize pathological tissue mechanics of Peyronie’s disease. Tunica albuginea was obtained from patients (n = 5) undergoing reconstructive surgery for Peyronie’s disease, sectioned into test specimens (n = 12), stored frozen at −20 °C, and imaged with micro-computed tomography (µCT). A tensile testing protocol was developed based on similar soft tissues. Correlation of mechanical summary variables (force, displacement, stiffness, work, Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile stress, strain at ultimate tensile stress, and toughness) and µCT features were assessed with linear regression. Specimens empirically grouped into hard or soft stress–strain behavior were compared using a Student’s t-test. Surface strain and failure patterns were described qualitatively. Specimens displayed high inter- and intra-subject variability. Mineralization volume was not correlated with mechanical parameters. Empirically hard tissue had higher ultimate tensile stress. Failure mechanisms and strain patterns differed between mineralized and non-mineralized specimens. Size, shape, and quantity of mineralization may be more important in determining Peyronie’s disease plaque behavior than presence of mineralization alone, and single summary variables like modulus may not fully describe mechanical behavior.
Study flow chart
LiST low-intensity shockwave therapy, n number.
Low-intensity shockwave therapy (LiST) is an effective treatment for pain reduction in patients with Peyronie’s disease (PD). We aimed to report the long-term results of a previously published randomized, sham-controlled trial on LiST for PD management. For the initial study, 102 patients with stable PD were randomly assigned to six sessions of LiST (n = 51) or sham (n = 51) therapy. All participants were subsequently contacted for an additional evaluation at 3 years after completion of the initial treatment and 63 of them (LiST = 34 and sham therapy = 29) presented for the evaluation. Among them, improvement of pain was reported in 23 participants (LiST = 16, sham = 7, p = 0.005) at 4 weeks and in 22 (LiST = 15, sham = 7, p = 0.031) at 3 years. We detected a mean difference of 2.2 points (95%CI: 0.9–3.5, p = 0.002) in the visual analog pain scale at 4 weeks and a mean difference of 2.5 points (95%CI: 1–4, p = 0.002) at 3 years between the two groups. No treatment-related complications occurred during the sessions or the follow-up period. Regarding the improvement of penile curvature or sexual function, no significant differences between the two groups were observed. Overall, LiST constitutes a safe and effective therapeutic approach for pain management both in the short- and long term.
A subcutaneous testosterone enanthate-autoinjector (SCTE-AI) was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for patient-administered weekly testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). From January 2019 to October 2019, 110 hypogonadal men were treated with SCTE-AI at two institutions. Patients were assessed in a pretherapy visit prior to receiving SCTE-AI and re-assessed 6 weeks after treatment initiation. Patients with a history of prostate cancer were excluded. Trough serum total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and hematocrit (HCT) levels were collected at clinic visits. Therapeutic phlebotomy was recommended for HCT > 54%, and treatment was discontinued for significant increases in PSA as well as for significant treatment-related adverse events. Values from each visit were compared with univariate analysis. 110 patients completed the 6 weeks of observation with a mean age of 40.3 (SD: 10.5). TT significantly rose from 246.6 ng/dL (SD:113.3) pretherapy to 538.4 ng/dL (SD: 209.3) at 6 weeks (p < 0.001). Post-therapy, 101/110 (91.8%) of patients had TT > 300 ng/dL. No patients had HCT > 54%. 74 patients (70.5%) had PSA increase with only 3 (2.9%) experiencing an increase >1.0 ng/dL. There was a significant increase in mean PSA from 1.07 ng/dL (SD: 0.8) pretherapy to 1.18 ng/dL (SD: 0.9) at 6 weeks (p = 0.01). One patient had immediate treatment cessation following diagnosis of prostate cancer. This is the largest non-industry sponsored safety and efficacy profile of SCTE-AI application in urology clinics. After 6 weeks of observation, TT levels increased significantly without any reports of adverse events. SCTE-AI is a safe and effective alternative delivery system of TRT.
Peyronie’s disease results in curvature of the penis which may cause difficulty with penetrative intercourse. The diagnosis of Peyronie’s disease is easily obtained through history and physical examination alone, but the severity of erectile dysfunction relies on patient history and use of validated questionnaires. However, erectile dysfunction questionnaires were not validated in the Peyronie’s disease population and may not be a reliable assessment. Penile Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive tool that assesses vascular function. We hypothesized that penile Doppler ultrasound will be discordant with International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) results in men with Peyronie’s disease and erectile dysfunction. In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed a prospectively collected database of men with Peyronie’s disease. In total, 108 men had questionnaire and ultrasound data. Of them, 87 had erectile dysfunction based on IIEF-EF or IIEF-5 (SHIM). However, 48 (55%) of those men had normal vascular parameters. Interestingly, among a subgroup of 33 men with severe erectile dysfunction on IIEF-EF or IIEF-5, 20 (61%) had normal vascular parameters. Our study demonstrates significant discordance between questionnaires and penile Doppler ultrasound. Therefore, ultrasound may be a useful tool in the workup of men with Peyronie’s disease and erectile dysfunction.
AGREE II scores of 8 erectile dysfunction guidelines by domain.
