International Journal of Higher Education

Published by Sciedu Press
Online ISSN: 1927-6052
Print ISSN: 1927-6044
Publications
The Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota is a primary academic support program for historically difficult, introductory college courses that serve as gatekeepers to academic degree programs. Based upon operating principles of other academic support programs and educational theories, PAL is integrated into the courses it serves. The PAL groups review essential course content, model cognitive learning strategies to deepen understanding, and promote metacognitive awareness so students are autonomous learners in courses without academic support services. The PAL approach operates at the confluence of collaborative learning, cooperative learning groups, and learning communities. This article provides a detailed overview of the PAL model, educational theories upon which it is based, and how variations of it are implemented at the institution. Quantitative and qualitative studies reveal academic and personal benefits for participating students and those serving as PAL facilitators. The studies validate the role of PAL with closing the achievement gap between students of different ethnicities and levels of academic preparedness for rigorous college courses in mathematics and science.
 
In 1972, the TRIO program leaders at the University of Minnesota (UMN) developed the Integrated Learning (IL) course to meet academic and cultural transition needs of their Upward Bound (UB) secondary school students. These courses were offered during the UB summer bridge program for students who were concurrently enrolled in academically-challenging tertiary courses following graduation from secondary school. Later, use of the IL course shifted from the UB program to the tertiary-level TRIO Student Support Services program. An academically-challenging course like introductory psychology is linked with an IL course. The IL course is customized to use content of its companion class as context for mastering learning strategies and orienting students to the rigor of the tertiary learning environment. The IL course approach has assisted TRIO students improve their academic success in the rigorous academic environment as well as acclimate to the social climate of UMN, one of the largest universities in the United States. The primary purpose of this article is providing an overview of the IL course approach with sufficient information so other institutions could replicate it. Two quasi-experimental studies examined the possible benefits of the IL course. One was in connection with an introductory psychology course. The IL course students earned statistically significantly higher final course grades than nonparticipants. Another study with an introductory biology course replicated results of higher final course grades for IL course students. The IL course fostered higher final course grades and expanded positive study behaviors and their meta cognitive skills necessary for academic success.
 
Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2022
 
Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 11, No. 7, 2022
 
Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2022
 
Costs Associated with a UWI Undergraduate Degree 1
This study explores Barbadian students’ knowledge/awareness on various facets of costs associated with their University of the West Indies (UWI) education and student perceptions of State funded education. The study was conducted subsequent to the announcement of UWI tuition fees which came into effect in September 2014. Ninety-three Faculty of Social Sciences (FSS) students participated in the study. The research highlighted that:- (1) FSS students have serious gaps in knowledge regarding their UWI education costs, (2) many FSS students are motivated to work harder at their studies when studies are personally self-financed, (3) FSS students associate opportunity costs with lost income, lost time with family/friends, and lost leisure opportunities with their UWI studies, and (4) FSS students perceive that the Government of Barbados (GOBD) incurs an opportunity cost by financing UWI education. The paper concludes by discussing implications for policy and practice.
 
Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2022
 
This paper traces the development of sport in the two female residential colleges (Women’s and Sancta Sophia) at the University of Sydney. While the University of Sydney male residential colleges established an intercollegiate sporting competition in 1907 (Rawson Cup), it was not until 1958 that the female residential colleges established an intercollegiate competition (Archdale-Macrae Cup). This paper traces the history of female collegiate sport leading up to the establishment of the Archdale-Macrae Cup and argues that sport was an essential part of the intercollegiate experience and spirit.
 
The Participants Demography
Covid-19 pandemic has made many countries adapt on new situations in different sectors including education. The Indonesia government has decided to adjust the education mode from face-to-face to online meeting using various learning management systems (LMS) such as moodle and google classroom. Moreover, the present research depicted the online learning barriers faced by students as well as their alternatives to cope them. The research implemented descriptive mixed-method survey design. The participants were 25 students of English Education Department. The instruments used to gather the data were the questionnaires and interview regarding the topics. The results showed that students experienced three barriers during the online learning including infamiliriaty of e-learning, slow internet connection, and physical condition e.g. eye strain. The alternatives they proposed were providing training to implement the LMS before the real class, converting high-definition or big-size files into smaller one, and giving break during the online class. The conclusion stated that students had to be creatives to find any solutions and innovations regarding learning barriers including maintaining good communication with teacher and understanding best learning styles individually
 
Enhancing students’ learning experience through support structures such as tutorial sessions is essential. Students attending the tutorial sessions within the Discipline of Public Governance have never been given the opportunity to provide feedback on the sessions they have attended. They only get a chance to evaluate their lecturers using closed and open-ended questions to capture their learning experiences about modules’ structure, content, delivery and assessments. This implied a need to explore the students’ perceptions about the tutorial sessions during the normal conditions and under severe conditions like this of COVID-19. The quantitative approach was utilised and the data was collected through the distribution of questionnaires to the undergraduate students. The participants attended tutorials within the Discipline of Public Governance during the first semester of the year 2020. The study findings indicated that tutorial sessions occupy a critical role in students' development and learning. It is the platform for the students to easily interact with other students, discuss issues, and improve their performance. The study recommends that higher education institutions invest in the tutorial structure as one of the student support systems as it produces positive results in enhancing student learning. Redefining and reviewing the tutorial support structure is always crucial to improve the tutorial sessions' quality.
 
