International Journal of Geosciences

Published by Scientific Research Publishing
Print ISSN: 2156-8359
The function ψ(ξ) of equation Eq. (45) which gives the dimensionless gravitational energy of a homogeneous spheroid with a central point mass. The minimum at ξ = 1 corresponds to a sphere.
A point mass at the center of an ellipsoidal homogeneous fluid is used as a simple model to study the effect of rotation on the shape and external gravitational field of planets and stars. Maclaurin's analytical result for a homogenous body is generalized to this model. The absence of a third order term in the Taylor expansion of the Maclaurin function leads to further simple but very accurate analytical results connecting the three observables: oblateness ($\epsilon$), gravitational quadrupole ($J_{2}$), and angular velocity parameter ($q$). These are compared to observational data for the planets. The moments of inertia of the planets are calculated and compared to published values. The oblateness of the Sun is estimated. Oscillations near equilibrium are studied within the model.
Map showing the different receivers and the VLF and LF transmitters of the European Radio Network. The stars show the location of the receivers (black ≡ Elettronika, white ≡ MSK, grey ≡ OmniPal); the squares indicate the VLF transmitters and the circles the LF transmitters, the signals of which are collected by the different receivers. Some peculiarities of the transmitters are reported in Table 1. The triangle indicates the epicentre of the western Turkey earthquake (M = 5.7) occurred on May 19, 2011. 
(a) Map showing the location of the receivers GR, IT-An and IT-Tc recording the TRT (180 kHz) signal. The triangle indicates the epicentre of the earthquake; (b) Map of the 5th Fresnel zones defined by GBZ transmitter-TUR receiver and ITS transmitter-TUR receiver. The epicentre of the earthquake is indicated by a triangle.
Results of the analysis of the TRT radio data collected by the GR, IT-An and IT-Tc receivers during April-May 2011, at day-time. At the top the Wavelet Spectra, at the middle the Standard Deviation trends and at the bottom the PCA plots. In the Standard Deviation trends the zones over 2σ are filled in red; in the PCA plots the numbers on some point (possible outlier) denotes the day counted from April 1. The vertical red line indicates the occurrence of the Turkey earthquake.
Air temperature and pressure in the zone of the TRT transmitter during April 2011. The rain and the storms are shown, too.
Since 2009 a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers is operating in Europe in order to study the disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation of these signals. In 2011 the network was formed by nine receivers, of which three are located in Italy and one is in Austria, Greece, Portugal, Romania, Russia and Turkey. On May 19, 2001 an earthquake (Mw=5.7) occurred in western Turkey, that is inside the "sensitive" area of the network. The radio data collected during April-May 2011 were studied using the Wavelet spectra, the Principal Component Analysis and the Standard Deviation trends as different methods of analysis. Evident anomalies were revealed both in the signals broadcasted by the TRT transmitter (180 kHz) located near Ankara and in a VLF signal coming from a transmitter located in western Europe and collected by the receiver TUR of the network located in eastern Turkey. Evident precursor phases were pointed out. Some differences in the efficiency of the three analysis methods were revealed.
Basaltic eruptions have been observed to produce structurally complex, compound 'a'ā lava flow fields but their morphometry has only rarely been systematically documented. We document the morphology and structures that developed during the emplacement of the 1982 basaltic lava flow field at Mount Cameroon (MC) volcano over a period of one month. Topographic cross-sections (13 in total) were made from the main vent (~2700 m above sea level (a.s.l)) down to a distance of 5.5 km on the cooled lava surface. Details obtained from these cross-sections include: channel width and depth, levee slope, lava surface morphology and structures. These details enabled us to describe the physical characteristics of the 1982 lava flow field. The inclined (12° - 19°) underlying slopes on which this flow field was emplaced resulted in a characteristic channelized basaltic 'a'ā flow field morphology. This includes a proximal zone characterised by reduced flow width and depth with no subsidiary channels. Slab-crusted lava dominates the proximal channel distinctively bent into convex upward shapes. 7 secondary vents were observed for the first time ~2.5 km from the main vent, with heights of 3 - 15 m. This is a very significant observation since it points to the fact that the flow field emplacement may have been a product of 2 eruption sites as observed at other historical MC lava flow fields. This supposition was ruled out by further evidence obtained from other surface features within the flow field. The presence of these secondary vents still has an important bearing in lava flow hazard assessment. Field observations also revealed the presence of tumulus. This is a novel feature for MC lava flow fields. It displayed a close similarity to those observed at other basaltic volcanoes occurring in association with clinker 'a'ā lava, lava tubes, squeeze-ups and pressure ridges. Channels are well-defined, bounded by levees. Accretional and overflow levees dominate in this flow field. This lava flow-field attained a final length of 7.5 km, an area of 2.6 × 106 m2 and volume of 1.3 × 107 m3. The presence of tumulus indicates internal inflation together with structures such as pressure ridges and squeeze-ups which are also attributed to compressive forces. Our observations suggest that real-time monitoring of compound lava flow fields evolution at MC may reveal the emplacement mechanisms of complex structures such as the secondary vents (~2180 - 2011 m a.s.l.) observed within the flow field. In addition, documenting the occurrence, morphology and link between lava tubes, tumulus and squeeze-ups may allow us to determine the risk of reactivation of a stalled flow front. This will thereby enhance the ability to track and assess hazards posed by lava flow emplacement from MC-like volcanoes.
The church of S. Pietro a Coppito and the nearby buildings in March 2012. 
The situation in proximity of the church of S. Pietro a Coppito in March 2012. 
The church of S. Pietro a Coppito in February 2010. Photo by C. Pesaresi. 
Some buildings near the church of S. Pietro a Coppito in February 2010. Photo by C. Pesaresi. 