Our study aimed to assess the methodological strengths and weaknesses of erectile dysfunction clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for individuals using the AGREE II tool. Erectile dysfunction related CPGs were identified from three databases: the National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Guidelines International Network, and PubMed between 2000 and 2020. We designed an independent assessment for each of the erectile dysfunction related CPGs using the AGREE II tool. Four appraisers performed these assessments. The literature search identified 8 CPGs that met our inclusion criteria. The evaluation of the AGREE II domains of each individual revealed that the median scores of domains related to applicability were quite low (39%). Also, the median scores of domains related to the rigour of development and the stakeholder involvement were relatively low (53% and 63%). We determined the highest median scores in three AGREE II domains: clarity of presentation (80.5%), editorial independence (77%), and scope and purpose (89.5%). We found that the European Association of Urology (EAU), the American Urological Association (AUA), and the British Society for Sexual Medicine (BSSM) guidelines had >60% in >4 domains and that their average AGREE II scores were over 70%. In the Canadian Diabetic Association (CDA) and the Japanese Society for Sexual Medicine (JSSM) guidelines, we found that >4 domains were >60%, but their average AGREE II scores were below 70%. The British Medical Journal (BMJ), the Canadian Urologic Association (CUA), and the Malaysian Urologic Association (MUA) guidelines had >60% in <3 domains. We highly recommended EAU, AUA and BSSM guidelines, while we moderately recommended CDA and JSSM guidelines. BMJ, CUA and MUA guidelines were weakly recommended. The quality of the guidelines for erectile dysfunction was variable according to AGREE II. We noted significant deficiencies in the methodological quality of the CPGs developed by different organisations in the areas of applicability and rigour of development.
The significant discontinuation rate of available therapies and the paucity of curative options promoted the research on potential novel treatments suitable for erectile dysfunction patients. The aim of this study was to provide a summary of available evidence regarding the news and future perspectives related to the non-surgical treatment of erectile dysfunction. A narrative review of the literature was performed. A comprehensive search in the MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus databases was done. Papers in English-language, published until April 2022, were included. No chronological restriction was applied. Retrospective and prospective clinical studies, as well as meta-analyses, were considered. Oro-dispersible formulations of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are particularly indicated in patients who have difficulty in swallowing solid dosage form; in addition, they constitute a discrete route of administration not requiring water. Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy is indicated in mild vasculogenic erectile dysfunction and in patients with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction poorly responsive to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Stem cell therapy, platelet-rich plasma injections, and gene therapy seem promising regenerative treatments for selected patients with erectile dysfunction. Novel oral formulations of drugs commonly used in erectile dysfunction patients have recently become part of standard clinical practice. Regenerative treatments have been emerging in recent years and could become routine curative options in the near future. Further well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to provide conclusive evidence on this topic and guide appropriate recommendations.
CONSORT Flow Diagram of the progress through the phases of the trial.
Changes in total sexual function score before and after the treatment in control and intervention groups.
Changes in total of gestational anxiety score before and after treatment in control and intervention groups.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on female sexual function during pregnancy. The present study was a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial performed on 124 pregnant women (62 people in each group) at 16–22 weeks of gestation who referred to health centers in Ilam in 2020 to receive prenatal care. The intervention group received 300 mg of omega-3 supplements and the control group received placebo once a day for 8 weeks. Data collection tools in this study included a demographic questionnaire, three 24-h dietary recall (24HR), female sexual function index (FSFI), and Van den Bergh Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ). Before intervention, the total score of sexual function in the intervention group and control groups, showed no statistically significant difference (P = 0.123). However, 4 and 8 weeks after intervention, the mean total score of sexual function in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group after intervention (P < 0.0001). Before intervention, the total score of gestational anxiety in the intervention and control groups, showed no statistically significant difference (P = 0.149). However, 4 and 8 weeks after intervention, the mean total score of gestational anxiety in the intervention group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.0001). Based on three 24-h dietary recall, regardless of daily intake of 300 mg of omega-3 supplement, the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake from daily energy intake was not statistically significant between the intervention and control groups from baseline to follow-up (P > 0.01). Based on the results of this study, omega-3 supplementation could improve sexual function in pregnant women by preventing increased pregnancy anxiety. However, more studies are needed to prove the effectiveness of omega-3s on female sexual function during pregnancy. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (Ref. ID: IR.AJUMS.REC.1398.935) and registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (Ref. ID: IRCT20200415047078N1).
Pharmacotherapy for Premature Ejaculation
Pie chart showing the ratio of pharmacotherapy patients receive for premature ejaculation.
Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction, with therapies including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, clomipramine, topical anesthetics, dapoxetine and tramadol. However, it is currently unknown how many men are receiving pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation. Using the TriNetX Research network, a large multicenter database containing over 75 million patient records from hospitals across the United States, we evaluated prescribing patterns for treatment of premature ejaculation and assessed variations in prescription patterns among patients from 2015–2021. In addition, we examined if the prescription patterns for tramadol changed with the establishment of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs. We found that most men (51.7%) were not receiving any pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation. However, men with mental health disorders, were more likely (56.0%), to have been treated than those without (44.4%). On further analysis, men with mental health diagnoses were significantly more likely to be treated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (45.0 vs 32.2%) and Tramadol (5.1% vs 3.5%). While the pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation has been well researched, our findings revealed that most patients diagnosed with premature ejaculation do not receive pharmacotherapy and that patients are more likely to be prescribed premature ejaculation medications if they have a pre-existing mental health diagnosis.