Moodle activities and resources
Knowledge building for the 4IR self-actualization
Biographical Information on Participants
Findings
Type of Digital Technologies and Numbers of Users per HEI
Online teaching results in knowledge building. Knowledge building is the teaching and learning process that helps academics and students to generate specific personal values used to understand their personal identities. Academics have been forced by COVID-19 lockdowns to go online in teaching their students. The purpose of this study is to explore and understand academics’ knowledge of teaching for knowledge building in two higher-education institutions (HEIs) (RSA and USA) during the COVID-19 era and the 4IR. Reflective activities, focus-group discussions, and semi-structured interviews were used for data generation. Purposive with convenience sampling was used to select the twenty most accessible academics to participate in this study. The findings reveal that this situation compelled the academics to self-actualise on their knowledge-building to address the “why” questions of teaching that help students to understand and address their needs. The self-actualization was framed by “technological pedagogical content knowledge” which produced societal, personal, and professional knowledge building. It was interesting to note that the USA HEI participants were supported by educational technologists, while the RSA HEI participants helped themselves. This was because the RSA HEIs do not have educational technology centres. Consequently, this study recommends a follow-up study that can qualitatively and quantitatively compare the two HEIs. In this way it can be established whether the success of online teaching and learning is influenced by the presence of educational technology centres.
 
University student activism is generally characterized by protests and demonstrations by students who are reacting to social, political, and economic challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic revolutionized university student activism, and closed the geographical space for protests and demonstrations. The pandemic locked students out of the university campus, thus, rendering the traditional strategies of mass protests and demonstrations impossible. The COVID-19-induced lockdowns made it difficult, if not impossible, to mobilise for on-campus demonstrations and protests. It seems the pandemic is the last nail in the coffin of on-campus student protests. This theoretical paper uses a collective behaviour framework to explain the evolution of student activism in Zimbabwe, from the traditional on-campus politics to virtual activism. It discusses the challenges associated with cybernetic activism. The paper argues that, despite challenges, Zimbabwean university student activists need to migrate to a new world of digital technology and online activism. In the migration to online activism, students activists face a plethora of challenges. On top of the already existing obstacles, activists face new operational challenges related to trying to mobilise a constituency that has relocated to cyberspace. Student activists utilize the existing digital infrastructure to advance their politics, in spite of a hostile state security system and harsh economic environment, and other operational challenges.
 
The objective of the research was to analyze the effects of the disruption that Peruvian university education has suffered due to COVID-19 in 2020. The type of research was basic under the design of grounded theory (De la Espriella & Gómez Restrepo, 2020). The study scenario was university education in the first semester of 2020, considering more than twenty academic texts; between articles, texts and reports related to university educational disruption. The technique implemented was that of documentary analysis. And in the procedure for collecting information, the inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken into account. The results show that disruption is the break, abrupt or sudden interruption caused within a current paradigm. Therefore, the paradigm of face-to-face Peruvian university education due to the COVID-19 pandemic has suffered a sudden interruption; so much so that article 47 of University Law N° 30220 was modified; The modalities of face-to-face, semi-face-to-face and distance or non-face-to-face teaching were established, introducing university higher education in the new paradigm of online education. For this reason, universities should be required to leave their comfort zone and incorporate information and communication technologies as a possibility and opportunity for academic development.
 
The Peer-Tutoring Online Discussion Class Model
Characteristics of Research Participants Course Title: Understanding the Post-Human Course Title: The Convergence Mindset and Practical Actions
The rapid spread of online classes in higher education during and after the COVID-19 pandemic has created a growing need for research that explores the issue of student disengagement in online courses. In this regard, the present study suggests a Peer-Tutoring Online Discussion (POD) class model to increase student engagement in online courses among undergraduate students with diverse sociocultural backgrounds and college majors. The study also examines the impact of the POD approach by exploring the experiences of undergraduate students who took online liberal arts courses that employed the POD model during the 2020 spring semester. Qualitative analysis of discussion data from students indicates that the POD class model includes characteristics that can be especially significant in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as opportunities for relationship-building, self-directed learning based on establishing a rapport, and discussion management that considers time limits.
 
Composition of respondents
Readiness mean calculation
The Covid-19 pandemic has affected hundreds of million lives and taken over four million lives to date. As a result, governments and policymakers see the need for emergency action to reduce the spread of the virus. In an attempt to contain the virus, governments and policymakers worldwide introduced a different range of protection measures and interventions to change their citizen's behaviours, primarily through social distancing, interprovince lockdown, stay at home strategies, and quarantines. The different lockdown measures have created unique and challenging conditions with no documented equivalent in the education sector. A significant effect was that many Higher Education institutions worldwide were not ready to switch to online teaching and learning when the governments announced the sudden lockdown. This study discusses the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on South Africa Higher Education Institutions, focusing on the historically disadvantaged universities. The study went further to evaluate the readiness of lecturers from selected disadvantaged universities to adopting online teaching and learning by applying the Technology Readiness-Acceptance Model (TRAM). Quantitative data was collected through an online questionnaire. Results show that the higher the average of optimism and innovativeness among the respondents' point towards the readiness of adopting technology. On the other hand, higher the average insecurity and discomfort show the uneasiness of adopting technologies by the respondents.
 