In this paper, we discuss a geographical methodology supported by specific geo-technologies which we are testing for the study of territories damaged by the L’Aquila earthquake of 6 April 2009 and which can be used in similar situations. Subsequently, we provide an overview of the current situation and make a comparison between some aerial photographs obtained from an overflight in March 2012 and some photos made during our first field study in February 2010, in order to show the work undertaken or not during this period and to substantiate any considerations regarding the choices adopted and the necessary future planning. Moreover, we provide an example of the added value provided by the analysis of aerial photographs in both visible and thermal light for recognizing the provisional non-painted metal roofing of buildings in a post-earthquake urban area. In fact this technique can be useful for the rapid identification of damaged buildings and zones with provisional covering. In the present paper, we focus attention on L’Aquila town centre which provides a significant example of a “City of Stone” almost “minus” the presence of people.
The real field and the result 3D chart. Contour marks the known oil reservoir. 
The method of 3D polar transformation of full gravity potential gradient vectors is based on the geometric properties of the crossing points of complete gradient of the potential to localize the source region that causes the observed anomaly. The cross-points—poles—are defined for rectangular polygons of different sizes where the full gradient vector is de-fined at every vertex. The polygon size range could be specified. The set of poles, positive and negative, is then repre-sented on the 3D chart in the form of clusters of dots or cubes and can be considered as a model image of the sources, intended for visual analysis and further interpretation.
Median daily numbers of photon units (1 unit = 5 × 10 −11 W/m 2 ) recorded by our photomultiplier tube system (1 sample/min, 24 hr/day) during the days before, during, and after the Japanese (closed circles) and Chilean (open circles) very strong earthquakes. 
Daily, minute-to-minute measurements of ground level photon emissions in Sudbury, Ontario Canada displayed conspicuous increases more than one week before the 2011 M9.0 earthquake in Japan and the 2010 M8.8 earthquake in Chile. Temporal profiles of the antecedent increase and subsequent decline in power densities for the two events were remarkably similar. Antecedent changes for 7.0 8.0) seismic events anywhere on the planet.
Geographic location and geologic map of Abia State.
Litholog of a borehole at M.O. University, Umudike.
In this paper, a collection of statistical correlation methods is used in the study of aquifer potentials in Abia State of south-eastern Nigeria. The Physiology, geomorphology and hydrogeology of the area are first pre-sented. Sixty-six Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data sets are used to determine the aquifer. Demo-graphic studies are then carried out in 220 communities in order to determine the relationship between popu-lation size on one hand and a unit draw-down of wells due to groundwater abstraction on the other. The rela-tionship between geological Formation, aquifer potentials and depth of boreholes are then calculated using Pearson's correlation matrix. Results show that the mean population of persons appears to be higher in Bende-Ameki Formation (of Eocene-Oligocene age) and the late Tetiary-Early Quaternary Coastal Plain Sands, than in the Cretaceous shale Formation of Asata Nkporo. The mean population of persons sitting on these Formations is 31,200, 18,370 and 5400 respectively. Furthermore, it is observed that a population in-crease of about 50 persons in a community in Abia State is accompanied by a unit volume (1 m 3) draw-down of wells due to groundwater abstraction. It is therefore concluded that population size is positively correlated with groundwater abstraction, aquifer potentials and geological Formation favouring aquifer in Abia State.
Impact of signal frequency on gravity estimation in the FG5 observation process. Data used: FG5#236, file 008a0708, sets 37-40, (25 drops/set, total 100 drops). 2 
Instrumental and environmental disturbances do affect FG5 absolute gravimeter observations and the estimated gravity values, sometimes to the degree that entire measurement campaigns are discarded. We propose a method which moves towards the re-assessment of previously discarded observations. Once an estimate of the frequency and amplitude of a disturbance in a FG5 data set exists, the proposed method can estimate its impact on the estimated gravity value. This is performed through a Gaussian Bell Summation approach of the functional relationship between disturbance frequency and standard deviation of gravity. The filtering of the identified disturbance is realized through a modification of the functional model of the equation of motion in the least squares adjustment of FG5 observations. The results reveal that the Gaussian Bell Summation approximates the frequency—gravity impact relationship sufficiently well with negligible uncertainties, while the accuracy of the detected disturbance frequency defines a limiting factor for the gravity impact estimation. A realistic disturbance of 15 Hz with an amplitude of 1.5 nm had an impact of ≈48 [μGal] on the gravity estimate. The proposed filter approach reduced the impact to ≈12 [μGal], with the remaining effect being almost entirely associated to the uncertainty in disturbance frequency detection.
Localization of Itumbiara hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil's central area. Shows the location of the meteorological station and the SIMA buoy. 
Energy budget components for (a) Daytime (10:30 h) and (b) Nighttime (23:30 h). SW is the shortwave radiation. 
Spatially surface heat flux balance (W·m-2 ) over the Itumbiara reservoir. 
Thermal structure of the Itumbiara reservoir. 
Thermal structure (a) and the lake number-L N (b) for the Itumbiara reservoir. 
The objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of moderate resolution satellite data estimating the surface heat balance in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir. Each component of the heat flux balance was computed using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) water surface temperature (WST) level 2, 1 km nominal resolution data (MOD11L2, version 5) from 2003 to 2008. The consequence of the heat flux exchange in the water column thermal structure is also investigated. The passage of cold front over a region decreases the atmospheric pressure and air temperature, enhancing the relative humidity. The sensible flux presents a small variability but an increase occurs due to a convective turbulence caused by front passage. The latent flux decrease but insufficiently to cause a condensation, just the evaporation decreases. The upwelling events are the responsible to maintain the loss of heat after the cold front pas- sage.
