International Journal of English Linguistics

Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Online ISSN: 1923-8703
Publications
Article
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2021.
 
Article
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 11, No. 5, 2021.
 
Article
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 11, No. 6, 2021.
 
Article
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2021.
 
Article
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2021.
 
Article
The data for this study was extracted from the quarterly edition of Our Daily Bread (December 2007, January, February 2008) owing to its graphological layout. The aim of the study is to examine how a major stylistic meaning inducing technique in text composition manifests at the graphological level. John 3:16 in this devotional edition had been re-arranged by Anne Cetas to carry a lot of stylistic significance. The graphological study of this text featured the use of gothic printed letters, re-arrangement (verse paragraph), capitalization, and punctuation marks. Gothic printed and capitalization were graphically fussed together to coin VALENTINE out of this verse of the Scripture. Speech acts, presupposition, inference, implicature and mutual contextual beliefs (MCBs) were used to interpret the meaning of the text. The present analysis has widened the scope of knowledge in the area of stylistics and even that of pragmatics. The graphic representation of John 3:16 and the obvious images contained in it are a clear testimony to the fact that stylistics study and practice could be more than an academic gymnastics. The study validates the thesis which states that both style/form and context contribute in equal measure to any knowledge gained in the course of reading a text.
 
How daily life and learning were impacted
How the students coped with the challenges
Article
This study explored students’ learning experiences in higher education during the Covid-19 pandemic. A journal writing methodology was used to extract learners’ reflective thoughts regarding their living and learning during the pandemic outbreak. The results were interpreted through the views of relevant student engagement frameworks. The students’ structural factors (family, support, and pressure) were impacted because of political and sociocultural factors (restrictive measures in response to the pandemic outbreak) within which the university factors were embedded (total closure with online education, subsequent reopening allowing physical attendance, and later principal distance education with approved exceptions), which collectively and psychosocially influenced students’ life and studies. The learners self-adapted via their individual efficacy to tackle the unfamiliar situations by digitally reaching out to family/friends and enhancing skills/self-learning; learner differences in learning style and preferences were noted. Online courses offered flexibility for learning independent of time and space while social presence in the learning community during online lessons remained less effective; traditional values of face-to-face physical classrooms were recognised among some learners. Learners’ perceived effective engaging measures underscored the importance of ensuring learner well-being (counselling and mask-wearing), learning independence (online lecture recordings and optional attendance), and strengthening online learning experiences (building the learning community, enhancing class dialogue, and demonstrating problem-solving techniques). Recommendations for engaging learning were discussed.
 
Article
This paper aimed to identify faculty perceptions of VLEs and their students’ attitudes towards e-learning in the time of the pandemic. Towards this aim, the researcher used two surveys in a descriptive study to collect data from 47 EFL instructors and 103 students regarding a variety of constructs about e-learning effectiveness and attitudes, especially in the Corona virus time. Results indicated that the instructors’ perceptions of the Blackboard LMS were greatly positive as to establishing efficient teacher-students’ communication, facilitating students’ comprehension, boosting up their instrumental motivation, engaging them in active, interactive learning, and creating instructor-students’ rapport. The students’ attitudes survey revealed that, overall, students had positive attitudes towards using Blackboard LMS during the pandemic due to convenience of use, platform availability, system quality and quality of e-learning over Blackboard. Other reasons include users’ personal factors such as their satisfaction tendency, their self-confidence initiated by the VLE of Blackboard, their enjoyment of learning in this medium, the interesting and useful learning activities and tools as well as their staying safe in this mode of learning in the pandemic time. Other factors identified include the learners’ willingness to continue learning via Blackboard and their expectation that full-time learning online would replace traditional face-to-face learning. The study concludes that teachers’ and students’ perceptions and attitudes towards VLEs, with particular reference to Blackboard, could be valuable to faculty and institutions in their quality assurance efforts and the development of promising online courses and programs in EFL to satisfy the needs of students. Eventually, the study discusses suggested improvements and implications for e-learning on the Blackboard Lean platform as perceived by students and teachers alike to protect students through online education as an alternative to traditional education during the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in present and future waves of the pandemic.
 
Keyword list comparison between the UMC and the CMC
Keyword list comparison between the UMC 1 and the UMC 2
Article
Media, as important windows for the public to get to know timely information, play a vital role in influencing citizens’ attitudes as well as behaviors. From 2019, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a global health emergency, has aroused great concern of the international community, including media. Varied in cultural context, political stand, and people’s ideology, however, media in different countries reported the COVID-19 dissimilarly. According to Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (CDA) model, it is posited that the discrepancies in the reports of the COVID-19 can reflect ideological differences and have explanatory power in the development of the COVID-19 in distinct countries. Based on this premise, by utilizing the database analysis software AntConc 3.2.4w on self-built corpora, this study analyzed the news reports of different stages on the COVID-19 in China and the UK, i.e., in China Daily and The Guardian, respectively, and attempted to reveal the discourse characteristics in the two media, together with the discussion on their possible relations to the pandemic-controlling practices. The corpus-based analysis showed that China Daily used more objective and neutral words in the descriptions of the COVID-19 and expressed more active attitudes in fighting against the epidemic, whereas The Guardian used more negative words in describing the pandemic and words with weak restricting force when reporting policies concerning the control and prevention of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the comparison between the discourse before and after the lockdown demonstrated that the descriptions of the COVID-19 in the UK media transformed into a more objective and neutral one than before with an increased use of expressions of restriction and social conflicts. The same comparison in the discourse of China Daily found that words about sharing experience and promoting cooperation augmented noticeably. The above-mentioned findings were also discussed together with these two countries’ domestic epidemic situations and ideological differences, respectively.
 
