In this paper weprovide a method of determining the chromatic polynomial of without actual construction of . A planar graph characterization of graphs whose domatic partition is using properties is established and provide a MATLAB program for identifying just excellent graphs.
In this paper weprovide a method of determining the chromatic polynomial of without actual construction of . A planar graph characterization of graphs whose domatic partition is using properties is established and provide a MATLAB program for identifying just excellent graphs.
K doping in the compound of Nd0.75Na0.25-xKxMn1O3 (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.10) manganites have been investigated to study its effect on crystalline phase and surface morphology as well as electrical transport and magnetic properties. The structure properties of the Nd0.75Na0.25-xKxMnO3 manganite have been characterized using X-ray diffraction measurement and it proved that the crystalline phase of samples were essentially single phased and indexed as orthorhombic structure with space group of Pnma. The morphological study from scanning electron microscope showed there was an improvement on the grains boundaries and sizes as well as the compactness with K doping suggestively due to the difference of ionic radius. On the other hand, DC electrical resistivity measurement showed all samples exhibit insulating behavior. However, analysis of dlnρ/dT-1 vs. T revealed the clearly peaks could be observed at temperature 210K for x = 0 and the peaks were shifted to the lower temperature around 190 K and 165 K for x = 0.05 and x = 0.1 respectively, indicate the existence of charge ordering (CO) state in the compound. Meanwhile, the investigation on magnetic behavior showed all samples exhibit transition from paramagnetic phase to anti-ferromagnetic phase with decreasing temperature and the TN was observed to shift to lower temperature suggestively due to weakening of CO state
This paper presents an Ultra-Wideband (UWB) 3-5 GHz Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) employing Chebyshev filter. The LNA has been designed using Cadence 0.18um CMOS technology. Proposed LNA achieves a minimum noise figure of 2.2dB, power gain of 9dB.The power consumption is 6.3mW from 1.8V power supply.
This paper reports influences of cobalt (Co) substituted at Mn-site of Pr0.75Na0.25Mn1-xCoxO3 and Nd0.75Na0.25Mn1-yCoyO3 on structure, electrical transport and magnetic properties. All of the samples were prepared via standard solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction measurement indicates that all samples were crystallized in an orthorhombic structure (space group Pnma). Resistivity measurement displays the x = 0 sample manifests an insulator behavior while metal-insulator transition was found at 108 K and 84 K for x = 0.02 and 0.05 respectively for Pr0.75Na0.25Mn1-xCoxO3. On the other hand, all of the samples for Nd0.75Na0.25Mn1-yCoyO3 showed insulator behavior down to low temperature and analysis of the resistivity change with respect to temperature, dlnρ/dT-1 versus T reveals a slope changes of resistivity have been recorded. Two obvious peaks were recorded from the analysis for y = 0.02 and 0.05 which can be suggested to the existence of charge order transition at the vicinity. For magnetic properties, x = 0 sample showed a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition and further substitution of Co, x = 0.02 and 0.05, induce the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition and antiferromagnetic arrangement respectively. Meanwhile, further substitution of Co, y = 0.02 and 0.05 indicate antiferromagnetic transition with increasing TN as Co increased.
In this study, the effect of improved microstructure of Al-5.7Si-2Cu-0.3Mg alloys by using semisolid process on hardness and dry sliding wear behaviour were investigated. The microstructures of conventional cast alloy were totally dendritic, while in rheocasting the dendritic transfer to fine globular microstructures after using cooling slope casting. Tribological tests were carried out by using a pinon-disc apparatus in dry sliding conditions. Wear tests were at low sliding speed 1ms⁻¹, applied load at 50N and three different sliding distance (i.e., 1.8Km, 5.4Km and 9Km) respectively. An optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope were used to examine the micro-structure and to understand the wear mechanism on the worn surface of both samples. The results showed that, the wear resistance of rheocast alloy was improved and higher than that those produce by conventional casting. The volume loss of rheocast alloy show reduction more than 18% at 1.8Km and 10% at 9Km compared to ascast alloy. Moderate wear regimes were appeared in both alloys, according to the range of wear rate. The friction coefficient had increased due to increase in the contact point between pin and disc materials. The dominant wear mechanism for conventional and rheocasting alloys was adhesion wear and abrasive wear respectively.
Absorption is one of the most established processes for CO2 capturing. However, the current technologies used in this process suffer from several drawbacks. Meanwhile, the ultrasound technique is proposed as a new alternative technology to assist the CO2 absorption process due to both its physical and chemical effects. Yet, the chemical effect is still under developments. Between all the influencing parameters, the ultrasonic power and the frequency are the vital key parameters to investigate sonochemical effects during the CO2 absorption process. The aim of this paper is to measure the ultrasonic power of an ultrasonic vessel. The total electrical power measured by using the voltage and the flow. Simultaneously, the ultrasonic power determined by using the calorimetric method. The measurements were done by using water with different volumes and repeated for three different frequencies. The results showed that almost 51% of the electrical power converted into the ultrasonic power and were independent of liquid volume.