The sampling interval (Lag), nugget, sill and spatial dependency (Sp.D) of the different interpolated methods for soil properties. 
Location map of the study area.  
This research aimed to implement and compare the accuracy of different interpolation methods using cross validation errors for interpolating the spatial pattern of soil properties. This paper investigates whether the use of kriging, instead of traditional interpolation methods, improves the accuracy of prediction of soil properties. To this end, various interpolation (kriging) techniques that rely on the spatial correlation between observations to predict attribute values at en-sampled locations are studied. Geostatistics provides descriptive tools such as semivariograms to characterize the spatial pattern of continuous and categorical soil attributes. The maps obtained from Ordinary Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighting and splines show clearly that the map from Universal Kriging (UK) is better than the other three interpolation methods. Therefore, UK can be considered as an accurate method for interpolating soil (EC, pH, CaCO 3) properties .
Monthly amplitudes in ngals (10-11 m·s-2 ) for earth oscillations in two modes (open circles and squares) and infrared flux densities (solid squares) from Nishada et al. in comparison with the spectral powers of photon emission oscillations (large solid circles) around 3 mHz.
Spheroidal modes of seismic and acoustic oscillations in the atmosphere occur within the 2 to 7 mHz range with peak-to-peak variations in the order of 10 –12 to 10 –11 m·s –2 . Previous research indicated the amplitudes for 230 s and 270 s pe-riods peak during the summer months. In the present study the amplitudes of a reliably apparent 3 mHz increment from spectral analyses of minute-to-minute measurements of background photon emissions by a photomultiplier tube housed in a dark room were sampled for a one year period. The peak increase in the power of this increment was maximal dur-ing the summer months and overlapped conspicuously with the annual variation in fundamental spheroidal modes of seis-mic free oscillations. Quantitative estimates indicate that relative shifts in the order of 10 –11 W/m 2 for photon emissions may reflect the annual variation in coupled oscillations between the earth and atmosphere.
Similarity measurement is one of key operations to retrieve “desired” images from an image database. As a famous psychological similarity measure approach, the Feature Contrast (FC) model is defined as a linear combination of both common and distinct features. In this paper, an adaptive feature contrast (AdaFC) model is proposed to measure similarity between satellite images for image retrieval. In the AdaFC, an adaptive function is used to model a variable role of distinct features in the similarity measurement. Specifically, given some distinct features in a satellite image, e.g., a COAST image, they might play a significant role when the image is compared with an image including different semantics, e.g., a SEA image, and might be trivial when it is compared with a third image including same semantics, e.g., another COAST image. Experimental results on satellite images show that the proposed model can consistently improve similarity retrieval effectiveness of satellite images including multiple geo-objects, for example COAST images.
Variation of liquid limit. 
Variation of plastic index. 
An experimental program carried out in this study seeks to understand the physical mechanisms of stabilization of an expansive soil by adding an inert material (sand) at various forms; mixing and intercalation layers of sand. The first aim of the study is to analyze the effect of stabilization on the variation of soil consistency. The results show a marked im-provement in soil consistency. Then a study of the effect of the additives on the variation of the swelling in order to solve the lifting structures caused by this phenomenon is carried out. It can be seen that the addition of sand is capable of reducing the swelling action. We complete the study using an ultrasonic device, measuring the propagation velocities of ultrasonic pulse through the tested clay samples. This shows a change occurring in the porosity of the clay when sand is added to it. As a result some interesting conclusions concerning the expansive soil-material amendment are drawn.
The Qassim province is one of the most arid regions of Saudi Arabia, however heavy rainfall events have led to water logging problems in the populated centers like Buraidah mainly as a consequence of construction in low lying areas and valleys. Urban rain storm water logging problem were reported at 4 localities in the Buraidah Municipal area after heavy rainfall in November 2008 and March 2009. The logged water from these sites were directed to 4 manmade lakes however the stagnant water in these lakes posed a serious environmental threat mainly in the form of water borne disease. Keeping this problem in mind, a detailed geophysical investigation in the form of Electrical Resistivity Tomography was carried out using the SYSCAL Pro Unit at these 4 locations with a dipole-dipole configuration. The survey was helpful in delineating the wet zones from the dry ones and based on the interpretations the optimum depth and sites of 4 injections bore-wells were determined at each locality. These injection bore-well would serve the dual propose of getting rid of the stagnant water in these lakes and also recharging the underlying aquifers.
The 534 gravity stations of the BFGN. 
Residuals estimated in gravity values on control stations, by the application of D & E model. 
Adjusted gravity values and their standard deviations on control stations.
Errors associated in the intervals.
Gravity observations adjustment is studied having in view to take full advantage of the modern technology of gravity measurement. We present here results of a test performed with the mathematical model proposed by our group, on the adjustment of gravity observations carried out on network design. Additionally, considering the recent improvement on instrumental technology in gravimetry, that model was modified to take into account possible nonlinear local datum scale factors, in a 1900 mGal range network, and to check its significance for microgal precision measurements. The data set of the Brazilian Fundamental Gravity Network was used as case study. With about 1900 mGal gravity range and 11 control stations the Brazilian Fundamental Gravity Network (BFGN) was used as case study. It was established mainly with the use of LaCoste & Romberg, model G, gravimeters and new additional observations with Scintrex CG-5 gravimeters. The observables involved in the model are instrumental reading, calibration functions of the gravimeters used and the absolute gravity values at the control stations. Gravity values at the gravity stations and local datum scale factors for each gravimeter were determined by least square method. The results indicate good adaptation of the tested model to network adjustments. The gravity value in the IFE-172 control station, located in Santa Maria, had the largest estimated correction of ?10.4 μGal (1 μGal = 10 nm/s2), and the largest residual for an observed reading was estimated in 0.043 reading unit. The largest correction to the calibration functions was estimated in 6.9 × 10-6mGal/reading unit.