Both masturbation frequency and pornography use during masturbation have been hypothesized to interfere with sexual response during partnered sex as well as overall relationship satisfaction. However, results from prior studies have been inconsistent and frequently based on case studies, clinical reports, and simple binary analyses. The current study investigated the relationships among masturbation frequency, pornography use, and erectile functioning and dysfunction in 3586 men (mean age = 40.8 yrs, SE = 0.22) within a multivariate context that assessed sexual dysfunctions using standardized instruments and that included other covariates known to affect erectile functioning. Results indicated that frequency of pornography use was unrelated to either erectile functioning or erectile dysfunction (ED) severity in samples that included ED men with and without various sexual comorbidities or in a subset of men 30 years or younger (p = 0.28–0.79). Masturbation frequency was also only weakly and inconsistently related to erectile functioning or ED severity in the multivariate analyses (p = 0.11–0.39). In contrast, variables long known to affect erectile response emerged as the most consistent and salient predictors of erectile functioning and/or ED severity, including age (p < 0.001), having anxiety/depression (p < 0.001 except for a subset of men ≤ 30 years), having a chronic medical condition known to affect erectile functioning (p < 0.001 except for a subset of men ≤ 30 years), low sexual interest (p < 0.001), and low relationship satisfaction (p ≤ 0.04). Regarding sexual and relationship satisfaction, poorer erectile functioning (p < 0.001), lower sexual interest (p < 0.001), anxiety/depression (p < 0.001), and higher frequency of masturbation (p < 0.001) were associated with lower sexual and lower overall relationship satisfaction. In contrast, frequency of pornography use did not predict either sexual or relationship satisfaction (p ≥ 0.748). Findings of this study reiterate the relevance of long-known risk factors for understanding diminished erectile functioning while concomitantly indicating that masturbation frequency and pornography use show weak or no association with erectile functioning, ED severity, and relationship satisfaction. At the same time, although verification is needed, we do not dismiss the idea that heavy reliance on pornography use coupled with a high frequency of masturbation may represent a risk factor for diminished sexual performance during partnered sex and/or relationship satisfaction in subsets of particularly vulnerable men (e.g., younger, less experienced).
We read with interest a review by Deacon and Muir ('D&M') that concluded so-called 'non-therapeutic' male circumcision (NTMC) of infants and children provides insufficient benefits and that risks were too high for it to be recommended in the UK [1]. Instead, they suggest delay until the boy is old enough to make his own decision. However, in contrast to the UK, policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) [2] and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) [3], finding benefits of NTMC exceed risks, are evidence-based. Flaws in D&M's arguments include reliance on small, weak, out-of-date or inappropriate studies contradicted by more recent high-quality evidence. Unlike systematic reviews and meta-analyses, D&M did not engage sufficiently with existing evidence. Studies cited were not rated by quality. They ignored a landmark high-quality study by CDC researchers of adverse events from 1.4 million neonatal and older age US males [4]. NTMC risk in infants was 0.4% and was 20-fold higher at age 1-9 and 10-fold higher at age ≥10. Similar values were cited in the AAP's policy statement. Thus D&M's claim of 1-5% risk may apply in non-US countries or to later circumcision. Also missing were key studies and important critiques of various publications they cited, as well as meta-analyses, and systematic reviews of benefits and risks (summarised in ref. [5]). If included, D&M's overall conclusion would have been more balanced. Instead of number-needed-to-treat (NNT) for each condition, they should have combined all such information into an overall risk-benefit analysis. An informed 'big picture' might then have emerged to better inform parents and practitioners. Several risk-benefit analyses have been published over the past decade, including ours in 'Mayo Clinic Proceedings' cited by the CDC. The only one for the UK found benefits exceeded risks by 200:1, with failure to perform NTMC in infancy likely resulting in at least one adverse medical condition among over half of uncircumcised males during their lifetime [6]. Contrary to D&M's assertion, the data we used for risk-benefit analyses were not 'over-estimates,' but came from high-quality studies. Contrary to their claim that the foreskin becomes fully retractile in 99% by age sixteen, our systematic review, involving 43 studies, included one finding full retractability was 51.1% in 1834 uncircumcised adolescent boys [7] and averaged 96.6% in men, being 92.2% in British National Servicemen [8]. D&M criticise a meta-analysis of lifetime UTI risk (D&M-ref22) because it contained only one study of men. But men in that study attended a STI clinic with infection symptoms, whereas the two studies D&M suggested for inclusion lacked UTI cases. D&M ignored the meta-analysis group aged 1-16 years. Thus, D&M's NNT > 100 claim is misguided as it applies to infants only. Eisenberg et al. found number of NTMCs needed to prevent one UTI in infants was 39, decreasing to 29 when other sequelae were included [9]. In comparison, childhood vaccination prevents one outpatient visit and one hospitalisation for influenza for every 50 and 1031-3050 vaccinated children, respectively [10]. D&M argue that infant NTMC would result in more boys needing antibiotics for postoperative wound infection than would need them for a UTI. Their claim is based on a 10% estimated post-NTMC wound infection prevalence. But this value contradicted their earlier statement that the overall complication rate for infant and paediatric NTMC is 1-5%. How can the prevalence of one specific complication (infection) be higher than the overall prevalence? To resolve this, we translated the German language narrative review they cited for the 10% figure (D&M-ref125) and followed the reference trail through two further review articles to the primary source: [11]. This cited two very small n values for infections: n = 2 (4%) for boys circumcised with a Plastibell device and n = 5 (10%) for boys circumcised with scissors. Thus, the 10% figure is a maximum value in a small study, applies to an old method, and is for older boys, not infants, so is misleading. D&M also assume that all of those 10% would require antibiotics. In fact, most such infections are superficial and resolve with local treatment. A study of 5521 NTMCs noted infection in 23 (0.4%) [12]. Of these, only 4 (17%) required antibiotics, the rest resolving with topical antiseptics. In contrast, antibiotics are advised for all UTIs in infants, even if the UTI is merely suspected. Based on a NNT of 100 for infant UTI prevention by NTMC and the estimate of 0.4% for infections [12], instead of the much lower 0.0834% in the large US study [4] (where only 2.2% of those, i.e., 0.0018%, were likely NTMC-related), one can calculate n = 10 UTIs prevented from 1000 circumcisions, and n = 4 wound infections. If the figure of 17% of wound infections requiring antibiotics is representative, then 0.7 of those 4 wound infections would need antibiotic treatment, as opposed to all ten UTIs. Infant NTMC therefore results in a substantial net reduction in antibiotic use even when erring in D&M's favour, and
Box plot of proximal/distal length by surgeon and incision technique
This figure shows the difference in the proximal/distal ratio of the corporotomy site between different surgeons and different incision techniques PS penoscrotal incision, SC subcoronal incision.