Data analysis is the most grueling tasks in the coinciding world. The size of data is increasing at a very high rate because of the procreation of peripatetic gadgets and sensors attached. To make that data readable is another challenging task. Effectual visualization provides users with better analysis capabilities and helps in deriving evidence about data. Many techniques and tools have been invented to deal with such problems but to make these tools amendable is the main mystification. It is the big data that originated as a technology which is proficient in assembling and transforming the colossal and divergent figures of data, providing organizations with meaningful insights for derivingimprovedresults. Big data is accustomed to delineate technologies and techniques which are used to store, manage, distribute and analyze huge data sheets. The existent of administrating this research is to make the data readable in a more suitable form with less comprehend. Mainly the research emphasizes on the fabrication of using COGNOS insight 10.2.2 for visualizing data and implementing the analyzed results derived from the hive. The assimilation between tools has also been reformed in this research.
In this work, Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) was used to study the influence of heat input (i.e. cooling rate) on mechanical/metallurgical properties of square butt welded joints of DP 1000 sheets. The influence of filler metals of different strengths on the mechanical properties of joints was also tested. A significant decrease in hardness was observed in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) due to martensite tempering, in regions where peak temperature was close to isotherm AC1 (calculated in 735 oC for these steel); coincidently, fracture in every tensile test occurred in regions where martensite was tempered, even when a wire of less strength was used. It was noticed that the decrease in ultimate tensile and yield strength of base metal was inherent to welding. When minimum heat input was used, deterioration in mechanical properties was less pronounced, once degree of HAZ softening was smaller. Elongation of joints increased with increasing heat input.
Friction stir spot welding-FSSW has been suggested as effectual process to welding difficult materials such as dissimilar materials and thin sheet of metal alloys. In this study, using dissimilar materials were welded carbon steel-1006 on upper plate and aluminum alloy AA2024-T3 on lower plate. Macrostructure, micro-structural analysis and mechanical properties of the joints are done. The effect of penetration depth, dwell time and spindle speed on tensile shear load are investigated with invariable of other parameter during welding process. The maximum tensile shear load (3.31KN) was occurred when using 0.4mm of penetration depth, 10 sec of dwell time and 1400 rpm of spindle speed. Also, two type of failure shape was observed interfacial fracture of carbon steel sheet and pull-out fracture of AA2024-T3 sheet.
Hard roller burnishing with a ball tool is a surface-finishing where a free-rotating tool rolls over the machined surface under high pressures and flattens the surface roughness peaks by cold work. In the present work, a new burnishing technique has been applied which enables both single and double ball burnishing process in site after turning without releasing the specimen. Sets of experiments are conducted to investigate the influence of burnishing force, feed, speed and number of tool passes on surface roughness of AISI 1018 Low Carbon Steel specimens. Burnishing results showed significant effectiveness of the new burnishing technique in the process. The results revealed that minimum surface roughness are obtained by applying the double ball burnishing process on AISI 1018 Low Carbon Steel specimens. Improvement in surface finish can be achieved in both single and double ball burnishing by increasing the number of burnishing tool passes. The results are presented in this paper.
This research paper determines the relationship between cutting edge temperature, depth of cut, cutting speed, cutting forces and flank wear. The cutting edge temperature is determined by using a pyrometer consists of Indium Arsenide (InAs) and Indium Antimonide (InSb) photocells to detect infrared radiation that are released from cutting tool's edge and cutting forces is measured by using a dynamometer. The machining process experiment is done by end milling the outer surface of AISI 1095 carbon steel. The output signal from the photocell and dynamometer is processed and recorded in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting edge temperature and cutting force increases as the depth of cut increases. Meanwhile, increasing cutting speed resulting in cutting edge temperature increases but decreasing in cutting force due to thermal deformation. Also, existence of progressive flank wear at cutting tool causes an increment in cutting edge temperature and cutting force proportionally.
With growing number of applications and network traffic, optic fibers are extensively used in the access part of the network. Passive Optical Networks (PON) in particular, Ethernet PON (EPON) networks based on Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) are more prominently used in many parts of the world. Though Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) PON has its own advantages, considering the cost and utilisation of such networks in the access part makes it less useful. On the other hand, Hybrid PON network combines the advantages of both EPON and WDM PON Networks. The objective of this paper is to identify suitable electrical filters for a 16-channel Hybrid Passive Optical Network with a transmission rate of 10Gbps per channel, by analysing their performance in terms of Q factor and Bit Error Rate. Different filters like the Bessel filter, Gaussian filter, Raised Cosine Filter, Rectangular filter, Butterworth filter, Chebyshev Filter are compared and their performances are evaluated. DB Modulation format that provides a longer reach is used at the transmitter to evaluate the different scenarios and the simulation is carried out using Optisystem.
