International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business

Published by Inderscience
Online ISSN: 1741-8054
Publications
The Perceived Level of Corruption of Local Officials in Croatia* - --i  
Indicators on Corruption and Sources Available for Croatia
Article
This paper examines good governance assessments in Croatia and in selected CEE countries. It aims to confirm that the quality of governance should be evaluated by considering phenomena- or country-specific institutional environment. Based on the analysis of good governance indicators slight improvements in all dimensions of good governance for all of the selected countries were observed in a period from 1996 to 2002. Using constructed aggregate Good Governance Index (GGI) and Human Development Index (HDI) tested the general assumption that good governance is connected to economic and social development. Spearman rank order correlation analysis confirmed that for all selected countries in 2000 there was a high positive correlation between their GGI rank and HDI rank. The correlation matrix for CEE countries in 2000 confirmed our hypothesis that government effectiveness; regulatory quality and rule of law positively correlate with control of corruption. The paper concludes that research on interdependencies among good governance and development indicators as well as on determinants and effects of good governance dimensions remains to be done for Croatia.
 
Static and dynamic measures of market structure 
Mobility indices, according to two methods of computation, base variant 
Mobility indices (M U ), base variant versus long term variant 
Mobility indices (M U ), base variant versus ten size-classes variant 
Article
Business dynamics in an industry is generally seen as an important indicator of the industry's level of competitiveness and economic performance. Two types of business dynamics may be distinguished: business dynamics reflecting competition by new-firm entries and business dynamics reflecting competition among incumbent firms. A growing literature pays attention to the important role of the former type of business dynamics (the starting up of new firms) for achieving economic growth. However, the latter type of business dynamics tends to be overlooked in this type of literature. In part this is due to the large requirements, both in terms of data and in terms of methodology, of measuring competition among incumbent firms. A sophisticated indicator for measuring the extent of business dynamics among incumbent firms in an industry is the mobility index. In the current paper we compute mobility indices for 16 industries -covering the whole private sector except for the primary sectors of economy- in the Netherlands over the period 2000-2006, and compare the values of the mobility indices across the sectors.
 
Article
This paper analyzes empirically the determinants of new born firms' initial size. As survival prospects of young firms tend to be linked to a firm's start-up size, a better understanding of the factors influencing start-up size is crucial. Most of the rare literature on initial firm size focuses on industry characteristics. We contribute to the understanding of the determinants of initial firm size by analyzing firm specific factors such as founders' human capital composition and entry strategies. We find that in addition to industry effects start-up size is considerably influenced by the human capital of firm founders. We distinguish between generic and specific human capital. Generic human capital refers to the general knowledge acquired through formal education and professional experience and usually coincides with a higher personal wealth. Specific human capital comprises competences that can be directly applied to the entrepreneurial job. For generic human capital we find that having a university degree has a positive influence on start-up size. The same applies for general working experience proxied by the founder's age. For the specific human capital components we find that successful entrepreneurial experience and managerial experience gained in dependent employment support a higher start-up size. Altogether, specific human capital tends to have a larger impact on initial size than generic human capital. Entry strategies are expected to have a crucial influence on start-up size, because objectives of market entry largely determine the resources a firm requires. We distinguish between different types of entry strategies. On the one hand, we look at entry strategies based on innovation. We measure innovation by a variable which indicates if a firm carries out continuous R&D. On the other hand, entry is classified according to the main motive of the founders for firm formation. We conclude that different motives are accompanied by diverse entry strategies. The
 
Article
This study focuses on the relation between innovation and the international involvement of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), taking into account export as well as import activities of firms. The analysis is based on a sample of more than 1.800 Dutch SMEs using regression analysis. The results of this study suggest that innovative investments as well as several innovative realisations or practices have a positive impact on international involvement. Also, some evidence is found that international involvement may stimulate firms to investment in product innovations and in new distribution systems.
 
Article
Given the importance of green entrepreneurs in the transition towards a truly sustainable society, this paper proposes frameworks for investigating the motives of entrepreneurs who set up green businesses. Different perceptions of 'green' are explored and although the paper focuses particularly on 'green-green' businesses, the scope for investigation encompasses all possible forms of green start-ups. The main approach taken in the paper is to review the literature on entrepreneurs generally, and approaches to classifying entrepreneurs with a view to gaining useful insights for the green context. An exploratory typology of green entrepreneurs is proposed, which has been adapted and developed from Thompson's four dimensions of entrepreneurship (1998). The terms 'ethical maverick', 'ad hoc environpreneur', 'visionary champion' and 'innovative opportunist' are coined to describe different motives or orientations of the green entrepreneur. Frameworks are proposed to investigate the motives of, and influences on, green entrepreneurs. The ultimate aim is to gain insights for policy makers and educators into ways to foster green entrepreneurship.
 