Box plot of total length by surgeon and incision technique
This figure shows the difference in the total length of the prosthesis between different surgeons and different incision techniques.
Inflatable penile prostheses may be a solution for patients with erectile dysfunction. To our knowledge, no data exist regarding the effect of different surgical approaches used during implantation on the site of the corporotomy. The main purpose of this multicentre study was to investigate the influence of different surgical approaches on the corporotomy site. Data were collected from six expert implant surgeons. Surgical notes were searched for the incision site, proximal, distal and total corporal length measurement, total cylinder length, length of rear tip extenders, surgery time, type of implant, and reservoir placement. The association between the proximal/distal corporal length and the recorded covariates was examined using a linear mixed model. A total of 1757 patients who underwent virgin prosthesis implantation were included in the analysis. Analysis of proximal/distal measurements was performed on 1709 patients. The proximal/distal ratio had a mean of 0.8 ± 0.3 in penoscrotal incisions (n = 391), 0.7 ± 0.2 in infrapubic incisions (n = 832) and 0.7 ± 0.2 in subcoronal (n = 486) incisions. We observed no significant differences in proximal/distal measurements between the highest-volume surgeons. We could not draw a firm conclusion about the difference in corporotomy site between different surgical approaches, but we found no significant difference between the highest-volume surgeons using different techniques.
Coding Process
Thematic analysis involved a three stage process of open coding, formation of categories, and development of five major themes.
Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a fibrotic disorder of the tunica albuginea that may result in penile deformity, pain, a palpable plaque, and erectile dysfunction. In order to understand the psycho-sexual impacts of PD on patients and their partners, we selected three online forums containing the largest number of threads on PD. Threads focusing on the psycho-sexual impacts posted from January 1, 2011 to January 1, 2021 were compiled, and thematic analysis was performed on Dedoose. There were 277 unique posters, including 225 patients and 52 partners. Eighty-four categories and five themes were developed including information and social support, physical symptoms, psycho-sexual symptoms, treatment and effect, and impacts on partners and relationship. Emotional distress including depressed mood (n = 75, 33.3%) and feelings of isolation (n = 41, 18.2%) was prevalent. Partners developed sexual dysfunction including sexual dissatisfaction (n = 11, 21.2%) and dyspareunia (n = 4, 7.7%). Relationships experienced disruption (n = 14, 5.1%) or termination (n = 10, 3.6%). Posters received psychological treatment including psychotherapy (n = 20, 8.9%) and antidepressants (n = 17, 7.6%). Of these, 12 reported improvement and 11 stated no improvement. On these forums, psychological burden affecting individuals with PD and their partners is reported. Few seek help from a psychologist or therapist, and psychological distress may persist even after successful PD treatment. Further research is needed to identify strategies for effective psychological management.
Historically, medical management of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) in girls typically involved feminising surgery, which meant reducing the size and/or visibility of the enlarged clitoris. This practice may have become less routine but remains a common response to genital differences associated with CAH. Parents typically give permission for the child to undergo surgery in early childhood and recommend other parents facing a similar situation do the same. The current report is based on a qualitative content analysis of interviews with sixteen parents whose daughters with CAH had undergone one of two forms of clitoral surgery. We observed that: (i) some parents were initially unconcerned about their child’s genital presentation; (ii) in general, clitoral surgery was considered as a readily available and natural response to the child’s bodily difference; (iii) the parents acknowledged that there would be some risk but anticipated various benefits; and (iv) there was an absence of ethical considerations when the parents evaluated the various effects of surgery afterwards. We conclude from our analysis that parents of girls with CAH may not receive psychologically and ethically informed counselling to encourage critical reflections prior to authorizing genital surgery.
We present a unique case of a 39-year-old male with a 20-year history of chronic penile pain. Unfortunately, there are currently very limited reports on how best to manage chronic penile pain, as chronic penile pain is a diagnosis of exclusion without any apparent disease. Here, we describe our patient’s clinical presentation of chronic penile pain, history of previously failed medical and procedural treatments, and eventually completion of cryoablation of the penile nerves. In this case study, we demonstrated that targeted cryoablation of the penile nerves is a potential treatment option for chronic penile pain that failed medical management. We also discuss the anatomy and innervation of the penis as it relates to sensation of chronic penile pain and subsequent cryoablation of the penile nerves.
