Keeping students constantly motivated is a challenge that many instructors in Higher Education (HE) find insurmountable. Stimulating students’ interest and motivation is important as it increases the likelihood that students will commit the time and effort necessary to achieve the learning objectives. While motivation is a potent factor in student learning, motivating students remains a hurdle that many practitioners in HE face. This paper explores instructional strategies that lecturers in HE can consider and probably adopt to enhance students’ motivation to learn. Drawing from theory and practice, the paper proposes motivational strategies. These range from making teaching/learning relevant to student lives, basing teaching and learning on students’ interest and background knowledge, developing skills of self-regulated learning in students, clarifying course goals and assisting students to develop their own study goals.
The COVID-19 pandemic imposed a new order, another pace for humanity. More than ever, in pandemic times, education is called upon to be unique and to reinvent itself by seeking other possibilities through digital technologies in virtual learning environments. Therefore, it is essential to know the critical factors that affect academic performance during online education. This paper aims to present the effects of student characteristics, time management, and course load on online education. The main aim is to check the impact of online education on academic performance with the mediating effect of burnout and technology and the moderating effect. The data was collected from 313 students in Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, and Peshawar’s reputable business schools, namely, IoBM, IBA, SZABIST, LUMS, IQRA University, and Institute of Management Sciences, and the data was analysed using PLS-SEM and SPSS. The result suggested that time management, course load, and student characteristics significantly impact online education. The result also indicates that burnout does not mediate the relationship between online education and academic performance. This study also investigated the role of technology and instructors as moderators between online education and academic performance. The result shows that the instructor’s role moderates the relationship, but technology has no impact on moderating this relationship.
Mobile learning, which can be performed through numerous applications that run on smartphones, personal digital assistants, and other devices, has played a major role in education, especially during under the restrictive conditions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper is a review of literature of mobile learning efficiency in education. Some application of m-learning in education have shown extensive success. Mobile learning could meet with success in a suitable learning environment. The recently developed transactional distance theory focuses on three elements in the connection and involvement in the distance education environment, namely, the teacher, the student, and dialogue. The core of that theory is investigating the ways that the learner can progress to becoming a self-directed learner with the support of the teacher. Though there are advantages to m-learning, there are some disadvantages of m-learning such as technical, physical and health issues
A sudden shift to complete online teaching and learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic created many challenges for educational institutes, their administrators, teachers and students. This study investigated students’ online teaching experiences with the intention to shape higher education institutes’ (HEI) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) integration policies and practices. A mixed-method research approach was used to collect data. The quantitative data were collected using a survey questionnaire and focus group discussion method was used to gather qualitative data. The students’ views of their instructors’ online instructional and assessment strategies revealed that teachers confined themselves to the university guidelines and used the recommended learning management system (LMS) and digital tools but lacked the training to utilise many of the features available in the recommended LMS and digital tools that could be integrated with the LMS due to poor knowledge and ICT skills. This study suggests that HEIs should invest in research to understand students’ choices of digital tools and train teachers to maximise the use of the LMS.
The global pandemic of the COVID-19 has posed a significant challenge to educational organizations, necessitating obligatory changes in practically education. In a short period of time, educational organizations have been compelled to adapt to distance learning approaches and platforms. The primary goal of this research is to examine to present Connectivism Theory as an effective motivated theory to help the higher education learners to learn more successfully. Connectivism Learning Theory offers the best learning environment by establishing an explicit connection between social interaction and knowledge sharing. A review of literature has been done. The findings of the literature review highlight the fundamental theoretical assumptions that underpin their evolution. It also illustrates that connectivism learning theory improve higher education student’s engagement in the learning process. The researchers conclude that connectivism learning theory has the potential to disclose new insights into the use of the social network in education leading to successful outcomes.
Due to the Corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the world in year 2020 experienced a significant upheaval in the lives of many. This study aimed at drawing parallels between the enforced isolation of healthy adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and the systemic exclusion of students with disabilities in educational systems around the world. Moreover, it presents an opportunity for people who have faced isolation during the pandemic, to better understand the feelings of students with disabilities. In this study, a sample of 22 people without disabilities from Saudi Arabia were interviewed to disclose their experiences and feelings during the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of quarantine on their social and psychological lives. Their responses were compared to many experiences of students with disabilities obtained from a systemic review involving many related studies. The main findings of this study reveal some isolating, psychological and social effects. This may lead stakeholders in legal and educational matters to rethink their perspectives on exclusionary practices that face many students with disabilities.
This study was conducted at ESSU main campus during the first semester of school year 2020-2021 following the sequential explanatory mixed method research design and quantitative research descriptive method to determine the readiness of 173 purposively selected students and 102 teachers, on the use of online learning during this time of COVID-19 pandemic. The study revealed that the students are not ready with online learning and that teachers moderately agree on their preparedness for online learning. Moreover, the faculty reported that the university is conducting some activities to enhance their capacity in online learning. However, they believed that the university is not yet prepared to embrace online learning because of lack or insufficiency of required resources.