Article
We explore if the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship, applied to FDI, provides at least a partial explanation for the greater emergence of recent knowledge-based entrepreneurship in Ireland compared with Wales. In order to examine how FDI and entrepreneurship policy in these two regions might have influenced the levels of knowledge-based entrepreneurship, we outline FDI and entrepreneurship policies for Wales and Ireland and key measures of knowledge creation, and evaluate the extent and nature of FDI activity and its relationship with entrepreneurship in general and knowledge-based entrepreneurship in particular. Implications include possible policy directions for countries that are characterized by weak knowledge-creating institutions yet wish to encourage knowledge-based entrepreneurship.
 
The results of the t-test for communication structure
The results of the t-test for organisational values
Article
Recently, more and more enterprises recognise the importance of the quality of products and services and business excellence. By gaining new markets and new customers in the world market, the enterprises meet numerous challenges, confrontations, new legislation and technology. Taking into account the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) excellence model, our research defines the endeavours of the enterprises that strive for better structure, behaviour and communication paths to reach the final customers, with emphasis on improved quality, higher competitiveness and customer satisfaction. In our research, we compare the enterprises holding a business excellence certificate with those that do not hold it. We establish that they differ in some characteristics of their management, which are defined by nine criteria. For years, several Slovene enterprises have been successfully selling their products to the industrially developed countries in Europe and to the USA. They are the first to develop and achieve high growth in their enterprises and, in turn, their own business excellence.
 
Countries covered by GEM research
GEM Top 22 Per Capita GDP, US$ 2003
Article
Individual efforts to create new firms are reflected in the total early-stage activity (TEA) index. The TEA index is a measure of the prevalence of individuals engaged in the start-up or gestation phase or in managing a young business, less than 42 months old. The GEM adult population survey identifies such individuals who will own part of the business and have been active in implementing the new firm. TEA reflects the percentage of the adult population (18 64 years) who are active in the creation of a new business. With an overall rate of 13.6% TEA rate, New Zealand maintains its rank as the most entrepreneurial country amongst the developed countries. New Zealand's rate of individual entrepreneurship was exceeded by four developing countries. They include Uganda, Venezuela, Argentina, and Chile. Although New Zealand may rank higher, statistically there is no difference between New Zealand and Brazil, USA, Australia, China, and Iceland.
 
The startup development cycle (see online version for colours)
Goals and means of startups and VCs
Article
This qualitative study examines the motivations for venture capitalists and entrepreneurs to act opportunistically toward one another. Structured interviews with 14 employees and 5 investors in a venture capital-funded start-up revealed that venture capitalists expect opportunistic behaviour from entrepreneurs during investment rounds but largely trust entrepreneurs between financing rounds. Both venture capitalists and entrepreneurs reported that venture capitalists act opportunistically towards the entrepreneur and other venture partners during all stages of start-up development. These findings have important implications for entrepreneurship research, most notably the applicability of agency theory as a theoretical perspective from which to view the complex relationship between venture capitalists and entrepreneurs.
 
Conceptual Framework For Global Brand Adaptation
Results of a Cronbach's Alpha's reliability test
Results of a standard multiple regression analysis
Article
Previous studies have focused on the degree of standardisation or adaptation and, to a lesser extent, on the determinants of adaptation. This paper advances the literature in four respects. Firstly, we are able to evaluate the relative importance of internal (commitment, experience) versus external (culture, economic) determinants of adaptation. Secondly, we have examined several firm size categories, so we can evaluate how the relative roles of internal and external factors vary by firm size. Thirdly, rather than treat adaptation as one of adjusting one or more of the four Ps, we use a more holistic concept of adaptation, namely brand adaptation, which subsumes marketing mix adaptation. A scale has been developed to capture this holistic concept. Fourthly, we have developed a new culture scale, one based on the perceptions of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) businesses, using domestic operations as a benchmark. Yes Yes
 