Article
COVID-19 has changed the process of teaching considerably, as educational institutions around the world moved to adopt blended learning initiatives to ensure continuity, while managing the spread of this infectious disease. All Saudi Arabia’s universities have continued to deliver courses via digital platforms. This study draws on traditional views about blended learning (Sharma, 2010) and examines the pedagogical changes to English courses implemented at King Saud University following the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to explore the benefits and challenges of blended learning during the spread of COVID-19 from the perspective of English as a foreign language (EFL) student. Qualitative data were collected from two focus group sessions, and one-to-one interviews with twelve students taking a general intensive English course at King Saud University over a six-week period. The results reveal that blended learning benefited the EFL students by supporting their writing skills and encouraging them to search online, as well as by matching their circumstances and being economical. It also identifies that the challenges EFL students faced included technological problems, flaws in the instructor’s performance, difficulties with online tests, attitudes to online learning and limited resources, and the university council’s decisions. The paper concludes with recommendations to exploit the benefits identified, and overcome the challenges of blended learning when teaching English in an EFL context.
 
Article
The current study analyzed the online wedding invitation genres in Jordan during COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to study the generic structures of these invitations and the role of the socio-cultural-religious norms and beliefs in shaping this type of genre. The corpus of 120 online wedding invitation cards was collected from Facebook from March to June 2020. Data were analyzed based on the framework presented by Swales (1990). Six obligatory and one optional move emerged from the analysis of the data. Through data analysis, it has been found that Jordanians’ linguistic behaviors were strongly associated with the religion of Islam and tribalism. Findings from this study have implications for language use and sociolinguistics as well as enhancing the understanding of online wedding invitation practices during a state of a public health emergency.
 
Article
This article considers the translation strategy of “Foreign Literature” magazine. It focuses on John Le Carre’s novel “Russia House” which was published in “Foreign Literature” in 1990. The publication was of great socio-political, cultural and historical significance, as it cast major discredit upon the existing totalitarian regime. However, according to the researcher, the value of the novel goes far beyond its criticism of socialism and totalitarianism. It provides a broad historical and cultural critique of civilization and mentality.
 
Article
This research probed into the application of educational technology and Web 2.0 tools in Project-Based Learning (PBL) to 6th grade Greek Primary School learners who are learning English as a foreign language. More particularly, this research probed into the teaching of writing skills to the aforementioned students through Web 2.0 tools and Project-Based Learning. Action research was conducted in which sixteen learners who attend a Greek State Primary School participated; they were involved in a five-month differentiated instruction program using Google Docs and blogs. Pre-tests and post-tests were distributed to the learners to investigate their level of writing skills according to criteria related to the learners’ overall ability to complete the writing tasks and the quality of writing production, namely spelling and punctuation, vocabulary range, accuracy and appropriacy, and to evaluate their improvement respectively. Qualitative research was also conducted: pre- and post-semi-structured interviews investigated their attitudes concerning the effectiveness of PBL in combination with Google Docs and blogs in terms of collaboration and process writing. The researchers/teachers also kept a reflexive journal which concentrated on the use of Web 2.0 tools, the writing processes, and the collaboration which took place amongst and between the learners and their teachers (who were also the researchers). Findings revealed that integrating project-based learning with educational technology and Web 2.0 tools was an effective means of enhancing young learners’ writing skills.
 
Article
Concealment is the act of intentionally withholding information for some purposes. It is the mode of using language to hide information and intentions. The current study aims at finding out the pragmatic aspects of concealment. In accordance with the aim of the paper, it is hypothesized that the phenomena of concealment basically targets achieving persuasion and self- defense. The most important findings yielded by the analysis reveal that the main pragmatic aspects utilized in issuing concealment are breaching Grice's maxims, pragma-rhetorical devices, deictic expressions and positive politeness strategies.
 
Article
The purpose of the study is to highlight the impact of ideology on SANA and Aljazeera English channel concerning the Syrian uprising between 2014-2015. The study aims at comparing and contrasting the coverage Syrian uprising portrayed in two Arab leading media. In addition, the current study shows the persuasive strategies that both used to be famous in the mass media world. The study investigates 8 headlines and subtitles, examining how ideology resides in these texts according to Faircoulgh’s assumptions. Furthermore, the study is framed with the theory of critical discourse analysis (CDA) which reflects the strategies utilized for political purposes. This paper further aims at discussing the realization of power by the use of language in the political discourse. It is no surprise that the persuasive strategies used by politicians in broadcasting news about Arab uprisings lead to sympathizing people’s hearts and emotions; therefore, their reaction against what they hear and watch will be expressive.
 
Typological distribution of the central pronouns 
Frequency distribution of the central pronouns by theme 
Proportion of some central pronouns relative to each theme's data 
Article
This grammatical analysis of the central pronouns in Nigeria’s 2015 Presidential Debate aimed at determining their occurrence, semantic manifestations, typological and thematic distribution, and textual functions. Twenty-three central pronouns with a combined frequency of 2409 were identified and analysed using Quirk et al.’s (1985) framework. The result showed a 58% representation and a frequency of 94.6 in 1000 words, with the forms we, you, it, I, they, our emerging the most frequent. Personal pronouns were a hundred times more frequent than reflexive pronouns and fourteen times more recurring than possessives. The 1st person, 2nd person and 3rd person forms respectively represent approximately one-half, one-quarter, and one-third of total person contrast made; however, a dominance of plural over singular was seen and this was more pronounced with 2nd person. Whereas the ratio of masculine to feminine was 22:1, neuter gender was generally dominant. A dominance of subjective case over objective case was revealed while genitive case featured as determinatives only. Pronominal choices were governed by theme, structure of responses, and idiosyncrasy, as I was more concentrated under motivation for contesting than any other theme and under recognising and justifying the problem than specifying actions to be taken or making concluding marks. The multiple-authored texts used manifestly exposed the diversity of pronoun forms and their combinatory possibility, which was advantageous since the focus was not a given politician’s idiolect but the use of an aspect of language in politics, namely the central pronouns.
 