Schematic geological map showing the Volta Basin and the Benino-Togolese front of the Dahomeyide Belt. 1 = Eburnean basement of the Leo-Man shield; 2 = Neoproterozoic cover of the Volta Basin; 3 = gneisso-migmatitic internal and external units; 4 = kyanite-and mica-bearing quartzites; 5 = basic and ultrabasic massifs of the suture zone; 6 = Atacora Structural Unit; 7 = Buem Structural Unit; 8 = Meso-Cenozoic basin of the Guinea Gulf; 9 = thrusting contact; 10 = mylonitic zone of the Kandi Fault. 
Lithostructural sketch showing the main geological suites in northern Togo. 1 = nappes of the Afem migmatitic unit (UMA); 2 = orthogneissic nappes of the Kara-Niamtougou (UKN), Mo (UM) and Dompago (UOD) units; 3 = gneisso-amphibolitic nappes of the Binah (CB) or Mono (CM) Complex; 4 and 5 = nappes of micaschists, quartz-micaschists and kyanitebearing quartzites of the Sokode-Kemeni (USK) and Mount Malfakassa (UMM) units or Taneka kyanite-bearing quartzites (QT); 6, 7 and 8 = pyroxenite bodies, nappes of leucocratic Lassa-Soumdina (GLS) and melanocratic Ketao-Sirka (GKS) granulites of the Kabye and Kpaza Massifs; 9 and 10 = quartzite and micaschist nappes of the eastern Atacora subunit (USAq); 11 = schist nappes of the western Atacora subunit (USAs); 12 and 13 = schists and quartzitic sandstones or metasilexites of the Buem structural unit (USB); 14 = main foliation plane (S1 or Sn + 1); 15 = thrust contact; 16 = shear corridor; 17 = fracture. A-A', B-B' = location of synthetic cross-sections Figures 3 and 7. 
Synthetic stereograms of the structural elements observed in the Kabye Massif granulites in the Lassa (a), Soumdina (b), Tchitchao (c) and Pagouda (d) areas. 1 = pole of Sn + 1 foliation plane; 2 = pole of Ln + 1 mineral or stretching lineation; 3 = pole of Pn + 2 axis; 4 = pole of constructed Pn + 4 axis (projection using upper hemisphere). 
Lithostructural sketch displaying the thrust relationships between the western front of the Kabye Massif and the eastern nappes and slices of the orthogneissic Kara-Niamtougou unit (UKN) in the Tchitchao-Kouméa area (according to [11]); 1 = generally mylonitic orthogneiss and phyllonites of the UKN; 2 = Kabye Massif leucocratic and garnet-bearing granulites; 3 = thrust contact; 4 = Sn + 1 foliation plane (strike and dip) with Ln + 1 lineation (strike and plunge); 5 = Pn + 2 axis (strike and plunge). 
Synthetic cross-section defining the structural relationships between the Kpaza Massif nappes and their enclosing 
The Kabye and Kpaza Massifs correspond to two main granulitic suites in the suture zone of the Pan-African Dahomeyide orogenic belt, in northern Togo. The Kabye Massif is composed of an important west verging nappe pile subdivided into two petrographic units. The nappes in its western petrographic unit are made up of leucocratic garnetbearing granulites defined as the “Lassa-Soumdina Granulites” (GLS). The eastern petrographic unit consists of mela-nocratic granulites, with metagabbroic structures, called the “Ketao-Sirka Granulites” (GKS). These two petrographic units are separated by the Panalo Mylonitic Zone (ZMP). This major west verging zone includes a syn-Dn + 2 dextral shear contact. The Kpaza Massif comprises nappes of melanocratic granulites (GKM), comparable to the GKS of the Kabye Massif. All these granulitic nappes include boudins of pyroxenites or meta-anorthosites, and ultramafic rocks represented by serpentinites, talcschists, actinolite- and chlorite-schists which generally mark thrust soles. The GLS nappes are thrust over the Kara-Niamtougou orthogneissic unit (UKN) which is considered as the easternmost structural unit of the Dahomeyide external zone. On the other hand, the GKS nappes underlie those of the Binah meta-volcano sedimentary Complex (CB) which belongs to the Dahomeyide internal zone. As regards the Kpaza Massif, it occurs as a geologic window tectonically enclosed in the Mono Complex nappes (CM) corresponding to the southern part of the CB. The organization of the Kabye and Kpaza Massifs, as west verging nappe piles, and their relationships with the surrounding structural units express the tangential and folding tectonics that structured the Pan-African belt in northern Togo. The microstructures and mineral parageneses of the granulites and associated rocks in these two massifs indicate a polyphase tectono-metamorphic evolution: a syn-Dn granulitization (collision phase); a syn-Dn + 1 amphibolitization (obduction or tangential phase); and a syn- to post-Dn + 2 greenschist facies retrogressive metamorphism (post-nappe folding phase).
