International Journal of English and Cultural Studies

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Print ISSN: 2575-811X
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Round of processes adapted from Halliday's 2 nd edition of an Introduction of Functional Grammar source: https://najmoore.blogspot.com/2013/11/process-types-graphic.html?m=1
This article is part of an undergraduate course paper that studies the autobiography of the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet, Tenzin Gyatso: Freedom in Exile. We analyse the discursive-linguistic representations of the conflict between China and Tibet within this autobiographical narrative through systemic functional linguistics. We understand the potential of the autobiographical narrative as a means to construe and organize life experiences through language and also giving new meanings to them. In this study we employ the theoretical and methodological apparatus of critical discourse analysis and the philosophy of critical realism in the attempt to understand the representational aspect of the texts. We use a qualitative research approach. The general objective of this study is to analyse the representations that the narrator creates of the contents of his vital experience by privileging and working with the ones that emerge from the conflict between China and Tibet. The specific objectives include: (i) to identify the lexical-grammatical choices regarding the constituents that structure these representations; (ii) to explore autobiographical writing; (iii) to analyse the representations discursively, in order to proceed to an explanatory critique of the discourse; (iv) to discuss and reflect upon the intransitivity of moral values to human emancipation and meta-Reality.
 
In this essay, I suggest that fairy tales have particular value for students studying at the university level. Assigning fairy tales allows students to read familiar stories from their childhood and reconsider them from critical perspectives. When teaching a college course on fairy tales, my students and I utilize three essential frameworks for understanding fairy tales, focusing on the psycho-social development and sexual maturation of the human person, feminist critique and the need for gender equality in a patriarchal world, and audience reception and reader responses leading to emotional progress and even spiritual enlightenment. Students primarily familiar with Disney film versions of fairy tales enlarge their understanding of multiple versions of tales, both early modern and contemporary. They become familiar with classic fairy tale writers and collectors, such as Charles Perrault, Madame d’Aulnoy, the Brothers Grimm, Hans Christian Anderson, Oscar Wilde, Andrew Lang, J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Anne Sexton, Angela Carter, and J.K. Rowling as well as fairy tale scholars like Bruno Bettelheim, Maria Tartar, and Jack Zipes. Their study not only results in a firm grasp of the key aspects of story in general, but in the ability to see connections between the real-world problems of the 21st century – such as poverty, starvation, disease, inequality, child abuse, human trafficking, and abuses of political power, among others – and lessons learned from fairy tales. This essay analyzes “Beauty and the Beast” as a key example of the genre and identifies pedagogical strategies for teaching it.
 
This paper aimed at examining the differential effects of individual and collaborative written corrective feedbacks on EFL learners’ writing accuracy. To this end, 60 female English language learners were selected from among 80 students of intermediate EFL learners in private language institute in Urmia (West Azerbayjan, IRI). The participants were randomly divided into two groups namely, ‘individual feedback group’ and ‘collaborative feedback group’. Two different correction procedures were provided for both groups. For the first group, the assignment papers of the participants was gathered by the instructor in order to be provided with explicit written corrective feedback for their writings in terms of grammar and mechanics, while for the second group, six participants wrote on a topic and each composition was corrected by four EFL learners. Finally, a post-test on writing was conducted for both groups, and a t-test analysis was used to compare the mean scores of both groups. The findings of the study revealed that there was a significant difference between the individual and collaborative corrective feedback groups in terms of their writing accuracy.
 
International Journal of English and Cultural Studies (IJECS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether IJECS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 1, Number 2 Torbjörn Lodén, Stockholm University, SwedenVesselina Anastasova Laskova, University of Udine, ItalyRaven Maragh, Gonzaga University, USAMariam Nemsadze, Akaki Tsereteli State University, GeorgiaScott Edward Freer, University of Leicester, UKMałgorzata Podolak, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, PolandMohammed Nasser, Wasit University, IraqLeo H. Aberion, University of San Jose-Recoletos, PhilippinesStevanus Ngenget, Catholic University of De La Salle Manado, IndonesiaChia-Cheng Lee, Portland State University , USAFarzaneh Shakki, Islamic Azad University, Iran Nina HowardEditorial AssistantInternational Journal of English and Cultural StudiesRedfame Publishing--------------------------------------------9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97006-6018, USATel: 1-503-828-0536 ext. 510Fax: 1-503-828-0537Email: ijecs@redfame.comWebsite: http://ijecs.redfame.com
 
International Journal of English and Cultural Studies (IJECS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether IJECS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 1, Number 1 Ali Dabbagh, Gonbad Kavous University, IranLeo H. Aberion, Niversity Of San Joserecoletos, PhilippinesMałgorzata Podolak, Maria CurieSkłodowska University in Lublin, PolandMariam Nemsadze, Akaki Tsereteli State University, GeorgiaScott Edward Freer, University of Leicester, UKShaban Darakchi, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BulgariaVesselina Anastasova Laskova, University of Udine, Italy Nina HowardEditorial AssistantInternational Journal of English and Cultural StudiesRedfame Publishing--------------------------------------------9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97006-6018, USATel: 1-503-828-0536 ext. 510Fax: 1-503-828-0537Email: ijecs@redfame.comWebsite: http://ijecs.redfame.com
 