Article
This research study deals with the in-depth meanings of reification and their relevancy with the text of the novel Revolution 2020 written by Chetan Bhagat. Reification is a common perception and a specific ideology of people living in a capitalist society. It hides some facts and propagates some deceptive ideas in the society. The study of reification exposes the essence of social reality. It reveals how various aspects of capitalism seem natural and general with human beings. It is a methodical strategy to understand the mind and action of the people. Along with the further analytical examination of reification, this study explores the thoughts, feelings and actions of the people in the novel. The interactions of the characters have been explored with reference to reification. Analysing reification deeply, I have investigated the nature of prevalent assumptions and their relationship with human interaction. The illusionary elements of capitalist society portrayed in the novel have been analysed. Textual analysis is the appropriate research method for this study.
 
Metaphors in Donald Trump's discourses in the 2020 presidential election debate
Article
Critical Metaphor Analysis (CMA) helps to define the relationship between metaphor, power, ideology and cognition by recognizing conceptual metaphors in text or discourse. This thesis built a metaphor-centered analytical framework which connects discourse, cognition and ideology to investigate metaphors in Trump’s discourses in the 2020 Presidential Election Debates, which shed light upon cognitive structure and ideology behind his discourse. To win more votes, Trump managed to magnify Republican Party’s contribution while masking its defects, exaggerate the disadvantages of the Democratic Party while concealing its merits. Meanwhile, he declared himself one who represents the interests of ordinary people and to fight for their interests. Besides, his “patriotism” and “exclusiveness” also reflected populism characteristics.
 
Article
The latest Israeli onslaught on Gaza in May 2021 demonstrated the pivotal role of the international media as an influential source of knowledge-gaining, agenda setting, and opinion shaping for various social groups and audiences. Based on theoretical constructs and analytical tools drawn from Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1992, 1995), this study aims to analyze how the New York Times and the BBC covered the Israeli onslaught on Gaza during May 2021. I examine the main topics and key linguistic structures the two influential media outlets use in constructing Palestinian and Israeli actors and their violent actions and how such coverage contributes to the construction of a particular ideological representation of the events. The results show that the two media outlets mainly served Israel’s justifications and interests at the expense of Palestinian narrative and rights through the conflation of two main topics in their representation of the Israeli onslaught on Gaza. The Israeli war was constructed as a war against Hamas, and not against the Palestinian people. They depict the onslaught as a retaliation to Hamas’s rockets. Furthermore, the human and material losses inflicted by Israel on Gaza were framed along the lines of “there are victims on both sides”. The two topics reduce Israel’s moral and political responsibility for the massive losses in human life and destruction inflicted upon the Palestinians in Gaza. This study shows the potent role of news media in framing, legitimizing, or delegitimizing political actors and their actions and maintaining power asymmetries between different political groups.
 
Article
It is essential that educational institutions prepare students for the workforce especially when they are teaching English. In most Saudi Universities English Departments have been established in the Faculties of Arts, Languages, Education and Translation. However, recognition of the need for English in the Saudi educational system has not always been matched by acceptable educational outcomes. This is indicated by the inadequate number of well-trained and highly qualified teachers of English. Lack of recognition has hindered progress towards reaching the Kingdom Vision of 2030 that focuses on empowering citizens through reshaping the educational system and turning learners into skillful, educated and independent individuals. Therefore, this study examines the extent to which the KSA Vision 2030, in terms of teaching English as a foreign language in universities, is being implemented. A questionnaire was given to first year students at the Northern Border University, in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire had two main sections, the first contained six general questions and the second section had 39 items covering very specific elements such as, Content & Teaching Methods, Evaluation & Assignments and Training & Professional Development. Analysing the data from the questionnaire was done using SPSS software.
 
Article
Much of recent research on U.S presidential discourse has focused on the nexus between language forms and their underlying social processes and psychological states. However, little work has been done to shed light on how these latent characteristics have evolved over time. This study investigated the evolution of three psychological states (authenticity, affect, and time orientation) underlying U.S. presidential discourse over approximately 230 years (1789–2016). Based on one of the most comprehensive corpora of presidential speech transcripts, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) 2015, a text analysis software, was utilized to explore these psychological states. To see the overall trend of these states across U.S. presidential history as a whole, initial analysis was based on LIWC indices, which showed that, 1) overall, authenticity level is on a steady increase in U.S. presidential discourse; 2) in the presidents’ speeches, positive emotions invariably outweigh negative emotions, and both types of emotion remain relatively constant in the long run; 3) the discourse of “focus on present” consistently outweighs the discourse of “focus on future”, which outweighs the discourse of “focus on past”. To see whether the general trend holds across different parties, a series of independent samples t-tests were first performed to check for significant difference. The results indicated that in all the three psychological states, there was no significant difference between the Democratic presidents and the Republican presidents, and that the trend in different parties is in agreement with the overall trend. Subsequent visualization of the LIWC indices according to party generally corroborated these results, with only one exception: authenticity levels are on a steady increase in the discourse of the Democratic presidents, but in the Republican presidents, there was a sharp increase in recent years.
 
