International Journal of High Dilution Research

Online ISSN: 1982-6206
Publications
Article
This article presents a study of the internal consistency of questionnaire NEMS-07, designed to evaluate quality of life on tients subjected to homeopathic treatment. Cronbach's Alpha 27 items was 0.95, sub-scales also show high reliability. NEMS-07 is sufficiently concise and adequate to supply estimations o cerning health-related quality of life in outpatients under homeopathic treatment, from the standpoint of its internal consistency. NEMS-07 also showed easy applicability in the outpatientting and a very low proportion of missing response.
 
Article
Homeopathy is, accordingto the World Health Organization and the European Parliament, one of the complementary medicines most widely used in the world. Nevertheless, it has not yet found a consistent way as to make explicit its research program - which would show its potential benefit for the Health Sciences as a whole. The basic inadequacy seems to consist in a difficulty to attach its epistemological model to available epidemiological research programs. The authors suggest to bridge this gap by employing the resources of emergent research approaches - qualitative and quantitative designs - in order to measure its impact on Quality of Life (QOL) and by proposing objective standards that convey bask homeopathic notions concerning care and healing.
 
Article
Sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) dissolved in water forms aggregates whose thermodynamic properties are well defined. The interest in polymer-surfactant systems derives from increasing possibilities to apply them in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and environmental protection. Nutrient content of soils after many years of use is a concern in many areas; on the other hand, the metabolism of plants approaches equilibrium when the conditions necessary for their growth are present. Magnesium and phosphorus are important nutrients for plants and high dilutions of Magnesium phosphoricum (Mag-p) may carry information related to them. Aims: To study the influence of Mag-p on SDS aggregates. Methods: the effect of Mag-p dilution 12c on the structure of SDS aggregates was assayed through 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: The spectrum of SDS and Mag-p 12c in D2O presented an extra signal in 221.41 ppm when compared to the SDS / D2O spectrum. The C=O group of ketones and aldehydes absorb around 200 ppm. The carbon carbonyl shows large spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and weak NOE (Nuclear Overhauser Effect) enhancement, thus signal from this type of atom are very weak when compared to signals from carbon atoms with hydrogen. The signal present in 221.41 ppm was comparable in size to the other signals in the spectrum indicating that it was not a machine-generated artifact. The experiments carried out in this work suggest that this signal was induced by a combination of SDS and the high diluted solution. Keywords: High Dilution, Sodium Dodecylsulphate, Magnesium phosphate; NMR Efeito do Magnesium phosphoricum 12c em Dodecilsulfato de sódio mediante ressonância magnética nuclear C13 Resumo Dodecilsulfato de Sódio (SDS) dissolvido em água forma agragados cujas propriedades termodinâmicas são conhecidas. O interesse no estudo de sistemas polímero-surfactantes decorre das potenciais aplicações destes nas áreas de farmácia, cosmética e proteção ambiental. A quantidade de nutrientes no solo, após muitos anos de uso é um tema importante para muitas áreas; por outro lado, o metabolismo das plantas tendem ao equilíbrio quando as condições necessárias para o crescimento estão presentes. Magnesio e Fósforo são nutrientes importantes para plantas e altas diluições de Magnesium phosphoricum (Mag-p) potencialmente contém informações importantes sobre estas substâncias. Objetivos: estudar a influência de Mag-p em agragados de SDS. Métodos: o efeito da diluição 12c de Mag-p sobre a estrutura de agregados de SDS foi estudada através de ressonância magnética nuclear de 13C. Resultados: O espectro de SDS e Mag-p 12c em D2O apresentou um sinal extra em 221.41 ppm, quando comparado com o espectro de SDS / D2O. O grupamento C=O group das cetonas e aldeídos absorvem por volta de 200 ppm. O Carbono da carbonila mostrou um aumento no tempo de relaxação spin-rede (T1) e fraco aumento NOE (Nuclear Overhauser Effect), uma vez que este tipo de átomo geram sinais fracos em relação aos carbonos ligados a hidrogênios. O sinal presente em 221.41 ppm foi comparável em tamanho a outros sinais do espectro, sugerindo que este sinal pode não ser devido a um arfetato experimental. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que este sinal foi pode ter sido originado pela combinação de SDS com as moléculas da alta diluição. Palavras-chave: Alta diluição, Dodecilsulfato de sódio, Fosfato de magnésio; RMN Efecto de Magnesium phosphoricum 12c en Dodecilsulfato de sodio mediante resonancia magnética nuclear C13 Resumen Dodecilsulfato de sodio (DSS) disuelto en agua forma agregados cuyas propiedades termodinámicas son bien definidas. El interés en sistemas poliméricos surfactantes deriva de sus crecientes posibilidades de aplicación en farmacia, cosmética y protección ambiental. El contenido de nutrientes del suelo después de larga utilización es una preocupación en diversas áreas del mundo y, por otro lado, el metabolismo vegetal se aproxima del equilibrio cuando están presentes las condiciones necesarias para su crecimiento. Como magnesio y fósforo son nutrientes importantes para las plantas, altas diluciones de Magnesium phosphoricum (Mag-p) pueden conducir su respectiva información. Objetivos: estudiar la influencia de Mag-p en agregados de DSS. Métodos: fue determinado el efecto de Mag-p 12c en la estructura de agregados de DSS mediante resonancia magnética nuclear C13. Resultados: el espectro de DSS y Mag-p 12c en D2O presentó una señal adicional a 221.41 ppm comparado con el espectro DSS/D2O. El grupo C=O de cetonas y aldehídos absorbe aproximadamente 200 ppm. El carbonilo carbónico muestra grandes tiempos spin-lattice de relajación (T1) e débil estimulación NOE (Efecto Overhauser Nuclear), por lo tanto, señales de este tipo de átomos son muy débiles cuando comparadas a las de átomos de carbono con hidrógeno. La señal presente en 221.41 ppm fue comparable en tamaño a las demás señales del espectro, indicando no ser debida a artefacto de técnica. Los experimentos realizados en este estudio sugieren que esta señal fue inducida por la combinación de DSS y Mag-p. Palabras-clave: Alta dilucion, Dodecilsulfato de sódio, Fosfato de magnésio; RMN Correspondence author: Elson Santiago de Alvarenga, elson@ufv.br How to cite this article: Alvarenga ES, Oliveira APM, Silva RTB, Casali VWD. Effect of Magnesium phosphoricum 12c on Sodium Dodecylsulphate by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance [online]. 2009 [cited YYYY Month dd]; 8(26): 3-8. Available from: http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/324/379. Dodecilsulfato de Sódio (SDS) dissolvido em água forma agragados cujas propriedades termodinâmicas são conhecidas. O interesse no estudo de sistemas polímero-surfactantes decorre das potenciais aplicações destes nas áreas de farmácia, cosmética e proteção ambiental. A quantidade de nutrientes no solo, após muitos anos de uso é um tema importante para muitas áreas; por outro lado, o metabolismo das plantas tendem ao equilíbrio quando as condições necessárias para o crescimento estão presentes. Magnesio e Fósforo são nutrientes importantes para plantas e altas diluições de Magnesium phosphoricum (Mag-p) potencialmente contém informações importantes sobre estas substâncias. Objetivos: estudar a influência de Mag-p em agragados de SDS. Métodos: o efeito da diluição 12c de Mag-p sobre a estrutura de agregados de SDS foi estudada através de ressonância magnética nuclear de 13C. Resultados: O espectro de SDS e Mag-p 12c em D2O apresentou um sinal extra em 221.41 ppm, quando comparado com o espectro de SDS / D2O. O grupamento C=O group das cetonas e aldeídos absorvem por volta de 200 ppm. O Carbono da carbonila mostrou um aumento no tempo de relaxação spin-rede (T1) e fraco aumento NOE (Nuclear Overhauser Effect), uma vez que este tipo de átomo geram sinais fracos em relação aos carbonos ligados a hidrogênios. O sinal presente em 221.41 ppm foi comparável em tamanho a outros sinais do espectro, sugerindo que este sinal pode não ser devido a um arfetato experimental. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que este sinal foi pode ter sido originado pela combinação de SDS com as moléculas da alta diluição.Palavras-chave: Alta diluição, Dodecilsulfato de sódio, Fosfato de magnésio; RMN Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Dodecilsulfato de sodio (DSS) disuelto en agua forma agregados cuyas propiedades termodinámicas son bien definidas. El interés en sistemas poliméricos surfactantes deriva de sus crecientes posibilidades de aplicación en farmacia, cosmética y protección ambiental. El contenido de nutrientes del suelo después de larga utilización es una preocupación en diversas áreas del mundo y, por otro lado, el metabolismo vegetal se aproxima del equilibrio cuando están presentes las condiciones necesarias para su crecimiento. Como magnesio y fósforo son nutrientes importantes para las plantas, altas diluciones de Magnesium phosphoricum (Mag-p) pueden conducir su respectiva información. Objetivos: estudiar la influencia de Mag-p en agregados de DSS. Métodos: fue determinado el efecto de Mag-p 12c en la estructura de agregados de DSS mediante resonancia magnética nuclear C13. Resultados: el espectro de DSS y Mag-p 12c en D2O presentó una señal adicional a 221.41 ppm comparado con el espectro DSS/D2O. El grupo C=O de cetonas y aldehídos absorbe aproximadamente 200 ppm. El carbonilo carbónico muestra grandes tiempos spin-lattice de relajación (T1) e débil estimulación NOE (Efecto Overhauser Nuclear), por lo tanto, señales de este tipo de átomos son muy débiles cuando comparadas a las de átomos de carbono con hidrógeno. La señal presente en 221.41 ppm fue comparable en tamaño a las demás señales del espectro, indicando no ser debida a artefacto de técnica. Los experimentos realizados en este estudio sugieren que esta señal fue inducida por la combinación de DSS y Mag-p.Palabras-clave: Alta dilucion, Dodecilsulfato de sódio, Fosfato de magnésio; RMN
 