Typology of micro-credit agency processes of sharing vision and interdependence for explication of tacit knowledge Processes for sharing vision Effective processes for sharing vision Ineffective processes for sharing vision
Article
This paper contributes to a new area of research, namely: institutional preparedness of economic development agencies for developing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The cases presented illustrate variations in the micro-finance lender agency-enterprise development of processes for sharing vision and interdependence. In clarifying the nature of the agency-enterprise relationship along these two dimensions, we develop a set of propositions. Our model contends 1 that effective processes for sharing vision and good cooperation maximise the likelihood of explication of tacit knowledge 2 that ineffective processes for sharing vision and good cooperation lead to ad hoc explication of tacit knowledge 3 ineffective processes for sharing vision and poor cooperation minimise the likelihood of explication of tacit knowledge 4 effective processes for sharing vision and poor cooperation maximise the likelihood of explication of tacit knowledge.
 
Article
Research suggests that barriers and constraints encountered by women are gender-specific, and that women are subject to discriminatory practices. However, by focusing on what women are prevented from doing, much research portrays women as victims of circumstance rather than as individuals with different identity constructions and value systems. This paper challenges the widespread assumption that female entrepreneurial agency is confronted by gender-specific barriers, and proposes an alternative perspective based on the integration of role and identity concepts. This portrays women as agents in their own lives rather than merely victims of structural gender-specific barriers. In consequence, the paper proposes that female entrepreneurs construct and reconstruct their identity under the influence of institutionalised practices, which can only be changed from within.
 
Article
There is increasing attention on the attitudes towards entrepreneurship as an important predictor of entrepreneurial activity. So far, the focus has mainly been on the individual or national levels. This paper describes, based on the existing literature, the link between the entrepreneurial attitudes and entrepreneurial activity at the regional level. We explore both the entrepreneurial attitudes and activity using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor over the period from 2001–2006. We provide newly constructed and harmonised regional indices on entrepreneurial attitudes and entrepreneurial activity across 18 European countries. By mapping these indices, patterns emerge on different spatial levels. We observe a positive link between entrepreneurial attitudes and entrepreneurial activity, but argue that this relationship is not clear-cut, in particular, when linking to economic development. Regional and national forces – in terms of population density, national institutions and the differences in cultures – matter in determining how the link between entrepreneurial attitudes and entrepreneurial activity is established.
 
Article
This paper investigates the decision by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to raise funding via the sale of equity. Prior theoretical and empirical work on the ‘pecking order’ of funding has indicated that we should not expect SMEs to prefer equity funding over internal funding and external debt, except under particular circumstances relating to the risk aversion and autonomy aversion of the owner-manager. We utilise data from the Business Longitudinal Survey undertaken by the Australian Bureau of Statistics to investigate relationships suggested by the literature. We found that only about 5% of SMEs intended to raise funds from the sale of equity. Of these, the decision to seek equity funding was significantly and positively related to the owner-manager’s intention to sell the firm; to the firm’s intention to increase the number of markets targeted; and to the firm’s growth intentions. The decision was also negatively related to the firm being a family business.
 
Article
In this paper we present the concept of authentic learning as an integrated part of competence-based learning in entrepreneurship education, focusing on the relevance of this conceptual framework for education in entrepreneurship. The study aims to verify a set of design principles for entrepreneurship education for science students at the university level, based on the theory of authentic learning. The design principles of authentic learning, which are presented in this paper, are deduced from an initial design of a course in entrepreneurship in ICT at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. The outcomes of this course were evaluated in starting ventures, learning effects and perception of students. Based on the evaluation results, the design principles were adjusted and new principles were added. Design principles can help in describing interventions in education in entrepreneurship in forthcoming studies.
 
Article
An entrepreneurial environment is conformed by factors that play a favourable role in the development of entrepreneurship. Economic literature on innovative milieus identifies those elements that are decisive in improving the competitive performance of companies. We analysed whether Barcelona Activa's specific environment promotes the development of an innovative milieu, which favours entrepreneurial attitudes. The results show how the combination of incubation experience, development of ICT-based innovations and cooperation considerably improve the success probability of new firms. Moreover, participation in institutional activities that strengthen commercial and social networks also improves their chances. The local agency seems to be particularly suitable for entrepreneurs with labour experience and it plays a complementary role in the framework of the wide range of university spin-off centres in the metropolitan region.
 