Number (and global percent) of countries with high vs low prevalence of male and female genital modifications across 237 countries.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), customary female genital modification practices common in parts of Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and the Middle East are inherently patriarchal: They reflect deep-rooted inequality between the sexes characterized by male dominance and constitute an extreme form of discrimination against women. However, scholars have noted that while many societies have genital modification rites only for boys, with no equivalent rite for girls, the inverse does not hold. Rather, almost all societies that practice ritual female genital modification also practice ritual male genital modification, often for comparable reasons on children of similar ages, with the female rites led by women and the male rites led by men. In contrast, then, to the situation for boys in various cultures, girls are not singled out for genital modification on account of their sex or gender; nor do the social meanings of the female rites necessarily reflect a lower status. In some cases, the women’s rite serves to promote female within-sex bonding and network building—as the men’s rite typically does for males—thereby counterbalancing gendered asymmetries in political power and weakening male dominance in certain spheres. In such cases, and to that extent, the female rites can be described as counter-patriarchal. Selective efforts to discourage female genital modifications may thus inadvertently undermine women-centered communal networks while leaving male bonding rites intact. Scholars and activists should not rely on misleading generalizations from the WHO about the relationship between genital cutting and the social positioning of women as compared to men. To illustrate the complexity of this relationship, we compare patterns of practice across contemporary societies while also highlighting anthropological data regarding pre-industrial societies. Regarding the latter, we find no association between the presence of a female initiation rite and a key aspect of patriarchy as it is classically understood, namely, social endorsement of a gendered double-standard regarding premarital sexual activity. We situate this finding within the broader literature and discuss potential implications.
Testosterone undecanoate injections (TU), an oil-based depot, is a universal hormonal-based treatment which has been associated with pulmonary oil microembolism (POME). However, the rate of POME during routine intramuscular (IM) TU injection is unknown. Here, we conduct a peer-reviewed literature review investigating POME incidents in the setting of TU injections. A total of 48 articles were selected in the literature review, which included 29 studies that used TU and reported its effects. Relatively few POME cases were reported across multiple published studies, including those that focused particularly on the occurrence rate of POME while administrating IM TU. Of the 29 individual studies, which included 7 978 patients, eight studies reported a total of 88 incidence of POME cases or cough. This included episodes of cough that were not originally declared as POME. One post market review reported 223 cases per 3,107,652 injections. When POME did occur, almost all cases resolved spontaneously within 60 min without intervention. Overall, POME was observed to be rare.
A range of drugs have a direct role in triggering ischaemic priapism. We aimed at identifying: a) which medications are associated with most priapism-reports; and, b) within these medications, comparing their potential to elicit priapism through a disproportionality analysis. The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database was queried to identify those drugs associated the most with priapism reports over the last 5 years. Only those drugs being associated with a minimum of 30 priapism reports were considered. The Proportional Reporting Ratios (PRRs), and their 95% confidence intervals were computed. Out of the whole 2015–2020 database, 1233 priapism reports were identified, 933 of which (75.7%) were associated with 11 medications with a minimum of 30 priapism-reports each. Trazodone, olanzapine and tadalafil showed levels of disproportionate reporting, with a PRR of 9.04 (CI95%: 7.73–10.58), 1.55 (CI95%: 1.27–1.89), and 1.42 (CI95%: 1.10–1.43), respectively. Most (57.5%) of the reports associated with the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) were related with concomitant priapism-eliciting drugs taken at the same time and/or inappropriate intake/excessive dosage. Patients taking trazodone and/or antipsychotics need to be aware of the priapism-risk; awareness among prescribers would help in reducing priapism-related detrimental sequelae; PDE5I-intake is not responsible for priapism by itself, when appropriate medical supervision is provided.
Outline of research methods
Prisma diagram depicting the methods of including and excluding Reddit threads in the analysis.
Recommended ED therapies by category
Pie chart depicting the distribution of therapies by category including changes in sexual behaviors, lifestyle changes, medical interventions, talking with partner about ED, and supplements.
Positive and negative theme distribution and relative frequency of treatment discussions by category
Bar graphs depicting the relative positive and negative theme distribution of each treatment mentioned in the Reddit threads. A Changes in sexual behavior, B Lifestyle changes, C Medical interventions, and D Supplements.
Positive and negative theme distribution and relative frequency of AUA Guideline-Congruent Treatments
Bar graph depicting the relative positive and negative theme distribution of each treatment mentioned in Reddit threads that were congruent with the AUA guidelines.
Patients may turn to social media websites, such as Reddit, for information on erectile dysfunction prior to seeking care from a physician. We sought to identify, characterize, and assess the quality of the erectile dysfunction treatments discussed on the highly influential Reddit website. We assessed 2634 comments from two subreddits, r/AskMen and r/ErectileDysfunction, for positive and negative statements regarding treatments for erectile dysfunction. A total of 45 unique treatments were discussed and consisted of changes in sexual behavior (30%), lifestyle changes (29%), medical interventions (23%), talking with a partner about ED (10%), and use of supplements (8%). Only 24.4% of all treatments discussed are in line with current American Urological Association guidelines. Only 43.8% of all positive statements made endorsed a guidelines-based treatment, indicating a high rate of self-proclaimed success with alternative therapies. Our results indicate that there is active discussion of erectile dysfunction treatment on Reddit with a wide range of therapies recommended, however, the majority of the recommendations are not supported by strong clinical evidence.