Standard Arabic singular nouns syllable structure
Diminutive conjugation and examples
Examples of Qassimi diminutive forms with [w]
Examples of derivations with and without [w]
Article
Most diminutive forms in Arabic adhere in their derivation to certain simple phonological and morphological processes without any complications. However, there are exceptions to be found, including diminutive forms of nouns with [aa] in which the segment [w] surfaces. Using Optimality Theory (OT) as a framework and using syllable weight as a base of analysis, this study aims to provide an accurate explanation of such phenomena. This work will show that the root of words with [w] is not simply biconsonantal with an emphatic segment (i.e., [w]) inserted to fill the empty onset. Instead, the root is triconsonantal in which [w] is an essential segment. It also reveals that syllable-weight constraint is inviolable in Arabic dialects.
 
Article
This paper investigates contemporary trends in the English language usage in the Nigerian situation, with specific reference to Aba, a popular commercial metropolitan city with international markets in the South East of Nigeria. The study examines the influence of the English language on patterns of language choice, attitudes and language use in the scoiety and also highlights how some sociolinguistics and socio-cultural variables in turn determine the development of the English language in the society.The study adopts a survey approach. Instruments for data collection include questionnaire, interview and observation. Data were analysed using sociolinguistics tools; Variationist linguistics serves to account for the influence of social variables and structures such as the commercial group on the innovations, development and subtle change in English in the multilingual society. Information from the study highlights that English in the Nigerian situation yields to further nativisation as it continues to serve the diverse ends of different categories of users. Hence, policies relating to language and national development need consider the sociocultural context of English usage in Nigeria.
 
Article
This study aims to spot the features of the Palestinian President's address to the UN General Assembly in New York from the perspective of discourse analysis. The researchers utilized the descriptive approach where they used the following discourse analysis tools: that are context analysis, stylistic analysis and rhetorical analysis tool. All of these tools were applied to the study sample; president Abbas' address. The results of study have shown that the sentences, ideas and expressions of the President are coherent and cohesive since he used a wide variety of pronouns (attached pronouns, first, second and third person pronouns) and connectors. Using such rhetorical devices, he built a common ground or understanding between the sender and receiver (President Abbas and the UN General Assembly). In addition, he used attached, detached, speaker and, absent pronouns and the conjunctions to help build a joint ground of understanding between the speakers and addressees and make the addressees join among the progressive meanings with each other imposing a significant impact to the members of UN General Assembly in New York.
 
Article
The paper focuses on the integrated approach to investigation of abbreviations that are referred to the units of secondary nomination. Abbreviations facilitate the communication process due to the principle of economy in language. Abbreviation that goes back to ancient times is one of the most actively performed and intensive processes in the English language. The use of abbreviations is connected with both linguistic and extra-linguistic factors that to a great extent determine a variety of discourse under consideration and ways of decoding certain linguistic units of abbreviated form, where context plays the most important role. There exists a number of structural types or models, according to which abbreviations are created in order to function as separate linguistic units used in the communicative process, where in the course of time they tend to acquire new independent and sometimes unique semantic properties. In socially determined professional registers certain regularities of abbreviations constructing and functioning are observed. In this paper most of the examples refer to such discursive varieties as politics, public relations, business and to a less extent medicine. Interdiscursivity that in this particular context means actualisation of the same abbreviated form within different discursive varieties seems to be one of the basic features of the abbreviation process under analysis. From the cognitive point of view, the study of abbreviated forms is based on the theory of propositional structures in the human mind manifestation. The cognitive approach correlates with linguistic semiotic and general semiotic issues, as at the iconic level of representation an abbreviation can be considered a starting point for creation of new entities and images, based on the results of perception, and the object for subsequent interpretation. This involves operation with fragments of reality, subject to reflection in the domain of human consciousness. Cognitive communicative approach takes into account different formats of knowledge that present the foundation for abbreviations active use and distribution. The Internet as a new medium for the language existence, as well as application and formation of human thought, plays an important role in optimizing messages as well as the communication process as a whole due to abbreviation techniques.
 
Cronbach's alpha for the attitude questionnaire
The interrater reliability for both groups' results on both tests
The experimental group's attitudes toward the scaffolding techniques
Article
This study investigated the extent to which scaffolding techniques improve Saudi English-language students’ speaking abilities. The study’s main aims involved determining why most Saudi students do not want to participate in communication tasks and activities and identifying other ways to encourage teachers and students to be more active during speaking classes. A mixed-methods technique, a special rubric, and an attitude questionnaire to collect this study’s data were used. The participants included 50 students from Level 3 in the Department of English Language and Literature at the College of Languages and Translation at Al-Imam Mohammed Bin Saud Islamic University. The experiment lasted for 7 weeks. A teacher met with each group for 2 hours per week. The participants were divided into two groups and experimental and a control group of 25 students each. The experimental group used various scaffolding techniques in each session—which allowed the learners to use their existing knowledge, skills, and strategies in several contexts and for many purposes when speaking. The control group received standard speaking instruction, in which the teacher gave the students time to speak freely without intervention. An independent-sample t test for was used of the analysis. The posttest results showed that the experimental group’s speaking ability improved after the pretest. Moreover, the posttests’ overall results indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group. This result emphasized the usefulness of using new techniques to teach speaking to nonnative speakers.
 