Article
The objective of this paper is to provide empirical evidence about the importance of barriers to entry. In particular, the perceptions of firms are considered. Three questions are addressed: which entry-barriers are important in the perception of firms in the Dutch economy? Do these perceptions differ between sectors? Do these perceptions differ between small and large firms? It is shown that the procurement of a viable sales volume, access to capital and financial risk, are considered to be the major barriers. The ranking of the importance of specific barriers to entry coheres among the sectors under study. The most remarkable result is that the figures indicate that micro firms perceive lower barriers to entry than medium-sized and large firms.
 
Article
The terms enterprise, entrepreneurship and small business are frequently used in the context of education and small business formation. Particular countries have preference for the use of the terms in specific circumstances, for example, entrepreneurship is more common in the USA and Canada, while enterprise is more often used in the UK and Australia. Because the terms are often used interchangebly, there is confusion about their exact meaning. In Australia the term entrepreneur has negative connotations not related to the true meaning of the word. This has confused the general public and the poor image that is associated with the term is often then shared with the other terms. The purpose of this paper is to clearly set out distinctions between the three terms in order to improve the level of understanding of the issues where the terms are commonly used. It involves an analysis of the literature to identify similarities and distinctions particularly in areas of education and business start-ups. The findings indicate that while there is a degree of overlap between the concepts, with the boundaries blurred in certain areas, it is possible to differentiate between the three terms.
 
Article
Following the emergent trend to deconstruct the conventional view of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship, this paper specifically addresses the questions of how psychological meanings and moral factors affect rural microentrepreneurship in developing countries and how the calculative practices of such rural entrepreneurs are embedded within their culture and politics. Our Sri Lankan case study employs a critical ethnographic approach, with the evidence displaying the presence of 'bounded emotionality' in entrepreneurial calculations as determined and influenced by society and structures of morality and meaning. The paper emphasises the need to adopt broader critical frameworks, of a multidisciplinary form, to understand rural entrepreneurship in developing countries as they particularly address situational realities at local levels. This can assist policymakers in constructing and adopting more appropriate microentrepreneurship development programmes to better fit individual contexts.
 
Map of Kinmen, Taiwan showing (selected) battlefield attractions (see online version for colours)  
Tourist destination branding model  
Red carpet demarcating the exact spot where Chiang Kai-shek stood (see online version for colours)  
Façade of 823 Museum (see online version for colours)  
Article
The recent proliferation of academic works on 'place branding' has led to a burgeoning interest in 'island branding'. This paper posits that islands are geographical features that possess unique characteristics and experience distinctive circumstances and, thus, deserve to be analysed on their own terms. In particular, it explores the intricacies in the branding of Kinmen Island, Taiwan, as a battlefield tourism destination. This case study confronts the typical island lure – of sun, sand and sea – and creates an opportunity for some distinct positioning in the global tourism market. The discussion shows the importance for tourism planners to recognise the unique character of the island to localise development projects in terms of its geographical particularity and landscape identity. Furthermore, it is argued that the branding of Kinmen is not merely a top-down process; the Kinmen brand is a result of both top-down 'imagineering' efforts by the state and the bottom-up branding practices of local entrepreneurs, Kinmen's people and tourists. It is believed that tourists' identification of an island has to be substantiated by locals' self-recognition with the island's identity to sustain any branding effort.
 
Article
Many studies found that women-owned firms underperform. The performance gap might be attributed to gender differences in personal and firm characteristics affecting performance. This paper shall contribute to explain the female underperformance using data from the KfW/ZEW start-up panel. We track the performance of about 4,700 German start-up firms over up to four years after foundation. Sales, two measures of employment growth, and return on sales are used as performance indicators. We find that female-founded firms perform worse for the different performance indicators. At the same time, significant gender differences in many of the characteristics are observed. Compared to male entrepreneurs, female entrepreneurs have a lower level of formal education, less professional experience, are part of smaller start-up teams, are more often driven by necessity, and are overrepresented in the retail and service industries and in lower-tech industries in general. These differences can explain parts of female entrepreneurial underperformance.
 
Investment vs. Worth  
Article
The purpose of this article is to address the effects of social exchange, in particular leadership communication, between the current leader of a family business and the prospective future leader when one is the parent and the other, a next-generation offspring. In light of previous literature that identified seven personal characteristics of the family business leader that could contribute to the occurrence of destructive, counterproductive behaviours, a model has been formulated that examines the probable effects of destructive leadership on the respective welfares of each generation of leaders and examines the resultant willingness of the next generation, i.e., son or daughter, to contribute their time and effort to the firm. The use of a 'communication compass' is proposed as a way of ensuring that the communication patterns between generations is perceived as appropriate to enable both the leader and the follower to benefit in the long run.
 