International Journal of English and Cultural Studies (IJECS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether IJECS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 3, Number 1 Ali Dabbagh, Gonbad Kavous University, IranChia-Cheng Lee, Portland State University, USAEllie Boyadzhieva, South-West University, Blagoevgrad, BulgariaJerald Sagaya Nathan, St. Joseph’s College, IndiaLeo H. Aberion, Niversity of San Jose-Recoletos, PhilippinesShashi Naidu, Ball State University, United StatesSangeeta Bagga-Gupta, Jönköping University, SwedenJelena Timotijevic, University of Brighton, United Kingdom
 
International Journal of English and Cultural Studies (IJECS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether IJECS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue. Reviewers for Volume 5, Number 1 Alvaro Recio, University of Salamanca, SpainEmmanuel Chibuzor Okereke, National Examinations Council, NigeriaEsther Pujolràs-Noguer, Autonomous University of Barcelona, SpainHerman, University of HKBP Nommensen, IndonesiaJelena Timotijevic, University of Brighton, United KingdomMohammed Nasser, Wasit University, IraqShashi Naidu, Ball State University, United States Nina HowardEditorial AssistantInternational Journal of English and Cultural StudiesRedfame Publishing9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97006-6018, USAWebsite: http://ijecs.redfame.com
 
International Journal of English and Cultural Studies (IJECS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether IJECS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 2, Number 1 Abdelhamid M. Ahmed, EgyptAli Dabbagh, IranAlvaro Recio, SpainAna Costa Lopes, PortugalChia-Cheng Lee, USAElena Orduna, SpainEllie Boyadzhieva, BulgariaEmmanuel Chibuzor Okereke, NigeriaFarzaneh Shakki, IranGillian Steinberg, USAJerald Sagaya Nathan, IndiaJonah Uyieh, NigeriaJoseph Hokororo Isamail, TanzaniaKeeley Megan Buehler Hunter, SwitzerlandLeo H. Aberion, PhilippinesMałgorzata Podolak, PolandMariam Nemsadze, GeorgiaMohammed Nasser, IraqNeil Mc.Caw, UKNicolau Nkiawete Manuel ,University, AngolaRaven Maragh, USAShashi Naidu, United StatesSilvia Pellicer-Ortín, SpainStevanus Ngenget, IndonesiaTorbjörn Lodén, SwedenVasfiye Geckin, TurkeyVesselina Anastasova Laskova, Italy Nina HowardEditorial AssistantInternational Journal of English and Cultural StudiesRedfame Publishing--------------------------------------------9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97006-6018, USATel: 1-503-828-0536 ext. 510Fax: 1-503-828-0537Email: ijecs@redfame.comWebsite: http://ijecs.redfame.com
 
Developmental Errors Created by the Subject:
This case study aims to discover the process of first language acquisition of a 4–year-old Iranian child. The focus of the research is on developmental errors the child has created in his language development, i.e. the words which are not correct. To do so, the researcher, during four months, observed and recorded the subject's produced strange words. The recording was done by two ways, Interval recording strategy and event sampling.Developmental errors or strange words are part of the learning process. These words are created due to different reasons. The research shows that during four months and in thirty three records, eleven strange words and expressions were produced. These eleven errors were investigated in this study in details. A table was presented by the researcher in which these errors were thoroughly described.
 
Q. Cornificius’ Rhetorica ad Herennium (CORN., II.25.39) sets forth arguments that are considered to be flawed by the Roman rhetorician, although theyresemble apagogical arguments. The article is devoted to the analysis of this passage from Rhetorica ad Herennium. The author shows that they can be considered either quasi-enthymematic reasoning or an imperfect form of apagogical reasoning, and maybe also abductive reasoning.This type of reasoning, according to the researcher, is one of the sources of fake news and an example of the so-called “bullshit”.
 
Strategies finding the word refers to
Strategies of synonym
Students who study business and economics might read business texts related to their major. Some students get problem in finding main ideas or detail information. Finding main idea is not an easy job for EFL students since they need to understand the context and learn a lot of business vocabularies. To make it easier, there is one technique in reading which is called previewing. The business texts are previewed by students by reading the tittle, discussing the topic, and answering questions. This paper seeks to identify the effects of having previewing strategies used by EFL students and strategies most used by students in finding main idea and supported detail information. The qualitative research aimed at analyzing of how previewing can help students to find main ideas and detail information. This research also tried to decide whether students answered the questions correctly after using previewing strategy. Think Aloud Protocol (TAP) and interview collecting data techniques are carried to identify students’ strategies. TAP is data collecting technique that involves verbal thought. This methodology is used to determine what goes on students’ head while they are reading, finding main ideas and answering detail questions from business text. The research participants consist of thirteen students of the seventh semester in the Accounting major at ABFI Perbanas Institute Jakarta, Indonesia. The result shows that the participants used four parts of strategies in reading business text: (1) strategies of finding main idea, (2) strategies of finding detail information (strategies to find the word refers to, strategies of synonym, strategies to find definition), (3) previewing strategies, and (4) accuracy and inaccuracy to answer questions from reading business texts. The strategy that is often used by students in finding main idea is taking from the first sentence in paragraph. The strategies that are frequently used by students in finding detail information are referring to subject in previous sentence, choosing the right word from the option provided, finding the answer from dictionary and mentioning the place and time directly.
 