Participant selection criteria
Flow chart demonstrating subjects who were excluded based on sex, survey responses, and age-matching.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and erectile dysfunction. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative survey of the United States population. Socioeconomic status was estimated using the poverty income ratio, a ratio of family income to established poverty levels. Erectile function was assessed from a single survey question and was divided into two groups: normal (always and usually able to maintain an erection) and erectile dysfunction (sometimes or never able to maintain an erection). Multivariable logistic regression, using a multi-model approach, was used to characterize the interplay between well-established risk factors for erectile dysfunction and socioeconomic status. Our final cohort included 3679 respondents, representative of 81,255,155 subjects with a mean age of 44.4 [SE, 0.365]. Multivariable logistic regression showed that low-income respondents were significantly more likely to report erectile dysfunction [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.95, 95% CI 1.28–2.96; p = 0.003] compared to higher-income respondents. This study suggests that low socioeconomic status may be associated with erectile dysfunction in a large, nationally representative sample.
The role of genetics in the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) is an important yet understudied area. Yet whether genetic analysis should be carried out during the gender affirmation process at all is a matter of debate. This study aims to evaluate the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings of individuals with GD. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of individuals with GD who were followed up in a tertiary clinic. After the exclusion criteria were applied, the study sample consisted of 918 individuals with GD; 691 of whom had female-to-male (FtM) and 227 male-to-female (MtF) GD. The cytogenetic analysis revealed that 223 out of 227 (98.2%) individuals with MtF GD had the 46,XY karyotype, while 683 out of 691 (98.8%) individuals with FtM GD had the 46,XX karyotype. In the Y chromosome microdeletion analysis, azospermic factor c (AZFc) deletion was detected in only two individuals with MtF GD. Our findings suggest that there are few chromosomal abnormalities in individuals with GD. Thus, this research calls into question both the role of chromosomal abnormalities in GD etiology and why the application of chromosomal analysis is in Turkey a routine part of the baseline evaluation of GD.
Number of finasteride-related “penile curvature” and/or “Peyronie’s disease” reports throughout the years in relation with finasteride-related estimated levels of prescription in U.S
A Number of individual cases of “penile curvature” and/or “Peyronie’s disease” being associated with finasteride in the FAERS database by received year. B Number of total estimated prescriptions of finasteride in the U.S., based on the MEPS data.
A limited number of studies have described patients on finasteride showing findings which were consistent with Peyronie’s disease (PD). We aimed to detect a pharmacovigilance signal of possible association between finasteride and PD-related clinical features. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database was queried to identify the ten drugs which were associated the most with the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded as “penile curvature” and/or “Peyronie’s disease”. A similar analysis, including the same drugs, was carried out for the EMA (European Medicines Agency) EudraVigilance (EV) database. Descriptive data have been analyzed, and Proportional Reporting Ratios (PRRs) have been computed against the other nine drugs of the database. Overall, 860 reports of “penile curvature” and/or “Peyronie’s disease”, were identified in the FAERS database, 214 of which (24.9%) were associated with finasteride. Most reports (56.9%) were submitted by healthcare professionals. Where a treatment-indication was stated, the vast majority of reports (176/210; 83.8%) were associated with androgenetic alopecia. The outcome of most ADRs was “serious” (82.2%), with 96 ADRs resulting in levels of permanent disability. For 97/214 individual cases, penile curvature/PD reports were not part of a syndromic cluster suggestive of post-finasteride syndrome (PFS). The PRR resulted 6.6 (95% CI: 5.6–7.8) and 11.8 (95% CI: 9.08–15.33), respectively, in the FAERS and in the EV databases. Notwithstanding the related limitations and biasing factors of pharmacovigilance studies based on spontaneous reporting, the PRR values here identified should be interpreted as strong signals of disproportionality. These findings, per se, are however not useful to confirm any causal association. Clinical studies are needed to investigate on the possible role for finasteride in causing PD-related clinical features, an hypothesis which remains highly speculative due to the very questionable quality of present data.
Immunohistological patterns of density and distribution of neural tissue in the human penis, including the prepuce, are not fully characterized, and effects of circumcision (partial or total removal of the penile prepuce) on penile sexual sensation are controversial. This study analyzed extra- and intracavernosal innervation patterns on the main penile axes using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human adult and fetal penile tissues, single- and double-staining immunohistochemistry and a variety of neural and non-neural markers, with a special emphasis on the prepuce and potential sexual effects of circumcision. Immunohistochemical profiles of neural structures were determined and the most detailed immunohistological characterizations to date of preputial nerve supply are provided. The penile prepuce has a highly organized, dense, afferent innervation pattern that is manifest early in fetal development. Autonomically, it receives noradrenergic sympathetic and nitrergic parasympathetic innervation. Cholinergic nerves are also present. We observed cutaneous and subcutaneous neural density distribution biases across our specimens towards the ventral prepuce, including a region corresponding in the adult anatomical position (penis erect) to the distal third of the ventral penile aspect. We also describe a concept of innervation gradients across the longitudinal and transverse penile axes. Results are discussed in relation to the specialized literature. An argument is made that neuroanatomic substrates underlying unusual permanent penile sensory disturbances post-circumcision are related to heightened neural levels in the distal third of the ventral penile aspect, which could potentially be compromised by deep incisions during circumcision.