Definition of variables for measuring employment change
Descriptive statistics for employment change*
Descriptive statistics for dependent and independent variables*
Article
We analyze different types of effects that new businesses may have on regional employment. We introduce different measures for employment change by separating employment change in incumbent businesses and employment change in new businesses. There are pronounced differences between regions with regard to the different employment effects. The average indirect employment effects of new business formation on incumbent employment are positive and are considerably larger than the employment that is directly generated in the new businesses.
 
Model of Meijaard et al. (2005)
Article
This study focuses on the transfer process and the importance of human capital and succession planning as firm resource from the seller’s perspective. It further differentiates amongst two types of human capital - specific and generic - to predict the transfer duration, obtained price and satisfaction with the transfer. A representative dataset of 112 Dutch small firm owners, who sold their firm in 2005 and 2006, is analyzed. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that specific human capital, like flexibility, social skills and market awareness predict transfer performance better than generic human capital like general education. Results also indicate that succession planning in business transfers is unrelated to the objective transfer performance indicators transfer duration and obtained price. Succession planning is strongly related to the subjective transfer performance indicator satisfaction. Results also show that familiarity between seller and buyer rather than kinship or family ties is a key predictor for all transfer performance indicators.
 
Typology of captivity  
Article
This paper explores within the framework of new venture legitimation how and why international new ventures acquire external legitimacy and strive for survival in the face of critical events. Following a longitudinal multiple-case study methodology that was adopted for the purpose of theory building, the paper introduces the typology of captivity, and the four types that have emerged: captive industry supplier, captive dyadic partner, captive market leader, and free market leader. The effects of captivity types on the acquisition of external legitimacy and its survival, on reaching legitimacy threshold, and on the valuation of the venture are discussed and respective propositions are put forward to guide future research.
 
Three dimensions of celebrity endorser credibility scale
Ad copy used for the fictional 'Guppygear snowstuff' company in experiment one
Article
Increasingly, celebrities appear not only as endorsers for products but are apparently involved in entrepreneurial roles in the ventures that market the products they promote. We call this phenomenon Celebrity Entrepreneurship. We hypothesise that celebrity entrepreneurs are more effective communicators than typical celebrity endorsers. Further, we hypothesize that this is because celebrity entrepreneurship leads to higher perceptions of Involvement – an endorser quality hitherto neglected in the marketing communication literature – which in turn affects traditional outcome variables such as Aad and Abr. Two experiments confirm that a) involvement can successfully be operationalised as distinct from variables previously shown to influence communicator effectiveness, b) involvement has a positive effect on Aad and Abr over and above the traditional predictors, and c) celebrity entrepreneurship in experimental manipulations leads to increased perceived involvement.
 
Article
This article expands recent advances in entrepreneurial cognition research by initiating a conversation between the two fields of institutional entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship. After defining the concepts in accordance with the current literature, it builds on extant research to provide a comparative review of both fields and outline how they can inform each other. Finally, it offers views about gaps and overlaps and identifies the areas where further research is most likely to go. It shows that an integration of the two strands of literature may provide a methodology to find answers to hitherto unresolved issues.
 
Definition of entrepreneurial field  
The positioning and the contents of corporate entrepreneurship  
Patterns of corporate venturing  
Article
The themes of corporate entrepreneurship can be approached from many angles: they call for an examination, on the one hand, of the conditions in which new activities are undertaken (concept, markets, finance…), and of the entrepreneur's profile, and on the other hand, of the company's ability to create and welcome innovation as guided by the change agents (leadership). Facing this diversity, our article aims to categorise firm's strategies engaged in entrepreneurial behaviours. After having recalled the characteristics of entrepreneurship considered from an individual perspective, we describe corporate entrepreneurship in its different forms, distinguishing its internal facets (revitalisation, sharing innovative approaches, developing new activities) and its external ones (corporate venture capital). Finally, in our last section, we propose a new framework that helps to recognise different types of entrepreneurial companies and encompasses the various initiatives that resort to corporate entrepreneurship.
 