This paper presents design and simulation of charge pump architectures for 10GHz Charge Pump Phase locked Loop. Differential delay cell VCO with symmetric load and Programmable frequency divider are efficiently implemented in loop. Able to achieve Peak jitter of the Divider 10ns, Peak jitter of VCO 205ps at 1GHz.Charge pump is analysed in loop by reduced current mismatch using improved high swing cascode structure including start up circuitand it has low turn ON voltage and high ouput impedance to provide stable voltage.Charge pump results current mismatch less than 0.05%.10GHz DPLL is simulated with 65nm techonology, 1.2V and tsmc foundary model files
A Low power 6-bit R-2R ladder Digital to Analog Converter is presented in this paper. Here the R-2 R network designed using resistors with only two values-R and 2xRand the switch is designed by using both NMOS and PMOS Transistors. This Digital to Analog Converters operated with low voltage, by applying dynamic threshold MOSFET (DTMOS) logic. This design achieved less INL and DNL which is 0.3 and 0.06 respectively. Power supply required to operate this device is only 1V with10GHzconversion rate. This design is implemented by using 0.18μm CMOS technology.
This work presents ideally the behavioral characteristics of induction motor (IM) when subjected to different loading conditions. The task is achieved via mathematical modeling of the process using the Simulink tool of the Matlab. Dynamic model is generally used to study the steady state and transient behavior of induction motor. Here, Clarke and Park’s transformation of stator and rotor parameters on the synchronously rotating reference frame is applied to the developed mathematical model of the induction motor. First, the differential equations of voltages, currents and flux linkages between the stationary stator and rotating rotor are developed, followed by the mechanical equation of torque and speed. Thereafter the mathematical model developed with the help of the software is generally used to study the variation in parameters value on the dynamic performance of the induction motor as variable load is driven. The obtained simulated results apart from the exhibited performances still suggests that the synchronously rotating reference frame theory is actually a shrewd process to validate the dynamic behavior of the induction motor.
This brief presents a 10kS/s 14 bit 12.5 ENOB Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter for Cardiac Implantable Medical. For achieving power efficient operation, SAR ADC employ SAR control, a new power and noise efficient comparator topology, non- binary weighted capacitive DAC. The linearity of implemented SAR ADC is enhanced with the uniform geometry of non-binary weighted capacitive DAC.The proposed SAR ADC is implemented using 65nm CMOS technology. The latched comparator consumes a power of 2.4uW and it provides an ENOB of 12.6 at a supply voltage of 1V.The INL is between -2.7/+1.6 LSB and DNL is between -0.6/+1.4LSB. The FOM of ADC is 40fJ/conv. Step which is comparable with existing ADC topologies.
Thermal pipe expansion on the turbine greatly affects the performance of the turbine, mainly produces misalignment in turbines. The stress analysis on the pipe and the load on the nozzle is very important to ensure that the stress that occurs is still safe and the load that occurs on the nozzle is still below the allowable load. Field information is known, Steam type of 51-G-201-T, capacity 10 MW, total weighs 58 tons, weight casing 37 tons, which has been operating since July 1989, has been occur misalignment on turbines. Stress pipe and load analysis of turbine nozzles on the turbine using software (Autopipe V8i Select Series 3 Edition by Bentley). In this perspective, calculation methodologies were developed in order to do quick analysis of the most common configurations, according to the codes ASME B31.1 (Piping Power). The results of the pipe stress analysis showed that the maximum sustained stress ratio occurred at point A39 (0.32), maximum displacement stress ratio at point A39 (0.97) and maximum hoop stress ratio at point A09 (0.44), all values below 1. This shows that the stress is still safe. The result of load analysis on the turbine casing is the direction x = -880 kg, y = 6246.4kg, z = - 3697.7kg, smaller than the weight of the 37 tones turbine casing, so misalignment is not caused by shifting the turbine casing.
In this paper, implementation of fast FFT design for 128- point using Radix-22 CFA is presented. This research uses a common factor algorithm which is based on Radix-22. A 2-point DFT butterfly structure is the lowest complexity structure and Radix-22 CFA is used to reduce logic and area by reducing the number of twiddle factors. The VHDL code is written and synthesized using Xilinx FPGA device xc7vx330t-3ffg1761 to implement the proposed design. This design is coded in VHDL and MATLAB. VHDL code is targeted to synthesize into Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and simulated into ModelSim PE Student Edition 10.4a. MATLAB code is simulated into MATLAB 2012. The proposed design achieves 149.822 MHz clock frequency, used 2802 slices on the Virtex-7 and SQNR 33.49 dB at 16-bit I/O word length.
Due to rapid improvement for innovations in cryptography, the scattered of power link in connections of cryptography contexts instigates to resist through the power disseminated via substitute mechanisms of the communication subsystem, the switches and the sub modules of cutting edge encryption standard (AES). The dynamic power dissemination in joins is real supporter of the power utilization in organize on the chip. Due to self-exchanging and cross coupling capacitance the power consumption is shirking in communications system for security aspects. In the present research work the encoding strategy the key self-exchanging is diminish by examination the exchanging change and afterward the link between the connections is patterned and guaranteed that the power utilization is lessened. To upgrade control utilization in encryption and decoding process, Bit Encryption and Decryption Transition (BEDT) information schemes went for lessening the power disseminated by the AES chiefly include round key module in AES to perform XOR operation between 128 bits plain content and secrete key. The suggested research work in this paper is main basic concept of AES due to its number of round operations and also it will allow 39% of energy sprinkling and 9% of energy utilization without having more number execution debasement and with below 11% range overhead in the other cryptography frameworks. The proposed BEDT schemes depends on both odd modified and even rearranged, and after that sending the information to receiver that will performed utilizing the kind off reversal which lessens increasingly the exchanging movement. In these proposed three schemes, utilizes an easier decoder while accomplishing a higher movement diminishment. In the prior schemes, the quantity of changes from 0 to 1 for two back to back flutters is tallied. The bit transitions reduce the number of transitions before transmitting the data to decryption.