Structure of SDS (C12H25OSO3Na)
13 C NMR of SDS (0.020 g) in 0.70 g of Mag-p 12c in D2O.
13 C NMR of SDS (0.020 g) in D2O (0.70 g) plus 0.0030 g of Mag-p 12c in H2O after 5 days.
13 C NMR of SDS (0.020 g) in 0.70 g of Mag-p 12c in D2O after 5 days.
Article
Sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) dissolved in water forms aggregates whose thermodynamic properties are well defined. The interest in polymer-surfactant systems derives from increasing possibilities to apply them in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and environmental protection. Nutrient content of soils after many years of use is a concern in many areas; on the other hand, the metabolism of plants approaches equilibrium when the conditions necessary for their growth are present. Magnesium and phosphorus are important nutrients for plants and high dilutions of Magnesium phosphoricum (Mag-p) may carry information related to them. Aims: To study the influence of Mag-p on SDS aggregates. Methods: the effect of Mag-p dilution 12c on the structure of SDS aggregates was assayed through 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: The spectrum of SDS and Mag-p 12c in D2O presented an extra signal in 221.41 ppm when compared to the SDS / D2O spectrum. The C=O group of ketones and aldehydes absorb around 200 ppm. The carbon carbonyl shows large spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and weak NOE (Nuclear Overhauser Effect) enhancement, thus signal from this type of atom are very weak when compared to signals from carbon atoms with hydrogen. The signal present in 221.41 ppm was comparable in size to the other signals in the spectrum indicating that it was not a machine-generated artifact. The experiments carried out in this work suggest that this signal was induced by a combination of SDS and the high diluted solution.
 
Article
This work was intended to evaluate the effects of the homeopathic medicine Nux vomica 12CH in stressed mice submitted to a sleep deprivation protocol. The remedy was chosen according to the homeopathic similarity law. Male mice were divided in 4 groups: sleep deprived (SD); animals allowed to sleep (control) and treated with water; SD treated with Nux vomica 12 CH (SD-NV); and control mice treated with Nux vomica (NV). The animals were exposed to sleep deprivation for 3 days. The animals were weighed and submitted to open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (PM) tests before and after the SD. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed.During the experiment, 10 µl of water or medicine were given orally to the mice, daily, between 9 and 10 a.m. The experiment was blindly conducted. All sleep deprived animals had decrease of weight gain, independent of the treatment employed. The group of animals treated with NV produced more excrement on second OF exposition, but the results, taken together, suggest that Nux vomica 12CH had no anxiolytic effects on sleep deprived animals.
 
Acute rhinitis symptoms score (ARSS)
Acute rhinitis symptom score (ARSS) at entry and at end
List of useful trial medicines
Article
Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of a group of homeopathic medicines in children with acute rhinitis. Materials and methods: In this multi-centric open clinical trial, a total of 784 children (408 males; 384 females) aged 6 months to 15 years, presenting symptoms of acute rhinitis were enrolled from 7 Institutes/ Units under the Central Council for Research in Homeopathy (India). Symptoms were assessed using an acute rhinitis symptom score (ARSS). A total of 13 homeopathic medicines were shortlisted after repertorizing the nosological symptoms of acute rhinitis in children and the results were analyzed. The medicines were prescribed in dilution 6c (10-12) and doses were repeated from few minutes to few hours as per the need of the case. Appearance of any change (improvement or worsening) was followed by placebo / change in dilution or change in medicine according to the response of the patient. The follow up period was up to the 7th day of illness. Results: Out of 784 children enrolled, 638 children were followed up and analyzed. A significant change in the score from the baseline (p<0.05) was observed. Twelve medicines were found to be useful in 638 children suffering from acute rhinitis and among them Nux-v (n=109), Merc (n=106) and Bell (n=88) were the most useful. No complications were observed during the treatment. Adverse events in the form of hyperpyrexia were observed in 2 children only. Conclusion: This study indicates the usefulness of homeopathic medicines in the management of acute rhinitis of children; controlled studies are needed to investigate their efficacy and effectiveness.
 