Pragmatism is an important resource that has helped higher education institutions (HEIs) in Lesotho and South Africa to complete the 2020 academic year even when they were affected by COVID-19. Pragmatism is a philosophy of human actions combined with experiences in order to produce outcomes or consequences, where the reality is about what works according to individual needs based on a specific situation. During the COVID-19 era, pragmatism has been represented by the use of learning management systems (LMSs) and social media sites (SMSs). The representation of pragmatism, based on ten sampled publications of this study was divided into performance- (driven by LMSs) and competence-based (driven by SMSs) curricula. The purpose and objective of this study was to explore and understand the representation of pragmatism in ten scholarly publications purposively sampled for this study on education during the COVID-19 era. Document analysis framed by pragmatic paradigm, critical discourse analysis (CDA), and community of inquiry (CoI), was used to generate data for this study. The findings concluded that pragmatism was the reason for HEIs saving the 2020 academic year: pragmatism harmonised the tension between LMSs and SMSs which existed even before the COVID-19 era. Consequently, this study recommends the application of pragmatism in any uncertainty/novelty situation in education, in order to address individual needs before professional and societal needs.
 
Over the past few decades, higher education in accounting has been criticized for its focus on developing technical competences at the expense of general competences. The objective of this study is to analyze the general competences developed by the final-year students of accounting courses at Portuguese public polytechnics and to compare them with the most evident ones identified through a literature review for the current accounting profession. The study adopts a quantitative approach, carried out through a survey of 137 final-year students in the 2019/2020 academic year and using the techniques of descriptive and multivariate statistics. Among the main results, it was found that the ability to use information and communication technologies and lifelong learning were the most developed general competences. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the new practices developed through distance learning facilitated the development of technological competences, producing new reflections for improving the training of accountants.
 
The synthesis of online learning
Average score range and interpretation
Randomized Control-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
Comparison of mean scores on mathematics learning achievement between experimental and control groups
The objectives of this article is developing an online learning management model for vocational student in Thailand based on the New Normal lifestyle under the COVID-19 situation. The sample consisted of 400 teachers and students. The results obtained from the research found that the according to the 17 online instructional design experts who assessed the appropriateness of the online learning management framework based on the New Normal lifestyles under the COVID-19 situation for vocational students in Thailand (OLA Framework), the overall assessment results were excellent due to the conceptual framework being consistent with the objectives, processes, and sequential thinking methods. And Comparison of the mean scores of mathematics learning achievement between the experimental group and the control group had mean scores of 75.13 and 75.47, respectively. The students in both groups demonstrated no significant difference in learning achievement at the .05 level, indicating that regarding the experiment, students in the online learning group and the traditional classroom learning group demonstrated no difference in learning achievement because the teacher's learning management was consistent with the concept of online learning management in the New Normal lifestyle. The results of the assessment of satisfaction with online learning management were at the highest level because teachers organized learning system according to the conceptual framework, As a result, online learning management meets the learning objectives. The assessment of satisfaction with online learning based on the New Normal lifestyle under the COVID-19 situation among vocational students in Thailand was at the highest level overall.
 
Following the World Health Organization’s announcement of the global pandemic because of the Coronavirus Disease 2019, most Canadian universities transitioned to offering their courses exclusively online. One group affected by this transition was students with disabilities. Previous research has shown that the university experience for students with disabilities differs from those of their non-disabled peers. However, their unique needs are often not taken into consideration. As a result, students can become marginalized and alienated from the online classroom. In partnership with Student Accessibility Services, this research revealed the impact of the transition to online learning because of the pandemic for university students with disabilities. Students registered with Student Accessibility Services completed a survey about the effects of online learning during a pandemic on the students’ lives, education, and instructional and accommodation. It was clear from the results that online education during COVID-19 affected all aspects of the students’ lives, particularly to their mental health. This research provided a much-needed opportunity for students with disabilities to share the factors influencing their educational experience and identified recommendations instructors should consider when developing online courses to increase accessibility and improve engagement.
 