In this paper, design analysis of Hybrid- Excited Flux Switching Machine (H-EFSM) with 12Slot-8Pole (12S-8P) and 12Slot-14Pole (12S-14P) topologies are presented. H-EFSM has been introduced in which the advantage of Permanent Magnet (PM) machines and DC Field Excitation Coil (FEC) synchronous machines is combined. H-EFSM design proposed less permanent magnet consumption, high to torque/power density and high efficiency. In recent, most of H-EFSM having FEC arranged in theta direction that affect in flux production which cause less flux generation and machines performances. Therefore, a design of 12S-8P and 12S-14P H-EFSM with FEC arranged in radial direction is proposed to prevent flux cancellation and produce high flux linkage. Performance analysis of 12S-8P and 12S-14 H-EFSM such as PM flux, induced voltage, cogging torque and flux distribution are investigated by 2-D Finite Element Analysis (2D-FEA). A design with 12S-14P configuration has achieved the higher torque and power with 220.15Nm and 92.45kW, respectively at maximum field and armature current density
The proposed work shows an innovative designing in TSMC 130nm CMOS technology. A 2.4 GHz common gate topology low noise amplifier (LNA) using an active inductor to attain the low power consumption and to get the small chip size in layout design. By using this Common gate topology achieves the noise figure of 4dB, Forward gain (S21) parameter of 14.7dB, and the small chip size of 0.26 mm, while 0.8mW power consuming from a 1.1V in 130nm CMOS gives the better noise figure and improved the overall performance.
In the modern actively developing conditions of globalization and informatization of production, and emergence of new technologies, only those firms have chances to remain at the market which find ways and means of optimization of processes in time. Adhering to the basic principles of the integrated system of management ensures the most natural and trouble-free functioning of all organizational structure. This paper covers the specifics of work with documentation, or the system of paper and electronic document flow, and with the application of an electronic document management system taking into account observance of requirements of documentary information management system. Adherence to ISM requirements for documentary information management is quite real with options of conducting document flow. Nevertheless, it is much simpler and more effective to perform with already introduced EDMS, and the effect of its use of subjects is higher when the enterprise scale and a number of staff involved in work with documentation are bigger. The maximum output can be achieved from electronic document flow introduction with an optimum ratio of the functions demanded in operation and if opportunities of the chosen system correspond to them.
To improve the productivity of this machining perhaps it may be recommended in a dry cutting but a dry cutting is recognized very sen-sitive to a high temperature. In this case, in order to overcome is perhaps required by using a tool carbide either in layers or without any layers whereby each layer has certain superior. There was conducted an experiment to have an optimum cutting on a carbon steel VCN-150 using a layers tool carbide and Respond Surface Method (RSM) with a CCD operation. The result of study recommended that con-dition optimum cutting shall be achieved (When cutting tc) on a medium machining refers to ISO 3685 and medium surface roughness (Ra) ISO 1320. Statistically, there is no found significant difference between a dry and wet cutting on optimum dry condition.
The trends of the VLSI technology is advancing, due to this majority of the industry players are showing interest in development of the devices with ultra low power applications. Analog-to-Digital converters are getting extensively used in Medical implant machines and in lots of Sensor machines, because it is serving an imperative role in interfacing between analog signal and digital signal. This paper presents a modernistic technique called as Sub threshold Current Mode Logic (CML) for ultra low power digital components. Here 16 bit SAR ADC is designed and compared with the techniques like CMOS and STCML for power consumption and delay. Schematics are materialized with Cadence Virtuoso tool using 45nm process. The transistors in these CML and CMOS operate at threshold voltages and Sub-threshold voltages where the executable design is done using 1V to 0.5V power supply (VDD). The comparator dissipates aggrandized power, so most of the intension is converged on forming this chunk. The CML logic procedure operates primarily with the current domain, due to this the performance can be constitutionally high. This approach decreases static power dissipation.
Twenty-two surface sediment samples were collected from the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia in January 2010. The concentration of 16 USEPA priority PAHs were determined and quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS). The 16 PAHs concentration ranged from 37.91 to 299.68 ng/g dry weight and are within low to moderate pollution range. Cluster analysis showed that SL08, SL09, SL10, SL15 and SL22 can be discriminated as having high pollution loading PAHs due to industrialized region and shipping boat traffic. In this work, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and PCA association with Multiple Linear Regressions (PCA-MLR) to identify and apportion possible sources of PAHs. Three sources of PAHs were identified: (1) traffic emission (91.57%); (2) coal or wood combustion (6.63%); and (3) spillage of petroleum based products (1.80%). Langat River is highly contaminated by PAHs from pyrogenic sources, in particular 4 rings PAHs (28.87-79.52%) and 5 to 6 rings PAHs (2.69-57.44%).