Geochemical and geochronological studies have been carry out on the leucosomes of Yaounde series with the aims to identify the magma sources and to indicate their production periods and emplacement within the formations of the Pan-African North-Equatorial Fold Belt (PANEFB) in Cameroon. The Yaounde series belongs to the Southern domain of the PANEFB and it is composed of migmatites in which two types of granitic leucosomes (in situ leucosomes and injected leucosomes) have been distinguished. These rocks display characteristic of calc-alkaline (in situ leucosomes) and high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series (injected leucosomes). All the rocks are peraluminous with in situ leucosomes conform to S-type and injected leucosomes conform to I- and S-type granitoids. Major and trace elements composition reveal that in situ leucosomes derived from the partial melting of the host metapelite whereas injected leucosomes derived from the melting of metagreywacke. These sources are similar to those of granitoids from central and northern domains of the PANEFB. Th-U-Pb dating by electron microprobe (EMP) and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on zircon have been used to constraints the melting event and emplacement of leucosomes in Yaounde series. Th-U-Pb monazite dating, undertaken in two samples of leucosomes, gives two groups of monazite ages. The older group gives an age of 658 Ma whereas the age of younger group is 592 Ma. U-Pb dating of zircons from the leucosomes reveals a Pan-African age ranging from 626 to 654 Ma whereas zircons from metapelitic host rock reveal the overprinting of an early Pan-African event 911 - 1127 Ma on Palaeoproterozoic (2127 Ma) inheritance. These data clearly indicate that the host rocks of leucosomes of Yaounde series have been firstly metamorphosed during Tonien-Stenien period (911 - 1127 Ma) and reveal the existence of extended unique melting event (592 and 658 Ma) in the Yaounde series which is contemporaneous with the magmatism responsible for the emplacement of granitoids in the other domains of the PANEFB.
Summary of location and geoelectric parameters for the three transects.
Grid vector map showing groundwater flow in the study area.
This paper presents the first work of its kind within the confines of the study area. It unravels the distribution of the lay- ers of conductive sand and their depths of interaction between freshwater from fresh sands and saltwater within the conductive layers in the coastal region of Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria) around the Gulf of Guinea. Vertical electrical sounding (VES) data whose fidelity was achieved by constraining the data by the available nearby logged borehole in- formation during interpretation was the method applied. In the western region of the study area, the ferruginized and saline water layer is found within the depth range of 22 to 75 m deep. In the northern zone, conductive sandy layer is found within 50 to 210 m and in the eastern zone, the saline and ferruginized sandy layer is found within the depth of 88.5 m and above. Generally, the horizontal and vertical cross sections of the subsoil and the flow regime from water table depths have been delineated. With these information, water can be tapped in the area with caution and the flow direction determined can be used as input parameter in detailed contamination study.
First stretch study area from Sharm Abu Datab to Dream Village resort showing major geomorphologic units iden- t ified from Terra Aster 2007 and field observations. 
Second stretch study area from Marsa Um Tondoba to Marsa Malik showing major geomorphologic units identi- fied from Terra Aster 2007 and field observations. 
Photograph showing the submerged mangrove at Abu Ghosoun area (a). Photograph showing the Sabhka at Marsa Alam area (b). Photograph showing the accretion of sediments at Hamata beach (c). Photograph showing the erosion of sediments at Ras Hon Korab beach (d). 
Alongshore pattern along the first stretch (a) and the second stretch (b) in UTM map projection (meters). 
The probability of storms and ice-drift events and their impact on coasts is expected to increase as result of climate change. Multi-years shoreline mapping is considered a valuable task for coastal monitoring and as-sessment. This paper presents shoreline maps illustrating the shoreline erosion accretion pattern in the coastal area between Marsa Alam and Hamata of Red Sea coastline by using different sources of remote sensing data. In the present study, Landsat MSS (1972), Landsat TM (1990), Landsat ETM+ (1998, 2000) and Terra Aster (2007) satellite images were used. In this study, two techniques were used to estimate rate of shoreline retreat. The first technique is corresponding to the formation of automated shoreline positions and the second one is for estimating rate of shoreline change based on data of remote sensing applying Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) software. In this study, the End Point Rate (EPR) was calculated by dividing the distance of shoreline movement by the time elapsed between the earliest and latest measurements at each transect. Alongshore rate changes shows that there are changes of erosion and accretion pattern due to coastal processes and climate changes.
Mapping and documentation of lithological varieties and their corresponding geochemistry at the Kitongo uranium mineralization were concerned. The Kitongo U occurrence is hosted by granitic rocks that include interleaved sequences of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the collectively termed Poli Group. U-mineralization and Na-metasomatism are related and structurally controlled. The most promising uraniferous bodies are intimately related to intersections between the ductile ENE-trending faults and the brittle conjugate R' faults postdating the shearing event. The con- centration of uranium at fault intersections rather than along individual faults suggests that these zones that are dilatational in nature were also highly permeable and therefore the hydrothermal fluids ponded there could readily precipitate U therein. A two-stage albitization has altered the foliated granitic host rock and the second albitization that has over-printed the first one is more effective at fault intersections. Whole rock geochemistry was performed by using ICP-MS and ICP-AES respectively for major oxides, trace and REE. The U-bearing rock suite exhibits restricted range in SiO2 concentration (62.89% - 70.91%) and Al2O3 (13.16% - 18.59%) and it is poor in MgO (0.02% - 1.03%), CaO (0.24% - 1.88%) and K2O (0.08% - 5.32%). The mineralized rocks are however comparatively richer in Na2O (4.33% - 10.92%) compared to their barren counterparts. The host granite and associated granodioritic rocks in the area are weakly metaluminous, peralkaline, and are calc-alkaline. They are moderately to strongly fractionated and have tholeiitic and shoshonitic affinities with moderate to high HFSE (high field strength elements) and LILE (large ion lithophile elements) enrichment. The Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba and Sr/Ba ratios are 0.31, 0.14 and 1.48, respectively. U content in the mineralized granite is up to 651 ppm while the non-mineralized rock has only 2.4 ppm U. The REE patterns of the granite show LREE enrichment and strong Eu negative anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.03 to 0.48). The main mineralization stage characterized by local U, Na, Pb, Zn, Ga, Hf, Sr, Fe, Al, P and Zr enrichments is related to the second albitization event and could probably be associated in time with the calcite-uranium stage. The identification of fault segments favorable for uranium mineralization in northern Cameroon (Poli area) is important for understanding the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits within continental strike-slip faults and therefore has great implications for exploration strategies.