Focusing through the lens of the (COVID-19) lockdown which was enforced on the 30th of March 2020, it became apparent that students from rural resource-constrained educational institutions had to adapt to sustainable online learning platforms from traditional content delivery. WhatsApp a social networking app, but due to its low data consumption, it became a de-facto teaching and learning tool for Lupane State University (LSU) students in Zimbabwe. Prior studies have focused on the use of WhatsApp as an alternative lecture delivery platform but very few have evaluated its role as the sole platform for lecture delivery. With no government or institutional support for data acquisition, students failed to utilise other e-learning platforms that were in place due to exorbitant data costs. This study seeks to evaluate the success of WhatsApp mediated teaching and learning at LSU during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a randomized evaluation of weekly lecture delivery through WhatsApp to LSU students. A questionnaire based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology’s main constructs was delivered to 200 students that were randomly selected. The results revealed that student’s attitudes, behavioral intention of using WhatsApp for learning as well as the platform’s usefulness were rated highly, implying high adoption. The positive perceptions suggest that it would be easy for the institution to formally integrate the platform to augment traditional lecture delivery or for use during an event that disrupts traditional face-to-face lecture delivery. Results revealed that WhatsApp can support 21st century learning through autonomous, collaborative and learner centred education.
 
Catch-up framework in maritime education
Intent to pursue maritime studies
Concerns of maritime students
This paper aimed to determine the maritime students’ readiness to cope with the abrupt paradigm shift from face-to-face to online learning for the first time in maritime education amidst the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. It utilized a descriptive-normative approach where incoming 2nd year and 3rd-year maritime students were the respondents. Data gathering was online using a survey questionnaire in Google Forms. Statistical tools used were frequency count, percentage and a 5% margin of error in projecting students’ population throughout the schoolyear 2020-2021.The study showed a majority or 7 of 10 among maritime students were not ready to cope with the paradigm shift on the basis of not having a computer of their own for school works; no internet connectivity at home; no access to internet shops; and personal wellbeing. Almost 3 of 5 preferred face-to-face learning. Participation was limited with only the maritime students while everybody was under the community lockdowns for safety and health reasons. Internet connectivity of the students also was a limiting factor.A catch-up framework in maritime education for SY 2020-2021, 2021-2022, and 2022-2023 addresses problems relative to the start of SY 2020-2021 by delaying it to January 2021. This will give the maritime students inclusive opportunities to graduate within the prescribed period despite the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The government, school authorities, parents and faculty members also benefit from this framework once adapted.
 
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, courses were forced into an online format as universities paused in-person learning and consequently, students were required to adjust to online learning. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of optional assessments designed to promote engagement in a fourth-year asynchronous online nutritional science course. Seven optional engagement assessments were assigned and students’ stress levels, learning approach, and perceptions of online learning were assessed via surveys at the start and end of the semester. A total of 79.8% (n=210) students completed all seven optional engagement assessments. Further, 56.6% (n=149) reported that the assessments helped them feel more engaged with course content. Perceived stress levels did not change during the semester. Surface learning approach scores increased from the beginning to end of the semester, whereas deep learning approach scores remained unchanged. Surface learning scores were positively correlated with experiencing more stress from organizing and maintaining a schedule, more stress associated with time management, and finding time management more challenging. Deep learning approaches were positively correlated with students feeling engaged in the course, comprehending the course content, and stimulating new ideas/perspectives. Collectively, this data demonstrates that optional engagement assessments can improve student perceptions of online learning, however, these outcomes are related to students’ use of surface versus deep learning approaches.
 
This study aims to study and compare stress level during the COVID-19 situation of undergraduate students with different gender and year levels. The sample were 276 undergraduate students in the 2nd semester of the academic year 2020, being selected by voluntary sampling. The tool was the stress level in the situation of the Coronavirus disease 2019 measurement form with online system Google from. The frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, including hypothesis testing using One-Way ANOVA were analyzed as the statistics. The finding showed that: 1) Undergraduate students’ stress level during the COVID-19 situation, almost of 118 students was a high level of stress, representing 42.75%, followed by severe level of stress, 107 students, representing 38.77%. The moderate level of stress was 45 students, representing 16.30%, and the low level of stress was 6 students, representing for 2.17%. 2) There was statistically significant different of stress level during the COVID-19 situation of students with different gender (p < .05). Female students’ stress level was higher than male students. There was no different of stress level during the COVID-19 situation of students with different year levels.
 
This conceptual article examines the ukama ethic concerning the Covid-19 pandemic-induced ‘new normal’ in African higher education. In so doing, we endeavor to appropriate ukama which is a communally oriented value system to militate against socially isolated individualism in Remote Learning and an Ethic of Care that combats social prejudices occasioned by the Covid-19 pandemic in African higher education. Our central argument is that Ukama ethic is contextually appropriate in the Covid-19 pandemic-induced ‘new normal in African higher education. This article does two important things. Firstly, in light of the demands for local thought traditions in African higher education, it advances the social values of relatedness that constitute Ukama ethic to normatively underline the Remote Learning and Ethics of Care. In this regard, a question that is important to us is; if not now in the ‘new normal, then when can local thought traditions be fully incorporated into African higher education? Secondly, in the attempt to appropriate local thought traditions into African higher education, the article offers a critical reflection of Ukama. Despite its limitations, we conclude that the Ukama ethic is important in the Covid-19 pandemic induced ‘new normal’ in African higher education.
 