Business is a top choice of study for international students in countries such as the U.S., UK, Australia, and Canada; however, knowledge about the post-graduation experiences of international business school graduates varies across hosting countries and is somewhat limited. Few business schools in the U.S. survey alumni to determine how their learning experiences have impacted their professional success. Fewer still have explored the role of English language proficiency for these graduates. This study collected data from online surveys to examine the on-campus and post-graduation experiences of international alumni to determine factors that impacted their academic and professional success, with an emphasis on English language development. Findings identified five themes—achievement-oriented, long-term commitment, involvement, sense of belonging, and experiential learning. Although participant success was largely due to their own grit, schools of business and their professors could do more to contribute to this success, particularly in the areas of curriculum and pedagogy.
 
The study examines the process of foreign language learning. The aim was to investigate dynamics and stability of the variable tolerance of ambiguity in the process of learning a foreign language through the means of specifically designed linguistic intervention program. The investigation aimed to find out the impact of the intervention called The Linguistic Intervention Program in the process of foreign language learning and tolerance of ambiguity in the foreign language performance. Moreover, the purpose was to investigate long-lasting changes in the selected periods, after one year. The focus was put on the ability to create a cognitive structure, especially the ability to achieve cognitive structuration. The linguistic intervention program represented a method of active social learning, and autonomous learning.The approaches we used were the following: relaxation, cooperative techniques, communication techniques, and the techniques aimed at social perception and intercultural communication in a foreign language. The linguistic intervention program was based on the natural approach of foreign language acquisition. The research method called the scale of the ability to achieve cognitive structure AACS was used on the sample of 256 college students enrolled for the foreign languages teaching programs. The results showed unique findings in the process of dynamics and stability of the examined variable, tolerance of ambiguity through the means of the linguistic intervention. They showed statistically significant higher score in AACS and statistically significant score in long-lasting changes in time. AACS appeared to be a stabile characteristic in the foreign language learning.
 
This article seeks to revisit, perchance re-ignite, the debate around the nature of both Islam and modernity, as well as the role theatre played in disseminating Modernist discourses in contemporary Muslim cultures. In the Muslim World, the debate is locked in a time warp or at best stimulated by secular paradigms that do not seem to budge despite their unruly discordancy with Islamic views of life at a time when Islam seems to be strongly making a comeback to the world arena. The question why and how Muslim cultures embraced theatre and modernity is competing indeed; yet the debate it prompted is misplaced and unguarded, and in some respects misplacing, if not totally misguiding. To remove this misleading misplacement and give the debate a new (im)pulse, the article deems it needful to revisit Constantine the Great’s and Darwin’s modernist project. Seen from the Islamic perspective, modernity comes out as a jahili way of life brought to contemporary Muslim cultures by theatrical emissaries from the White World, which has bilged and infected the Muslim World with a strange existential duality. Thanks to these emissaries, which convinced their avid-for-reform-and-modernity victims of the need to climb on the bandwagon of modernity, this world is now Muslim in the heart and the mosque and secular in life and conduct, which is not only schizophrenic and psychosistic, but also absurd and futilitarian.
 
This research has two main purposes. The first one is to test the modal replacement hypothesis proposed by Smith (2003) and discussed by Leech (2003), on the basis of data from the Hansard Corpus (THC- 1.6 billion words, 1800-2000) and the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA - 400 million words, 1810-2000). The second purpose of the study was to draw upon time series models to generate insights about how modal and semi-modal frequencies have changed over time. Cumulatively, these two forms of analysis addressed an acknowledged gap in the current literature on modal and semi-modal frequency change, namely the question of whether modals are being replaced by semi-modals.
 
This article aims at revealing the connections between the ideals of renewal contained in the European devotions of the Late Middle Ages and those of the missionaries during the first wave of the Evangelization of Mexico. Inspired by a variety of spiritual movements aimed at building an indigenous church and centred on upholding the Law of Christ, these missionaries concur with both the reformers of the Brethren of the Common Life and Luther’s political philosophy of attaining a perfect communitas. This research focuses on demonstrating how the ideals of spiritual renewal articulated by Franciscan mystics and missionaries in the Americas embraced the same theological sources as those used by Groote, Eckhart and à Kempis in the Late Middle Ages.
 
The united front is a magic weapon for the victory of the revolution, construction and reform of the Communist Party of China. The formation process of the united front is a kind of game, starting from the perspective of game theory, using the assets exclusiveness theory of economics, combining the Nash equilibrium and historical events, building a game model, analyzing the Anti-Japanese National United Front and its formation process, are of great significance to improve the scientific cognition level of historical research work and united front work.
 
Frequency of IFIDs Used in Corporate Apologies
Frequency of Intensifiers Used in Corporate Apologies
Frequency of Hedges Used in Corporate Apologies
In the era of globalization, social media have become important communication tools for enterprises in crisis. Corporate apologies are issued via social media to repair the tarnished corporate image, which might affect their survival. However, the way of apologizing varies from language/culture to language/culture. This study aims to investigate how Chinese and English corporate apologies are linguistically presented and to explore how damaged corporate image in different culture is repaired respectively. Under the framework of Benoit’s image repair strategies and CCSARP, and based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of the collected data, this paper makes a contrastive study of Chinese and English corporate apologies. The results show that Chinese and English corporate apologies share great similarities in using the strategies of mortification and corrective actions, while they are different in terms of other specific tactics such as bolstering, good intentions, defeasibility and minimization. It is also found that the denial is the least used strategy by both Chinese and English corporations to repair their tarnished image. Furthermore, they are quite t similar in using IFIDs, while intensifiers and hedges are more frequently employed in Chinese corporate apologies.
 