The study aims to understand the thermal performance behavior of a double skin envelope system in a test cell. A rooftop observation deck and experimentation laboratory is installed at the “J” Building of the Postgraduate Unit, National Autonomous University of Mexico campus (19°18’33.59”N, 99°11’5.73”O). This platform consists of two full-scale testing modules. Each cubic module measures 3m x 3m x 3m. All of its facades have several layers of insulation. This platform was designed to test materials and construction systems under the Mexico City microclimate. It is possible to measure thermal, lighting, acoustic and indoor air quality variables. Mexico City building codes indicate that the minimum span to be used in a room must be at least 17.5% of the area of the room. Using the Experimentation Façade, which allows us to observe all available orientations; we place a window with these characteristics and measure its thermal behavior in each of the orientations. The results obtained allowed us to identify that the window when observing the North or South orientations does not greatly increase the internal temperature of the Module. On the other hand, when the window observes the orientations East and West, the internal temperature increase, establishes conditions of inhabitability inside the Module, recording temperatures of above 50°C.
The novel catalysts Ce-AlPO-18 with Al/Ce = 25, 50, 75 & 100 were synthesized using hydrothermal synthesis procedure. The newly synthesized catalysts were characterized using physico-chemical techniques such as, X-ray diffraction (XRD) which confirmed AEI structure, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS-UV) confirmed the presence of both Ce³⁺ and Ce⁴⁺ in the framework and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the complete removal of template molecule. The synthesized catalysts were tested for the oxidation of cyclohexane using air as the oxidant in a solvent free system and the results were discussed.
Amendment to Government Regulation number 18 of 2016 begins with the issuance of Law Number 23 Year 2014 on Regional Instrument Organization to replace Law no. 32 year 2014. In this study, researchers used qualitative methods with Case Study approach, the researchers considered this method is very appropriate that best describe the phenomenon in political communication research related to post-implementation of Government Regulation No. 18 of 2016. Ability to provide rich portraits which is the main benefit of case studies. The research reader should be made to feel as if you were there with you in your research, see what you see, summarize what you have concluded. This research was conducted in Public Hospital Karawang regency. In this study researchers found that: 1. Hospital changed the status that was originally Regional Technical Institute into Limited Service Unit Region under the health service 2. The Director is a physician or dentist whose functional status is then given an additional duty to become the Director of the Hospital 3. The Health Office is a member of the hospital supervisory board as well as the operational operator of the hospital has resulted an overlapping coordination in organizational communication
In RFID systems, the Transponder Protocol usually uses the standard ISO 18000-6 Type-C Class 1 Generation 2, originally developed to communicate with the reader. Since a typical RFID system could be used in a myriad of tasks from product identification to environmental sensing, behavioral software functionality and hardware cost constraints are extremely constricted, principally due to their ¶standard’s requirements.¶ Thus, in this paper, an advanced behavioral simulation of the Tag ID layer of ISO 18000-6 Type-C protocol is proposed with all its states, commands and functionality, a crucial step toward effective design and test. The approach was then successfully applied to collision issues in interference case.
Lack of safety participation in Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Management System (OSHMS) has exposed employees to high risk of work hazards resulting in high occupational accidents. This does not only affect employee's morale towards work, but employer also needs to bear the cost of recovery and its effect to its reputation. This study was carried out to determine the relationship of safety capital (management safety commitment, safety training, extrinsic reward, intrinsic reward, employee involvement, safety communication and safety advice) and safety participation in OSHMS using the resource-based view (RBV) and knowledge-based view (KBV) theories. A total of 100 responses were collected from Malaysian manufacturing firms certified with OSHA18001. Data were analysed using the Smart Partial Least Square (SmartPLS). Results showed that safety training, extrinsic reward and employee involvement directly affect safety participation in OSHMS but not Management Safety Commitment, Intrinsic Reward and Safety Communication. However, Management Safety Commitment and Safety Communication indirectly affect safety participation in OSHMS moderated by high safety advice. As a managerial implication, this research showed that the role played by the safety officers represented by the safety advice is important in enhancing the safety practices and commitment in place to result in a successful safety participation in OSHMS.
Of late, low power configuration took shape into the most important concentrations in designing the latest VLSI circuits. By considering the same at the maximum priority, another outline of two-bit GDI based Magnitude or Digital Comparator are recommended and actualized with the assistance of Modified GDI transistors. Comparators are building blocks in advanced VLSI configuration circuits. In the current patterns the necessity for occupying less area in chip and low power compact devices. In this paper we introduced another Magnitude Comparator which will utilize low power, and gives a quick results and occupying less chip area in Modified GDI technology. The modified GDI procedure dependent extent comparator has favorable position of less control utilization as for different outline parameters; few on-chip zones secured as small number of transistors are utilized in circuit configuration when related with traditional CMOS size comparator. Either of the circuits is outlined and executed utilizing Tanner EDA Tool version 16.0 at 180nm processing technologies.