New symptoms in the 2000 trial. Between brackets the code number of volunteers. R=repeated symptom.
Article
Background: in a previous paper we reported the statistical analysis and other distribution data of a homeopathic pathogenetic trial (HPT) of Plumbum metallicum 30cH carried out by our group. However, at that time we did not report the resulting pure materia medica, i.e., the totality of symptoms elicited by the tested medicine on healthy volunteers. Aim: to communicate to the homeopathic community the full record of symptoms collected in our HPT of Plb. Methods: methods to collect and select symptoms have been reported in the previous paper. In synthesis were excluded all previous common symptoms of volunteers, even with slight differences, and selected only those that were really unknown, never seen, unusual or very strange for the prover. In this paper special emphasis was given to new symptoms as well as unusual or repeated dreams, while in the previous paper special emphasis was given to repeated and crossed symptoms. Results: symptoms are reported in their chronological order of appearance in each volunteer. 34 new symptoms were found, useful to update Homeopathic Repertories. It is also included a synthesis of the original HPT of Plb carried out in 1828 in order to make available the full experimental materia medica currently existing. Conclusions: the new HPT, besides widening the pathogenetic picture of Plb (skin and mucosae symptoms), also allowed us to give new and deeper meanings to some of the symptoms reported in the original trial, such as Anxiety, Activity, Depression, Slowness, Gastro-oesophageal problems, Colitis. The dreams complete the remedy image, mainly in work, religion and sexual themes. Up to the present time there is no peer-reviewed publication devoted to HPTs. For this reason, researchers are compelled to publish HPTs as private editions. This results in poor control of the quality of publications and a lack of standards on how to present the results of HPTs.
 
Article
The question, proposed by the German Central Union of homeopathic Doctors, is the pivotal subject addressed in a series of lectures and discussions being held all over Germany in 2010, to celebrate the bicentenary of homeopathy´s first medical textbook. Hahnemann´s Organon of the Healing Art is the basis for classical homeopathy. Reading its 6th and posthumous edition is part of the education of 90% of the homeopaths, as indicated by a survey carried out at the 60th Homeopathic World Medical Congress (Berlin 2005). This might be odd to conventional doctors, used to read the latest editions of textbooks and journals, but Hahnemann´s therapeutics seems to be ahead of his time, in that classical homeopathy can be at least as effective as current standard pharmacotherapy. For instance, classical homeopathy for children suffering from atopic eczema showed comparable results to conventional treatment in usual care. Moreover, randomized controlled double blind trials using the dynamization scale introduced by the 6th edition (fifty-millesimal or Quinquagintamillesimal dynamization and its products, the Q-potencies) showed that homeopathically individualized Q-potencies were superior to placebo for fibromyalgia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, and not inferior to the antidepressant fluoxetine in a sample of patients with moderate to severe depression. More studies using the clinical-pharmaceutical protocol of the Organon are of course needed, but so far its use by trained physicians have yield to challenging results, keeping up with what is recommended in most recent clinical textbooks for the treatment of some chronic diseases.
 
The influence of quality bias on effect. Upper dot represents the average large trial, the lower dot the average small trial. The effect of the small trial is over-estimated by quality bias. The real effect is obtained by extrapolation towards the largest possible trial.
Comparison of 110 homeopathy trials (above) and 110 matched conventional trials (below) (source Shang, Egger et al; Lancet 2005; 366:726-732, with permission from Elsevier).  
Article
Several former reviews showed positive effects of homeopathy, but in 2005 The Lancet published a review which claimed that homeopathy is a placebo effect. This review was criticised for not revealing essential information. A reconstruction of post-publication data challenges the negative conclusion. The only conclusion that was rectified by the methodology of the 2005 review was that the quality of homeopathy trials, and especially of smaller trials, is better than quality of conventional trials. The comparison of the effect of 110 homeopathy trials with 110 matched conventional trials was flawed by selection bias, different publication bias, different quality, and different safety. Nevertheless, there is no significant difference of effects between both methods. Discussions about proof for homeopathy are in fact discussions about science. The prior assumption that homeopathy cannot work pervades all aspects of this discussion and is not properly evaluated in the introduction of most analyses.
 