This study aims to reveal the most notable obstacles that primary school teachers face in using the educational platform MADRASATI during the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. A descriptive survey with a questionnaire tool was employed, and there were 20 questions on the potential obstacles. The randomized sample comprised 390 teachers in state primary schools in Riyadh City (from 22,458 teachers in total). The results revealed that the main obstacles were “difficulty in applying the educational platform to primary beginner students” and “overcrowded virtual classes [which] do not allow the use of the platform MADRASATI.” However, the teachers ranked responses such as “the students’ abstention from dealing with new types of education” lowest, with only an average degree of agreement on whether this was a notable obstacle. The study also revealed statistically significant differences in the obstacles to using MADRASATI, with male teachers in the sample more likely to use the platform. However, other variables such as educational qualification and pedagogical experience were not associated with any statistically significant differences in obstacles the teachers faced.
This research was conducted using the Scopus database to examine the methodological dimensions of studies of the performance evaluation of schools, and to reveal the general trend. To this end, between the years 1972 and 2017, 353 studies published in Scopus 2017 on the performance evaluation of schools were examined using content analysis. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical methods, including frequency and percentage. In terms of the findings of the study, the number of studies has increased, especially in the last ten years, with most studies being carried out in 2015. Moreover, when the subjects of the studies were examined, the subjects in the field of Social Sciences were investigated the most and the quantitative methods were the most commonly used approaches. Students and teachers were the most commonly preferred study groups.
Teacher and counselor candidates, whose views related to the social and psychological effects of the1974 war in terms of Turkey and the Turkish Cypriot community, will ensure the emphasis on what will bereviewed about education in the formation of healthy communities in terms of social and psychological aspects.The purpose of this study is to describe the views of the students of History Teaching and Psychological Counselingand Guidance (PCG) departments of NEU Education Faculty related to the social and psychological effects of 1974on the Turkish Cypriot and Turkey communities. The study was conducted using a qualitative research technique.A holistic time approach was used in the case study. The sampling was created with a “purposive sampling” method.Purposive sampling was used in the sampling criteria. As a result of study, the negative effects of the war were moreinfluential than the positive effects.
This paper sought to explore the contributing factors of crime and violence in schools as a pathway to formulate alternative ways to bolster the perfidy currently experienced in schools in South Africa. A qualitative method was employed to explore the perceptions and experiences of the participants towards crime and violence in schools. The study was explorative in nature and the design took the form of a case study. An interview guide with semi-structured questions was utilized as a data collection tool to guide the administration of one-on-one indepth interviews with the study participants. The findings indicated that: the location of schools contributes to violence; drug abuse by the students also contributes to violence and crime; lack of security services that search the students by the school premises and the crimes that go unreported also contribute to the perpetuation of crime and violence. These findings prompted these researchers to recommend for a comprehensive framework that addresses crime and violence in terms of ensuring security services are put in place and police forums and social workers should frequently be utilized in schools to ensure that all crimes and violence are prevented, and if they occur, they are reported urgently. To this end, it is hoped that the findings from this paper could form a platform to ring the bell to both the government and non-government officials to consider embarking on strategies and ways of protecting and safeguarding the children and the teachers in schools among other things.
Developing teacher professional training policies is an essential task for each country, for training policies should guarantee the minimum training and recruiting requirements. This study evaluates the Vietnamese teacher professional training policy, specifically Decree 116. In this study, the researchers surveyed and interviewed 10 administrators, 30 pedagogical lecturers, and 90 pedagogical students at some Vietnamese pedagogical universities. The findings draw attention to the implementation process, especially the relationship between learners, training institutions, and ordering establishment. The 6-step model was developed by the researchers and proposed to be a solid foundation for implementing this Decree from the perspective of training pedagogical students. This finding contributes to the process of implementing and developing teacher professional training policies in other Asian countries as well as developing countries in general.
This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of employing puppetry as a pedagogical tool in developing imagination for kindergarten children Thirty-six kindergarten children were recruited from two public kindergarten schools in Riyadh city, during the academic year 2019-2020. Children were randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control, with equal number of children in each group (n=18). The research used the quasi-experimental approach due to its suitability to the nature of the research, which relies on the experimental design based on two groups, one experimental and the other is control, and by using the pre- and post-testing for the two groups. T-test was used. As predicted, puppetry resulted in increasing creative thinking skills (fluency, originality and imagination).