In order to evaluate the contamination of the Moroccan Mediterranean coasts by persistent organic pollutants we studied hydrocarbons and linear alkylbenzenes in bivalve tissues (cockles) collected seasonally from several points along the western Moroccan coasts in the Mediterranean Sea. Two fractions corresponding to non aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. Non aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations vary in the range of 24.1 - 2731 μg/g dry weight (dw) while total n-alkanes vary from 2.2 to 68.2 μg/g. Few exceptions were noted with values up to 243 μg/g (dw), which is high compared to other Mediterranean sites. The presence of an important unresolved complex mixture (UCM) indicated a significant petroleum contamination, confirmed by the identification of 17α(H), 21β(H) hopanes. Biogenic contributions were also detected within the n-alkane distribution (n-C17, n-C18, n-C27, n-C29, n-C17/Pr, n-C18/Ph) and by the presence of alkenes. C13 and C14 linear alkylbenzenes were found at concentrations of 478 - 1954 ng/g. and point to pollutant inputs from wastewaters. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were present in low concentrations below the GC detection limit. The observed seasonal and spatial variations were linked to the magnitude of inputs from marine and land-based pollutant discharges.
Location map of IARI farm with sample points. 
Histogram showing normal distribution of no transformation and log transformation of hydraulic conductivity (K) for depth 0-15 cm. Data 10 
Comparison of crossvalidation statistics of different kriging methods (ordinary, universal, simple), data transformations (none, log) and trend types (none, first). 
Comparison of cross validation statistics of different interpolation methods. 
Summary statistics of measured hydraulic conduc- tivity data of 0 -15 and 15 -30 cm soil layers of farm.
Variability maps of Hydraulic conductivity (K) were generated by using geo statistical analyst extension of ARC GIS for delineating compact zones in a farm. In the initial exploratory spatial data analysis, K data for 0 - 15 and 15 - 30 cm soil layers showed spatial dependence, anisotropy, normality on log transformation and linear trend. Outliers present in both layers were also removed. In the next step, cross validation statistics of different combinations of kriging (Ordinary, simple and universal), data transformations (none and logarithmic) and trends (none and linear) were compared. Combination of no data transformation and linear trend removal was the best choice as it resulted in more accurate and unbiased prediction. It thus, confirmed that for generating prediction maps by kriging, data need not be normal. Ordinary kriging is appropriate when trend is linear. Among various available anisotropic semivariogram models, spherical model for 0 - 15 cm and tetra spherical model for 15 - 30 cm were found to be the best with major and minor ranges between 273 - 410 m and 98 - 213 m. The kriging was superior to other interpolation techniques as the slope of the best fit line of scatter plot of predicted vs. measured data points was more (0.76) in kriging than in inverse distance weighted interpolation (0.61) and global polynomial interpolation (0.56). In the generated prediction maps, areas where K was <12 cm?day–1 were delineated as compact zone. Hence, it can be concluded that geostatistical analyst is a complete package for preprocessing of data and for choosing the optimal interpolation strategies.
Distribution of organic carbon content at the study sites. 
Soil quality index at the study sites. 
Land degradation caused by surface mining of gold has been extensive in Ghana. In recent years rehabilitation of some degraded lands by re-vegetation has been undertaken. This study provides quantitative data on the quality of some rehabilitated and un-rehabilitated mined soils within the AngloGold-Ashanti gold concession in parts of the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana. Soil properties determined included texture, bulk density and aggregate stability, pH, organic carbon, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable bases, exchange acidity, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. Aggregate stability as a physical quality indicator revealed that aggregates of the rehabilitated mined soil had become more stable and similar to the control unmined soil due to litter and carbon additions from planted trees. The nutrient levels were very low because of the presence of low activity clays inherent in the native soil. Organic carbon content in the rehabilitated soil had increased above that of the unrehabilitated soil. Variability in soil properties, especially organic carbon and aggregate stability, was minimal in the unmined and rehabilitated soils implying that soils at the two sites were most robust and resistant to crushing and rupture. Quality index of the unmined control soil was 36.5% indicating that the quality of the soil was 63.5% relative to the optimum quality because of inherent poor soil properties. The mined rehabilitated and unrehabilitated soil had index values of 32.5% and 24.4 %, respectively. The marginal difference of 4% in soil quality between the control and rehabilitated soil shows that it is possible to maintain the health of soils with inherent physical and biochemical deficiencies if reclamation regulations are adhered to. In this way, the socio-economic dilemma of exploiting natural resources for the benefit of societies is ameliorated while maintaining an ecosystem balance.
This paper discusses a procedure that was adopted for the development of a linear regression model for estimating solar radiation in Malawi. By making use of sunshine-hours data recorded at six selected meteorological stations in the coun-try, namely: Salima, Makoka, Karonga, Bolero, Chileka and Mzimba over the period 1991-1995, a set of Angstrom constants were obtained and averaged in order to develop the linear regression model. This model has potential for gen-erating ground observation data of solar radiation at any given location in the country using sunshine hours as the only required input. The Gunn-Bellan Spherical Pyranometer and the Campbell Stokes Sunshine Recorder were respectively used in the measurement of incident radiation (I b) in J·cm –2 /day (converted to MJ·m –2 ·day –1) and sunshine hours. An Angstrom model of monthly average Clearness Index with normalized sunshine duration was then developed for each of the six meteorological stations. The resulting linear regression model was applied in estimating monthly average daily solar radiation. Regression analysis between computed and measured radiation data was applied to assess the reli-ability of the generated Angstrom constants. The results generally show a high degree of agreement between the two variables, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.63 to 0.90. Angstrom constants obtained at the six meteorological stations were thereafter averaged in order to develop a linear regression model for estimating solar radiation in Malawi. Solar radiation values obtained using this model were noted to be in good agreement with those developed for each of the six meteorological stations.