1: Salient pole synchronous machine rotor winding (a) Wound rotor type (b) PM rotor type
The synchronous reluctance generators are a species of self-excited generators such as the induction generators. The self-excited synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG) has become a promising and viable replacement of self-excited induction generator because of the supply frequency dependence on the prime speed and not load. The self-excited synchronous reluctance generator has high reliability, low cost and robustness and capacity of variable speed operation. The aim of this research is to carry out performance analysis of shunt connected three-phase synchronous reluctance generator feeding an R-L load. The dynamic analysis is based on the classical d-q model where equations for electrical quantities were derived and implemented using a computer simulation tool, MATLAB®. The equations for steady state analysis were derived from the dynamic equations by setting all time variables to zero. The dynamic analysis was carried out on a 4-pole, speed of 1500 rpm with connected load at a fixed excitation capacitor value of 50uF for a 2.5kVA machine. Effect of excitation-capacitance variation and loading-conditions variation on the generated output voltage and frequency are presented and discussed. The load variations were done based on energy-current perturbation at a fixed power factor of 1.0. The load variations were done at several points and result shows that with the variations in the connected loads, the output frequency of the synchronous reluctance generator remains constant, which makes it a good alternative for induction generator. On the steady state analysis, it was discovered that on increasing the excitation capacitor, the terminal voltage increases as well as the output power. The result specifically revealed that when the capacitance increases from 25uF to 45uF, the terminal voltage and the output power increases from 200volts to 300volts; and 200watt to 1700watt. Therefore, it is recommended that to ensure machine excitation, the capacitor should not be reduced below a certain value. The study is beneficial for operation of an isolated power supply.
Since ancient times, men have tried to change the size and shape of their genitals. Bites from insects or poisonous snakes and weights were among the first methods used for this purpose. In the first half of the 1900s, the scientific push regarding male genital aesthetic surgery began. Scrotoplasty, penile suspensory ligament release, injection of hyaluronic acid as filler, use of several types of grafts, lipofilling, and liposuction are techniques currently used. The Penuma® implant has recently been described with promising results. We are living in the era of tailored surgery and regenerative medicine. Shortly the surgeons will have to know several surgical techniques and adapt them to the patient. New fillers with ideal characteristics, innovative prosthetic devices, and stem cells will probably be the protagonists of future aesthetic surgery. The main effort of the scientific community should be directed towards the design of new randomized controlled trials to increase the evidence on the efficacy and safety of the topic, with the ultimate aim of allowing clear recommendations from scientific societies.
Scrotal incision for Penuma implant.
Scrtotal incision technique
A Extension of incision toward penoscrtoal region. B Sharp dissection through subcutaneous tissue. C Exposure of white tunica albuginea.
Post op scar for Penuma through the scrotum
A Immediately post op. B 7 mo post op—0 scar not visible.
Scrotal incision Penuma before and after photos
A Pre operative penile appearance. B Post operative appearance after 2 months. C Pre operative appearance. D Post operative appearance after 4 months.
Penile appearance after removal for dissatisfaction and employment of penile rehabilitation discipline
A Pre op appearance of penis before Penuma. B Post op appearance of penis (6 mo) after removal Penuma and rehabilitation discipline. C Pre operative appearance of penis before Penuma. D Post operative appearance (6mo) of penis after removal of Penuma and rehabilitation discipline.
The Penuma® implant is a medical-grade silicone implant surgically inserted subcutaneously to provide cosmetic improvement of the penile aesthetic. The principal author was invited to provide an update on the usage of the Penuma® implant for penile aesthetics. He collected as yet unpublished data, which is undergoing synchronous submission to Urologic meetings and peer-reviewed publications by a variety of authors for this communication. The objective of this article is to provide updated information regarding the Penuma® aesthetic penile implant. A new scrotal method of implantation named “concealed” is emerging. Through physician comparison of various factors prior to and after the scrotal method intervention, early findings suggest this approach seems to have less visible scar, is quicker and is followed by less seroma formation. As the device is now surgically implanted by surgeons other than its inventor, new developments have appeared authenticating the original published paper in 2018. Patients were contacted via phone and were asked five questions regarding satisfaction with the responses recorded. This new multicenter study shows findings of high patient and partner satisfaction coupled with acceptable adverse outcomes similar to the single-surgeon study. A new penile rehabilitation program has been developed with the aim for the penis appearance to be restored to its pre-operative state if the Penuma® is removed. 12 patients who underwent penile implant removal were followed for 6 months while participating in the penile rehabilitation program. The discipline worked in patients who desired removal for dissatisfaction and is currently under evaluation in patients who require device removal for medical reasons, e.g., infection or suture-related issues. Through new developments, the acceptance of Penuma® in the prosthetic community seems to be further solidified.
Male infertility currently contributes to nearly half of the reported infertility cases. Scrotal wall layers play a cardinal role in regulating testicular physiology. However, few studies have focused on the functional histology of these layers and their relations with infertility in humans. The objective of the present narrative review is to collate novel insights into the functional histology of the human scrotal wall layers and their relation with infertility. The data was extracted from articles published between 1946 and 2021. The study was performed between January and December 2021. 71 original studies have been included in this review. Despite the fact that few studies have presented detailed functional histology of the human scrotal wall layers, this narrative review elucidates the possible influence of scrotal histology on infertility. Scrotal wall layers-associated pathologies may induce infertility by various mechanisms. They can impose mechanical forces that may affect the testicular histology and stimulate testicular inflammation. Moreover, they may induce testicular hyperthermia. Various unanswered clinical questions have been identified in this narrative review. More clinical studies are needed to assess the effect of alterations in the components of the scrotal wall layers on fertility (e.g., due to the exposure to metabolic and/or psychological stressors). In addition, testing the effectiveness of various pharmacological/surgical interventions to treat scrotal wall layers-associated pathologies will provide more insights into infertility treatment.