Empirical studies investigating relationships between ASL and English 
Correlational matrix for instructional predictors 
Correlational matrix for scaled environmental variables
Arrangement of dichotomous pairs for nominal data 
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore issues of linguistic interdependence between American Sign Language (ASL) and English within the context of reading comprehension skills among thirty-two bilingual Deaf (Note 1) adults. By synthesizing findings within existing literature, a prediction model of reading comprehension was developed. Researchers investigated whether or not the threshold hypothesis and linguistic interdependence theory (Cummins, 1976, 1979, 1981, 2003) could be generalizable to bimodal bilinguals. Researchers investigated relationships among six instructional constructs and several environmental variables thought to be predictor variables for reading comprehension. Statistically significant findings included the identification of ten relationships among instructional predictors and five relationships regarding environmental factors. Statistically significant relationships are presented and implications for the generalizability of linguistic interdependence for bimodal bilinguals are summarized. Results of this study suggest that both the threshold hypothesis and linguistic interdependence theory are both generalizable to ASL and English, despite linguistic incongruency. Specific proficiencies transferred among ASL Morphology and English Reading Vocabulary, ASL Morphology and English Reading Comprehension, and ASL Semantics and English Language Mechanics.
 
The interrater reliability for both groups' results on both tests
The experimental group's attitudes toward the scaffolding techniques
Article
This study investigated the extent to which scaffolding techniques improve Saudi English-language students’ speaking abilities. The study’s main aims involved determining why most Saudi students do not want to participate in communication tasks and activities and identifying other ways to encourage teachers and students to be more active during speaking classes. A mixed-methods technique, a special rubric, and an attitude questionnaire to collect this study’s data were used. The participants included 50 students from Level 3 in the Department of English Language and Literature at the College of Languages and Translation at Al-Imam Mohammed Bin Saud Islamic University. The experiment lasted for 7 weeks. A teacher met with each group for 2 hours per week. The participants were divided into two groups and experimental and a control group of 25 students each. The experimental group used various scaffolding techniques in each session—which allowed the learners to use their existing knowledge, skills, and strategies in several contexts and for many purposes when speaking. The control group received standard speaking instruction, in which the teacher gave the students time to speak freely without intervention. An independent-sample t test for was used of the analysis. The posttest results showed that the experimental group’s speaking ability improved after the pretest. Moreover, the posttests’ overall results indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group. This result emphasized the usefulness of using new techniques to teach speaking to nonnative speakers.
 
Article
Productive abilities play an important role in English-as-a-second/foreign-language (ESL/EFL) learning. Yet, the relationship between the productive abilities of ESL/EFL learners and learning environments is still under-researched. The principal objective of this research was to explore the predictive effect of learning environments on university EFL students’ productive abilities. A total of 1,499 students from a national key comprehensive university in China were recruited. Perceived learning environments were assessed from a constructivist perspective using the Inventory for Student’s Perceived Learning Environments (ISPLE), while productive abilities were measured based on the English Productive Abilities Scale (EPAS). Findings indicated that two environmental dimensions (i.e., student-student cooperation and student autonomy) had significant effects on students’ English productive abilities. The pedagogical implications for university English teaching are discussed.
 
Article
The paper examines the properties of sentential negation in Standard Arabic (henceforth SA) and Saudi Northern Region Dialect of Arabic (henceforth SNRDA), focusing on similarities and differences in use and distribution (Note 1). In this paper, I propose that that the sentential negation facts of standard and dialectal versions of Arabic receive a unified account despite their apparent differences. I provide some empirical and conceptual evidence of the workability for the Neg-Above-T analysis over the Neg-Below-T analysis. NegP cannot remain lower than TP in Standard Arabic as the language employs V-to-T raising to drive the VSO from SVO word order. NegP in SNRDA should be higher than TP as it precedes non-verbal predicates (nominals, adjectivals, prepositionals, and adverbials) and some TP/CP located elements (expletive/ (indefinite) pronominal subjects and the future tense expressing element raaħ, and adverbials hosting pronoun subject clitics like ʕumri/uh.
 
Article
Listening strategies refer to thoughts or activities that language learners often use in the process of listening. Listening strategies are the vital branches of learning strategies, and as researches of learning strategies become a specialized research field, researches of listening strategies have spread to the aspects of meta-cognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, socialized and affective strategies, strategy-training, strategy-guiding, strategy-instruction etc. In recent years, with the continuous efforts of scholars at home and abroad, researches of listening strategies tend to be more elaborate in depth and length, which reflects on research contents, research fields, research methods, research subjects etc. In this paper, the authors have mainly made researches on the research status quo of English listening strategies at home and abroad and have given reflections on the research deficiencies. It is expected that we could improve both the learners’ listening proficiency and the strategy-instruction in EFL classrooms at home and abroad.
 
Length of abstract of the theses of Grafton College NUML Campus
Specific choices of language observed for expressing Move 2, Sub-Move 1A
Article
This study analyzes the differences between the academic writing of undergraduate students belonging to two Pakistani universities, one located in an urban setting and the other in a rural locale, in an attempt not only to identify why these differences may arise but also how such learners may be encouraged to more readily adopt academic writing techniques in their theses. Data comprises the abstract and discussion sections of undergraduate students’ dissertations. The study uses Swales’ CARS model to analyze the academic writing proficiency demonstrated in the selected data. The study finds that the occurrences of a particular move were more frequent in the dissertations of the rural area students. In contrast, the instantiation of hedges was significant in the dissertations of learners from the urban area university. These observed differences confirm the perception that in terms of academic writing “quality”, the universities in rural settings in Pakistan are not sufficiently competitive with peer institutions in urban settings. The study further reveals that dissertations from rural setting universities reflect poor use of rhetorical moves associated with good academic writing, while in line with Swales’ CARS model, students from the urban university show significant linear patterns and accuracy in their academic writing.
 