Characteristics of meteorological stations.
Comparison of daytime mean and nighttime mean LST derived from MODIS with 1 m and 2 m air temperature observation. 
Satellite-derived surface temperature data is increasingly required to supplement the limited weather stations for the assessment of temperature trend over the data-sparse Antarctic Ice Sheet. To accomplish this, it is essential to assess the relationship and difference between satellite-based land-surface temperature (LST) retrieval and air temperature observation. In this study, we made a comparison between monthly averaged LST from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the corresponding air temperature at the nominal heights of 1 m and 2 m from automatic weather stations (AWSs) over the Lambert Glacier basin, East Antarctica. This comparison reveals a statistically significant correlation between the two types of temperature measurements with correlation coefficient (R) above 0.6. Also, the time difference between satellite overpass and air temperature observation is not critical for the R values. Although MODIS LST evidently deviates from air temperature (Mean difference fluctuates from 2.87°C to 8.08°C) probably due to the temperature inversion effect, heterogeneity in surface emissivity, representative of AWS measurements and satellite self limitation. MODIS LST measurements have a great potential for the accurate evaluation or monitoring of regional air temperature over Antarctica, and thus better improve current reconstruction of spatial and temporal reconstruction variability in Antarctic temperature.
The lower Yangtze River undergoes intense anthropogenic activities and various natural progress compared to the upper middle reaches. We explore the aqueous geochemistry of ions and elements of suspended particulate in order to recognize the effects of natural conditions and anthropogenic inputs on rivers. These results show that total dissolved solids of water in the lower Yangtze River are similar as those in the upper-middle reaches of mainstream, but higher in tributaries. The major elements of suspended particulate in high-flow regime (HFR) have approximate concentrations with those in low-flow regime (LFR). But remarkable high concentrations of trace elements in tributaries exhibit regardless of HFR or LFR. Multivariate statistics show the suspended particulate matter (SPM) of mainstream presents similar characteristics in flood season and diverse characteristics in dry season. While SPM of tributaries reveals different results. The majority of suspended matter originates from municipal and industrial discharge both in flood season and dry season, and a part from road runoff in flood season, showing an effect of hydrological regime. Mining activity induces remarkably high concentrations of metals regardless of HFR or LFR. Therefore, the geochemistry of SPM in the lower reach of Yangtze River are significantly affected by the anthropogenic input of different sources, which is different from the upper-middle Yangtze River.
Compound recovery during solvent evaporation (30 mL solvent was spiked with a 100µg of each target compound and evaporated to approximately 1 mL).
Optimization of Microwave Oven Parameters.
Concentrations of target compounds in sediments collected on March 25, 2009 along Upper Fountain (UF) Creek and Lower Fountain (LF). Creek near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The capped black lines represent ± 1 standard deviation of triplicate extractions of UF-1. The "a" indicates an estimated concentration that falls below the 99% confidence MDLs.
MAE Method Recoveries and IMDLs.
An Ethos EZ Microwave Lab Station is employed in the development of a robust and efficient microwave extraction method for organic contaminants of anthropogenic origin in river sediments. The extraction method is designed for a small, representative set of target compounds encompassing a range of physicochemical properties. Listed in order of gas chromatography elution they are para-cresol, indole, 4-tert-octylphenol, phenanthrene, triclosan, bisphenol-A, carbamazepine, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sediments samples are ex-tracted wet, which reduces preparation time, and allows the ambient moisture of the sediments to aid in mi-crowave energy absorption and the extraction process. The microwave can hold up to 12 samples that can be simultaneously extracted allowing for rapid sample preparation. Utilizing the pressurized vessels, microwave energy, and a unique mixture of three organic solvents allows for multiple samples to be extracted rapidly with minimal solvent consumption. The final extracts are quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectro-metry. Recoveries of the 8 target compounds in sediment range from 49% to 113%, and method detection limits range between 14 and 114 μg kg –1 , which are comparable with other more time consuming methods.
Cross sections. 
The region of investigation is part of the western desert of Iraq covering an area of about 12,400 km 2 , this region in-cludes several large wadis discharging to the Euphrates River. Since the Tectonic features in particular fault zones play a significant role with respect to groundwater flow in hard rock terrains. The present research is focus on investigate lineaments that have been classified as suspected faults by means of remote sensing techniques and digital terrain evaluation in combination with interpolating groundwater heads and MLU pumping tests model in a fractured rock aq-uifer, Lineaments extraction approach is illustrated a fare matching with suspected faults, moreover these lineaments conducted an elevated permeability zone.
For proper water management in the new reclaimed areas, hydraulic parameters of both aquifer and wells related to transmissivity, specific capacity, well loss, formation loss, and water entrance velocity, as well as the relationship between these parameters are the main target after construction of production wells. In El Shab area, the Nubian Sandstone aquifer has a large range of transmissivity (from 483.12 to 1489.24 m2/day) and, also, specific capacity (from 203 to 486.32 m2/day). Relationship of specific capacity and transmissivity is constructed and the established empirical equations can be used to predict the transmissivity of the Nubian aquifer in all new proposed sites for well drilling at which the specific capacity measured without performing pumping tests. On the other hand, the drilled wells in El Shab area exhibit relatively high well losses (25%). The causes for high well losses (entrance velocity (Vn) through water well screen and the distance from the point of water entrance in the well to the point of intake in the pump) are discussed and the relationships are constructed, which seem a positive linear correlation. Relationships between well losses constant for 30 wells with transmissivity and specific capacity, are constructed. These relationships are useful for estimating hydraulic characteristics that are needed for the designs of wells and well fields and for preliminary water-resources management.