In this paper the researchers argue that socio-economic and technological changes in the world today have serious implications on the type of a teacher who should be found in the classrooms in the 21st century. Exposing children to teachers who have not been trained to deal with changes in the outer world is tantamount to having wrong men and women in charge of learners in the ever-changing world. In the paper we interrogate the ideal 21st teacher education curriculum in training a modern day teacher. The researchers examine the changes in the 21st century socio-political, economic and technological environment and how it demands a responsive teacher education curriculum. The researchers further explore the aims of education in the ideal 21st century teacher education curriculum. The researchers also examine content, teaching approaches and assessment techniques consistent with the modern day teacher education curriculum. In the light of issues raised in the discussions, recommendations are made.
Mentoring has been described as the process where a novice employee learns from a knowledgeable and experienced colleague. This form of knowledge acquisition has been employed in many professions such as teaching. Due to its value and relevance, mentoring plays an important role in the professional development of teachers. However, the process of professional development of mathematics teachers through mentoring is not very common in the South African school system. This paper therefore seeks to highlight the role of mentoring in the professional development of mathematics teachers, especially in the 21st century. Consequently, the paper is grounded in the situational learning theory, which was first proposed by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger. Relevant literature on mentoring and professional development has been reviewed. Furthermore, the experience of the author as a mathematics teacher contributed to the discussion. The paper concludes that mentoring could be used to compliment other professional development initiatives.
With the advent of the new millennium, technology began bringing about changes in the education process. The use of basic technology by learners and faculty gave rise to Education 2.0 followed by Education 3.0. Changes in the traditional education pattern have encouraged the need to develop a more personalised way to learn that would focus on learner autonomy, freedom and flexibility. This is the new phase of education known as Education 4.0. The present research study strives to examine the next big revolution in education, that is, Education 4.0. Through this study, the researchers have attempted to propose a conceptual framework that would provide a clear representation of vital factors for Education 4.0. The researchers have focused on the architecture of Education 4.0 by discussing its key characteristics required to sustain in Education 4.0, and the trends that define it. The model derived provides interesting insights that academicians and policymakers could use while re-looking at traditional learning setups.
This study investigated how students perceived the methods used in the teaching of the Entrepreneurship Course. The case study considered 221 fourth and final year university students from one of the public universities in Zimbabwe. Copies of semi-structured
questionnaires were used to elicit responses from the students cum respondents. The responses were thematically analysed. The findings were two-fold, namely: lecture method was the main model of lesson delivery, which was at times complemented with discussions
and case studies; and missing practical component which ought to have equipped students with the rudiments for operational business acumen, even at the levels of micro, small and medium enterprises. The conclusion was that the curriculum the students were exposed to
was deficient and had not prepared them to starting their own business enterprises. Consequently, the study recommended that an entrepreneurship centre be set up where students’ mindsets and skills would be shaped up in accordance with the market needs.
This paper aims at determining how ready the pre-service exit teachers are and how well the curriculum prepares the students for the classroom implementation and practice of inclusive education. Data was collected using semi structured interviews from a purposive sample and data analysis was informed by social constructivism and eco-systemic theory which helped to understand how individuals actively construct and understand their realities. In doing so, there is need to explore participants’ readiness to teach in an inclusive classroom. The paper revealed that Early Childhood Development (ECD) curriculum of the University should be restructured to develop, enhance as well as prepare pre-service exit teachers for inclusive environments. Based on these findings recommendations were made on the need of the ECD teacher training curriculum in fostering competence to student teachers to teach in inclusive classrooms.
Creativity is a process by which something new, either an idea or object in the form or arrangement is produced. Creativity is seeing something in a new relationship. It is one’s abilities or skills expressed in a new combination. Creativity can be seen in thinking, in expressed activities, in manipulating objects or materials. Creativity is an investigation of new ideas. It is the determination of some unique characteristics. It is an urge in the person to reveal in an object something new. It is also learning to estimate and to deal with the new situations on their unique characteristics.An attempt was made to study the factors affecting the creativity levels between the private and government school children in Srinagar city (7 th-10 th grades).Objectives of the study were: 1.To assess the creativity levels between government and private school children, 2. To study the influence of school environment on the students, and, 3. To determine the relationship of gender on creativity levels. The non-verbal tests of creativity devised by Baquer Mehdi were administered for data collection. Random sampling technique was used. The results revealed that the Private and Government School children differ significantly in their creative abilities. The variation in the school environment was found to be the major factor that affected the creative abilities among Government school students which is due to lack of opportunities, facilities and encouragement in Government schools. Further, gender as a variable could not make any difference among students.
This research aimed at identifying the level of practice of electronic teaching skills among the faculty members of PSAU and detecting the effects of the following research variables: Teaching Load, Students Number, and Teaching Experience, through surveying (153) faculty member in PSAU in 2020. The results showed that the faculty members agreed that e-teaching skills are highly practiced in technology, design, and management fields in PSAU. The results also proved that there were no statistically significant differences to (design and management fields, and overall skill) according to the ‘Teaching Load’ variable. There were also statistically significant differences to (the technology field) according to the ‘Teaching Load’ variable in favor of those with ‘lighter teaching load with administrative duties’. However, there were no statistically significant differences to (design and management fields, and overall skills) according to the ‘Student Number’ variable.