Reliability analysis of the questionnaires used
Levels of ICT integration in times of the pandemic COVID-19
Levels of Digital Competencies in times of the Pandemic
In these times of global tragedy due to the pandemic that caused COVID-19, distance learning relies on the resources of the digital field, as well as on the management of ICT and the development of digital skills. Therefore, this research has been aimed at corroborating the existing links between the integration of ICT and digital skills pandemic times. A study with a quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional, correlational approach was developed. The sample consisted of 168 students from a public university in Lima, Peru. Two tools were adapted: 1) integration of ICT, 18 items and 2) digital skills, 30 items, with reliability coefficients by Cronbach's Alpha of 0.976 and 0.889, respectively. The questionnaires were developed and taken through Google forms. The results showed that the level of integration of ICT was high (89.9%) as well as digital skills (86.9%). Spearman's Rho correlation analysis concluded that there was a positive and high relationship between integration of ICT and digital skills (0.761, p < 0.05). Finally, discussions were raised about the development of aspects related to ICT during the current pandemic.
 
Faculty satisfaction rate over time for pilot & full online delivery mode
Faculty preference for Face-to-Face versus Online classes over time for pilot & full online delivery mode
Assessment modifications and additional measures
With the announcement of COVID-19 as pandemic, and the call for social distancing, academic institutions reacted by shutting campuses and calling for the shift to virtual online delivery. In HCT, we conducted this study in an effort to sustain success in these global challenging times of crisis that is informed by strategic foresight.HCT called for an all-online delivery starting March 22, 2020 after a two-day pilot in the preceding week. HCT readiness is a result of orchestrating: an ecosystem perspective on digital transformation, a forth-looking institutional strategy that has technology utilization as a major pillar, an education technology strategy, and a comprehensive set of intelligent learning tools.Forward-looking scenarios were designed based on two critical uncertainties: (1) COVID-19 longevity and (2) socio-economic disruption. These scenarios are: Divine Mercy, Recovery Mode, New Norm, and Survival of the Fittest. Subsequently, the features of each scenario are assessed for implications on HCT’s business and support operations, and the proactive strategies are documented to cope with these implications.During the full online delivery mode period, HCT recorded 86% satisfaction amongst its faculty and 54% amongst its student body, delivered 234,000 hours through 61,000 online classes, and delivered over 21,000 hours of online professional development (PD). Over the same period, more than 1900 non-faculty employees have been running business as usual from home.Envisioning future scenarios and preparing the organization for them is a practice that should be deployed in parallel to emergency response efforts to ensure successful business continuity.
 
Point biserial correlation
Spearman Rho's Correlation
Student online engagement has become a challenge for higher education in Mongolia during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explores student engagement in online learning of Mongolian higher education during the lockdown period. The study assessed differences in student engagement across gender, the tools students used to study, their level of study, and their field of study. It also determined the associations between variables. The data were collected online using the questionnaire developed by Dixson (2015), the scale to measure student online engagement (OST) with four variables: skills, emotion, participation, and performance. The tests of Kruskal-Wallis, Shapiro-Wilk, Cramer’s V, Point biserial as well as Spearman rho were used for the analyses. The most significant variables to measure student engagement were participation and performance. One of the important results was that the internet access was highly correlated with the performance variable (p=.00). The study did not find any significant differences or correlation for “emotion” expressing the devotion and commitment to the online study.
 
This study aimed at figuring out the effect of full e-learning on the students’ academic performance in accounting courses, which include multiple mathematical calculations compared with the English Language courses, which are free of mathematical calculations. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among a random sample of students during the second semester of the academic year 2019-2020, during which full e-learning was implemented due to the Coronavirus Pandemic. The sample included (302) out of (1411) male and female students at the Department of Administrative Sciences, whose major is accounting and business administration. Besides, they study English language as part of the general courses at the Community College in Khamis Mushait. The study found that, there is a statistically significant effect regarding the features of full e-learning on the students’ academic performance with respect to the accounting and English Language courses. The problems related to e-learning did not affect the students' academic performance in accounting courses, while it impacted negatively on the students' academic performance in the English language courses. The study recommended that, the educational institutions should continuously develop the e-learning atmosphere in order to become conducive, attractive and creative.
 
Relation between application of national education technology standards as perceived by nursing students and their problem solving skill during COVID-19 disaster (N=218)
Relationship between Application of National Technology Standards as perceived by nursing students as well as problem solving skill during COVID 19, and their demographic characters (N=218)
With the emergence of COVID 19 disaster, dependence on technological and electronic learning is increasing. National Education technology standard has a great impact on improving students' skills. One of these skills is problem solving which is very crucial to nurse student to be prepared to be professional nurse. This study sought to assess application of national education technology standards as perceived by nursing students and its relation to their problem solving skill during COVID 19 disaster. The study adopted a descriptive correlational design using a convenience sample (N = 218) of all fourth nursing students who accept to participate in the study at Faculty of Nursing, Menoufia University. The instruments used to gather the data were developed questionnaire by researchers to assess application of national education technology standards, and problem solving skill questionnaire. The results show that the majority of nursing students have high level of perception regarding application of these standards. Moreover, the high percentage of nursing students had high level problem solving skill, and there was a positive moderate correlation between total score national education technology standards, and total score problem solving skill. Based on the findings, it is very important to ensure application of national education technology standards for teaching staff and administrative system. Moreover, Periodic updates and training on the new changes in education technology for both nursing students and teaching staff.
 