False color composite of MODIS image showing the location of Hail region in KSA.  
The satellite images utilized in the present study. Source: USGS. 
Land cover units of Hail Province and their accuracy estimation. 
Topographic map of Hail region as obtained from the SRTM DEM.  
Land cover map of Hail as obtained from MODIS 2010 image.  
A set of five satellite images from the Landsat satellite, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) sensors has been operated to analyze land cover and topography of the Hail region, Saudi Arabia. Image processing techniques included unsupervised classification for clustering four land cover units in the MODIS image, namely: plains, sand dunes, mountains, and cultivated lands. The SRTM image was classified to produce a thematic topographic map with 100 m elevation interval. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was applied in the Landsat images as a proxy to the change of agricultural land in Hail between 1972 and 2000. Results showed that Hail region occurs at a high plateau. Minimum elevation occurs at its northeastern corner and peaks occur at the southwestern side. The surface area of Hail is estimated at 115,690 km 2 . The majority of Hail area is represented by plains and sand dunes. Cultivated lands increased from 9500 ha in 1972 to 139,000 ha in 2010.
Map of Iran and location of Sarfirouzabad study area. 
Map of Sarfirouzabad study area indicating location of sites discovered during ground survey. 
Input environmental layer: Distance of sites to the water system. 
Input environmental layer: Setting of sites above see levels. 
Input environmental layer: Distance of sites to the natural connection routes. 
Sarfirouzabad district, located in the Kermanshah province, is an eastward extension of Mahidasht Plain, one of the archaeologically well-known regions of the Central Zagros flanks. The area is surrounded by parallel mountain chains of Sefid on the north and Nessar on the south, the main water source of which is Ab-i Marik River flowing in the middle of the valley westward. The region has various environs such as alluvial deposits, steppe, wooden and barren foothills. The first archaeological survey of the region carried out in 2009, exploring 339 sites ranging from Paleolithic to the Islamic periods. 97 of the investigated sites were assigned to the Parthian period, one of the historical periods of ancient Iran. The study aimed to analyze spatial distribution patterns of the Parthian sites of the region as well as the nature and relationship between natural and cultural factors influencing on that distribution, using GIS technology. The results show that the distribution of the Parthian sites on the Sarfirouzabad district were influenced by a combination of natural and cultural factors and we can realize two kinds of patterns in their distributions over the region.
Ny-Alesund, Swalbard region which is located in the mid-ocean ridge of the Arctic Ocean, and named Gakkel ridge, is the slowest spreading ridge of the global system. In the present study an attempt has been made to associate isostatic rebound using GPS campaign data collected at Ny-Alesund area. The Artic Region Campaign GPS network was estab-lished in 2009. The network consists of three campaign mode station. The distance between GPS point is about ~30 km. The preliminary results of our investigation appear broadly consistent with the recent tectonic activity in western Sval-bard. The resultant velocity vector is 14.84 mm·yr –1 with an azimuth of 27.67˚N and a vertical displacement of 7.62  3.0 mm·yr –1 is estimated in Swalbard, in which we presume Glacial Isostatic Rebound (5.1 mm·yr –1) and post glacial geological process (Present Day Ice Melting, erosion, and shore line deposits) of 2.52 mm per year in the study area.
In arid and semi-arid regions, salinity is a serious and chronic problem for agriculture. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydromorphical and salinity risks, and to evaluate the relationship and the possible interfering between the water table and the soil on the oasis of Gabes. The topic is very important, especially for nations around the oceans in arid and semi-arid regions. The effect of the gypsum alkalinity in the soil salinity has investigated. The chemical characteristic of used water irrigation (salinity saturation) and their impact factor in the productivity area. Moreover, in this study the program of examination need to put fifteen piesometres by CRAD (Regional Commissariat of Agriculture Development) in the city of Gabes to controlling the variation of water levels in the superficial water table and their change chemical quality. The experimental measure of this program needs a yearly observation and investigation during April and May to evaluate the hydromorphical and salinity risks on the oasis of Gabes. The relationship and the possible interfering between the water table and the soil has evaluate in such condition.
Concentration of selected elements in the soil samples around the sewage ponds. 
Plot of concentration of elements at Sampling Sta- tions.  
Vertical Electrical Sounding, the Finite Element Technique (FET) and chemical analysis of soil samples were used to map the pollution plume around two oxidation sewage ponds in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. The elemental concentrations of the soil samples at 5 m depth around the sewage ponds were obtained using partial extraction of exchangeable metals ions of (0.05 HCl + 0.025 N H 2 SO 4) or 0.075 N acid mixture. The VES interpreted results delineated three to four geoelectric subsurface layers comprising topsoil, laterite, weathered layer and the fresh basement. The elemental concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr in the soil samples located at the periphery of the sewage ponds are much higher than those of the control sample point indicating pollution. The finite element generated isopach map of the overburden indicates easterly direction of groundwater flow and weathered layer isoresistivity map generated using the finite element technique identifies low resistivity zone characteristic of pollution zone in the eastern flank. The study concluded that the groundwater in the area around the sewage ponds may have been polluted.
Top-cited authors
Julius Ndambuki
  • Tshwane University of Technology
Sophia Rwanga
  • Vaal University of Technology
Himanshu Mittal
  • Ministry of Earth Sciences
Ashok Kumar
  • Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Andy Anderson Bery