Article
One of the main pathogenetic characteristics of Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t) is the presence of articular pain and aggravation on standing, which improve only by motion. The present study proposes an experimental model to evaluate the action of Rhus-t 200cH. Rats were divided into 3 groups according to treatment received (Rhus-t, diazepam and water); each group was further divided into two sub-groups according to the initial pattern of behavior (hyperactive and hypoactive) as assessed by open-field procedure. A second evaluation of behavior performed 24 hours later pointed out to the effects of the medications under study. Results were analyzed through Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn’s test, with a level of significance p=0.05. Keywords: Rhus toxicodendron; Animal behavior; Open-field; Idiosyncrasy. Conduta de ratos tratados com Rhus toxicodendron 200cH Resumo Uma das características patogenéticas principais de Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t) é a presença de dor articular e agravação em pé, melhorando exclusivamente com o movimento. O presente estudo propõe um modelo experimental para avaliar a ação de Rhus-t 200cH. Ratos foram divididos em 3 grupos de tratamento (Rhus-t, diazepam e água); cada grupo doi subdividido em 2 subgrupos de acordo com o padrão inicial de conduta (hiper e hipoativos) em procedimento de campo aberto. Uma segunda avaliação da conduta, realizada 24 horas após, indicou o efeito dos medicamentos sob estudo. Os resultados foram analisados pelo teste de Kruskal-Ealis/Dunn com nível de significância p=0,05. Palavras-chave: Rhus toxicodendron; comportamento animal; Campo aberto; idiossincrasia. Conducta da ratones tratados con Rhus toxicodendron 200cH Resumen Una de las principales características patogenéticas de Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t) es la presencia de dolor articular y agravación de pie, que mejora exclusivamente por el movimiento. Este estudio propone un modelo experimental para evaluar la acción de Rhus-t 200cH. Ratones fueron divididos en 3 grupos de tratamiento (Rhus-t, diazepam y agua); cada grupo fue subdividido en 2 subgrupos según el padrón inicial de conducta (hiper e hipoactivos) en procedimiento de campo abierto. Una segunda evaluación de la conducta, realizada 24 horas después, indicó el efecto de los medicamentos en estudio. Los resultados fueron analizados por el test de Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn con nivel de significancia p=0,05. Palabras-clave: Rhus toxicodendron; Comportamiento animal; campo abierto; Idiosincrasia. Correspondence author: Leoni Villano Bonamin; Universidade Paulista, Brazil; leonibonamin@gmail.com How to cite this article: Rocha MPS, Soares FM, Martini LC, Bonamin LV. Behavior of rats treated with Rhus toxicodendron 200cH. Int J High Dilution Res [online]. 2008 [cited YYYY Mmm DD]; 7(22): 3-6. Available from: http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/265/333. Una de las principales características patogenéticas de Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t) es la presencia de dolor articular y agravación de pie, que mejora exclusivamente por el movimiento. Este estudio propone un modelo experimental para evaluar la acción de Rhus-t 200cH. Ratones fueron divididos en 3 grupos de tratamiento (Rhus-t, diazepam y agua); cada grupo fue subdividido en 2 subgrupos según el padrón inicial de conducta (hiper e hipoactivos) en procedimiento de campo abierto. Una segunda evaluación de la conducta, realizada 24 horas después, indicó el efecto de los medicamentos en estudio. Los resultados fueron analizados por el test de Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn con nivel de significancia p=0,05.Palabras-clave: Rhus toxicodendron; Comportamiento animal; campo abierto; Idiosincrasia. Uma das características patogenéticas principais de Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t) é a presença de dor articular e agravação em pé, melhorando exclusivamente com o movimento. O presente estudo propõe um modelo experimental para avaliar a ação de Rhus-t 200cH. Ratos foram divididos em 3 grupos de tratamento (Rhus-t, diazepam e água); cada grupo doi subdividido em 2 subgrupos de acordo com o padrão inicial de conduta (hiper e hipoativos) em procedimento de campo aberto. Uma segunda avaliação da conduta, realizada 24 horas após, indicou o efeito dos medicamentos sob estudo. Os resultados foram analisados pelo teste de Kruskal-Ealis/Dunn com nível de significância p=0,05.Palavras-chave: Rhus toxicodendron; comportamento animal; Campo aberto; idiossincrasia.
 
Article
With this special issue, IJHDR celebrates the 200th anniversary of the first edition of Hahnemann’s Organon, published in 1810. By 1796, in a previous foundational article published in Hufeland’s prestigious Journal of Practical Medicine [1], after criticizing with fine reasoning the usual ways of studying the “curative properties of medicinal substances”, namely according to their chemical actions, their effects on animals, their external aspect or sensitive properties, their taxonomic classification, or the random use of multiple drugs by the so called empiricists, Hahnemann stated what can be regarded as one of the cornerstones of homeopathy: “The true physician, whose sole aim is to perfect his art, can avail himself of no other information respecting medicines, than – first, what is the pure action of each by itself on the human body? Second, what do observations of its action in this or that simple or complex disease teach us?” ... ... To conclude, despite uncertainties and difficulties homeopaths still have to struggle with, we can only feel grateful to Hahnemann’s countless efforts to introduce homeopathy and everything what it means in medicine history and development.
 
Petri dishes containing individual plants from population P2 (5.0% NaCl) and population P3 (Natrum muriaticum at 6cH), respectively, collected on the fifth week of treatment, before drying, showing a significant difference between the growth and development of those groups.
Population P3 (Natrum muriaticum at 6cH) and population P2 (5.0% NaCl), respectively. It may be observed that leaves referring to individuals from population P2 showed signs of toxicity (arrows).
Graphic representation of the evolution of Relative Growth Rate (RGR) of four bean populations (control, NaCl 5.0%, Natrum muriaticum at 6 cH and Natrum muriaticum at 30 cH) during 42 days of experiment. The results were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with repeated measures) and there was a significant difference between groups (p<0.05). Two populations were compared simultaneously by the paired t test. There was a significant difference (***) (p<0.05) in relation to the control population (P1) and a 5.0% NaCl population (P2), (**) a significant difference (p<0.05) in relation to a 5.0% NaCl population (P2) and (*) a significant difference (p<0.05) in comparison to the control population (P1).
Article
The use of highly diluted and dynamized solutions is widespread. Its use extends to all living beings, including vegetables, acting effectively in primary and secondary metabolism. The aim of the present pilot study was to confirm the action of Natrum muriaticum at 6 CH and 30 CH dilutions in comparison to the action of a 5.0% NaCl solution, when administered separately in population of Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An evaluation was performed by determining the Relative Growth Rate (RGR) of bean population treated for six weeks and subdivided into 4 groups (with 5 vases each): P1, the control group, which was treated with a 30% alcohol solution only; P2, treated with an aqueous 5.0% NaCl solution; P3, treated with Natrum muriaticun at 6 CH dilution; P4, treated with Natrum muriaticum at 30 CH dilution. The results obtained showed that an increase in soil salinity caused inhibition of the development of bean population (P2). In addition, the use of the Natrum muriaticum dilution promoted a significant increase in vegetable growth, chiefly related to the 6 CH (P3), causing a significant increase in the RGR of the bean population. The use of this high dilutions provided evidence that method is efficient in vegetables.
 
Article
Background: Although scientific studies have confirmed the action of homeopathic high dilutions in living organisms an endless debate on the choice of the most fitting dilution, the frequency of administration and the dose (amount of medicine) still remains. Aims: This study sought to assess the in vivo effect of 2 different concentrations of Arsenicum album 30cH in order to elucidate some problems in the homeopathic notion of dose. Methods: Male Wistar rats previously intoxicated with sodium arsenate by peritoneal injection were treated with undiluted Ars 30cH and Ars 30cH in 1% solution administered by oral route. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the levels of arsenic retained in the animals as well as the amounts eliminated through urine. Urine samples were collected before and after and during treatment. A positive control group (intoxicated animals) and negative control group (non-intoxicated animals) were administered only the vehicle used to prepare the medicine (ethanol). Results: The groups treated with undiluted Ars 30cH and Ars 30cH in 1% solution eliminated significant amounts of arsenic through urine when compared to the control groups. The group treated with undiluted Ars 30cH eliminated significantly higher amounts of arsenic than the group treated with the same medicine in 1% solution. Conclusion: These results suggest that undiluted Ars 30cH was more effective than in 1% solution in this experimental model.
 