As environmental problems become increasingly serious, people are more aware of the importance of the environmental protection. Accordingly, companies have realized the necessity and significance of constructing an environmental-friendly identity. Environmental-friendly corporate identity is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention in the literature on corporate identity construction. The present study has continued that focus by investigating the environmental-friendly corporate identity of Apple. The new product conference, which is held online by Apple in October, 2020 is chosen as the research material. The present study is different from previous research on new product conferences or corporate identities, for it offers a multimodal analysis of the data within the framework of the Relevance Theory. The purpose of the study is to explore how Apple constructed its environmental-friendly corporate identity while rationalizing its announcement in the new product conference. Findings from the study indicate that the environmental-friendly corporate identity of Apple is constructed in the new product conference through the interplay of main modes, such as language, visual images, gaze and gestures. The findings of the study not only contribute to prove the feasibility of multimodal analysis of the new product conference under the Relevance Theory, but also shed light on the studies of environmental-friendly corporate identity construction.
 
While there is no “expressive theory of sport”, there is certainly, according to Hyland (1984, 1990), Osterhoudt (1973), Kerr (1997) and Weis (1969) a pivotal role played by emotions and feelings in sport which amount to a type of expressive theory and in that sense it parallels expressive theories in art. In this article I will first isolate three moments that capture sports performance and parallel art. Then, I will describe sport as an expression of emotional release, which is often how one understands art. Based on such overlaps, I will argue for two philosophical observations that devolve from such a comparison, namely ineffability and the unity of mind-body (in sport). Finally, I will apply a reading of Kant to sport, in order to substantiate the idea that sport, like art draws from a philosophical heritage.Imagine three isolated “steps” in sport: the focus before performance; the performance itself and the fan’s response as they articulate the emotional basis of sport which is familiar, albeit perhaps subconscious. After a brief analysis of these imagined images, I give a simplified historical outline of sport which describes the feeling-basis of play that forms the foundation for modern sport. I then examine what I have termed the “(surplus) expressive-energy theory of sport” which I have gleaned from the above writers, a theory that argues that sport is the expression of inner emotional states. Such states are in need of expiation of both the practitioner as well as the expression of certain basic emotions on the part of the audience. A narrower version of this theory is that sport is the release of aggressiveness, which coheres with its instinctual origins and the “surplus theory”. A critique of sport as expression (of surplus energy, aggression…) follows with a view to highlight some shortcomings in the ideas presented and thus the need for further theories to account for the multi-faceted nature of sport, a similar requirement that is needed for art given the shortcomings of expressive theories as applied to the arts.
 
Audio-visual translation is a special translation mode with its own peculiarities, which not only has the characteristics of general literary translation, but also is limited by various factors such as film technology and audience acceptance. In the process of audio-visual translation, the translator should take numerous factors into consideration, such as context, audience, and cultural factors etc., which form lots of blockage for subtitle translator. Then, facing plenty of factors, translator should be clear about how to make linguistic choice, and what aspects of subjective factors and cognitive weaknesses he or she need to avoid and overcome. Those issues are what we should make further researches on. In addition, cultural communication capacity is an important symbol of a country's cultural soft power, and it is one of China's current major policies to strengthen the ability of Chinese culture’s overseas publicity, which is conducive to re-shaping China's international image and enhancing the international influence of China's culture. Foreigners are especially interested in films and TV programs with Chinese cultural characteristics, and therefore, film and television translation has become a key link of communication between China and the West through film and television culture.This article is to make a brief evaluation and analysis on the audio-visual translation of Noble Love from the perspective of some relevant theories of cognitive psychology of translation.
 
Rapid as the development of film industry in our country is, audiovisual translation plays an increasingly important role as a bridge of communication between the Chinese audiences and English films. However, the history of audiovisual translation in China is not as long as that in the West and the domestic researches on audiovisual translation, especially the theoretical researches, are not remarkable. Until today, the systematic theory of audiovisual translation has not been constructed. Therefore, the author intends to make a study on audiovisual translation from the perspective of adaptation theory to find out the five aspects that subtitle translator should focus on and the specific elements which the translator should adapt to.
 
The shift from traditional towards more learner-centered approaches to teaching has resulted in the concept of authenticity becoming central to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). As a relational notion, authenticity has to do with the interaction between learners and input materials in terms of appropriate responses, as opposed to its notion of genuineness as an absolute quality. It paves the way for language to be authenticated through context, as it encourages a use-to-learn rather than a learn-to-use approach. Using authentic materials requires a great deal of attention to be paid to not only the contextualization and authenticity of tasks, but also to the incorporation of genuine texts into task design, which itself has been revolutionized through modern technology. Using the Web as a technological tool has resulted in another version of authenticity, which might be in line with finder authenticity. The main aim of this paper is to argue that the notion of authenticity has come a long way from genuineness to finder authenticity.
 