Article
This study examined 90 research article abstracts in three applied linguistics journals (i.e., TESOL Quarterly, Applied Linguistics, and Language Learning) from two dimensions: the move structure features and the verb tense of each move. The results showed that the abstracts analyzed tended to take a four-move structure instead of a five-move one as proposed in literature. In addition, since some publishers have word limits on abstract length, authors would usually follow the publisher’s guideline accordingly, thus there existing some differences concerning the move structure features among the abstracts in the three journals. In terms of the verb tense in each move, the preferred pattern was as follows: the present tense usually occurred in the first, second, and fifth move, while the past tense was often used in the third and fourth moves. It was also found that there were some variations between the abstracts written by native speakers and nonnative speakers of English. It is hoped that with detailed analyses of abstracts, the results of this study may serve as a complement to the guidelines for novice writers to construct a proper research article abstract in applied linguistics.
 
Article
Noun phrases, as the basic components of sentences, carry large amounts of information. Based on corpus-based research method, this study aims to explore the use of nouns in the journal abstracts written by Chinese scholars. Statistically significant difference was found in the noun effect between Chinese scholars’ dissertation abstracts (CSDA) and English-speaking scholars’ dissertation abstracts (ESDA), so effect was chosen as an example word throughout the research. The results show that (1) Chinese scholars tend to use more simple noun phrases while international journal scholars are inclined to use complex noun phrases in their articles. (2) As for the use of the colligation adjective+effect, Chinese scholars are likely to use synonyms or to replace the more appropriate adjectives, which cause non-native expressions. (3) As for the colligation of effect+preposition, in is most frequently used by Chinese scholars, but seem to be untypical to the international journal scholars. The study found that interlingual transfer (mother tongue transfer) and intralingual transfer appear to be the main causes of these discrepancies.
 
Article
On the basis of a large amount of corpus-based studies on translation works, the translation universals hypothesis is proposed. As it claims, translations enjoy some general features and Baker (1993) summarizes them into three universals, namely simplification, explicitation, and normalization, which are supported by many following researches. However, some of the later studies contradict with these rules in several ways, and the usages of passive voice and pronouns are the two most controversial issues. Previous researches suggest that according to the universal features of explicitation and normalization, translated texts tend to have a lower frequency of pronouns while over-representing the passive voice. To examine such claimings, 160 original English abstracts from two leading journals in the field of translation studies, The Translator and Translation Studies , and another 160 English abstracts from Chinese Translator Journal and Chinese Science & Technology Translators Journal , which are translated from Chinese abstracts, are collected. Two corpora are then constructed, namely the Original English Abstracts Corpus (OEAC) and Translated English Abstracts Corpus (TEAC). The CLAWS Part-of-speech Tagger is used to tag the lexical items and word processing tool AntConc 3.2.4 is used for retrieving the words. The comparison between the two corpora suggests that the translated English abstracts contain a lower level of frequency in the use of both passive voice and pronouns, which partially query the hypothesis of explicitation and normalization. A detailed analysis shows a higher frequency of past-tense passives in the OEAC and more passives in perfect tense in the TEAC. The OEAC also contains more relative pronouns while the other contains more indefinite pronouns. The norm theory is utilized to account for such phenomena. The detailed results of the study are expected to shed some lights on professional translating and academic writing.
 
Distribution of moves, numbers and percentages in abstracts
Article
The importance of an abstract in a research article has turned the focus of linguistics on Genre analysis of abstract articles. Taking into consideration this immensely researched topic, this paper aims to investigate the macro and micro structures in the Linguistics and Literature Abstracts. In the previous researches, this very comparison is never addressed by the researches, hence the present research aims to fill this gap. The corpus contained 40 abstracts, 20 of linguistics and 20 of literature from International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature (IJALEL). The macro analysis was made according to the Create a Research Space (CARS) model by Swales (2004) and Ant mover software was used to analyze the corpus, while the micro analysis followed Swales and Feak (2009). The results showed that there is no significant difference between the linguistics and literature abstracts at the macro level while the differences lie at the micro level. This study will be beneficial for the novice researchers as it provides a framework of analyzing two interconnected disciplines.
 
Article
This is a study of Abu Alqasem Al-Zajajee’s book Clarifications in Syntax Justifications in order to create authorship methodology and style for the writer by presenting the book content as a model for rational thinking and modernity in the fourth century of Muslim calendar. This study shows that modernism is not attributed to a specific period of history or monopolized commodity for science or a figurative manifestation of creativity; nevertheless, it is a methodology in authorization and thinking based on being free of tradition and committing to your vision—visibility. This study shows that Al-Zajajee had created new writing techniques like using self-analysis, rational thinking, reasoning and providing philosophical evidences. He divided his book into two chapters; the first chapter talks about headlines of clarification, the second chapter about controversial issues, without committing himself to a certain size for the headlines or the issues; therefore, the same headlines were discussed in several lines while some issues in one and a half line. Consequently, this study had presented recognition card for Al-Zajajee providing deep critiques for the contents leading to a clarified and specified results within its own borders.
 
Article
Code-switching between Arabic and English marks a significant linguistic change in the history and use of Arabic in Saudi Arabia. Any kind of language change, which is an inevitable process in almost every world language, has always been resisted in Saudi Arabia mostly due to a national identity and religious factors. The current study investigated the attitude of the Saudi academia comprising English language instructors and English major students towards code-switching between Arabic and English. The study examined the perceptions of the academia towards the use of varying languages and the attitude that resulted from a perception. A sample size of 10 instructors and 40 students from four universities in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia was taken for the purpose of carrying out this qualitative study. Focus Group and interview methods were used to collect data and a content analysis technique was adopted to analyze their transcripts. Findings and Results indicated that there was a close relationship between education and age on one side and the acceptability of code-switching on the other. Positive attitudes towards code-switching were found among the younger participants in their tertiary level of education. The results also revealed that such an attitude affected learners' academic performance since the learners attitude towards each language contributed to their learning and knowledge acquisition.
 