Skill categories mentioned in the interviews in six European countries
Article
Entrepreneurship in agriculture is an important issue in Europe. Policymakers, researchers, farmers' unions and advisory services are concerned with the development of entrepreneurship in agriculture. This paper reports on the interim findings of a European Union funded research project established to examine the socio-economic and cultural factors hindering or stimulating the development of entrepreneurial skills of farmers. One hundred and twenty (120) stakeholders in the farming sector were interviewed to explore their views concerning the entrepreneurial capability of farmers. Entrepreneurship is connected with finding ways and means to create and develop a profitable farm business. Skills are the competencies required to accomplish tasks and activities related to the farm business which can be developed by learning and experience
 
Influence of resources, culture and quality of entrepreneurship on economic development  
The resources, culture and quality of entrepreneurship framework  
Article
Entrepreneurship is a global phenomenon occurring in both developed and developing countries. Local economic and cultural factors both affect new ventures. This paper presents a framework that presents visionary (high quality) entrepreneurship as a principal driver in developing economies. The framework incorporates the dimensions of culture and resource-availability and speculates on their relationship with the quality of entrepreneurship. The notion of disequilibrium is presented where the role of culture and resource-availability is described as entrepreneurship impeding in developing economies, but entrepreneurship enhancing in developed economies. The framework also provides an integrated approach to guide future research about cross-cultural and geographic differences in the rates and qualities of new venture creation.
 
The individual nucleus and surrounding layers-framework 
Article
The entrepreneur can be viewed as the source that implements his entrepreneurial capabilities to recognise, pursue and successfully exploit viable business opportunities. However, it is at the beginning of the entrepreneurial process that the pre-nascent entrepreneur is confronted with various influences from his environment. Moreover, there is knowledge lacking as to what affects entrepreneurs in different environments or countries and to what degrees. This paper aims at conceptualising a research framework based on the Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) construct and transferring this construct to the individual level. Through this, insights into the influencing factors of entrepreneurial individuals operating in different countries become possible. The factors in the environment of a pre-nascent entrepreneur to be discussed are culture, politics/law, macro-economic and micro-economic influences.
 
Article
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the main variables distinguishing between high-growth firms and non-high-growth firms in the Italian manufacturing market. Specifically, we aim to establish which balance-sheet ratios enable us to distinguish between high-growth and non-high-growth firms. For this purpose, we employed a discriminant analysis on the financial data of two groups of firms selected from a population of approximately 22,000 firms for the period 2003-2007. The results of the analysis indicate the roles of firm size, non-financial debt and internal cash flows in the growth and success of a firm. We adopt an innovative approach that considers financial statements issued the year prior to the observation of accelerated growth as predictive of this growth (as is used by credit-scoring models, i.e., the Z-Score model, to measure the probability of default).
 
Article
This inductive research study seeks to answer these research questions: (1) Do owners of successful microbusinesses react to crises unknowingly; or (2) Do they proactively manage crises? Using naturalistic observation and in-depth interviews of business owners running established businesses in rural Angus, UK, to establish their attitudes towards crisis planning and ongoing crises, this paper makes a contribution towards the literature of entrepreneurship by examining an underresearched aspect of entrepreneurial behaviour – namely crisis management in microbusinesses.
 
Article
Today's global social-political environment leads many to elevate entrepreneurship as a vehicle facilitating economic development. Even though different regions have similar new firm formation rates, there is much variation in terms of the contribution to economic development. Building on the resource based-view and Hofestede's research on cultural dimensions, this paper proposes three factor view of the quality of entrepreneurship. We posit that the quality of entrepreneurship, rather than quantity, is the main determinant of economic development.
 
Potential sources of help 
Theoretical framework of the study 
Article
The goal of this theoretical paper is to provide a framework that can support firms involved in social networks to improve their entrepreneurial orientation by adopting a simple basic principle (division of labour). Entrepreneurship does not depend only on tangible resources (such as physical assets or the financial resources of an entrepreneur) but it is widely related to the availability of individual and social (intangible) factors also. Assuming such an ‘intangible view’ of entrepreneurship, this theoretical proposal suggests that the division of labour implemented by a firm both internally and externally increases its human and social capital. These two factors are considered key elements in order to address and increase the entrepreneurial orientation of the firm. In the course of the paper, evidence supporting these ideas is briefly explored. This study therefore, embraces crucial ideas from the economic, sociological and industrial district theory (as division of labour and social ties to foster entrepreneurship within the network) and applies them to explain concepts of strategic management and business administration.
 