Article
In the present study, our main objective was to evaluate the biological activity and the kinetics of the humoral immune response in Swiss Webster mice using the biotherapic agent Trypanosoma cruzi 30DH.This compound was prepared following the pharmacotechnique described by Roberto Costa. Trypanosoma cruzi 30DH was evaluated by the parasitemia parameters and the humoral immune response, performed by Indirect Immunefluorescence Reaction (RIFI) to analyse IgM and IgG antibodies. Based on the biological activity, 50% of the animals in the group treated with the biotherapic agent survived. The group which received treatment and infection simutaneously and in the control group had 100% mortality. Higher IgG levels in the group of animals previously treated with the compound could be observed, presenting 1:80 and with sub-patent parasitemia. Our results suggest that the previous treatment with the biotherapic agent showed a humoral immune response, with higher serological titers and absence of parasites in the blood.
 
Article
The notion of dose in homeopathy is not unanimous. Some authors consider that the therapeutic action of the homeopathic medication ccurs qualitatively and dynamically. However, others emphasize the importance of the amount of homeopathic medication administered. This study had as a purpose to evaluate the effect of different doses of Arsenicum album 6CH in mice intoxicated with sodium arseniate (16,8 mg As/kg) and soon after treated (p.o) with Arsenicum album 6CH, in 2, 5 and 10 drops doses. Arsenic eliminated through urine, was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. After 30-day treatment with Arsenicum album 6CH, total amount of eliminated As was similar in groups treated with 2,5 e 10 drops.
 
Article
Aims: Homeopaths diverge on the concept of dose, i.e. the amount of drug that a patient must take to alter his or her state of disease. In order to stimulate reflections on this concept, this study sought to evaluate in vivo the effect of different concentrations of Arsenicum album 6cH prepared according to homeopathic pharmacotechnics. Methods: male Wistar rats were intoxicated with arsenic and then treated with Arsenicum album 6cH and Arsenicum album 6cH diluted at 1%, administered orally. The amount of arsenic retained in the animals’ organism and that eliminated by urine were measured through atomic absorption spectroscopy. Samples of urine were collected before and after intoxication and during treatment. The positive control group (intoxicated animals) and the negative control group (non-intoxicated animals) received only the vehicle used in the preparation of the medicine. Results: Groups treated with Arsenicum album 6cH and Arsenicum album 6cH diluted at 1% eliminated significant amounts of arsenic when compared to the control groups. The group treated with Arsenicum album 6cH eliminated significantly higher amounts of arsenic than the group treated with the diluted medicine at 1%. Conclusion: results suggest that Arsenicum album 6cH should not be diluted as not to compromise its effectiveness in the treatment of rats intoxicated with arsenic.
 
Article
Tests were made to verify the viability of using diluted glycerin and alcohol 70% (p/p) as inert substances in the preparation of isotherapics, starting from pure bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus beta hemolytic of A Group. The isotherapics were prepared by Hahnemannian method until 12 CH, starting from suspensions of the lineage in diluted glycerin, with standardized turbidity (Grade 3 on Mac Farland Scale). The first three dynamizations were prepared using the same inert substance of the starting suspension. In the following dynamization alcohol 70% (p/p) was used.After that the isotherapics were submitted to verification tests of diluted glycerin and alcohol 70% (p/p) bactericide action over the dynamized microorganism, using the technique of quantitative sowing.In all the samples, the following results were observed:a) there was growing of uncountable colonies in the first two dynamizations; b) in the third dynamization this growing reached indexes close to 3,000 UFC/ml; c) starting from 4 CH it was not observed bacterial growing. The bacterial growing in the first three dynamizations reveals the innocuity of diluted glycerin to the dynamized lineage.On the other hand, the non-growing from 4 CH shows the antibacterial action of alcohol 70% (p/p). The use of diluted glycerin and alcohol 70% (p/p) in the preparation routines of isotherapics must be prioritized to other inert substances unreported on Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia.
 
Article
Tests were made in order to observe the behavior of microorganisms in purulent secretions, when in contact to diluted glycerin and alcohol 70% (p/p), in isotherapic preparations. The isotherapics were prepared by Hahnemannian method until 12CH, starting from the suspension of purulent secretions in diluted glycerin, with standardized turbidity (Grade 3 on Mac Farland Scale).Three batteries of tests were prepared: I) All the dynamizations using as inert substance diluted glycerin; II) All the dynamizations using as inert substance alcohol 70% (p/p); III) dynamizations from 1 to 3CH – diluted glycerin and from 4 to 12CH – alcohol 70% (p/p). Afterwards it was used the technique of quantitative sowing to verify the antibacterial action of these inert substances.In the ten researched samples it was observed the following results: Battery I – There was bacterial growing until 5CH; beginning with 6 CH the cultures were negative; Battery II – There was growing until 3CH; beginning with 4CH the cultures were negative; Battery III – any growing was observed.The results obtained reveal the innocuity of diluted glycerin over microorganisms in dynamized purulent secretions, because the bacterial growing didn’t occur only when the concentration of 0,003 UFC/ml was surpassed. On the other hand, they confirm the antibacterial action of alcohol 70% (p/p) on the technique of isotherapic preparation beginning with live microorganisms, once the same were kept viable in the third first dynamizations and destroyed in the following.
 
Article
The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-traumatic effect of the homeopathic remedy Arnica montana 7CH, administered immediately after the induction of trauma in experimentation animals. The remedy showed statistically significant effectiveness, when compared to a placebo, to reduce the diameter of the edema and the duration of trauma effects – edema, pain and mobility of the affected limb.
 
Article
This is a study of Hahnemann’s time at Hermanstadt (1777-1778) as a library archivist, a period that was one of the foundation stones of his future intellectual life.Until now, there was relatively little information about this period of his life. During recent research at the Brukenthal Library at Sibiu, Romania, we discovered the manuscript of the library's catalogue of 1780 created by Hahnemann and Soterius, the nephew of Baron Samuel Brukenthal.
 