For phased array applications covering ultra wide bandwidth, it is necessary to restrict the size of the aperture to less than λ/2 at highest frequency of operation. For 6-18 GHz coverage, an aperture size of less than 9.76mm is required for scanning to ±450 without appearance of grating lobes and occurrence of element pattern nulls over the band. Meeting this requirement a printed tapered slot antenna has been designed with the above aperture size. Detailed parametric studies have been carried out over 6-18 GHz and dimensions have been opti-mized for return loss. The design has been carried out with HFSS software. A return loss of less than -7.5dB across 5.6 - 20 GHz has been obtained for a single antenna. Also satisfactory radiation patterns have been obtained.
This study investigates the consequences of Corona-virus (COVID-19) on the online business in Pakistan. COVID 19 changed the business world operations and procedures drastically. The new business norms evolved, and the human beings learned new practices for their behavior and business conduct. Developed nations like USA, UK, Italy suffered collapse of health care and economic activities. COVID-19 impacted all businesses including E-Business but the e-business is among few who got dual impact as most of the business activities are moving from physical to online that is e-business but due to the lock down e-businesses are not able to get the items on time. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and local business-es in Pakistan incurred huge losses due to the lock down and lack of facilities in developing countries like Pakistan. Some of the small-scale business permanently closed due to the COVID-19. E-Business also faces these terrible conditions in Pakistan due to the lack of government support and awareness. Many E-Commerce business imports product from China so that is the reason it is assumed that the Pakistani E-Business harshly effected by the COVID-19. This research survey shows that the COVID-19 has a negative impact on the e-Business in Pakistan.
Every one of us knows about the rise of Coronavirus (COVID-19) from Wuhan (China) and its effects into nearby states and further motherlands, increased domestic and worldwide methods are being occupied to contain the outburst. In terms of Economic and Social point of view, it directly disturbs the metropolitan markets on a high level by engaging all the capitals and towns in a lock-down situation. It’s also highlighted if this situation increases in different countries then it can lead in a direction to world-wide health disaster and in many accommodations as well. Be that as it may, while compelling conventions concerning the sharing of good information is underscored, urban information, then again, explicitly identifying with urban well-being and safe city ideas, is still seen from a patriot point of view as exclusively profiting a country's economy and its monetary and political impact. This article will explore the new and better universal understandings and also shows how smart city/urban systems be able to improve uniform procedures for bigger data sharing in the time of tragedies.
This article reveals the functional and semantic field of image-symbols in the Tatar poetry of the 1920s-1930s as exemplified by the poetic texts of Hadi Taqtas, Musa Calil, Hasan Tufan and Ahmed Faizi. The structural and semantic field of the image-symbols formed in the literature between the 1920s and the 1930s significantly differs from the artistic and aesthetic search of the previous periods in the development of literature. Avant-garde experiments with the form of verses of the 1920s, complex literary devices and techniques, as well as the possibility of creating an image from a large number of mosaic details led poets to folklore image-symbols. At the same time, the authors observed the diversity of ideological images that often serve as symbols and structure-forming components in the structure of a poetic text. The research aims to study folklore and ideological image-symbols in the Tatar poetry of the 1920s-1930s and to reveal their structural-semantic and functional field in poetic texts. The scientific novelty of this article is determined by a different approach to the study of the system of images in poetic works, i.e. in the course of the study, the authors focus their attention on the symbolic use of images as structure-forming components. Within the framework of this research, the authors have proved that folklore and ideological symbols act as structure-forming components and are perceived as an opportunity to change artistic paradigms, restore ideological and philosophical depth, polysemy, the possibility of double interpretation and national traditions of the Tatar poetry. The fundamental method used in the course of this study is the hermeneutic approach that guides the reader's receptive activity to the analysis of principles and techniques for creating images and image-symbols.
Introduction. The relevance of this study is explained by the rapid social and political homogenization of Europe; the "disclosure" of many documents indicative of sociocultural changes in Eastern Europe; an increasing chronological gap between the research subject and its researcher that enables to use scientific verification methods instead of ideologically "correct" paradigms. Methods. The methodological basis of this article is the principles of systematicity and objectivity. While conducting this research, the author also used genetic, typological, comparative, hermeneutic and semiotic methods. Results. Throughout the postwar history, Polish filmmakers were bringing stories about World War II to the silver screen. The concept of a war feature film also changed depending on the postwar development of Poland. Discussion. The necessary conditions for studying the evolution of Polish war feature films based on systematicity and objectivity are as follows: the analysis of the Polish sociocultural postwar development (periodization with distinguishing essential characteristics of each period); the determination of main trends in the development of spiritual culture as a part of sociocultural processes; the analysis of the state-party politics in the sphere of culture, art and cinema. Conclusion. Throughout the postwar development, Polish filmmakers were addressing the topic of war. Their attitude to war changed depending on the country's socio-cultural development and the evolution of its spiritual culture. For instance, war feature films were the most prominent trend in the development of the Polish cinema in the second half of the 1940s and the first half of the 1950s. Between 1956 and 1960, the Polish Film School was established and was characterized by a high interest in war-related films (alongside other topics and problems represented in the cinema of that time). In the 1970s, war feature films were still relevant but gave way to flicks about modern times. In the 1980s, this topic "withdrew into the shadows" not only in cinematography but also in other artistic spheres. It was mostly used in films to better interpret other topics.