Article
Using the qualitative research techniques of auto-ethnography, active reflection and natural observation to construct a data set of businesses in a village in rural Aberdeenshire, Scotland, UK this exploratory, longitudinal study examines the dynamics of village entrepreneurship in relation to those of urban entrepreneurship. It does so by analysing data on businesses in the area actively collected via a visual audit to determine whether entrepreneurship as practised in rural areas differs from that practised in urban areas. Although both fall under the same rubric and rest upon the same theories, from a practical perspective they differ dramatically in the pace of life in which they are enabled and enacted.
 
Results of Hierarchical Regression Analyses for the Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunities (Business Ideas and Business Opportunities) testing Interpersonal Dispositional Trust, Vigilance and Social Networks
Article
This research examines the roles that an entrepreneur's dispositions to interpersonal trust, and vigilance play in the process of opportunity recognition. An entrepreneur's use of social networks as a resource in opportunity recognition is also examined. The basis of this investigation was an empirical study of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) entrepreneurs in Queensland, Australia. A series of 12 hypotheses were developed and tested in this research. Despite a modest sample size, five of the hypothesised relationships were supported. An entrepreneur's dispositions to both trust and vigilance affected the outcomes of their opportunity identification behaviours. A disposition to excess vigilance inhibited the development of entrepreneurial opportunities. While, an extended social network and a trusting disposition were found to facilitate the development of entrepreneurial opportunities.
 
Article
This essay is an argument for using qualitativemethods in entrepreneurship research. Since entrepreneurs are influenced byculture, to gain a holistic understanding of the entrepreneurial process, themost effective research method is the case study in which the important aspectsof environment are analyzed and understood. The traditional method of research is the hypothetico-deductive approach andexamines the "why" of what entrepreneurs do; qualitative researchshould focus on the "how" of entrepreneurship and of encouraging othersto succeed. Qualitative research, or the "holistic-inductive" option,is based on personal observation, document analysis, open-ended interviews, and"thick description" using direct quotations from subjects. Advantages of qualitative research are the ability to learn directly fromthe research subject, reduction of measurement errors, asking the correctquestion, and solving the right problem. Aspects of design, research strategy,sampling, data collection, and data analysis are discussed. Such a researchmethodology is more appropriate for yielding new theories and understanding theentrepreneur's interaction with the environment. Use of the qualitativeapproach will help researchers better understand entrepreneurship. Policymakers will better understand the values and cultures of those whom they areencouraging to become entrepreneurs. (TNM)
 
The global economy
Article
Indigenous populations throughout the world suffer from chronic poverty, lower education levels, and poor health. The 'second wave' of indigenous development, after direct economic assistance from outside, lies in indigenous efforts to rebuild their 'nations' and improve their lot through entrepreneurial enterprise. This paper suggests that there is a distinguishable kind of activity appropriately called 'indigenous entrepreneurship'. We believe that entrepreneurship among the indigenous-approximately 300 million strong worldwide-has a rich potential for rebuilding indigenous communities.We begin by defining the indigenous population and noting some general facts about their numbers and distribution. In an effort to discern the potential for economic development on indigenous peoples' own terms, we then explore three frameworks for understanding efforts at development, including indigenous development: modernisation theory, dependency theory and (at somewhat greater length) regulation theory. After distinguishing 'indigenous' from 'ethnic' entrepreneurship, we conclude by identifying a number of lead questions that present themselves at the outset of an enquiry into the nature of indigenous entrepreneurship.
 
Article
This paper considers an innovative approach to entrepreneurship delivery by presenting a toolkit based on business and technology connectivity, experiential learning and reflective practice. It is applied within an intensive summer school programme entitled Encouraging Dynamic and Global Entrepreneurs (EDGE). International students are exposed to entrepreneurship through action learning projects. Portfolio software is used to capture activity-based learning and reflective practice is evidenced via blogs. EDGE is a complex system of connectivity which provides added value to what could be seen as discrete activities: internships, exchange programmes, careers advice, growth programmes, training and education. This connectivity is both the driver and vehicle for the associated teaching, learning and assessment strategies. This paper contributes to the entrepreneurship debate from both the policy and academic perspective by highlighting EDGE, encouraging discussion of the intensive school approach and offering a toolkit that contributes to the pedagogical development of entrepreneurship.
 