Article
Open Access Serial seems to be the new paradigm in scientific publication representing a growing tendency in all society segments. In particular, we are interested in the application of the Open Access serial model to High Dilution research. Such multidisciplinary area is opened to experts from all area of knowledge, requiring experimental trials and models as well theoretical approaches. However these researchers must be brought together around a thematic serial, peer-reviewed and easily accessed, able to reach a high impact parameter without lose its focus, where theoretical backgrounds and concepts could be presented and intensely discussed, ranging from experimental to theoretical approaches, basic to applied researches, also reporting clinical, historical and sociological papers. The features of the Open Access fit well with the High Dilution community needs for a scientific serial. Also, an electronic support makes possible divulgate larger texts, figures, movies, interviews, audio, and any other kind of multimedia. Thus, an Open Access scientific serial dedicated to High Dilutions would be very well accepted by the international community involved in high dilutions research. Keywords: Open access, high dilution, online serial. Publicações de acesso aberto: o caso da pesquisa em altas diluições Resumo A publicação de acesso aberto parece ser o novo paradigma em publicação científica, representando uma tendência crescente em todos os segmentos da sociedade. Nos interessa, em particular, a aplicação desse modelo na pesquisa das altas diluições. Essa área multisciplinar está aberta a especialistas de todas as áreas do saber, precisando de testes e modelos experimentais, assim como de abordagens teóricas. No entanto, esses pesquisadores devem ser reunidos ao redor de um periódico temático, revisado por pares e de fácil acesso, capaz de alcançar parâmetros de alto impacto sem perder seu foco, onde os marcos de referência e conceitos teóricos possam ser apresentados e intensamente discutidos, abarcando do experimental ao teórico, pesquisa básica e aplicada, pesquisas clínicas, históricas e sociológicas. As características do sistema aberto se correspondem adequadamente com os requerimentos de um periódico para a comunidade ligada às altas diluições. Igualmente, o meio eletrônico permite divulgar textos e gráficos de maior tamanho, filmes, entrevistas, áudio e outros tipos de formatos multimedia. Por esse motivo, um periódico científico de acesso aberto dedicado às altas diluições seria muito bem recebido pela comunidade internacional. Palavras-chave: Acesso aberto, altas diluições, periódicos online. Publicaciones de acceso abierto: el caso de la investigación en altas diluciones Resumen La publicación de acceso abierto parece ser el nuevo paradigma en publicación científica, representando una tendencia creciente en todos los segmentos de la sociedad. En particular, nos interesa la aplicación de este modelo en la investigación de altas diluciones. Tal área multidisciplinar está abierta a especialistas de todas las áreas del saber, necesitando aún ensayos y modelos experimentales, así como abordajes teóricos. Sin embargo, estos investigadores deben ser reunidos en torno de un periódico temático, revisado por pares y de fácil acceso, capaz de alcanzar parámetros de alto impacto sin perder su foco, adonde los marcos de referencia y conceptos teóricos puedan ser presentados e intensamente discutidos, abarcando desde lo experimental a lo teórico, investigación fundamental y aplicada, investigaciones clínicas, históricas y sociológicas. Las características del sistema abierto tienen buena correspondencia con los requerimientos de un periódico para la comunidad vinculada a las altas diluciones. Igualmente, el medio electrónico permite divulgar textos y gráficos de mayor tamanho, películos, entrevistas, y otros tipos de formatos multimedia. Por ese motivo, un periódico científico de acceso abierto dedicado a las altas diluciones sería muy bien recebido por la comunidad internacional. Palabras-clave: Acceso abierto, altas diluciones, revistas online. Correspondence author: Carlos Renato Zacharias, zacha@feg.unesp.br How to cite this article: Zacharias CR. Open Access Serials: the High Dilution Research case. Int J High Dilution Res [online]. 2008 [cited YYYY Mmm DD]; 7(24): 159-162. Available from: http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/267/359. La publicación de acceso abierto parece ser el nuevo paradigma en publicación científica, representando una tendencia creciente en todos los segmentos de la sociedad. En particular, nos interesa la aplicación de este modelo en la investigación de altas diluciones. Tal área multidisciplinar está abierta a especialistas de todas las áreas del saber, necesitando aún ensayos y modelos experimentales, así como abordajes teóricos. Sin embargo, estos investigadores deben ser reunidos en torno de un periódico temático, revisado por pares y de fácil acceso, capaz de alcanzar parámetros de alto impacto sin perder su foco, adonde los marcos de referencia y conceptos teóricos puedan ser presentados e intensamente discutidos, abarcando desde lo experimental a lo teórico, investigación fundamental y aplicada, investigaciones clínicas, históricas y sociológicas. Las características del sistema abierto tienen buena correspondencia con los requerimientos de un periódico para la comunidad vinculada a las altas diluciones. Igualmente, el medio electrónico permite divulgar textos y gráficos de mayor tamanho, películos, entrevistas, y otros tipos de formatos multimedia. Por ese motivo, un periódico científico de acceso abierto dedicado a las altas diluciones sería muy bien recebido por la comunidad internacional.Palabras-clave: acceso abierto, altas diluciones, revistas online. A publicação de acesso aberto parece ser o novo paradigma em publicação científica, representando uma tendência crescente em todos os segmentos da sociedade. Nos interessa, em particular, a aplicação desse modelo na pesquisa das altas diluições. Essa área multisciplinar está aberta a especialistas de todas as áreas do saber, precisando de testes e modelos experimentais, assim como de abordagens teóricas. No entanto, esses pesquisadores devem ser reunidos ao redor de um periódico temático, revisado por pares e de fácil acesso, capaz de alcançar parâmetros de alto impacto sem perder seu foco, onde os marcos de referência e conceitos teóricos possam ser apresentados e intensamente discutidos, abarcando do experimental ao teórico, pesquisa básica e aplicada, pesquisas clínicas, históricas e sociológicas. As características do sistema aberto se correspondem adequadamente com os requerimentos de um periódico para a comunidade ligada às altas diluições. Igualmente, o meio eletrônico permite divulgar textos e gráficos de maior tamanho, filmes, entrevistas, áudio e outros tipos de formatos multimedia. Por esse motivo, um periódico científico de acesso aberto dedicado às altas diluições seria muito bem recebido pela comunidade internacional.Palavras-chave: acesso aberto, altas diluições, periódicos online.
 
Article
Este estudo analisa o processo terapêutico da Medicina Homeopática, destacando a relevância de seus componentes na construção de um espaço interativo entre médicos e pacientes capaz de propiciar novos sentidos para a compreensão do adoecimento e para a perspectiva da cura. As questões que motivaram o trabalho surgiram a partir de preocupações a respeito da insuficiência do tecnicismo da medicina atual para atender às expectativas dos sujeitos participantes das práticas de saúde. Discutimos que a centralidade da pessoa no paradigma da Medicina Homeopática, ao privilegiar a situação de adoecimento dos pacientes, confere características específicas à sua abordagem, capazes de resgatar a dimensão do cuidado na ação terapêutica. Tomamos como base empírica duas unidades de saúde da cidade de São Paulo onde foram realizadas entrevistas com médicos e pacientes e colhidos depoimentos espontâneos que surgiram durante o atendimento clínico da autora. Através das narrativas dos sujeitos da prática homeopática pudemos evidenciar que a construção de um espaço de intersubjetividade, em que pacientes e médicos possam compartilhar a experiência do adoecer, permite introduzir a perspectiva do cuidado e a possibilidade de um projeto de recuperação da saúde. Tais aspectos foram considerados ao buscarmos compreender a efetividade da homeopatia como prática terapêutica.
 
Article
Author presents a clinical case that serves to illustrate the application of non traditional techniques of approaching cases. This kind of approaches – here, Alfonso Masi Elizalde’s – represent a wider scope of possible strategies in order to individualize not merely each and every patient, but homeopathic practice itself.
 