This article studies the emerging neologisms in the Chinese cyber context: 打call, hold住, word哥, which are termed Chinese-English hybridized internet neologisms (CEHINs). CEHINs share the features of Chinese words and English words. Based on the research tool called Baidu Index, it is found: (1) the structure and pronunciation of CEHINs (打call, hold住, word哥) is different from the ‘pure’ Chinese or English internet neologisms; (2) the diffusion of them is Chinese netizen-driven, not the meme-driven; (3) the top users of them are usually aged between 30-39, while the ‘pure’ Chinese internet neologisms are much more frequently used by netizens aged 20-29; and (4) the popularization of internet, fast cultural communications in cyber times, and the further pervasiveness of English as a Lingua Franca in China are the reasons for the emergence and popularity of them in China.
 
English as a business lingua franca (BELF) has contributed to an increasing number of intercultural studies that aim to evaluate its complexities and participants’ pragmatic competence in this context. The worldwide use of BELF interactions is subject to multiple contextual factors, with metapragmatic expressions (MPEs) serving as one of the linguistic devices and pragmatic strategies. Based on BELF meetings from the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English (VOICE), this paper explores how MPEs are used to save and maintain face in order to promote the effectiveness of communication. It is found that the use of MPEs in BELF meetings can help speakers to accomplish their transactional goals by showing concern for face in this intercultural business context. Also, the use of MPEs dynamically reflects the participants’ interpersonal pragmatic competence in intercultural settings. The present study deepens the understanding of metapragmatic awareness and the mechanism of MPEs in BELF interactions.
 
Many critical interpretations of Morrison’s The Bluest Eye are driven by the belief that the novel pessimistically depicts an African American community so helplessly captivated by an insidious white aesthetic ideology that it is incapable of resistance, self-regeneration, or change. Pointing out the flawed premises of these readings, this article argues that the novel presents rather an effective example of resistance to the dominant white ideology thematically and formally. Morrison’s deconstructive rewriting of the “Dick and Jane” primer effectively subverts the terms of the white oppressive discourse and demolishes its ideological foundations, thus paving the way for African American self-affirmation. This is reflected in Claudia’s increasing awareness of, and mounting rebellion against, the destructive white aesthetic. Her rejection of the white beauty myth, demonstrated by her confused early childhood’s destruction of white baby dolls, culminates in a more sophisticated perception of the operation of this myth and in a radical retrieval and re-affirmation of the black beauty and worth which the white beauty myth denies in order to legitimate itself and establish its hegemony. The article argues that the radical resistance to the dehumanizing white ideology Claudia develops is, like Morrison’s formal deconstructive project, quite indebted to African American music and, more crucially, to the rich heritage behind it. The article concludes by emphasizing that in the world depicted in The Bluest Eye possibilities of resistance and chances of survival are vitally dependent on the strength of one’s connection to African American culture and heritage, as the story of Claudia’s survival proves.
 
Topics of English Materials for Analytical Chemistry Department
Topics of English Materials for Food Industrial Quality Assurance Department
Topics of English Materials for Industrial Waste Treatment Department
Vocational school students, mostly have a great intention to have job immediately after finishing their study. In fact, industry will absorb the graduates if they have skills that match with the industrial needs. The competency of chemistry vocational school graduates that industry needs is not only on the chemical analysis skill but also the competency to communicate all aspects related to chemical industrial process in English. Therefore, there is the need to develop English materials that meet the industrial needs. The English materials are developed based on English for Specific Purposes (ESP) focusing on chemistry field. The objective of this research is to find the appropriate English materials that meet the industrial needs to increase students’ language skills on reading, writing, and speaking for three departments: Analytical Chemistry, Food Industrial Quality Assurance, and Industrial waste Treatment. This research used questionnaire as the instrument which was distributed to industries, alumni, English teachers, and Chemistry teachers and was analyzed qualitatively. The result shows 30 selected English materials for each department that consist of 10 materials for reading, 10 materials for writing, and10 other materials for speaking which are considered can be used to develop the existing English materials.
 
China has eight democratic parties which established cooperative relations with the CPC. All the democratic parties earnestly performed the functions of participating in and deliberating on state affairs and exercising democratic supervision in China’s political life. Their participation in state affairs under the leadership of the CPC is a major indication of people's democracy. They are of great importance to enhance and develop the multi-party cooperation and political consultation system under the leadership of the CPC. This paper introduces the establishing time, the mainly component members, the founding background, the history evolution and the outstanding contributions of China’s eight democratic parties.
 
Chinese opera movie is a special form of art developed from the combination of traditional Chinese opera and cinematographic art. In the inheritance and development model represented by “Hunan Rural Movie of Local Opera Project”(also called “Hunan Local Opera Movie Project”), Chinese public administrators, traditional opera artists and opera movie makers target rural areas, adhere to traditional opera culture, and explore new ways to develop and promote opera movie. They put effort into upholding orthodox opera and innovating for audience, conducting a beneficial practice of making traditional culture resonate by current rural audience again in way of producing and disseminating opera movies. Their practice has contributed to the creative development of opera movie in rural areas.
 