Scatterplot showing the relationships between SL Perceptions overall score at the end of semester (total /100) and student learning approach scores (/50) in the Fall 2020 semester. A) surface learning approach (r = -0.30; P<0.0001), B) deep learning approach (r = 0.39; P<0.0001).
Scatterplot showing the relationships between TOSLS score at the end of semester (/17) and student learning approach scores (/50) in the Fall 2020 semester. A) surface learning approach (r = -0.27; P=0.004), B) deep learning approach (r= -0.03; P=0.70).
TOSLS score (/17) at the end of the Fall 2019 (grey bar) and Fall 2020 (black bar) semesters. Values are means ± SEM.
Changes in students" perceptions of scientific literature comprehension
Maintaining scientific literacy (SL) skill development in undergraduate science education while transitioning courses from the in-person to online learning environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic requires adaptation of some teaching practices. This study assessed the effectiveness of small online learning groups as the active engagement strategy (replacing in-person breakout groups) to promote SL skill development in fourth year undergraduate nutritional science students in the online learning environment (Fall 2020 semester). As a secondary outcome, SL skill development in the online learning environment (Fall 2020, n=178) was compared to that of the in-person course format (Fall 2019, n=144). Students were surveyed at the start and end of the semester to assess their i) scientific literature comprehension, ii) SL skill perceptions, and iii) practical SL skills. The use of online learning groups contributed to improvements in both literature comprehension and SL skill perceptions (P<0.05), however, practical SL skills remained unchanged (P>0.05). There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement in students’ SL skill perceptions or their practical SL skills between course formats (P>0.05). The ability to think critically about the scientific literature was increased in both course formats, with greater improvements observed in the online course format (P=0.02). Additionally, only students in the online course format had improved comprehension of scientific methods versus the in-person format (P=0.05). Collectively, these data demonstrate that the adaptations of an in-person course to an online learning environment using small online learning groups can similarly promote the development of SL in undergraduate nutrition education.
 
Informants' Total Average Response for the Dimensions of Self-Efficacy
Mean, Cronbach's Alpha, Standard Deviation and Correlation between Academic Self-Efficacy and Language Performance
This research explores the sense of self-efficacy among Saudi English majors at Jeddah University during the COVID-19 pandemic, which forced all schools in Saudi Arabia to suspend face-to-face learning and, instead, use the online Blackboard platform. The study’s objectives are to determine Blackboard’s effect on Saudi learners’ self-efficacy beliefs, identify factors influencing these beliefs in the online context, and determine the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and academic performance. Phone interviews, an online questionnaire, and online performance tests served as data collection instruments. The results indicate that urgent Blackboard use negatively affected the subjects’ self-efficacy beliefs, and there is a positive, significant relationship between academic performance and perceived self-efficacy. Among other factors, familiarity with Blackboard, technical competence, and a readiness to embrace technology strongly influenced the students’ self-efficacy beliefs. This paper also presents implications and pedagogical recommendations drawn from the results.
 
The third quarter of 2020 marks the closure of on-campus face-to-face pedagogies in South Africa’s institutions of higher learning due to Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The need to maintain social distancing necessitated the transition to emergency remote teaching. A few institutions of higher learnings could move their classes effectively to online and distance education platforms because of their pre-existing experience and some grapple with managing the ‘new normal’. This article reflects on the challenges and opportunities of an emergency remote teaching in institutions of higher learnings during the COVID-19 pandemic. The article adopted a qualitative approach through relevant literature and policy reviews to critically analyse emergency remote teaching during the era of COVID-19. The findings indicate that some staff and students experience challenges related to the lack of resources and exposure to remotely use information and communication technology. The article acclaims that institutions of higher learnings should acquire suitable information and communication technology equipment and develop the requisite facilities, implement rules and regulations for their availability, and adequate maintenance. This recommends promoting technologically compliant ethics within the institution, provide easy access to teaching and learning by both students and academic staff at an affordable and fixed (secure) cost in safe, conducive, and unrestricted environments for students.
 
The present paper is concerned about the Greek educational policy throughout 2008-2013, which is related to teachers’ evaluation and their teaching work, in comparison to the one implemented in 1981. The investigation is focused on Primary and Secondary Education in which the policy of intentions as well as legislation are concentrated on a form of evaluation in successive levels. In this respect, the dysfunctions or discords of the educational system, which theoretically impede or make difficult the effective educational work performance, are interpreted under different terms. The issue of evaluating teachers is of special interest because Papandreou’s educational policy, which was implemented in 1981, was conducive to abolishing any form of educators’ control and superintendence. This way emphasis was placed on a policy by which the teacher was supposed to co-operate with school counselors, namely advisors who collaborated with teachers, working independently within the educational environment. Since 2008, emphasis has been placed on the teaching work superintendence by school counselors being the ones to determine the teachers’ professional evolution, through an institutionalization of supervision and control procedures. This aspect is also incorporated in the education reform model aiming at its alignment with the European evaluation model.
 