Article
The author analysis the current semiothic concepts of Occidental Medicine, that culminated in the idea of Medicine Based on Evidences, demonstrating that this practice improves the distance between doctor and patient. The author also recovers the concept of interview to demonstrate the importance of interaction doctor-patient.
 
Article
This article intends to contribute to a greater convergence between the scientific and homeopathic milieus. Therefore, it uses a model consistent with regular medicine's in order to establish the action of remedies prepared according to homeopathic procedures and to compare their therapeutic effects with those of regular medicine in urinary infections by Escherichia coli (E.coXi).Remedies were homeopathic Cantharis vesicatoria, 6CH and 30CH; biotherapic Urina 30CH, Escherichia coli 30CH, and Colibacillinum 30CH; and allopathic nalidixic acid, p.o.. Female Wistar rats were contaminated by urethral probe with a suspension o/E. coli. Urine was aseptically collected and subjected to microbiological tests to verify actual infection. Animals infected were divided into seven groups, including one control. Each group received a different remedy. After treatment, urine was aseptically collected and subjected to microbiological tests to verify infection. In order to establish a potential preventive action of remedies, rats received a 5-day course of treatment before contamination. In the first setting, Cantharis vesicatoria 6CH and 30CH nalidixic acid were effective in the treatment of urinary infection; in the second,Urina 30CH achieved the best results.
 
Article
Uma das maneiras de ver e analisar a Homeopatia Veterinária é através das estratégias de seus profissionais nos diversos campos de sua ação. A Veterinária tem uma particularidade muito interessante: a atuação de seus profissionais se dá em áreas “conflitantes”. Ao mesmo tempo em que é responsável pela saúde humana, tanto ao cuidar e prevenir doenças em seus animais de estimação como ao ser responsável pela fiscalização da qualidade dos produtos de origem animal, principalmente alimentícios, também o é pelo bem-estar de todos animais que o homem tem sob seu controle, inclusive os de zoológicos e parques. E as estratégias de ação do veterinário não são as mesmas nas várias situações.
 
Representação gráfica dos valores das medianas das absorbâncias obtidas da leitura feita pelo espectrofotômetro do experimento com o medicamento Sanguinária canadensis nas dinamizações e doses utilizadas em relação ao controle em solução hidroalcoóüca (colunas agrupadas).
Article
This study evaluated the interference effect of the homeopathic remedy Sanguinaria canadensis in dynamizations 6CH, 12CH and 30CH, and doses 3, 5, 7 and 10 drops, on the in vitro growth of Streptococcus mutans. Data analysis showed that such interference effect is statistically significant.
 
Article
O artigo busca caminhos para a relação entre a homeopatia e a antropologia social. Uma defi nição da atual antropologia não é necessária agora, apenas gostaríamos de destacar que esta é a ciência moderna encarregada de estudar a cosmologia do Outro. Vista pela antropologia, a medicina não apenas é dependente da cosmologia da sociedade na qual surgiu, mas também é re-instauradora dessa cosmologia: a doença irrompe na sociedade impedindo que seus membros exerçam suas atividades cotidianas. A medicina aparece, então, mais do que simplesmente para curar, para dar um sentido a essa doença, permitindo o re-estabelecimento da ordem social.
 
Article
O percurso do processo de institucionalização da homeopatia no país apresenta aspectos muito particulares e tem como resultado, nos dias atuais, uma inclusão no complexo médico industrial ainda incipiente. A história desse processo coincide com a origem da prática homeopática na nação. Desde 1840 até a década de 1930, a homeopatia ocupou espaços em dispensários, ambulatórios de instituições militares e filantrópicas, sempre contra a corrente institucional.
 
Article
There is universal agreement that symptoms are the essential tools in homeopathic practice, particularly “rare, peculiar characteristic” symptoms. Yet, there is a lack of sound criteria to establish the value of symptoms. We review Hahnemann’s conception and its historical background. We suggest a classification of symptoms in “constitutive” and “markers”, the former define the individuality of the patient, the latter are useful for clinical follow-up. We emphasize the role of the patient as the rightful interpreter of his/her symptoms value and meaning. We suggest that the homeopathic “totality” is better referred as a hermeneutic totality.
 
Article
This paper presents the result of a research conducted in a sample of the population of São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, among customers of a manipulation pharmacy. A questionnaire was applied in order to appraise the image of homeopathy among the population, as well the ways it receives information on homeopathy and its interest on it.
 