Recent events had put the question of security of land transactions at the forefront of not only the political and economic agenda worldwide, but also posed some key questions for law and the future regulation of property rights. The Torrens System of land registration which is practiced in Malaysia can be traced back to Sir Robert Torrens in South Australia during the late eighteenth century. The land registration system should be made flexible enough to adapt to the changing of technologies but also secure enough to ensure that the registered proprietors have good title to their lands. This article is intended to explore the rigorous and somewhat tedious process that is provided under the National Land Code 1965 relating to the attestation of instruments before the presentation for registration.
Rational speculative bubble size happens when the prices of an asset surpass its intrinsic value. This bubbles are harmful when burst because its gives a big impact towards the economic. The aims of this study is to show the size of rational speculative bubble existed from year 1976 until 2016. The period are separated into four which are the first cycle is from 1/11976 to 6/12/1987, the second cycle happen in 7/12/1987 to 12/8/1998, 13/8/1998 to 26/10/2008 for the third cycle and 27/10/2008 to 31/12/2016 for the fourth cycle. This study is also emphasizing on the trend of the rational speculative bubble from one cycle to another cycle. This bubbles size was studied in three markets which are Hang Seng, S&P 500 and Nikkei 225 by using generalized Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette model. The difference.
This study is more focus on identifying the factors that determine the difference of population rates in Malaysia and Republic of China from 1990 to 2016. All the secondary data acquired from the government agencies such as the distribution population, births and deaths in Malaysia and China. The determining factors were classified into two parts, which were the determinants of mortality and determinant of birth rates that at once determine the natural increase factor for the population of the country. Growth of a country will increase when birth rates exceed the death rates. These components are linked to the bases and situations that apply to both countries. The aim objectives are to analyzing the rate of changes of the population and identifying the determinants of population rates. The findings are expected to give a clear picture of the factors that cause the increase and decrease of the population for both countries. Poverty issues, low household income levels, limited employment opportunities and unstable economic conditions are the main reasons why the growth rate of the Malaysian population should be regulated and redesigned. The increasing of population levels that are not balanced with economic improvements will further highlight in the existing issues.
1D:3D and 2D:4D finger ratios of a hand are widely used for research in the field of predisposition of the individual to certain somatic diseases. 299 young people were surveyed in total with the calculation of the Pignet index, using a flatbed scanner and the author's program HandScaner. As part of the study, it was identified that the finger indices of 1D:3D in young men is significantly greater than that of girls in the hypersthenic group by 2% (p < 0.05). Finger index of 1D:3D is more by 1% in young men in the normosthenic group, in the asthenic group, the finger index of 1D:3D is more in girls by 1% (p > 0.05). When studying the index 2D:4D, there were no statistically significant differences between the left and right hands in young men and women (p > 0.05), as well as the relationship with the type of body build. Despite this, many foreign authors note the presence of this connection in males and females in other age groups. In addition, according to foreign authors, this index, as well as in our study, is more in girls in comparison with young men.
Flooding is a perennial problem in the Philippines during the monsoon season intensified by the effects of typhoon. On average, there are 20 typhoons that enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR), and many of these make landfall causing catastrophic aftermath. Extreme rainfall events could lead to flooding in the downstream floodplain and landslide in mountainous terrains. In this study, which is for the case of Calumpang River that drains to the populated and developing region of Batangas City, the focus is on flooding in the floodplain areas. The river was modelled using LiDAR digital elevation model (DEM) that has an accuracy of 20cm in the vertical and 50cm in the horizontal. The result of this is river hydraulic model that can be used to accurately generate flood inundation simulations and flood hazard maps.
This paper investigates the transformerless single-phase inverter incorporates with the photovoltaic system along with the support of grid voltage. Solar Energy is a Non-Conventional Energy source which is mandatory for power generation due to their immeasurable parade and green pleasant nature. One-cycle control (OCC), Ruggedness and consistency which makes the interfacing with the grid easily. For grid interfacing, the inverter circuit does not need phase locked loop facility and are gradually being working for such solicitations. The strategy of the OCC inverter of one stage for solar PV applications is supported by means of a Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation to enhance inverter enactment at both low and high insolation levels. These factors allows the plan of a MPPT along P & O controller that pointedly progresses inverter playacting. Though, the OCC-based structures testified previous sensing of the grid voltage which slightly equalizers the strength of its characteristics, In order to dazed the restriction of prior researches, an One Cycle Control based gridconnected one-stage PV system is suggested. The sustainability of the suggested scheme is inveterate by performance simulation justification.