Clitoral reconstruction (CR) has been the subject of several studies in recent years, mainly in the medical field. Women with female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) seek clitoral reconstructive surgery to improve their sexual well-being, but also because they are affected by poor self- and body image. CR is supposed to help women with FGM/C reconstruct their sense of self, but the benefits and risks of this surgery have not been sufficiently explored. There are currently no recommendations supporting CR from mainstream medical bodies, and there have been very few ethical studies of the procedure. This article critically discusses the principal studies produced in the medical field and available reflections produced in the social sciences. Through the theoretical frameworks of postcolonial and feminist studies, the article discusses sexuality and pleasure, gender and identity, and race and positionality, with the aim of promoting collaborative work on CR between researchers and social and health professionals.
Comparison of lowest available prices of direct-to-consumer vs. traditional prescriptions of PDE5 inhibitors.
After a focused telehealth visit, patients can now access phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5 inhibitor) prescriptions through online direct-to-consumer (DTC) healthcare companies. This study seeks to quantify the cost of DTC PDE5 inhibitor treatment compared to a traditional physician visit and local pharmacy prescription. Two DTC companies, two compounding pharmacies with national reach, three online Canadian pharmacies, and sixteen American pharmacy chains were queried for prices of 90-day regimens of common PDE5 inhibitors. Prices for chains were determined using their publicly available price on GoodRx® with coupon. Cost of physician visit was determined using 2020 Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services reimbursement for a level 3 new patient visit. For sildenafil 20 mg, a physician visit and local prescription cost a low of $125.45 compared to $144.35 for compounding, $169.34 for Canadian, and $195.00 for DTC. For sildenafil 100 mg, a physician visit and local prescription cost a low of $137.16 compared to $289.35 for compounding, $200.36 for Canadian, and $900.00 for DTC. For tadalafil 5 mg, a physician visit and local prescription cost a low of $125.80 compared to $169.35 for compounding, $195.34 for Canadian, and $720.00 for DTC. For tadalafil 20 mg, a physician visit and local prescription cost a low of $161.00 compared to $289.35 for compounding, $229.00 for Canadian, and $2880.00 for DTC. Thus, local pharmacies, in conjunction with online coupons, consistently provide a markedly less-expensive option for fulfillment of PDE5 inhibitor prescriptions than online DTC services.
Circumcision-partial or total removal of the penile prepuce-requires cutting nerve-laden, sensitive genital tissue and is therefore liable to be painful. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence concerning pain felt by newborns during circumcision and to determine whether current analgesic methods can eliminate such pain. I performed a search in medical databases, selecting the trials published in the last 20 years that assessed pain in neonatal circumcision. Twenty-three trials have been retrieved. To get reliable findings, those trials that used validated pain scales were selected; then it was investigated which trials had comparable data for using the same pain scale. The only pain scale that was used in more than two trials was the modified Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (mNIPS) that ranges 0-6. The results of these trials show that none of the analgesic strategies used obtained the absence of pain. Some differences between circumcision techniques can be noticed, but most assessments exceed the score of 3, chosen as the clinically significant pain. IJIR: Your Sexual Medicine Journal; https://doi.
Microbiota is defined as the group of commensal microorganisms that inhabit a specific human body site. The composition of each individual’s gastrointestinal microbiota is influenced by several factors such as age, diet, lifestyle, and drug intake, but an increasing number of studies have shown that the differences between a healthy microbiota and a dysbiotic one can be related to different diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this review is to give an overview of the role of the gut microbiota on BPH and ED. Gut microbiota modifications can influence prostate health indirectly by the activation of the immune system and the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, IL-23, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma, which are able to promote an inflammatory state. Gut dysbiosis may lead to the onset of ED by the alteration of hormone levels and metabolic profiles, the modulation of stress/anxiety-mediated sexual dysfunction, the development of altered metabolic conditions such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, and the development of hypertension. In conclusion, much evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota has an influence on various pathologies including BPH and ED.
Testosterone deficiency (TD), also known as male hypogonadism, is a complex syndrome encompassing physical, biochemical, and social aspects that increasingly affects the aging population. TD has been analyzed over recent decades, with an enhanced focus on etiologies relating to aging males. There is debate whether testosterone decline leading to hypogonadism is directly and primarily related to age-specific processes or if it is the subsequent result of accumulating comorbidities throughout a lifetime. Several studies have been done to further characterize this distinction. Chronic comorbidities that have commonly been associated with TD include hypertension (HTN), cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and tobacco use. Although clear associations between hypogonadism and aging have been biochemically demonstrated, many large studies have illustrated the concomitant effects of highly prevalent chronic diseases and social behaviors in aging men. Given the significant impact of hypogonadism on the physical and mental health of men, this paper aims to delve into these studies and further define the complex relationship of testosterone deficiency in the aging male.
Top-cited authors
Joseph C Cappelleri
Ivan Goldstein
Edson Duarte Moreira Jr.
  • Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Dale Glasser
Ian Osterloh