Article
The allosteric protein of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) shows two main types of activity, peroxidase and oxidase, depending on the kind of low molecular effectors. The effects of very low doses of phenol, prepared by successive dilutions in water or in 75% ethanol, on initial HRP activity in oxidation of o-dianisidine or luminol were tested in a systematic manner by colorimetric and luminometric methods. Results showed that phenol dilutions, including those below Avogadro’s number, could activate or inhibit HRP in peroxidase and oxidase type reactions with a sinusoidal pattern. Km values for the studied substrates changed parallel to HRP peroxidase/oxidase activity and the maximum activity in the peroxidase reaction corresponded to the minimum activity in the oxidase reaction and vice versa. The effect also depended on the type of dilutor. The observations of the peroxidase/oxidase oscillations in the sinusoidal pattern of HRP activity, dependent on the rate of phenol dissolution and the time of preincubation, point out to the conclusion that HRP might be a good model for high dilutions research. The experiments provide strong evidence that horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a very sensitive detector of subtle changes in the concentration of phenol used as a cofactor in the peroxidase/oxidase reaction. Keywords: HR-peroxidase, peroxidase-oxidase, phenol, hormesis, homeopathy, high dilutions. Mudanças cinéticas na atividade da HR-peroxidade induzidas por doses muito baixas de fenol Resumo A proteína alostérica da peroxidase do rabano (HRP) mostra dois tipos principais de atividade, peroxidase e oxidase, de acordo com o tipo de efetores de baixa molecularidade. Os efeitos de doses muito baixas de fenol, preparadas através de diluições sucessivas em água ou etanol 75% na atividade inicial da HRP sobre a oxidação da o-dianisidina ou luminol for testados de modo sistemático através de métodos colorimétricos e luminométricos. Os resultados mostram que as diluições de fenol, incluindo aquelas por baixo do número de Avogadro, foram capazes de ativar ou inibir a HRP em reações de tipo peroxidade e oxidase com um padrão sinusoidal. os valores Km dos substratos estudados variaram paralelamente à atividade peroxidase/oxidase da HRP; a atividade máxima da reação peroxidase correspondeu à atividade mínima na reação oxidase e vice-versa. O efeito também se mostrou dependente do tipo do solvente. A observação das oscilações sinusoidais na atividade da HRP, dependentes da taxa de dissolução do fenol e do tempo de pré-incubação, permitem concluir que a HRP pode ser um bom modelo na pesquisa das altas diluições. Os experimentos oferecem fortes evidências a favor da HRP como detector muito sensível de mudanças mínimas na concentração do fenol, utilizado como cofator na reação peroxidase/oxigenase. Palavras-chave: HR-peroxidase, peroxidase-oxidase, fenol, hormese, homeopatia, altas diluições. Cambios cinéticos en la actividad de la HR-peroxidasa inducidos por dosis muy bajas de fenol Resumen La proteína alostérica de la peroxidasa del rábano (HRP) muestra dos tipos principales de actividad, peroxidasa y oxidasa, dependiendo del tipo de efectores de baja molecularidade. Los efectos de doses muy bajas de fenol, preparadas mediante diluciones sucesivas en agua o etanol al 75% sobre la actividad inicial de la HRP sobre la oxidación de o-dianisidina o luminol fueron testados de modo sistemático mediante métodos colorimétricos y luminométricos. Los resultados muestran que las diluciones de fenol, incluyendo aquellas abajo del número de Avogadro, pudieron activar o inhibir la HRP en reacciones de tipo peroxidasa y oxidasa con un patrón sinusoidal. Los valores Km de los sustratos estudiados variaron paralelamente a la actividad peroxidasa/oxidasa de la HRP; la actividad máxima de la reacción peroxidasa correspondió a la actividad mínima en la reacción oxidasa y viceversa. El efecto también se mostró dependiente del tipo de solvente. La observación de las oscilaciones sinusoidales en la actividad de la HRP, dependientes de la tasa de disolución del fenol y del tiempo de preincubación, llevan a concluir que la HRP puede ser un buen modelo para la investigación de las altas diluciones. Los experimentos ofrecen fuertes evidencias a favor de la HRP como detector muy sensible de cambios mínimos en la concentración de fenol, utilizado como cofactor en la reacción peroxidasa/oxigenasa. Palabras-clave: HR-peroxidasa, oxidasa-peroxidasa, fenol, hormesis, homeopatía, altas diluciones. Correspondence author: Elzbieta Malarczyk, malar@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl How to cite this article: Malarczyk E. Kinetic changes in the activity of HR-peroxidase induced by very low doses of phenol. Int J High Dilution Res [online]. 2008 [cited YYYY Mmm DD]; 7(23): 48-55. Available from: http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/37/349. La proteína alostérica de la peroxidasa del rábano (HRP) muestra dos tipos principales de actividad, peroxidasa y oxidasa, dependiendo del tipo de efectores de baja molecularidade. Los efectos de doses muy bajas de fenol, preparadas mediante diluciones sucesivas en agua o etanol al 75% sobre la actividad inicial de la HRP sobre la oxidación de o-dianisidina o luminol fueron testados de modo sistemático mediante métodos colorimétricos y luminométricos. Los resultados muestran que las diluciones de fenol, incluyendo aquellas abajo del número de Avogadro, pudieron activar o inhibir la HRP en reacciones de tipo peroxidasa y oxidasa con un patrón sinusoidal. Los valores Km de los sustratos estudiados variaron paralelamente a la actividad peroxidasa/oxidasa de la HRP; la actividad máxima de la reacción peroxidasa correspondió a la actividad mínima en la reacción oxidasa y viceversa. El efecto también se mostró dependiente del tipo de solvente. La observación de las oscilaciones sinusoidales en la actividad de la HRP, dependientes de la tasa de disolución del fenol y del tiempo de preincubación, llevan a concluir que la HRP puede ser un buen modelo para la investigación de las altas diluciones. Los experimentos ofrecen fuertes evidencias a favor de la HRP como detector muy sensible de cambios mínimos en la concentración de fenol, utilizado como cofactor en la reacción peroxidasa/oxigenasa.Palabras clave: HR-peroxidasa, oxidasa-peroxidasa, fenol, hormesis, homeopatía, altas diluciones. A proteína alostérica da peroxidase do rabano (HRP) mostra dois tipos principais de atividade, peroxidase e oxidase, de acordo com o tipo de efetores de baixa molecularidade. Os efeitos de doses muito baixas de fenol, preparadas através de diluições sucessivas em água ou etanol 75% na atividade inicial da HRP sobre a oxidação da o-dianisidina ou luminol for testados de modo sistemático através de métodos colorimétricos e luminométricos. Os resultados mostram que as diluições de fenol, incluindo aquelas por baixo do número de Avogadro, foram capazes de ativar ou inibir a HRP em reações de tipo peroxidade e oxidase com um padrão sinusoidal. os valores Km dos substratos estudados variaram paralelamente à atividade peroxidase/oxidase da HRP; a atividade máxima da reação peroxidase correspondeu à atividade mínima na reação oxidase e vice-versa. O efeito também se mostrou dependente do tipo do solvente. A observação das oscilações sinusoidais na atividade da HRP, dependentes da taxa de dissolução do fenol e do tempo de pré-incubação, permitem concluir que a HRP pode ser um bom modelo na pesquisa das altas diluições. Os experimentos oferecem fortes evidências a favor da HRP como detector muito sensível de mudanças mínimas na concentração do fenol, utilizado como cofator na reação peroxidase/oxigenase.Palavras-chave: HR-peroxidase, peroxidase-oxidase, fenol, hormese, homeopatia, altas diluições.
 
Article
Introduction: over a paper presented in 1992, where Hahnemanns orientations were compared with the proposed in the literature about the preparation of medicines, a new study was made to verify the occurred modifications.Objectives: to verify the alterations occurred in relation of the preparation of homeopathic remedies, comparing Hahnemanns original indications and current pharmacopoeias and textbooks; to demonstrate that there are differences between original texts and pharmaceutical literature; to reflect about the possible clinical consequences of these differences. Methodology: the study was made through the comparison between hahnemannian literature (Organon 5th e 6th editions and Chronic Diseases) and national e international pharmacopoeias, besides textbooks. Results: through a comparative study of the literature it was possible to verify that Hahnemann’s propositions are not being integrally followed. Literature also provides us the probable clinical consequences of the alterations: loss of medicinal potency, more violent medicines, more likely to provoke aggravations. The weak standardization also makes more difficult the comparison between clinical and research results. Conclusions: the current editions of the pharmacopoeias and textbooks keep not following Hahnemanns orientations, related to homoeopathic medicines preparation. The difference probably takes us to medicines with less accuracy and more probable of causing aggravations. Our recommendation is the each Hahnemann indication are detail studied and tested, so the pharmaceutical literature may present a standardization coincident with the methods proposed by the critter of homeopathy. In this way, medicines with more accuracy will be produced, for the benefit of the users of homeopathy. The standardization makes easier the comparison of clinical and research data.
 
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