The film market of China has been growing rapidly and is now the world’s second largest film market. Hollywood studios have been sending transnational films to China to receive additional revenues. This research investigates the three channels (i.e., flat-rate buyouts, co-productions, and revenue-sharing titles) through which Hollywood studios can enter their films in China’s film market and reviews the China-focused localization efforts that Hollywood studios have made to appeal to China. The review findings show that exporting Hollywood films to China as revenue-sharing titles has become the favorite approach for major Hollywood studios to gain additional revenues. To improve revenue-sharing films’ box-office performance, localization efforts of Hollywood studios are executed throughout a film’s theatrical life cycle, from a film’s planning and production stages to its distribution, promotion, and exhibition stages. Implications and suggestions as to how Hollywood studios can further utilize film localization efforts to enhance box-office success in China are also discussed in the present study.
 
NSM explications of 'Birds of a feather flock together' and '物以类聚,人以群分'
The current study investigates the similarities and differences between ‘equivalent’ proverbs in English and Chinese. It integrates natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) into a semantic and pragmatic analysis to explain differences in proverbs as cultural linguistic artifacts. In this study, NSM has enabled the cultural meanings behind the artifacts to be brought into stark contrast for careful qualitative discourse analysis. The findings of the study indicate that it is not only worthwhile but also practical to carefully examine English and Chinese proverb pairs, as their respective meanings may differ, offering unique insight into certain cultural factors. There is much potential for further research on linguistic cultural indicators such as proverbs, song lyrics, and idioms.
 
The article analyzes the unfoldings of the teaching project Introducing Literatures in English, held in 2019 at the Federal Institute of Espírito Santo (IFES), based in Alegre-ES, Brazil. The project aimed at promoting the improvement of reading, writing and speaking skills of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners, departing from African Literature in English and photography, so that they had the opportunity to improve their language skills while developing a broader discussion on Africa’s ethnic-cultural and linguistic diversity, building a viewpoint about the African continent less tied to colonialism, slavery, apartheid and victimization.For reading and written analyses, the students took into consideration the photo-book Another Africa (1998), with photographs by Robert Lyons and poems by Chinua Achebe (1930-2013). Based on the poems and photographs brought to light in Another Africa, I analyzed 1) the students’ multimodal reading process, by connecting images generated by poems and photographs and written and oral texts the students produced around them; 2) the students’ reception of the poems, considering Achebe’s constant use of code-switching and 3) the construction of new viewpoints around Africa elaborated by the students, bearing in mind the importance of the role of language, memory and history, oral and literary traditions when it comes to African writers and a new perspective concerning the colonial legacy and its impact on English language.
 
In this paper the author will discuss the communicative value of Multi-Grade Denotation. Denotation has always been one of the main topics in both linguistics and philosophy. And it is also very widely used in human’s daily communication. In our daily conversation, denotation is a means used at any moment. G-1 Denotation is suitable only for low situation communication. It has no special situational value. If we leap from G-1 Denotation to G-2 Denotation, this is the new information it conveys, possessing a certain communicative value. The G-3 Denotation (the denotation in plays and TV screens) is a rather special type of denotation. Multi-Grade denotation is a special communication means, but it possesses special communication value.
 
In different historical stages, the nature of women has been explained from the religious myth, the moral principles, the scientific rationality and the psychological analysis. In the consumer society, the widespread consumption not only changes people’s daily life but also their social relations, world views and values. Men and women with the effect of commodities show different characteristics. The consumption generalization is the basic fact in the consumer society. Women, as the important consuming power, become the key target group for enterprises and media. In order to correspond with the commercial operation, the mass media guides women and constructs a femininity to serve for the commercial profits.Generally speaking, consumption culture constructs femininity from the following two aspects: on the one side, it constructs a modern female beauty standard—young, beautiful and sexy. Women thus become a huge consuming group of hairdressing and fashion. On the other side, it still advocates the traditional image of good housewives. Female consumers are oriented as the agent purchasers for the whole family. It demonstrates in this paper that shopping is sexual consuming. Woman’s beautiful image and good housewives image presents on their “agent purchasers” role in shopping.
 
Linguistic expressions describing a situation where an action brings about a result are called resultative expressions or resultatives. Of resultatives, those based on construction are resultative constructions. English resultative constructions are considered a family extending from core cases to peripheral and idiomatic instances. On the other hand, contrary to ordinary opinions, the Japanese language lacks explicit resultative constructions. Its resultative expressions are limited to pseudo-resultatives and resultative verbal compounds. Resultative expressions can be of two types; those whose causal relation derives from construction and those whose causal relation derives from a word. English has these two resultatives, but Japanese has only the latter. In other words, when viewed from the origin of where the causal relationship represented by CAUSE comes from, resultatives can be divided into those whose CAUSE originates lexically and those whose CAUSE originates from the construction. English has both types, while Japanese has only the lexically originated causal relationship. This paper examines this issue in detail.
 
Not only did the emergence of the idea of communicative competence result in grammar instruction being moved from its central position in traditional approaches, but it also helped to pave the way for the adoption of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). As a tenet of language teaching methodology, the belief that languages are acquired through communication has appeared to be central to the development of task-based approaches to language teaching. Built upon the idea of learner-centeredness and CLT models of language learning, task-based learning (TBL) comes into play and encourages language learning through authentic acts of communication, interaction, and negotiation of meaning. With its main focus on fluency rather than accuracy, TBL has been criticized for inadequate grammar coverage. By drawing a distinction between a task and a grammar exercise and between focus on form and focus on forms, this paper argues that there are enough opportunities for satisfactory grammar coverage throughout a TBL lesson.
 