The participants in the present study were 6-8 years old urban children. Aberrant children were identified by the class teachers on the basis of children’s class room behavior and their social problem-solving skills were pre-tested. Educational training was imparted for a period of two months to experimental group children to promote their social problem-solving skills. Results indicated that before educational training, there were no significant differences in social problem-solving skills of aberrant children from experimental and control groups. After exposure to educational program, there were significant differences in pre- and post-testing performance of aberrant children from experimental group. However, there was no improvement in social problem-solving skills of control group aberrant children who did not receive any educational training.
Education provides people with the tools and knowledge they need to understand and participate in today’s world. It helps to sustain the human values that contribute to individual and collective well being. It is the basis for life long learning. It inspires confidence and provides the skills needed to participate in public debate. It makes people more self-reliant and aware of opportunities and rights. The purpose of the present study was to survey regarding the implementation and achievement of the SSA Scheme .The survey equally aims at getting concrete knowledge and information about the degree of infrastructure on its plus and minus sides. Quality of education in India is the most problematic aspect of its Education system today. Under the SSA programme, physical access to schools has greatly increased when compared before implementation of the SSA but quality of education has not improved because still most of the students have difficulty in reading and writing, though infrastructural gaps have reduced but use of conventional teaching methods lack the interest of the students in the curriculum.
The present study is on the gender differences in cognitive abilities (Mean scores) among school-going and nonschool going children of migrant families. Six slum localities were selected from the selected zone and a sample of 120 motherchild dyads including children between 6-8 years of age and mothers working as domestic servants, were purposively selected from each chosen locality through snowball technique. Children were approached to assess their cognitive abilities. Results revealed that school-going females were superior in verbal, quantitative and general cognitive index whereas males possessed higher measures in perceptual, memory and motor abilities. Non-school going males performed significantly better in all cognitive domains as compared to non-school going females except for verbal ability.
The present study was undertaken to assess the incidence of vision, hearing problems and low intellectual abilities among academically poor rural school children in Ludhiana district. The study was based upon the sample of 100 children. The subjects for the sample were drawn randomly from four rural government schools located on Block I of Ludhiana district. Data were collected through interview schedule. Results indicate that 41 percent of the academically poor children were having weak vision. The number of children with poor or weak vision were found significantly (p≤0.05) higher than the number of children with normal vision. 80 per cent of the academically poor students were having normal hearing abilities. The number of children with normal hearing was significantly (p≤0.05) higher than the number of children with mild or moderate hearing problems. Majority of the academically poor children were found to have below average intellectual abilities. Significant (p≤0.05) difference was found between number of children with average and below average intellectual abilities indicating majority as intellectually below average.
To investigate the impact of intervention training on mental abilities of slow learners, 40 slow learners of 5-6 years old of Hisar district were selected. These slow learners were divided into two categories i.e. experimental (20) and control group (20). Impact of intervention training revealed marked improvement in mental abilities of experimental group. Most of the children of pre-testing stage were in the category of low to moderate mental abilities. After intervention the experimental group performs better in all the activities of verbal, perceptual performance, quantitative and memory aspects of mental abilities.
The choice of a career is one of the most crucial challenges currently facing adolescents in South Africa. The purpose of the present study was to investigate first year students’ abilities with regard to career planning, awareness of their career interests, career decision-making and exposure to career information. A crosssectional survey design was used. Four hundred and thirty (430) participants were randomly selected from a population of first year students in a historically Black university. The data was collected through a self-constructed questionnaire and analysed by means of the Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results indicated that students were not fully informed about the ‘realistic’ type of careers, that is, careers where they use hands, tools and machines. In addition, students were found to lack self-knowledge with regard to their career interests. The recommendations were provided to the university, especially the Student Counselling and Career Development Unit, to address the issue of career guidance in secondary schools in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province.
Media reports suggest that students in many schools, especially rural schools, display arrogance, violence, rudeness, truancy and other types of misconduct. In the light of above and with the implications of the implementation of the Schools Act in mind, it was investigated whether the South African government’s decision to abolish physical punishment was viable and whether it had any impact on student conduct. A sample was drawn of 400 learners and 100 teachers from 10 high schools in an educational region of the North West Province of South Africa. The main objective of the study was to investigate the effects of the abolition of physical punishment on discipline. In contrast to the thrust of the theoretical investigation that revealed that the abolition of corporal punishment would probably lead to an increase in poor behavior, the empirical investigation, particularly the application of the Chi-square test, indicated no positive relationship between the abolition of corporal punishment and increase in misconduct. The study recommends that alternative forms of disciplinary measures are necessary to replace corporal punishment in order to improve the teaching/learning situation.