Article
This study reviews the innovation system for high-tech start-ups in Germany for a broad understanding of its entire structure. The paper is based on a theoretical framework with the main factors personality, resources and environment. In the main part of this paper, the influences of research and development, investment environment, sociocultural awareness of entrepreneurship, regulatory affairs and bureaucracy on German high-tech entrepreneurs are described. Based on quantitative findings from several studies, supported by several case studies, we are able to show the strengths and weaknesses of the national innovation system in Germany. Thus, we can illustrate where improvements are necessary and propose solutions where possible. In conclusion, the results are discussed critically and areas where more research is needed are indicated.
 
Article
This paper uses biennial data from the General Social Survey (GSS) to reexamine the self-employment experience of immigrants over the 1977-2004, yielding a database of 25 individual years with over 36,000 observations. The regression results suggest that the conditional probability of self-employment is higher among immigrants, though there is evidence that it has fallen, and then rebounded, over time. Self-employment is also significantly related to age, educational attainment, race, marital status, occupation, industry of employment and family background. However, these are generally less important in explaining self-employment among immigrants. Some variables such as marital status or homeownership (a proxy for access to capital) are associated with native self-employment, but not migrant self-employment. We look at 'latent entrepreneurship' and find no evidence that preferences for self-employment vary by immigrant status. Taking everything together, we speculate that immigrants may be self-selected into self-employment, independent of their individual characteristics and stated preferences.
 
Article
In the last decade, growth in female-owned entrepreneurial ventures in the USA has accelerated. Despite this, there is sparse research that examines whether exogenous entrepreneurial motivations of females are materially different from those of males. This paper adds to the extant literature by examining this topic in the context of the post-2008 US economic recession. Specifically, this paper examines the motivation factors of: 1) work and family balance flexibility; 2) lack of corporate opportunities; 3) career aspirations. Findings suggest that these exogenous motivation factors are stronger motivators for female entrepreneurs than for male entrepreneurs.
 
Article
This paper presents the main results of the research work done in the Caribbean countries in the 2011-2013 period oriented to measure the dynamics of the youth entrepreneurs and their enterprises. The methodology used was GEM methodology, and the analysis is done using as framework the 'entrepreneurial pipeline concept' to make easier the understanding of the results, the identification of areas of improvement and the formulation of policies for entrepreneurship development. The entrepreneurial pipeline of the young population (18-34 years old), presents better indicators than the entrepreneurial pipeline of the adult population (35-64 years old), except in the 'established business' stage.
 
Article
The present study investigates six study questions with the aim of analysing the extent of consideration the conceptual components of entrepreneurship in the Profession and Technics textbooks of high school first grade. The study method is descriptive qualitative with content analysis. The study population includes three work and technology textbooks of seventh grade and technique and profession textbooks of eighths and ninth grades in academic year 2013-2014. Regarding the study type, the total count is used. The measure is the checklist of researcher-made content analysis and the study findings are analysed using descriptive statistics. The major findings of the study show that among the studied components in Profession and Technics textbook of high school first degree, the creativity component has the highest frequency; and the extent of considering it in the seventh grade Profession and Technics textbook is higher than the two other grades and the lowest extent is seen in the ninth grade Profession and Technics textbook. Also, the highest extent of consideration of entrepreneurship components is seen in the seventh grade Profession and Technics textbook.
 
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If history is the true roadmap of our future then our economic resurgence will rise from the energy and passion that continually arises from the entrepreneurial spirit inside of individuals. Why? Because it is the result of individual innovation, passion and tenacity. Whether creating the innovations from inside or outside established organisations, it is that knowledge power that fuels a market economy. The one true enduring force is entrepreneurship and the innovation it creates. However, that same force surges in the growing field of entrepreneurship education. In the midst of this huge expansion of entrepreneurship education we have witnessed significant accomplishments in entrepreneurship theory, process, and practice. This article reviews all three components and highlights some of the critical questions that confront entrepreneurship education in the 21st century and how entrepreneurship educators can be the solutions to those questions.
 
Top-cited authors
Léo-Paul Dana
  • Montpellier Business School
Hervé Dumez
  • École Polytechnique
Friederike Welter
  • Institut für Mittelstandsforschung Bonn
Tikaram Adhikari
  • Government of Manitoba, Canada
Liz E. E. Walley
  • Manchester Metropolitan University