This article is based on a study by Mason Marshall Reading Plato’s Dialogues to Enhance Learning and Inquiry. Exploring Socrates’ Use of Protreptic for Student Engagement . The author makes, inter alia, analyzes of the Plato’s dialogue Euthyphro and emphasizes the ways of promoting and encouraging Socrates used for self-evaluation and conscious reflection in the interlocutor. By focusing his work on Socrates’ use of protreptic, Marshall proposes a practical approach to reading Plato, illustrating how his writings can be used to enhance intrinsic motivation amongst students, and help them develop the thinking skills required for democratic and civic engagement.The article shows how to practically apply a protreptic in didactics; it also points to the work of Ole Fogh Kirkeby, who writes about similar matters and justifies the use of traditional teaching methods in a modern school.
 
The present study aims to explore the effectiveness of qualitative research methods. The qualitative research method has been opted after a thorough literature examination. The concept of triangulation and the process of multi-method qualitative research on error correction and students’ motivation were also examined. The results discovered more about the participants as he or she reads their diaries containing their detailed opinions and feelings. Subjectivity is another remarkable feature of diaries for learners to improve their writing skills and to use diverse vocabulary to express their views and emotions. Reviewing the information within a diary helps people to judge their behaviour and others, towards certain events. It was depicted that the triangulation method assists to have a more in-depth understanding of the recorded entries in the diaries by using semi-structured interviews. Both approaches were found to comprise of advantages and disadvantage, where the selection is based on the nature of the study and the understanding of the researcher. The results of the present study help guide the researcher in determining the specific choice of study.
 
Doris Lessing, an unrivaled novelist in the literary genres around the globe, portrays the fundamental problems of women as well as social system of her times. Lessing searches for new models to communicate the experiences of a blocked woman writer, who spends her early life in Africa, becomes an active and a disappointed communist, who is a politically committed writer, a mother, a wife, or a mistress sometimes a woman. With her very keen and subtle attitude, Lessing wants to present women’s psychological conflicts between marriage and love; motherhood and profession, unfairness of the double standard; alienation of a single career woman; hollowness of marriage in the traditional order and society. Lessing portrays her women in various social problems and with various perspectives of male against female. She tries to awaken women community to protest against the patriarchy through her feminist writings. For this purpose, this research paper would like to examine the psychological conflicts and traumatic experiences of powerful heroines, including- Anna Wulf of The Golden Notebook, Mary Turner of The Grass Is Singing, and Clefts of The Cleft.
 
Language transfer, especially the native language effect on the process of second language acquisition, has always been a hot issue of various linguists. Language transfer is inevitable in the process of second language acquisition, which can be divided into positive transfer and negative transfer. The positive transfer will promote the foreign language learning while negative transfer of mother tongue will hinder the second language learning. In English learning, compared with reading and writing, oral English learning is more important and more complex. Chinese high school students are often disturbed by negative effect of their mother tongue in oral English communication. In China, experts and scholars have done a lot of researches on the negative native language effect in English learning, but most of the researches focus on writing and translation skills, while few of them emphasize on listening and speaking skills.At present, English teaching is undergoing a profound reform, and English teachers and learners are paying an increasing number of attention to the study of spoken English. In order to fill the gap and correctly understand the influences of oral English acquisition of high school students, through the analysis of the principle of native language effect, this paper finds that the vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and pragmatics of mother tongue all have negative transfer to foreign language learning. What’s more, language ego, as an important part of affective principles, has a profound impact on the process of oral English learning. There is a strong and negative correlation between language ego and oral English learning to some extent. The less students´language ego is, the more oral English output students will produce.
 
One of the major tenets of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) is that “if two L2 sounds differ in perceived dissimilarity from the closest sound in the L1 inventory, the more dissimilar of the L2 sounds will manifest the greater amount of learning” (Aoyama et al. 2004:248). Given that certain studies have provided “evidence of greater learning for [®] than [l] by N[ative]J[apanese] learners of English” (2004:246), the SLM hypothesis can only be upheld if English [l] is more similar to Japanese [R] than English [®] is. However, this is clearly counterintuitive since, by most accounts, [R] represents a central flap, [l] a lateral approximant, and [®] a central approximant. In this study, it will be argued that English laterals cannot be more similar to Japanese /r/ than English rhotics are, as the SLM would have it, unless the Japanese sound contains a lateral component such as that which is found in the flap [‰]. As it happens, a number of phoneticians and phonologists have argued that this is indeed the case with Japanese /r/, as will be shown, and this is something that the proponents of the SLM would need to acknowledge if their theoretical stance is to be maintained.
 