Percentages, means and standard deviations of standard Arabic status items
Percentages, means and standard deviations of SA and academia items
Percentages, means and standard deviations of SA and cultural interaction items
Percentages, means and standard deviations of SA and politics items
Percentages, means and standard deviations of SA and social interaction items
Article
The course of this study aims to investigate the attitudes of Balqa Applied University academic staff towards using Standard Arabic as the language of instruction at the university and in their social gatherings. The academic staff attitudes reflect the status of Arabicization course of action as a language planning activity among institutions of higher education in Jordan in light of competing challenges between pro-Arabicization group and anti-Arabicization group. The participants of the academic staff cover four faculties, Engineering, Agriculture, Human Sciences, and Planning. The findings of the study confirmed the passion for Standard Arabic as a highly elevated language. The respondents encourage the use of Standard Arabic in academic context in general and in conferences held at local and national levels. Standard Arabic is also preferable among other Arabs’ academic interaction. However, the respondents are rather unenthusiastic pertaining to using Standard Arabic in social interaction. In light of the findings of the study, it is recommended that the administration of higher academic institutions in Jordan assume an effective role in promoting Arabicization.
 
Article
Theories and strategies of politeness and impoliteness are drawn upon to investigate underlying factors that might contribute to an understanding of differences among students and teachers towards politeness strategies. Classroom politeness in the present study is operationally defined according to various strategies or behaviors that the students in question draw upon in reacting to different situations. The study explores through a survey and a discourse completion test the degree of politeness the genders in an L1 Arabic context indicate to certain situations. Results show that the possible causes for the 'misunderstandings' and any perceived differences in 'impoliteness' between the genders are more 'cultural' rather than that of 'impoliteness' on the part of the students. Recommendations are made for program coordinators and teachers to deal with this issue in EFL classrooms along with future needed research.
 
Article
This study is a corpus-based lexical study that aims to compare the use of research as a noun between native speakers and Chinese EAP learners in research articles in Linguistics. A self-built learner corpus of academic English (CMFD) and its parallel corpus (PQDT) are applied. Quantitative analysis of frequency and qualitative analysis of collocation of node words are used in this paper. The results reveal Chinese EAP learners use research more frequently than native speakers, and native speakers never use “researches” as a plural form of noun in academic writing while Chinese EAP learners use this form frequently. Compared with native speakers, Chinese learners tend to make the following errors: an overuse of research; using research as a countable noun; disorder in using of “research” and “researches”; confusedness of “numerous research” expressions; mixed collocation prosodies. The knowledge gained by this study can increase awareness of proper use of research in composition of instructors and L2 writers, leading to clearer, more accurate texts.
 
Five words lexical bundles in English studies
Five word lexical bundles in the corpus
Article
Multiword structures that appear in a text more than expected frequency are called lexical bundles. These prefabricated structures vary in length but the most common lexical bundles are four-word lexical bundles which have been explored by many scholars worldwide. The current study aimed to explore five-word lexical bundles, which have lesser been researched. For this purpose a corpus of about 4.7 million words was compiled which consists of PhD dissertations written in Pakistani context. Moreover, the dissertations were selected from three different disciplines to make the study cross disciplinary. The corpus was analyzed according to the taxonomy of lexical bundles given by Biber et al. (1999). The analysis shows that lexical bundles are predominant feature of PhD dissertations in Pakistani context. Moreover, frequency of lexical bundles varies from discipline to discipline, and the structural variation of lexical bundles is also found across disciplines. Dominant structures across disciplines are not fixed as Prepositional Phrase Fragments is the dominant category in the corpus of English Studies and corpus of Social Sciences, whereas, Verb Phrase Fragments is the dominant category in the corpus of Bio Sciences.
 
Article
This paper aims to determine the usefulness and functions of code-switching in the classroom when used by both lecturers and students. The study was conducted at a Saudi university campus and follows a quantitative approach using sets of questionnaires to collect the data. Then, the data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Based on the analysis, the given study shows that professors and students consider code-switching from English into Arabic in the classroom as a beneficial instrument in enhancing the learning process. That is because it allows otherwise insurmountable problems for two-way communication in the L2 target language (English) to be overcome. Also, the findings of the current study reveal a range of positive attitudes toward using code-switching in two ways, Saudi-English immersion classrooms. Specifically, the majority of the professors use this technique in certain situations to achieve a better understanding by the students. In the same vein, students in this study show huge acceptance and prove how such a phenomenon has worked as a learning facilitator. It is hoped that the results of this study will be useful for professors and researchers investigating the importance of code-switching in the classroom.
 
Article
The study aims at understanding the relationship between the use of IT applications in the Learning Resources Centers (henceforth, LRCs) at the university and increasing the academic achievement of the English language students at the Faculty of Education and Literature at the Northern Border University? The researcher relied on the research methodology of the field study, which allowed him to collect the views of a random sample of the English language learners at the university to measure and analyze the effectiveness of the use of IT within the LRCs. The study showed that the IT within the LRCs is one of the most important strategic resources at the level of educational institutions and the main factor in the development of its sectors. There is an interest from the Northern Border University on upgrading and supporting the IT infrastructure, especially in education for it is the basis for community development. A high proportion of English Language students at the university are keen on using and applying many of the technological learning media within the LRCs as a constitutive factor in understanding mental processes such as visualization, thinking, learning and creativity which is the first step towards knowledge and innovation.
 