In this paper, we propose a new WebQuest model using Web 2.0 services to organize online learning activities by using OKMindmap for building WebQuest and suggest Scratch projects created by students for outcome. WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented lesson format in which most or all the information that learners work with comes from the web. WebQuests can be a valuable addition to a collaborative classroom. One of the goals is to increase critical thinking by employing higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy and Webb's Depth of Knowledge. WebQuests can be a versatile tool for teaching students. OKMindmap is a useful, free, easy to use knowledge manipulation tool for content creation and management. It helps building an innovative collaborating environment for online class and provides a way to embed web service as a node. With this capability, any web service can be embedded as a node on a single map. Moreover, many users (about 40) can work on a same map together. Scratch is a free educational programming language that was developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with over 21 million registered users and 25 million shared projects. Scratch is designed to be fun, educational, and easy to learn. It's a programming language for all with the tools for creating interactive stories, games, art, simulations, and more, using block-based programming. Facebook is also used as a tool for connecting and sharing WebQuest with students. This model was experimented at the School of Education at Can Tho University, which brought us positive results through blended learning. Our desire is to build a WebQuest library in a simple, cost-effective way through this STEM-style education so that inservice and preservice teachers can share together for the best professional development during the current industrial revolution 4.0.
Increase in the number of users is directly proportional to the need of verifying them. This means that any user using any website or application has to be authenticated first; this leads to the creation of multiple credentials of one user. Now if these different websites or applications are connected or belong to one single organization like a college or school, a lot of redundancy of data is there. Alo ng with this, each user has to remember a wide range of credentials for different applications/websites. So in this paper, we addre ss the issue of redundancy and user related problems by introducing SSO using OpenId Connect in educational institutes. We aim to mark the di fference between the traditional system and proposed login by testing it on a group of users.
This paper aims to present a Web 2.0-based collaborative Learning framework based on the social constructivist theory promoting life-long learning. The Web 2.0 provides conditions of collaborative learning, multiple modes and methods of learning and multiple perspective to achieve learning goals. This practical framework under the guidelines of design science research methodology allows learners to actively engage in the learning process, construct own knowledge and use to solve real-world problems collaboratively. Experts reviewed and confirmed the validity of the framework. Three successive iterations, working with 42 students in formal learning and Facebook members in informal learning were conducted to demonstrate and validate how learners started developing critical thinking, self-regulation and use of knowledge. The framework contributes to the practice of lifelong learning with emphasis on developing sustainability competencies that enable learners to gain more skills in applying different problem-solving frameworks to complex daily life problems.
The implementation of mobile apps in the educational systems has kept abreast with the needs of specific learning disability (SLD) children. It was agreed by researchers that technology is able to aid and harness the language development of these children. The use of mobile applications in English language has been widely accepted and implemented among educators. However, it was discovered that most of the applications have scarcely adopted the Malay language as the main stream to aid Malay language development of these children. Thus, it is imperative to set the aim of this paper to introduce an interactive mobile apps that uses Malay Language as the Therapy Tool for the Dyslexic Children in improving their language learning processes. The uniqueness of this app falls on the aesthetic value that is implemented in CInTA 2.0. The app is user friendly which applied multi-sensory technique that is suitable for learners with language disorder, specifically dyslexic children.
Radar is an important component for people. A number of functions could be taken into account on a various aspect in term of quantifying the distance of a specific object, developing a map, and/ or forecasting climate. Generally, one of the main instruments within a radar is a filter. The aim of this study is to design a simple Band Pass Filter which able to be effectively worked on frequency 2.75-2.85 GHz. The filter is designed at the mid frequency of 2.8 GHz with ≤ -20 dB of Return Loss Range, ≥ -3 dB for Insertion Loss, and 100 MHz for Bandwidth, then it is manufactured into a Square Open-Loop Resonator microstrip. The filter uses Rogers R04035B for its substrate with 3.48 of Dielectric Constant Values (εr) and 1.524 mm of Substrate Thickness (h). The radar's filter is simulated by a software of Computer System Technology (CST) suite 2015. The simulation results -31.608995 dB for Return Loss Range, -2.0529871 dB, and 100 MHz for Insertion Loss and Bandwidth respectively. By the end of this process, this instrument is applied and a Network Analyzer is then utilized to get a comparable output. It produces a quite different ranges of -23.519 dB for Return Loss, -2,183 dB for Insertion Loss and 90 MHz for Bandwidth. The study results a design of radar's simple band pass filter which work effectively on frequency 2.75-2.85 GHz.
The design and analysis of single double (1×2) and four (1×4) element linear rectangular micro strip array antennas is done to achieve high gain and directivity. The operating frequency of the proposed array antenna is Ka-band, 20.2GHz which is a Beacon frequency of GSAT-14 launched by ISRO.The substrate material used is common for the single, double (1×2) and four (1×4) i.e. FR4 with a thickness of 0.8mm and the dielectric constant is 4.4. The antenna elements are placed uniform at a same distance. The feeding network used here is a parallel or corporate feed network. The power splitting and impedance matching is done using RF Wilkinson power divider. The entire proposed micro strip phased array antenna is evaluated using HFSS software tool.