It is commonly believed that one of the unpopular English courses is vocabulary course, because the content is boring, the classroom atmosphere is dull and the students’ enthusiasm is low. Moreover some people think that English vocabulary course is unnecessary and it should only be learned by students themselves. Worse still, some teachers just give up the teaching of vocabulary for they think vocabulary lesson is to recite words and that is the students’ business.But in fact, it is not right, for teacher’s guidance in students’ learning is crucial, and the teaching of vocabulary is important for students’ language competence. English vocabulary learning belongs to the category of basic knowledge, and the basic knowledge of students is a necessary condition and foundation for practical use of English, no matter for oral English competence or English writing and reading ability. It is the responsibility of teachers to think such a question why students have little enthusiasm and weak interest in vocabulary course, and why the classroom atmosphere is dull instead of active and interactive. It is the task of teachers to design a vocabulary course with interesting content and interactive parts to make the lesson vivid and to improve the students’ enthusiasm and interest.Actually, in English vocabulary there are many interesting and meaningful phenomena, such as Spoonerisms, Tongue Twister Fun, oxymoron, Malapropisms, Palindrome, Redundancies, Ambiguities, "Net Lingua" – The Language of the Internet, Etymology: Word Origins, and Pangrams Section, etc., which leave a “space” for language-leaners to find out secret and surprise, and to actively explore and discover something different instead of negatively reciting words. They make the boring vocabulary lesson changed into the interesting and interactive practical course, which is one of the sources of interest for students.The author in this paper intends to give a brief introduction to one of these interesting linguistic phenomena, Palindrome, including definition, origin and function etc., for teachers to use for reference to make their course more vivid and effective.
 
This study presents the analysis of writing programs which can increase the students’ writing skill by concerning students’ errors. The method used qualitative and quantitative analyses. The participants involved in this study were 30 students of the third level majoring in analytical chemistry department in Politeknik AKA Bogor, academic year 2021/2022. The Researcher wanted to know the area of errors in each writing program. The result shows that the average of grade students got in the program of teaching reading and vocabulary was 68.75% with 31.25% error in the area of identifying the words: analysis, analyze, analytical, analyst, prepare, preparation, determine, determination, require, and statistically. In the program of teaching grammar and structure, the students’ score average was 70% which was bigger than the first program. Meanwhile the average of error was 30% in the area of using past tense, present tense, present perfect tense, modal auxiliary, passive voice, relative clause, past and present participle. In the next program, analyzing sentences from chemistry textbook, the students had difficulty in identifying main and relative clauses, and analyzing present and past participles in a sentence. The students obtained 71.25% for the average of grade and 28.75% error. In writing from simple to complex sentences, the students got score 77.5% and 22.5% error in the area of making sentences consisting of main and relative clauses and applying present and past participles as verb in a sentence. Finally, after having 4 programs stated above, in the program of writing practice report, the students got average of grade 80% meaning excellent, and 20% error in the area of interpreting data in writing and developing main idea. This research finds that the writing programs: teaching reading vocabulary, teaching grammar and structure, analyzing sentences from chemistry textbook, writing from simple to complex sentences, and writing practical report are the writing programs that can increase the students’ writing skill. To make the decision which area of writing programs needs to have more attention, it can be determined by analyzing the students’ errors.
 
Historical analysis of Oklahoma traditions and policies relating to the various tribes reveals a theme of willful malice, organized systematic oppression, theft from, and killing of Indians. This tradition is grounded in racism and greed. Today, this philosophy continues — even after Supreme Court decisions McGirt v. Oklahoma (2020) and Sharp v. Murphy (2020) elucidated the historical harms and apt legal framework. These cases acknowledged Oklahoma Indian territory had always persisted. Through discussion about these cases, related legislation, historical events, including the U.S. Constitution’s Supremacy Clause, this paper connects Oklahoma’s law-breaking customs imposed on the Indians to its founding.
 
Modulation is a term that denotes using modals and other constructions to refer to such functions as ability, obligation, permission and willingness. The present study is descriptive and contrastive. The aim of this study is to describe English and Arabic in terms of modulation as manifested in the four mentioned functions. The study starts with giving a description of modulation in English and Arabic. The following step is making comparisons regarding the four functions successively. The study concludes that this phenomenon is found in both languages with the existence of a number of differences in addition to some similarities.
 
In this article, the authors attempt to describe the character of the Ugandan book focusing especially on the ways the literature is impacted and or impacts the country"s identity, voice, and future. Sometimes, common themes that appear in the literature have come to crystalize national identity in spite of the complex issues generated by years of colonialism and neo-colonialism. Today more than before more Ugandans are able to read. The challenge, however, is that this readership seems to have conspired with the book publishing industry who thrive as business enterprises at the expense of building a national identity and voice, literary health, or cultural heritage. Where then and how can the critical voices grow or multiply? What contexts will grow the Ugandan book? How insoluble are the indigenous publishers? On the other hand, the book chain has been boosted by efforts some of them international like the literary awards and prizes, residences and book fairs. Hitherto ignored constituents like the women and indigenous publishers are also now on board. It is hoped these budding efforts will continue to grow, flourish, and consolidate the Ugandan book character.
 
This article is about using human orientated methods of design (e.g. design thinking) in the context of teaching design, while the role of design is changing. Design should be described as a modus operandi for every social activity that leads through solving problem. General role of design is to animate and moderate social change. In that perspective we are all designers, whether we like it or not. This specific change of design mindset shows great challenge in the new education model, where design is just a small part of study program-in this article it is explained in the context of legal study program.
 
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Mohammed Jasim Betti
  • University of Thi-Qar
Zainab Kadim Igaab
  • University of Thi-Qar
Wafaa Abdullah
  • Khalifa University
Qiling Wu
  • Temple University