Reviewers' comments according to speech act categories
Types of speech acts evident in reviewers' comments
Types of reviewers' comments according to speech act categories
Article
This study sought to investigate the linguistic functions of reviewers’ comments in academic journal peer review reports, primarily from a pragmatics perspective. Drawing on Searle’s (1976) Speech Act Theory (SAT), reviewers’ comments from 20 academic journal peer review reports were qualitatively analysed. The analysis revealed two main types of speech acts, directive and expressive speech acts, underlined the reviewers’ comments. Among the two types of speech acts, the directive speech act was preferred by the majority of the reviewers. It was also found that the expressive speech act was much more prominent when the reviewers provided negative comments. The results obtained suggest the need for a collegial peer review with more positive and constructive suggestions by reviewers.
 
Article
The literature on the generic structure of acknowledgment has revealed that, beyond the role it plays in academic gift giving and self-presentation, the textualization of gratitude reveals the effect of disciplinary, sociocultural and contextual variations on shaping this genre (Hyland, 2003; Giannoni, 2002; Yang, 2012). However, there is relatively scant research on the ways that acknowledgements in different genres are characterized by their distinctive communicative purposes. To fill this gap, this study analyzes through two phases the acknowledgment sections of various genres (20 MA & 20 PhD theses, 20 textbooks, and 20 research articles) written by native speakers of English (n=40) and Iranian (n=40) in applied linguistics. The results of move analysis phase which insights was from Swales’ (1990) model, showed that genre of acknowledgment was constituted of a main “Thanking” move framed by two optional “Reflecting” and “Announcing” moves in theses, two optional “Framing” and “Announcing” moves in textbooks, and one optional “Framing” move in research articles. Despite observing the “Thanking move” in acknowledgment sections of all genres, cross-generic differences were also found in the type and frequency of constituent steps used to realize this move and other optional moves. These differences indicate how the contextual, cultural, and institutional forces influence the production and reception of academic genres.
 
The study sample distribution 
The sessions' distribution 
Article
The importance of this study lies in presenting a program to enable the students with mild intellectual disability to acquire some pre-academic mathematical concepts. It also provides a scale to measure the pre-academic mathematical concepts among the educable students with intellectual disability. The study applied the experimental method on a sample of 20 children with intellectual disability who were distributed into two groups; control and experimental. The sample was selected from Rafha Province schools. The program was made up of 96 sessions, four sessions a week. Each session lasted for 60 minutes and was divided into two 30-minute sessions (activities). The researcher used a pre-academic mathematical concepts scale to collect data and to compare the performance of the experimental and control groups in the pre and post-tests. The results of the study indicated that there are statistically significant differences in the pre-academic mathematical concepts scale among the students of the two groups at the (0.01) level in favor of the experimental group.The improvement in the acquisition of some pre-academic mathematical concepts among the sample members is attributed to the student’s utilization of the program used in the current study, which is based on the guided discovery method. The researcher used a group of attractive activities desired by children. The researcher applied number of immediate reinforcements and constant encouragements to enhance proper functioning. He took into consideration presenting these activities in a gradual simplified way, moving from the easy to the hard.
 
Visual style 
Means of the learning style preferences 
Means individual items of kinesthetic styles 
Means individual items for visual styles 
Summarizes the mean scores of the four styles 
Article
This study aims to investigate whether there are any statistically significant correlation between perceptual learning styles and achievement. Raising learners’ awareness regarding their learning styles and preferences, which develops the better understanding of the learning achievement, and help instructors become more conscious of some factors affecting academic achievement. Additionally, the study assists instructors to identify their student’s preferred learning styles that can affect their achievement. Furthermore, no study up to now has been conducted in Jordan which investigates the relationship between the learning styles on the achievement of EFL at the tertiary level. The data was collected through the learning style preferences questionnaire and it was analyzed using statistical techniques, Descriptive statistics showed that: 1). The most preferred learning styles followed the auditory style, group learning style, kinesthetic style and visual style. 2). The finding also revealed that there was no statistically significant correlation between learning style and achievement. Additionally, both showed similar references for kinesthetic and visual styles. Based on these findings, some recommendations have been made.
 
Article
p>This study attempts to validate an academic group tutorial discussion speaking test for undergraduate freshmen students taking initial EAP training at a university in Hong Kong in terms of task, rater and criterion validity. Three quantitative measures (Cronbach’s Alpha, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, and Exploratory Factor Analysis) are used to assess validity of rater scores for the test using a rubric with considerations for assessment of academic stance presentation, inter-candidate interaction, and individual language proficiency. These results are triangulated with post-hoc interview data from the raters regarding the difficulties they face assessing individual proficiency and group interaction over time. The results suggest that current provisions of the rubric in dealing with the assessment of interaction in group settings (namely visual cues such as “active listening” as well as provisions for interruptions in the form of “domination”) are problematic, and that raters are unable to separate the grading of academic stance from the grading of language concerns. We also note affective and cognitive difficulties involved with assessing extended periods of interactional discourse including student talking time (or lack of it), the group dynamic, and raters” personal beliefs and practice as threats to validity that the statistical measurements were unable to capture. A new sample rubric and further suggestions for improving the validity of group tutorial assessments are provided.</p
 
Top-cited authors
Saeed Rezaei
  • Sharif University of Technology
Giti Mousapour Negari
  • University of Sistan and Baluchestan
Solomon Ali Dansieh
  • Dr. Hilla Limman Technical University - Wa - Ghana
Cagri Tugrul Mart
  • Ishik University
Ahmed Qadoury Abed
  • Al-Mustansiriya University