Our article presents questions, topics and subtopics which researchers have in depth investigated from 1991 to 2015 concerning teaching science to students with learning disabilities and other difficulties. We searched two relevant databases and from the total number of the located articles, we had access to 53. We hereby present topics and subtopics that researchers chose to investigate in these articles in descending order of frequency and discuss their results. These topics and subtopics are: constructivism, exploratory learning, hands-on activities, cross-curricular projects, multiple means of representation, cognitive and social skills, group and peer learning, coursebooks, reading strategies, readability and students’ assessment. Fewer experimental researches investigate teacher education, teacher − researcher co-operation, education policy, school administration and curriculum structure. Such experimental investigations and interventions provide some answers to teacher training in higher education and education policy makers who sometimes perceive the question of “full inclusion, selective inclusion or excellency” as a dilemma, as an either-or proposition.
 
Issues relating to student retention and student engagement remain high on the agendas of higher education institutions worldwide. This case study considers the factors that impact on student engagement within a sample of first year undergraduate sports students attending a post 1992 university in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. These participants had started their three-year degree courses at the beginning of either the 2011/12 or the 2012/13 academic years. It should be noted that this meant that data collection straddled the introduction of higher student fees for students attending English universities. Data for the study were collected using a quantitative questionnaire and follow up focus groups. Although a number of different factors were found to encourage student engagement the quality of student relationships with their teachers was found to be the most important. Although it was beyond the scope of this study to draw definite conclusions about the impact of higher student fees in this area our data did suggest the possibility that these higher fees might result in staff-student relationships becoming even more important in encouraging student engagement. It is recommended that future research examines the impact of student fees in this area in more detail.
 
Earlier research on Post-Secondary Enrollment Options (PSEO) has produced insights on policies, with emphasis on legislating the enrollment of high-school students who are taking college credits through the program. Previous studies have focused on what are considered impediments to the program, improving governance, and assessment, with a view on academic performance in undergraduate programs, however, with limited attention to higher learning and lifelong learning. Based on the literature, PSEO has served as an early pathway to higher education for academically advanced students, which has also served as a good form of transition to higher education. Despite this, so much is unknown about various aspects of the success of the program. This current study focus specifically on the rate of PSEO participant who enters a graduate and or professional degree program after earning an undergraduate degree, based on admittance in a Mid-western private liberal art university between 2007 to 2019. The result shows that 13% are likely to persist to earn a graduate or professional degree after completing their undergraduate degree.
 
This article examines whether a three-year learning-based work community intervention resulted in changes in working community-related interaction factors and occupational well-being among Finnish and Estonian school staff. It reports the types of changes in working community-related interaction factors and their associations to the subjective occupational well-being and general occupational well-being of the working community. The initial quantitative survey data were collected in Finland (n = 486) and Estonia (n = 1330) in 2010 using the “Well-being at your work index questionnaire.” The same measurement tool was used in 2013 to collect final survey data from school staff members in Finland (n = 545) and Estonia (n = 974). The data were analyzed statistically with percent, mean, SD, Mann-Whitney test, sum variables, one-way analysis of variance and Spearman’s correlation. Changes were detected in factors related to working community interaction; in particular, statistically significant changes in work management and time use were detected in Finnish schools. Working atmosphere and appreciation of others’ work, cooperation and information, and work management and time use were associated to both the subjective occupational well-being and general occupational well-being of the working community. Schools should plan and implement development activities to promote the subjective occupational well-being and general working community occupational well-being. Development work should focus on working community-related interaction, such as trust between workers. Principals should draw particular attention to principal–subordinate relationships and to providing information about changes.
 
This study compared how the cohort of extended diploma students enrolled at a comprehensive South African university in 2012 perceived the programmes for which they were enrolled at the beginning of their first year and towards the end of the year. Data were gathered using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews involving students enrolled for extended national diplomas in Human Resource Management, Management, Entrepreneurship, Logistics, Management Services, Transportation Management and Public Relations. The study established that while the students had negative perceptions of several aspects of the extended national diploma programmes, they had become positive about most of these towards the end of the year. The paper recommends strengthening of teaching and learning support to the extended programmes at the comprehensive university in order to positively influence students' perceptions of the programmes for achievement of the ultimate goal of improving students' retention and success rates.
 
This study investigated factors that are likely to influence students’ educational expectations in the State of Qatar, concentrating on selected parental factors. Drawing on recent work in the field, the study examined the intersection of student demographic and socio-economic attributes along with contextual factors, on student educational expectations. The study uses student and parent data from a nation-wide survey of preparatory and secondary schools, the 2012 Qatar Education Study. The results showed students’ gender and grade level positively affect their reported educational expectations, with females and those in higher grade levels more likely to report higher expectations. While student reports of parental involvement were not significant, parent reports were marginally significant. The paper concludes with some recommendations for further study and research.
 
Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 10, No. 7, 2021
 
Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2021
 
Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021
 
Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2021
 
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2021
 
In this study, we aimed to review scientific studies and research to present a view of artificial intelligence in education to achieve sustainable development in accordance with the foundations of the Kingdom’s Vision 2030. We conducted a systematic review of previous literature by extrapolating and analyzing 17 previous studies published from 2018 to 2020. We found that the application of artificial intelligence has proven effective in improving and developing education, simplifying basic teaching tasks, assisting managers of educational institutions, and contributing to solving problems and challenges faced by the education sector.
 
The current research addresses an important educational and administrative issue. It is the financing of universities and the potential that the university can achieve its goals and strive to develop the society away from any pressures. It may face from private or governmental institutions which may participate in funding them with the aim of implementing the new Saudi universities system. All universities and educational institutions rely on their own resources and diversify new funding resources to alleviate the state budget in order to achieve the independence of these institutions and give them freedom to achieve their goals, and also the strategic goals of the 2030 Vision for Saudi Arabia. In order to achieve the research main objective, a questionnaire is distributed to the respondent to know the current reality of universities on the subject of funding. We find and propose a number of ways for the university to be financially autonomous.
 
Saudi Arabia's Vision for 2030 in development is exceedingly concerned with curriculum development. It believes that the current curriculum does no longer support the students' preparation for both life and work. Therefore, the present study aimed to reach a consensus by a set of educational experts on the importance of providing the science curriculum for the fifth and sixth primary grades with a content that can help achieve the requirements of the Kingdom's Vision for 2030 in development. In addition, it aimed to study what perceptions these educational experts have towards developing the science curriculum that can better achieve this vision. The study followed the descriptive approach and the use of Delphi method. It was applied to a group of (28) educational experts over three rounds that started on October 8, and ended on November 9, 2017. Findings indicated that the provision degree of the requirements of Saudi Arabia's Vision for 2030 in development in the science curriculum for the upper primary grades was too weak. Responses of the educational experts concerning developing the science curriculum to achieve the requirements of this vision, at the end of the third round, ranged between strongly agree and agree. At the end, a perspective for the development of the science curriculum was proposed depending on the viewpoints of the educational experts who participated in the present study.Keywords: Saudi Arabia's Vision for 2030, development of science curriculum, primary grades.
 
This research aimed to study the effects of The Role of Jouf University in serving and developing the society for Vision 2030, by understanding the influence of training, continuous education, technical consultations, and applied researches on management development for employees and organizational development of institutions. For this purpose, a questionnaire was distributed to a sample size of 393 individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Further, to analyze the study data, the structural equations method (SEM) was used via the SmartPLS and statistical package for the social science (SPSS) 23 programs. After analyzing and testing the hypotheses of the study, it was found that there is a positive role of Jouf University in serving and developing the society for Vision 2030. There is a positive impact for applied researches and training on management development of employees, and a positive impact also for applied researches, training, and continuing education on organizational development of institutions.
 
The late 20th century was an era of social, economic, technological, and political change, resulting in significant shifts in the perception of enlightenment, knowledge, and education. The impact of these changes have become quite apparent in higher education where there is now mounting pressure for faculty to deliver high quality education to an internationally mobile cohort and where institutions are striving to attract funding, researchers, research grants, top students, and teaching staff. To cope with the many challenges, new business models are needed. Introducing change, however, is fraught with many problems; in particular, institutional barriers among disciplines, management commitment, socio-economic factors, and cultural issues. In this paper, we take a look at and discuss three European higher education institutions currently undergoing transformation—a British, a Finnish, and a Russian—to draw attention to some of the inherent factors that higher education institutions face when they seek to implement new business models to manage the competitive environment for higher education.
 
(b). 'NAAC' Accreditation Criteria and Indicators for HEIIs (Ganesh, 2018)
Good governance enhances efficiency both in public and private sector organizations. Productivity and good governance are closely associated to aid value for investment both in terms of time and money, and end-user satisfaction. Productivity Enhancement and quality improvement of higher education depend on governance-trends and productive leadership of the institution. Discipline, and quality vision set, and policy practiced by the leadership in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) propagate down the timeline-hierarchy. This article addresses the pivotal factors and parameters worldwide studied, accepted and opined in various case studies and policy making schemes for good governance of Higher Education Indian Institution (HEIIs). This is necessary to enable their leadership enhancing the organizational productivity for 21st-century Indian subcontinent. The 3rd largest youth in the world studying in HEIIs would contribute the most to the growth of 21st-century Indian economy and living standards. This shall be possible when educational productivity of HEII-leadership is innovatively transformed into transformative innovation. In this paper effects, consequences, impacts, opportunities, problems and remedies regarding pivotal issues and challenges of and for existing HEIIs for becoming world-class education system are systematically reviewed. Recommendations based upon studies and findings are made for 21st-century HEII-leadership, and practical model is presented to measure the productivity.
 
Top-cited authors
Azlin Norhaini Mansor
  • Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Anbalagan Krishnan
  • Wawasan Open University
JIm Ryan
  • Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Carmen C. Lewis
  • Troy University